Nikon | D850 | Nikon D850 دليل المستخدم

Nikon D850 دليل المستخدم
‫ﻻ ﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻱ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺷﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻛﻠﻴﺎ ﹰ ﺃﻭ ﺟﺰﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ )ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺒﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﺰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﺪﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺟﻌﺎﺕ( ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﺧﻄﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻛﻮﺭﺑﻮﺭﻳﺸﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫)‪SB9C03(1X‬‬
‫‪6MB4051X-03‬‬
‫‪Ar‬‬
‫ﺗﻤﺖ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻨﻐﺎﻓﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫• ﺍﻗﺮﺃ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻗﺴﻢ "ﻷﺟﻞ ﺳﻼﻣﺘﻚ"‬
‫)ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.(x‬‬
‫• ﻋﺪ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﺣﺘﻔﻆ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻳﺴﻬﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪Ar‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺟﺎﺀ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺘﻔﻆ ﺑﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺴﻬﻴﻞ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺜﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺗﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪D‬‬
‫ﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﺤﺬﻳﺮﺍﺕ؛ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻳﺠﺐ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺗﻬﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﺤﺎﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫ﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ؛ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻳﺠﺐ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺗﻬﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫ﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﻷﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺑﻨﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺨﻂ ﺳﻤﻴﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻳﹸﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﻮﺍﺗﻒ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺣﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ "ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻴﺔ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺮﺍﺽ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺳﻼﻣﺘﻚ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‪ ،‬ﺍﻗﺮﺃ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺎﺏ "ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺳﻼﻣﺘﻚ" )‪.(x 0‬‬
‫ﺩﻋﻢ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺑﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻣﻨﺘﺞ )ﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ( ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺮﺟﻰ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺑﻤﻤﺜﻠﻲ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻤﺜﻠﻲ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺘﻚ‪ ،‬ﻳﺮﺟﻰ ﺯﻳﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫‪.http://www.nikon-asia.com/support‬‬
‫‪D850 Model Name: N1608‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ‪.D850‬‬
‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ‪) D850‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ(‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺇﺗﻘﺎﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺰﺍﻳﺎ ﺗﺨﺺ‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ )ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪(PDF‬‬
‫ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻛﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻃﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻨﺰﻳﻞ‬
‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ )ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ (pdf‬ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺰﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻊ‬
‫ﻟﻨﻴﻜﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪ nikon‬ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺰﻳﻞ ‪D850‬‬
‫‪https://downloadcenter.nikonimglib.com/ar/products/359/D850.html‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ )‪(HTML‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺤﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻭﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻭﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪ nikon‬ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻋﺒﺮ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ‪D850‬‬
‫‪https://onlinemanual.nikonimglib.com/d850/ar/‬‬
‫‪i‬‬
‫ﻣﺤﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﻮﺓ‬
‫ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻚ‪.‬‬
‫‪ ‬ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻢ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪(19 0) BF-1B‬‬
‫‪ ‬ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪D850‬‬
‫)‪(1 0‬‬
‫‪ ‬ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻳﻮﻥ ﻟﻴﺜﻴﻮﻡ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ EN-EL15a‬ﻣﻊ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻑ )‪(16 ،14 0‬‬
‫‪ ‬ﺷﺎﺣﻦ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪) MH-25a‬ﻳﺄﺗﻲ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺗﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺎﺋﻂ ﺃﻭ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻧﻮﻋﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺷﻜﻠﻪ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻊ؛ ‪(14 0‬‬
‫‪ ‬ﻣﺸﺒﻚ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ‪(298 0) USB/HDMI‬‬
‫‪ ‬ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ‪ USB‬ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪UC-E22‬‬
‫‪ ‬ﺣﺰﺍﻡ ‪(14 0) AN-DC18‬‬
‫‪ ‬ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ )ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ(‬
‫‪ SnapBridge ‬ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ )ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ‪(D-SLR‬‬
‫‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻭ ﻃﺎﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﻮﺓ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻞ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺷﺮﺍﺅﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺎﻥ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺘﻴﻦ ﺍﻹﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ؛ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺪﻋﻮﻣﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻧﺤﻦ ﻧﻌﺘﺬﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻱ ﺇﺯﻋﺎﺝ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺴﺒﺒﻪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ ‪ ViewNX-i‬ﻭ ‪Capture NX-D‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ ViewNX-i‬ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻟﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪﺗﻬﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ Capture NX-D‬ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﻧﺴﺨﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻛﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ‬
‫ﻭﺗﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻨﺴﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﺰﻳﻞ ﻋﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪http://downloadcenter.nikonimglib.com/‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺯﻳﺎﺭﺓ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺣﺪﺙ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‪،‬‬
‫ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪ii‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻣﺤﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﻮﺓ‪ii ..................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺳﻼﻣﺘﻚ‪x .................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ‪xiv...........................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪1 .............................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪1 ..................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪5 ....................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ‪7 .......................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﺑﺘﺮ‪9 ...........................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻺﻣﺎﻟﺔ‪10 ...............................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ‪12 ................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺭﻛﹼﺐ ﺣﺰﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪14 ..........................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪14 ................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪16 .........................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺭﻛﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‪19 ......................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ‪21 ..............................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ‬
‫‪24‬‬
‫ﻗﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ‪24 ..............................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪25 ................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪30 .....................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ‪30 ........................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ "ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ"‪32 .......................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪35 ..............................................................................................‬‬
‫‪iii‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫‪37‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪41 .............................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪41 .............................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪42 ..............................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ ‪44 .......................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪45 ................................................................................................................. i‬‬
‫ﺯﻭﻡ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﺴﻤﺔ ‪48 .....................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻣﺖ‪49 .......................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﺔ‪52 ...................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪54 ..................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪55 .............................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ )ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ(‪56 ..................................................................‬‬
‫ﺃﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫‪59‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪59 ..................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺎﺭﺱ ‪64 ...........................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪65 ............................................................................................................... i‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﺺ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ‪68 ................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ‪69 ..................................................................‬‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪71 .................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪72 .............................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪73 .........................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪76 ........................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪78 .......................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻬﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪78 ...................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪82 .................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪iv‬‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪83‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪83 ..................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪88 .......................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪91 .....................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺘﻲ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪93 ..................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪94‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪94 ....................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪98 .........................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪100 .......................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪105 ........................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ‪108 ......................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ ‪111 ....................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫‪113‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪113 .......................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ‪114 .................................................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ )‪116 .............................................................................................. (E‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻟﻸﻋﻠﻰ )‪118 ....................................................................................... (MUP‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫‪119‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ ‪119 ...............................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪121 ..............................................................................‬‬
‫‪v‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫‪124‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‪124 ............................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪126 .................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :P‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺒﺮﻣﺞ‪128 .................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :S‬ﻏﺎﻟﻖ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪129 .................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :A‬ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪130 ...............................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :M‬ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‪131 ..........................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﺿﻮﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ M‬ﻓﻘﻂ( ‪133 ......................................................‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪136 ........................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪137 ........................................................................(AE‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪139 ............................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪142 ............................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫‪156‬‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪156 ......................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ‪161 ..............................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪163 ................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ‪165 .........................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪166 ...................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ )ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻌﺔ( ‪169 ...................................................................‬‬
‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ‪172 ....................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪175‬‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪175 ............................................................. Picture Controls‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪175 ................................................... Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪177 ...................................................Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻼﺕ ‪180 ........................................‬‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ‪180 ......................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺪﻯ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ )‪182 ..................................................................................... (HDR‬‬
‫‪vi‬‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫‪187‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻓﻼﺵ ‪187 ..............................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪190 ......................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪192 .................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪194 ...............................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪196 ................................................................................................... FV‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻟﻠﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ‪198 ....................................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‪202 .................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫‪203‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪203 ...............................................................................................................................R‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪207 ............................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪208 ................................................................................................................................. i‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺰﺭﻳﻦ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪209 .................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ‪212 ........................................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪218 ................................................................................CPU‬‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ‪221 ..................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫‪223‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ‪223 .....................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‪223 ...........................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ‪223 .......................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪224 .......................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ‪226 .............................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪228 .............................................................................................................................. i‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪229 ............................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺇﻟﻘﺎﺀ ﻧﻈﺮﺓ ﻣﻘﺮﺑﺔ‪ :‬ﺯﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪238 ......................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ‪240 .....................................................................‬‬
‫‪vii‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ‪241 ................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻤﻴﻞ‪243 ....................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﺮﺩﻳﺔ‪243 ..........................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ‪244 ......................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺣﺬﻑ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪245 ........................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪245 ...................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ‪246 ................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫‪248‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻗﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﺰﻳﻠﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ‬
‫ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ )‪.(i 0‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ :‬ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪248 .....................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ C‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ :‬ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪250 ................................................................‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪ :‬ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪256 .......................................................‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪260 .................................‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ :‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪271 ..................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ ‪278 .................................................................‬‬
‫‪ O‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‪ m/‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ ‪280 .................................................................................‬‬
‫‪viii‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫‪281‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ‪281 ......................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻋﻲ ‪ (CLS) Creative Lighting System‬ﻣﻦ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‪288 ..................‬‬
‫ﺇﻛﺴﺴﻮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ‪295 .........................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ MB-D18‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪299 .........................................................................‬‬
‫ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪299 ............................................................................ MB-D18‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪302 .....................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ‪310 ....................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪311 ............................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‪311 ..........................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ‪311 ........................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪312 ..........................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ‪319 .......................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻞ ﻭﺍﺻﻼﺣﻪ‪324 ...................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ‪324 ...........................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪325 .............................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ‪328 ...............................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮﺗﻮﺙ ﻭ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ‪) Wi-Fi‬ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ( ‪329 ....................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﻣﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ‪329 ...........................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻞ ‪330 ..................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ‪336 ......................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ f/4G ED VR‬ﻣﻢ‪351 .......................... AF-S NIKKOR 120–24‬‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻤﺪﺓ‪360 ............................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺳﻌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪362 ......................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪365 ...................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻓﻬﺮﺱ‪367 ................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ix‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺳﻼﻣﺘﻚ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﺇﺗﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺘﻠﻜﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﻧﻔﺴﻚ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻟﻺﺻﺎﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻗﺮﺃ "ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻣﺔ" ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺣﺘﻔﻆ ﺑﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻣﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻳﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻟﻪ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺗﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺧﻄﺮ‪ :‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻳﻘﻮﻧﺔ ﻳﻨﻄﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻄﻮﺭﺓ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻓﺎﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺩﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺬﻳﺮ‪ :‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﻳﻨﻄﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻄﻮﺭﺓ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻓﺎﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺩﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻪ‪ :‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻳﻘﻮﻧﺔ ﻳﻨﻄﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻄﻮﺭﺓ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻓﺎﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺘﻠﻜﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺬﻳﺮ‬
‫• ﺗﺠﻨﺐ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺳﻴﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻮﺍﺩﺙ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺻﺎﺑﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻔﻜﻚ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌ ﹼﺪﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﻠﻤﺲ ﺍﻷﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﻜﺸﻒ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻘﻮﻁ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺣﺎﺩﺙ ﺁﺧﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﺻﺪﻣﺔ ﻛﻬﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺻﺎﺑﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺇﺫﺍ ﻻﺣﻈﺖ ﺃﻳﺔ ﺃﻣﻮﺭ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻋﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺧﺮﻭﺝ ﺩﺧﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺭﻭﺍﺋﺢ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻌﺘﺎﺩﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻘﻢ ﻓﻮﺭﹰﺍ ﺑﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻺﺻﺎﺑﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻧﺸﻮﺏ ﺣﺮﻳﻖ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺟﺎﻓﺎ ﹰ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﻤﺴﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﺑﺄﻳﺪﻱ ﻣﺒﺘﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﻠﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﺲ ﺑﺄﻳﺪﻱ ﻣﺒﺘﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻧﺸﻮﺏ ﺣﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺻﺪﻣﺔ ﻛﻬﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻠﻤﺲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ‬
‫ﱠ‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺣﺮﻭﻕ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻏﺒﺎﺭ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻟﻼﺷﺘﻌﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﻏﺎﺯ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﺑﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯﻭﻟﻴﻦ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻳﺮﻭﺳﻮﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﺍﻧﻔﺠﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺮﻳﻖ‪.‬‬
‫‪x‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻱ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺳﺎﻃﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﻋﺎﻗﺔ ﺑﺼﺮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺃﻭ ﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺳﺎﺋﻖ ﻣﺮﻛﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺣﻮﺍﺩﺙ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻳﺤﻔﻆ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﺑﻌﻴﺪ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺻﺎﺑﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻄﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‪ .‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺟﺰﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﺨﻄﺮ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻨﺎﻕ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺑﺘﻼﻉ ﻃﻔﻞ ﺃﻱ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‪،‬‬
‫ﺑﺮﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﻃﺒﻴﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺗﺠﻨﺐ ﻟﻒ ﺍﻷﺣﺰﻣﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻋﻨﻘﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺣﻮﺍﺩﺙ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﺍﺣﻦ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺤﻮﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﺍﺣﻦ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺤﻮﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‪ ،‬ﺗﺠﻨﺐ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ ﺇﺗﻼﻑ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺟﺮ ﹼ ﺃﻭ ﺛﻨﻲ ﺍﻷﺳﻼﻙ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺑﻼﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻭﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺃﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﺛﻘﻴﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻀﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻠﻬﺐ‪.‬‬
‫ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺤﻮﻻﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻬﺎﻳﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻤﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﻮﺩ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻊ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺗﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻧﺸﻮﺏ ﺣﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺻﺪﻣﺔ ﻛﻬﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻠﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﺲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻋﺪﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺻﺪﻣﺔ ﻛﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻠﻤﺴﻪ ﺑﺄﻳﺪﻱ ﻋﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﺿﺔ ﻟﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺟ ﹰﺪﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺟ ﹰﺪﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ ﺑﺤﺮﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻀﻤﺔ ﺻﻘﻴﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻪ‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﺘﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻮﺟﻬﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺿﻮﺀ ﻗﻮﻳﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺣﺮﻳﻘﹰ ﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻠﻔﹰ ﺎ ﻷﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺫﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻦ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻧﺸﻮﺏ ﺣﺮﻳﻖ‪.‬‬
‫‪xi‬‬
‫• ﺃﻃﻔﺊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺤﻈﻮﺭﹰﺍ‪ .‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﺍﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻣﺤﻈﻮﺭﹰﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﺒﻌﺎﺛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺩﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺘﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﻔﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﻏﻴﺮﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺸﺂﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﺮﻙ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫• ﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﻓﺼﻞ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﹸ‬
‫ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻄﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻠﻤﺲ ﺍﻷﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻘﺮﺑﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺣﺘﻜﺎﻙ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺸﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ ﺑﺤﺮﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺣﺮﻳﻖ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﺘﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﻳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺳﻴﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻐﻠﻘﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻄﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺧﻄﺮ )ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ(‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻔﻜﻚ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﺴﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﻔﺠﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﻖ‪:‬‬
‫ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‪.‬‬‫ ﻻ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﻬﺐ ﺃﻭ ﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﻣﻔﺮﻃﺔ‪.‬‬‫ ﻻ ﺗﻔﻜﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‪.‬‬‫ ﻻ ﺗﻘﺼﺮ ﺩﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﻠﻤﻴﺴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻼﺩﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺩﺑﺎﺑﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻏﻴﺮﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺪﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ ﻻ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﺼﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﻗﻮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬‫• ﻻ ﺗﺤﺎﻭﻝ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ‪ EN-EL15a‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﺍﺣﻦ ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﺴﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﻔﺠﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﻖ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺇﺫﺍ ﺣﺪﺙ ﺍﺣﺘﻜﺎﻙ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻄﻒ ﺑﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺸﺮ ﻃﺒﻴ ﹰﺒﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺻﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ‪.‬‬
‫‪xii‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺬﻳﺮ )ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ(‬
‫• ﺍﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺑﻌﻴ ﹰﺪﺍ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺑﺘﻠﻊ ﻃﻔﻞ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺳﺘﺸﺮ ﻃﺒﻴ ﹰﺒﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻐﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻣﻄﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻄﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‪ .‬ﺟﻔﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻓﻮﺭﹰﺍ ﺑﻤﻨﺸﻔﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺑﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻤﺎﺛﻞ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻠﺒﻠﻞ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ ﺃﻱ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪ .‬ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ‪ EN-EL15a‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﺗﻘﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﺴﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﻔﺠﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﻖ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻋﺰﻝ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﺑﺸﺮﻳﻂ ﻋﺰﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﺗﺸﺘﻌﻞ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﻔﺠﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻼﻣﺴﺖ ﻣﻊ ﺃﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﻣﻌﺪﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻋﺪ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺍﺋﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺇﺫﺍ ﺣﺪﺙ ﺗﻼﻣﺲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺑﺸﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻼﺑﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻢ ﻓﻮﺭﹰﺍ ﺑﺸﻄﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺑﺔ ﺑﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻴﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﺗﻬﻴﺞ ﻟﻠﺒﺸﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪xiii‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ‬
‫• ﻟﻦ ﺗﺘﺤﻤﻞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻱ ﺃﺿﺮﺍﺭ ﺗﻨﺘﺞ‬
‫• ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺃﻱ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﻴﺒﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺤﻮﻳﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻧﺴﺨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺩﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ • ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺗﻢ ﺑﺬﻝ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﻮﺩ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺃﻱ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺑﺄﻱ ﺷﻜﻞ‪ ،‬ﺑﺄﻱ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺇﺫﻥ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻲ ﺩﻗﺔ ﻭﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﻴﺒﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻨﺎ ﻧﺮﺣﺐ ﺑﺈﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺃﻱ ﺃﺧﻄﺎﺀ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻓﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻤﺜﻞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺘﻚ‬
‫• ﺗﺤﺘﻔﻆ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫)ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻭﻳﻦ ﻣﺮﻓﻘﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻞ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﺋﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻭﺑﺪﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺇﺧﻄﺎﺭ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ‪.‬‬
‫‪xiv‬‬
‫ﻣﻠﺤﻮﻇﺔ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ ﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬
‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎﻗﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺠﺮﺩ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻔﺎﻅ ﺑﻤﻮﺍﺩ ﺗﻢ ﻧﺴﺨﻬﺎ ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺎ ﹰ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺎﺳﺢ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻱ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺗﺤﺬﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺃﻭ‬
‫• ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻻ ﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﻧﺴﺨﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬
‫ﺃﺻﺪﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺗﺤﺬﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻨﺴﺦ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﻴﺪ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺕ‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻟﻠﺴﻨﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺼﺪﺭﻫﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ )ﺍﻷﺳﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺗﻴﺮ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﺘﻰ ﻭﻟﻮ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻜﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻗﺴﺎﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﺍﻳﺎ‪ ،‬ﺇﻟﺦ(‪ ،‬ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ "ﻋﻴﻨﺔ" ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺬﺍﻛﺮ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺋﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻡ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺕ‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺟﻮﺍﺯﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺻﻜﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺃﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺼﺪﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺮﺧﺺ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻃﻮﺍﺑﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻳﺪ ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺼﺪﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﻛﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺪﺍﻭﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻳﺪﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺼﺪﺭﻫﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻬﻮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺬﺍﻛﺮ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻠﻚ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﻭﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﺒﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺤﻘﻮﻕ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﺑﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‬
‫ﺗﺼﺪﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻨﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺛﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‪ ،‬ﻳﺤﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻨﺺ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻼﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺑﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺇﺫﻥ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻤﺘﻠﻚ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﻨﻄﺒﻖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ ﻣﺤﻈﻮﺭﹰﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪xv‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺑﺮﺟﺎﺀ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻻ ﻳﺤﺬﻑ‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻧﻬﺎﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺬﻭﻓﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﻤﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺳﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﻘﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﻴﺔ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻘﻞ ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺘﻪ ﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺃﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻫﻴﺊ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺛﻢ ﺍﻣﻸﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺼﻮﺭ ﻻ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ )ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺻﻮﺭ ﺳﻤﺎﺀ ﻓﺎﺭﻏﺔ(‪ .‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺹ ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻺﺻﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺗﺪﻣﻴﺮ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺑﻐﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻘﻞ ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺷﺨﺺ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﹰ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
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‫ﺗﺮﺧﻴﺺ ‪AVC Patent Portfolio License‬‬
‫ﺗﻢ ﺗﺮﺧﻴﺺ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﺑﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﺗﺮﺧﻴﺺ ‪ AVC PATENT PORTFOLIO LICENSE‬ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ‬
‫ﻭﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ ﺑﻐﺮﺽ )‪ (i‬ﺗﺮﻣﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺪﻳﻮ ﻭﻓﻘﹰ ﺎ ﻟﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭ ‪") AVC‬ﻓﻴﺪﻳﻮ ‪ ("AVC‬ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ )‪ (ii‬ﻓﻚ‬
‫ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺎ ﻭﻏﻴﺮ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﺣﺼﻞ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻣﻴﺰ ﻓﻴﺪﻳﻮ ‪ AVC‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﺘﺮﻣﻴﺰﻩ ﻣﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ ﻳﻤﺎﺭﺱ ﻧﺸﺎﻃﹰ ﺎ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﻓﺮ ﻓﻴﺪﻳﻮ ﻣﺮ ﹼﺧﺺ ﻟﻪ ﺑﺘﻮﻓﻴﺮ ﻓﻴﺪﻳﻮ ‪ .AVC‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻣﻨﺢ ﺃﻱ ﺗﺮﺧﻴﺺ ﻭﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻀﻤﻴﻨﻪ ﻷﻱ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ‪ .L.L.C ،MPEG LA‬ﺭﺍﺟﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ ‪http://www.mpegla.com‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺍﻹﻛﺴﺴﻮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺗﻢ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﹰ ﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻳﻴﺲ ﻭﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﻛﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻏﺎﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻘﻴﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻘﻂ ﺍﻹﻛﺴﺴﻮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻨﻮﻋﺔ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ )ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﻛﺴﺴﻮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻣﺤﻮﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ( ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺼﺪﻕ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻤﺖ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻤﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺇﻛﺴﺴﻮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﻳﺤﺮﻣﻚ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﻳﻮﻥ‪-‬ﻟﻴﺜﻴﻮﻡ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻊ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻻ ﺗﺤﻤﻞ ﺷﻌﺎﺭ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ‬
‫ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺻﺪﻭﺭ ﺷﺮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﻻﻧﻔﺠﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺮﻳﺐ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻹﻛﺴﺴﻮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﺗﺼﻞ ﺑﻤﻮﺯﻉ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻤﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻛﻤﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻓﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻨﻮﻋﺔ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺼﺪﻕ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻚ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻤﺖ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻛﻤﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﻳﺤﺮﻣﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
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‫‪ A‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﻣﺔ )ﻣﺜﻞ ﺣﻔﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﻓﺎﻑ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﺧﺬ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺭﺣﻠﺔ(‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻂ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﺠﺮﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ‪ .‬ﻟﻦ ﺗﺘﺤﻤﻞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻱ ﺃﺿﺮﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺧﺴﺎﺋﺮ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺤﺪﺙ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﻘﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ‬
‫ﻛﺠﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﻬﺪ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ "ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ" ﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﺮ ﺩﻋﻢ ﺩﺍﺋﻢ ﻭﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺗﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻮﻓﻴﺮ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﻳﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫• ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻴﻦ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ‪http://www.nikonusa.com/ :‬‬
‫• ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﺎ ﻭﺇﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺎ‪http://www.europe-nikon.com/support/ :‬‬
‫• ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺁﺳﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭﻗﻴﺎﻧﻮﺳﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﻕ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ‪:‬‬
‫‪http://www.nikon-asia.com/‬‬
‫ﺗﻔﻀﻞ ﺑﺰﻳﺎﺭﺓ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻟﻺﻟﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﺄﺣﺪﺙ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‪ ،‬ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺇﺟﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻟﻸﺳﺌﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺋﻌﺔ )‪ ،(FAQs‬ﻭﻧﺼﺎﺋﺢ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺑﺨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻲ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻤﺜﻞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺘﻚ‪ .‬ﺗﻔﻀﻞ ﺑﺰﻳﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ‪http://imaging.nikon.com/ :‬‬
‫‪xviii‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮﺗﻮﺙ ﻭ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ‪) Wi-Fi‬ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ(‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﺧﺎﺿﻊ ﻟﻠﻮﺍﺋﺢ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺪﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻠﺰﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺪﻳﺮ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻵﺗﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺨﻀﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻭﻗﺖ‬
‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﻟﺤﻈﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻀﻮﺍﺑﻂ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‪ :‬ﻛﻮﺑﺎ‪ ،‬ﺇﻳﺮﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻛﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻥ ﻭﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ )ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻋﹸ ﺮﺿﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﹸﺤﻈﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ‪ .‬ﺍﺗﺼﻞ ﺑﻤﻤﺜﻞ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺀ‪.‬‬
‫‪xix‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻼﺀ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺼﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻼﺀ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻄﺮ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻦ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ D850‬ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺭﻗﻢ‬
‫‪.2014/53/EU‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻹﻋﻼﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺑﻲ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪.http://imaging.nikon.com/support/pdf/DoC_D850.pdf‬‬
‫‪xx‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺭﻏﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺰﺍﻳﺎ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺡ ﻟﻶﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺤﺮ ﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻋﺒﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻧﻄﺎﻗﻪ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺤﺪﺙ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺧﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺳﺮﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﻮﻟﻴﻦ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻧﺒﻌﺎﺛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ‬
‫ﹸﻣﻌﺮﱢﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻭﻛﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻭﺭ ﻭﺃﻳﺔ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺧﺺ ﺑﻪ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻴﻦ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺧﺺ ﻟﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺈﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﻣﺴﻴﺌﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﺘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻬﺠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺧﺺ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻣﻊ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺧﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻵﻣﻨﺔ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﻮﺣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺻﻮﻝ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺼﺮﺡ ﺑﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻵﻣﻨﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫‪xxi‬‬
xxii
‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺧﺼﺺ ﺑﻀﻊ ﺩﻗﺎﺋﻖ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﺷﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻴﺪ ﻋﻤﻞ‬
‫ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺑﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪91 ،88 ............................................. T‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪113...............‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪113...................................‬‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺣﺰﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪14 ..................................‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪156....................................................... U‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪126..................................................... I‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪124.......................................................... Y‬‬
‫ﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﺳﺘﻴﺮﻳﻮ ‪65 .....................................‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ‪59 .........................................‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫‪17‬‬
‫‪17‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪21 ............................................‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪32 ...........................................‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪209 ،139 ................................................. E‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪271 ،119 ..................................... Q/S‬‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪5 ..............................................‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﺑﺘﺮ‪9 .....................‬‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻳﺔ )‪112................ (E‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ )ﻟﺘﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ( ‪295 ،187 ........................................‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )ﺗﺎﺑﻊ(‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫‪17‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪18‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪19‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪12 11‬‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ ‪11 116...........................‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﺫﺭﺍﻉ ﺇﻗﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫‪ 3‬ﺯﺭ ‪13 142.......................................................BKT‬‬
‫‪ 4‬ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻃﺮﻑ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪14 188....................‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫‪ 5‬ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻭ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺩﺑﺎﺑﻴﺲ‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫‪ 6‬ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺻﻮﺕ‬
‫‪17‬‬
‫‪ 7‬ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ‪USB‬‬
‫‪18‬‬
‫‪ 8‬ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺻﻞ ‪HDMI‬‬
‫‪19‬‬
‫‪ 9‬ﺯﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪20 100 ،98 ،42 ،41 .............................................‬‬
‫‪ 10‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪111 ،94 ،41 ........‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪20 ........................................‬‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪19 ..............................‬‬
‫ﻣﺮﺁﺓ‪315 ،118 ..................................................‬‬
‫ﻃﺮﻑ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪188...............................‬‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻭ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺩﺑﺎﺑﻴﺲ ‪295.....................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪72 ،67 .....................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ ‪295.....................‬‬
‫ﹼ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ‪295..............................................USB‬‬
‫ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ‪295............................................HDMI‬‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻢ ‪295 ،19 ...................................‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺻﻞ‬
‫ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺻﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺻﻼﺕ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻷﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺩﺧﻠﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺻﻼﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪ 7‬ﻣﻮﺻﻼﺕ ‪CPU‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪ 8 270 ,268 ,127 ,44 ................................. Pv‬ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻣﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺑﻔﻮﻟﻄﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪270 ،268 ............................................... Fn1‬‬
‫ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪299......................................... MB-D18‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺣﺠﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪16 ...................‬‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺣﺠﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ 9 18 ،16 .......................‬ﻣﻘﺒﺲ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻻﺭﺟﻞ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ 10 112 ،19 .................................‬ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫‪ D‬ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻘﺮﺑﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﻁ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
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‫ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )ﺗﺎﺑﻊ(‬
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‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ‪14 116 ،9 ،7..................................‬‬
‫ﺫﺭﺍﻉ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ‪116.....................‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪15 271 ،245 ،36................................... /‬‬
‫‪QO‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪16 223 ،35 ...................................................‬‬
‫‪K‬‬
‫‪17 248 ،24 ..............................................‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪18 240 ،175 ،25.......................... / /‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪Q Z L‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪19 238 ،40 ....................................................‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪20 238 ،223 ،194 ،192 ........................ /‬‬
‫‪MW‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪21 224 ،25 ...................................................‬‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪22 270 ،268 ،242 ......................................‬‬
‫‪Fn2‬‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻺﻣﺎﻟﺔ ‪23 223 ،59 ،37 ،12 ،10 ...‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪24 116 ،9 ......‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻋﺔ‪76 ،3 ................................................‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫‪270 ،268 ،137 ،108 ،106 .............................‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪268 ،261 ،109 ،99............................AF-ON‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪269 ،268 ،34 ،25 ............‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪105......................‬‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪18 ،16 ...............‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪203 ،198 ،72 ،55 ...................................R‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪59 ،37 ........................‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪270 ،169 ،59 ،37 ...................................a‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪228 ،208 ،65 ،45 .................................. i‬‬
‫ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪32 .............‬‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ؛ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺜﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
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‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪9 126...........................‬‬
‫ﻣﺨﺰﻥ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ‪250.....................‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪10 131 ،129 ..................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪11 30 ..........................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ(‪12 131 ،130 ...................‬‬
‫ﺭﻣﺰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪13 93 ،16 ..................................XQD‬‬
‫ﺭﻣﺰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪14 93 ،16 ..................................... SD‬‬
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‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ‬
‫‪362 ،31 ...........................................................‬‬
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‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪100..................................................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪98 .............................‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ‪156.............................................‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ JPEG‬ﻭ‪91 ........... (TIFF‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪88 ...............................................‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮ )"ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻀﺒﻮﻃﺔ"(‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‪124........................................................‬‬
‫‪ B A‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮ )"ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻀﺒﻮﻃﺔ"(‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺷﺤﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ )‪ .(295 0‬ﻳﻮﻣﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﺗﻜﻔﻲ ﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﺷﻬﺮ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺻﺪﺭ ﻭﻣﻴﺾ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻣﺰ ‪ B‬ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﺃﻋﻴﺪ ﺿﺒﻄﻬﺎ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻱ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻟﻦ ﻳﻜﻮﻧﺎ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻴﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﻴﻦ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ <‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ )‪.(271 0‬‬
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‫‪ A‬ﺃﺿﻮﺍﺀ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ‪LCD‬‬
‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻧﺤﻮ ‪ D‬ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﺍﻷﺿﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺯﺭﺍﺭ‬
‫ﻭﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺴﻬﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻈﻼﻡ‪ .‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﻈﻞ ﺍﻷﺿﻮﺍﺀ ﻣﻀﻴﺌﺔ ﻟﺒﻀﻊ‬
‫ﻧﺸﻄﺎ‬
‫ﺛﻮﺍﻥ ﺣﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺗﺠﺎﻩ ‪ D‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫‪ D‬ﺷﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺎ ﻭﻻ‬
‫ﻳﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻌﺪ ﺃﻣﺮﹰﺍ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﻄﻞ‪.‬‬
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‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
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‫‪25 26‬‬
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‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ‪2 ،1‬‬
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‫ﺃﻗﻮﺍﺱ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪9 9 ....‬‬
‫ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺇﻃﺎﺭﻳﺔ )ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪،d9‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ(‪11 265...............‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ‪261 ،105 ،94................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻞ ‪3 ،1‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫ﻛﺸﻒ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ‪13 254....................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪112 ،108 ،32...............‬‬
‫‪7 8 9 10 11 12 13‬‬
‫‪23‬‬
‫‪21 22‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‪124........................................................‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪(AE‬‬
‫‪137..................................................................‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪268 ،136 .........................‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪131 ،129 ..................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪98 .............................‬‬
‫ﺭﻣﺰ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪268 ،136 ............................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ(‪131 ،130 ...................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻔﺎﺕ(‪130............................‬‬
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‫‪21‬‬
‫‪22‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪23 126...........................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪24 194............................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪139..........‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪25 119..............................ISO‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪26 121.................‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪119......................................... ISO‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ‪165.....................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ‪27 180......................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪100..................................................................‬‬
‫"‪) "k‬ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺘﺴﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ‬
‫‪ 1000‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ( ‪31 ...............................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪187........................ 4‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪196.................FV‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪266.............................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪130...............................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪132.........................‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪139...........‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺬﻳﺮ ﺍﻧﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪30 ...........‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫‪143..................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪148.................................WB‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪152............................... ADL‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ‬
‫‪362 ،31 ...........................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻣﺘﻼﺀ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ‪362 ،115 ...........................‬‬
‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪139...........‬‬
‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪194..............................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺧﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﺃﻓﻖ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﻟﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) f1‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‪.(268 0 ،‬‬
‫ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﻛﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﻣﻴﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺗﺠﺎﻩ "ﻃﻮﻟﻲ" )ﻋﻤﻮﺩﻱ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﻛﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ "ﻃﻮﻟﻲ" )ﻋﻤﻮﺩﻱ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ )‪ .(187 0‬ﻳﻀﻲﺀ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‪ :‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻟﻸﻏﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺤﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻻ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻧﻔﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺎ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﻄﻞ‪ .‬ﺗﺴﺘﻌﻴﺪ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺗﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻌﺪ ﺃﻣﺮﹰﺍ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﺑﺘﺮ‬
‫ﺍﺭﻓﻊ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﺑﺘﺮ ﻭﺃﺩﺭﻫﺎ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺃﻗﻮﺍﺱ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺣﺎﺩ‪ .‬ﻛﻦ ﺣﺬﺭﹰﺍ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻚ ﻷﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺑﻌﻴﻨﻚ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻻ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﺃﺻﺎﺑﻌﻚ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻇﺎﻓﺮﻙ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻋﻴﻨﻚ‪ .‬ﺍﺩﻓﻊ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﺑﺘﺮ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺑﻤﺠﺮﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺣﺴﺐ‬
‫ﺭﻏﺒﺘﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺃﻗﻮﺍﺱ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪ A‬ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﺑﺘﺮ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺤﻴﺔ )ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ؛‬
‫‪ (295 0‬ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺪﻳﻮﺑﺘﺮ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﺑﺘﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻚ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ‪ DK-17F‬ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ‬
‫ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ )‪ (q‬ﺛﻢ‬
‫ﺃﻣﺴﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺑﺮﻓﻖ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺇﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻭﺍﻹﺑﻬﺎﻡ ﻭﻗﻢ‬
‫ﺑﻔﻜﻬﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ )‪.(w‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻺﻣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻭﺟﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‪ :‬ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺎ ﺗﹸﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺑﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‪ :‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﻣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻣﺴﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺑﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﻣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻷﺳﻔﻞ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻣﺴﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ‪.‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺑﺮﻓﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺸﻌﺮ ﺑﻤﻘﺎﻭﻣﺔ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ‪ .‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﺇﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺜﺒﺘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺭﺟﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺠﺐ ﺗﻮﺧﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺹ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺣﺘﻜﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻻﺭﺟﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﺮﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺤﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻠﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻢ ﺑﺈﻋﺎﺩﺗﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻠﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺧﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻭﺍﻣﻨﻊ ﻭﺻﻮﻝ ﺃﻳﺔ ﺳﻮﺍﺋﻞ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﺢ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪ .‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻄﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﺘﺒﻪ ﺗﺤﺪﻳ ﹰﺪﺍ ﻟﻌﺪﻡ ﻟﻤﺲ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ‬
‫ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺤﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺲ ﻭﺍﺳﺤﺐ ﺑﺈﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﻗﺼﻴﺮﺓ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ‬
‫ﺣﺮﱢﻙ ﺇﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻋﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ‪/‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺿﻊ ﺇﺻﺒﻌﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﺎﺑﻌﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻭﻓﺮﻗﻬﻤﺎ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺮﺑﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ‪.‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )‪ ،(226 0‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫• ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫• ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫• ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ‬
‫• ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ )ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ؛‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫‪ (56 0‬ﺃﻭ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻌﺔ )‪ .(169 0‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﹰ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﻟﻠﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ )‪ (273 0‬ﺃﻭ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻘﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ )‪.(29 0‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﺠﻴﺐ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﻟﻠﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻛﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺠﻴﺐ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﺄﻏﻄﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﹸﻣﺼﻨﱠﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻊ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻟﻤﺴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻷﻇﺎﻓﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻳﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺮﺗﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﻔﺎﺯ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺠﻨﺐ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺮﻃﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺑﺄﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﺣﺎﺩﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺠﻴﺐ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻊ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺣﺎﻭﻟﺖ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺭﺍﺣﺔ ﻳﺪﻙ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺻﺒﻌﻚ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﹴ‬
‫ﻟﻤﺴﺘﻬﺎ ﻟﻤﺴﺎﺕ ﺧﻔﻴﻔﺔ ﺟ ﹰﺪﺍ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺣﺮﻛﺖ ﺃﺻﺎﺑﻌﻚ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﺟ ﹰﺪﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﻗﺼﻴﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺟ ﹰﺪﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻹﺻﺒﻌﻴﻦ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺴﻘﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ )‪.(274 0‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺤﺐ ﺑﺄﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪ < B‬ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ )‪.(274 0‬‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺭﻛﹼﺐ ﺣﺰﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺍﻡ ﺑﺈﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﹼ‬
‫ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ )ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺄﺗﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﻣﻬﺎﻳﺊ ﺗﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺋﻂ ﺃﻭ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ(‪ .‬ﻳﻜﺘﻤﻞ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭﻏﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ﺳﺎﻋﺘﻴﻦ ﻭ‪ 35‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻣﻬﺎﻳﺊ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺋﻂ‪ :‬ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﻣﻬﺎﻳﺊ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺋﻂ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ )‪ .(q‬ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﻣﻬﺎﻳﺊ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺋﻂ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺢ )‪ (w‬ﻭﺃﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﻳﺊ ‪ 90°‬ﻟﺘﺜﺒﻴﺘﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻪ )‪ .(e‬ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﻗﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺋﻄﻲ‬
‫‪90°‬‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫• ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪ :‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺒﺲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺢ‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﻭﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺑﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﻮﻣﺾ ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ‪ CHARGE‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺟﺎﺭ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻛﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ‬
‫‪ D‬ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻗﺮﺃ ﻭﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺬﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺎﺏ "ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺳﻼﻣﺘﻚ" )‪ (x 0‬ﻭ"ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ" )‪.(319 0‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺧﺮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻌﻞ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪) OFF‬ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ(‪ .‬ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺢ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺗﻘﺎﻟﻲ ﺟﺎﻧ ﹰﺒﺎ‪ .‬ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺒﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻟﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻣﺴﻚ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺢ ﻭﺍﺩﻓﻌﻬﺎ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺴﺘﻘﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ‪:XQD‬‬
‫• ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ‪:SD‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫• ﻗﺪ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺳﺎﺧﻨﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‪ .‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﺗﻮﺧﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺬﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺧﺮﺍﺝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﺨﺮﺝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫• ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺗﻐﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﺰﻉ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻔﺼﻞ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻧﺴﺦ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ‪ .‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻠﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻠﻤﺲ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺑﺄﺻﺎﺑﻌﻚ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺄﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﻣﻌﺪﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﺜﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺴﻘﻄﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﻟﺼﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﻴﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻀﻐﻂ ﺑﻘﻮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻠﻒ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻃﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻬﻴﺊ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ SD‬ﻣﺰﻭﺩﺓ ﺑﻤﻔﺘﺎﺡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺄ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻔﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬
‫"‪ "lock‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫)ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺗﺤﺬﻳﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺣﺎﻭﻟﺖ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ(‪ .‬ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺣﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ "‪."write‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻻ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ‪ .S‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻧﺔ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ‪ S‬ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪17‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺇﺧﺮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻭﻗﻒ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻓﺘﺢ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺣﺠﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻢ ﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺳﺤﺒﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻴﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺧﺮﺍﺝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻀﻲﺀ‪ ،‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﻓﺘﺢ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻭﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ‪ :XQD‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻹﺧﺮﺍﺝ ﻹﺧﺮﺍﺝ‬
‫ﺟﺰﺋﻴﺎ )‪ .(q‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﻨﺪﺋﺬ ﺇﺧﺮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻴﺪ )‪.(w‬‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ‪XQD‬‬
‫• ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ‪ :SD‬ﺍﺩﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺛﻢ‬
‫ﺣﺮﺭﻫﺎ )‪ .(q‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﻨﺪﺋﺬ ﺇﺧﺮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻴﺪ )‪.(w‬‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ‪SD‬‬
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‫ﺭﻛﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺣﺮﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺃﻱ ﺃﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﺑﻮﺟﻪ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻷﻏﺮﺍﺽ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺤﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ‬
‫‪ f/1.4G‬ﻣﻢ‪.AF-S NIKKOR 50‬‬
‫ﻓﻚ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺟﺴﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻓﻚ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻲ‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ )ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ(‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ )ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ(‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﻤﺤﺎﺫﺍﺓ ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺴﺘﻘﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪19‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻓﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻓﻚﹼ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻟﻔﻚﹼ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ )‪ (q‬ﻣﻊ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﻋﻘﺎﺭﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ )‪ .(w‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﻓﻚﹼ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺭﻛﺐ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﻏﻄﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ CPU‬ﻭﺣﻠﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ CPU‬ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﺤﻠﻘﺔ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ )‪ ،(284 0‬ﺍﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻗﻞ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﻟﻬﺎ )ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ(‪.‬‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫ﻟﻐﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺷﻐﱢﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ )‪ (Language‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ G‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻗﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﻇﻠﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ )‪ (Language‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ »ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻗﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ« )‪.(0 25‬‬
‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﺄﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺫﻛﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ‪SnapBridge‬‬
‫ﺛﺒﺖ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ‪ SnapBridge‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯﻙ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻲ ﻟﺘﻨﺰﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‪ .‬ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪ SnapBridge‬ﺩﻟﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ )ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ‪ (D-SLR‬ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻖ‪.‬‬
‫‪21‬‬
‫‪22‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻟﻐﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺛﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .2‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪4‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ )ﻳﻮﺿﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻞ ‪ UTC‬ﻓﺎﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺴﻖ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ‪،UTC‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ( ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻔﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻔﻲ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .2‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻔﻲ ﻣﻐﻠﻖ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻔﻲ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪1‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .2‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪2‬‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ‪ 1 ،‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ )ﻻﺣﻆ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺑﻨﻈﺎﻡ ‪ 24‬ﺳﺎﻋﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .2‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪3‬‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺑﻪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺮﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪23‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ‬
‫ﻗﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻗﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪.G‬‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻮﻳﺐ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫• ‪ :D‬ﻋﺮﺽ )‪(248 0‬‬
‫• ‪ :C‬ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ )‪(250 0‬‬
‫• ‪ :1‬ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ )‪(256 0‬‬
‫• ‪ :A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ )‪(260 0‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫• ‪ :B‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ )‪(271 0‬‬
‫• ‪ :N‬ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ )‪(278 0‬‬
‫• ‪ :O/m‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ؛ ‪(280 0‬‬
‫ﻳﺒﻴﻦ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺭﻣﻮﺯ‪.‬‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺭﻣﺰ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ )‪(25 0‬‬
‫‪24‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫❚❚ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬
‫ﻭﺯﺭ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﻷﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪J‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﻷﺳﻔﻞ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺭﻣﺰ ‪) d‬ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ(‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺭﻣﺰ ‪ d‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﻷﻳﺴﺮ ﺃﺳﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻭﺻﻒ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ .(Q/Z) L‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ (Q/Z) L‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪(Q/Z) L‬‬
‫‪25‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ G‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ 3‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪26‬‬
‫ﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺑﻨﺪ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺑﻨﺪ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻟﺒﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ‪.‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫ﺣﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ‪ .‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺩﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺄﻱ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪.G‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪J‬‬
‫‪27‬‬
‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺑﻨﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﺭﻣﺎﺩﻱ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 2‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﹰ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻪ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ ،J‬ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫• ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪.‬‬
‫‪28‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺣﺮﻙ ﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻭ ﻷﺳﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺃﻳﻘﻮﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪/‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺷﺮﻃﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺮﻳﺮ ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ‪.Z‬‬
‫‪29‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻓﺤﺺ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪L‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪K‬‬
‫ﺟﺰﺋﻴﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﺎﺭﻏﺔ‬
‫—‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫—‬
‫‪I‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ‪ .‬ﺍﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺟﻬﺰ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫‪d‬‬
‫‪H‬‬
‫ﺑﺪﻳﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪H‬‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫‪d‬‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫ﺗﻢ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﺍﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﻟﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻐﻠﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺑﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺭﻣﺰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻭﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ )ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻘﻂ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫‪30‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺘﺤﺘﻴﻦ ﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ‬
‫‪ XQD‬ﻭﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ‪ .SD‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺘﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ‬
‫ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﻛﻞ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺗﹸﺤﺪﺩ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ؛ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﺋﺪ )‪ ،(93 0‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ ﺳﺘﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻣﻤﺘﻠﺌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺒﻴﻦ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺘﻴﻦ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻢ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻟﻪ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ )ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﺒﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺘﻴﻦ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻛﻼ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺘﻴﻦ(‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﺃﻱ ﺧﻄﺄ )ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻣﻤﺘﻠﺌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺑﻔﺘﺤﺔ ‪ SD‬ﻣﻘﻔﻠﺔ(‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻮﻣﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺄﺛﺮﺓ )‪.(330 0‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪ 1000‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻗﺮﺏ‬
‫ﻣﺌﺔ؛ ﻣﺜﻼﹰ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ 4000‬ﻭ ‪ 4099‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺷﻜﻞ ‪.(K 4.0‬‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪SD‬‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪XQD‬‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫‪31‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ "ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ"‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺟﻬﺰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺴﻚ ﻣﻘﺒﺾ ﺍﻟﻴﺪ ﻓﻲ ﻳﺪﻙ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻨﻰ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺣﻤﻞ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﻴﺪﻙ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﺩﻱ )ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻟﻲ(‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺴﻚ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺿﺢ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺄﻃﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺿﺢ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻄﻰ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪32‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪ (I‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻛﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪I‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‪.‬‬
‫‪F‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺧﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‪.‬‬
‫‪H‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫‪F H‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪.(110 0‬‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﺑﺮﻓﻖ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻀﻲﺀ ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻟﻌﺪﺓ ﺛﻮﺍﻥ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺛﻮﺍﻥ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﺨﺮﺝ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻟﻌﺪﺓ ﹴ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﺰﻉ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻔﺼﻞ‬
‫ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﻨﻄﻔﺊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﻭﺗﻜﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫‪33‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ )ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ(‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﺑﻌﺾ ﺷﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺃﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺳﺖ ﺛﻮﺍﻧﻲ‪ ،‬ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻻ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺴﺒﻖ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c2‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪.(263 0 ،‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ )‪.(105 0‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬
‫‪34‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪.K‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺭﻣﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﻌﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪2‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺤﺐ ﻟﻠﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫)‪.(226 0‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪K‬‬
‫ﻹﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )‪ ،(249 0‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻟﻠﻌﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ "ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺮﺽ" )‪.(224 0‬‬
‫‪35‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ .(Q) O‬ﻻﺣﻆ‬
‫ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺬﻭﻓﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﺬﻓﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺮﻏﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺬﻓﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ "ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ"‬
‫)‪ .(35 0‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺭﻣﺰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﻷﻳﺴﺮ ﺃﺳﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ .(Q) O‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪﻱ؛‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ (Q) O‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ .‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪.K‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪(Q) O‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺣﺬﻑ‬
‫ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺬﻑ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )‪.(246 0‬‬
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‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﺯﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪) C‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ(‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪.a‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺋﻴﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﻟﻦ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﹰ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺿﻊ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﻓﻲ "ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ" )‪.(42 0‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪a‬‬
‫‪37‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﺘﻮﻣﺾ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ ﻭﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻀﻲﺀ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺃﺧﻀﺮ؛ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻮﻣﺾ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﺃﺣﻤﺮ )ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﻭﻣﻴﺾ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﺃﺣﻤﺮ؛ ﺗﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ(‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺳﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ )‪(137 0‬؛ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻗﻔﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ AF-S‬ﺃﻭ ‪ .AF-P‬ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻣﺤﻮﻻﺕ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺃﺑﻄﺄ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻈﻠﻤﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﺃﺧﻀﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ﻣﻮﺍﺯﻳﺔ ﺑﻄﻮﻝ ﺣﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﻭﻣﺘﺒﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺑﺤﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻣﻮﺿﻌﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻻﻓﺘﺔ ﻧﻴﻮﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺃﺧﺮ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ‬
‫• ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻮﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺋﺒﻖ‪ ،‬ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺩﻳﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺑﻬﺔ‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﻣﺪ )ﻧﺠﻤﻲ( ﺃﻭ ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺺ ﺃﺧﺮ‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻳﺒﺪﻭ ﺃﺻﻐﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫• ﻳﺘﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺑﺄﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﺘﻈﻤﺔ ﻣﺘﻜﺮﺭﺓ )ﻣﺜﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻒ ﻧﻮﺍﻓﺬ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻧﺎﻃﺤﺔ ﺳﺤﺎﺏ(‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻣﺘﺤﺮﻙ‬
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‫‪5‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ a‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪J‬‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻭﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ ،(139 0) EV ±5‬ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﻣﻦ ‪ —3‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪+3‬‬
‫‪ EV‬ﻓﻘﻂ ﺗﻨﻌﻜﺲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﻌﻜﺲ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺃﻭ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ )‪ ،(180 0‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ )‪HDR‬؛ ‪ ،(182 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪) A‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ( ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ (178 0) Picture Control‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ p‬ﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺷﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺷﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻈﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻮﻣﺾ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﺤﺬﻳﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﻌﻜﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺑﺪﻗﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﻭ ‪ %‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
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‫‪ A‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ X‬ﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻴﺼﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ ×16‬ﺑﺤﺪ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ‪ .‬ﺳﺘﻈﻬﺮ‬
‫ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺍﺳﺘﻄﻼﻉ ﺑﺈﻃﺎﺭ ﺭﻣﺎﺩﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﻷﻳﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻠﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺋﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ )‪W (M‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪ X‬ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻄﻼﻉ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪ < A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c4‬ﺗﺄﺧﺮ ﺍﻧﻄﻔﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.(264 0 ،‬‬
‫• ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻠﻌﺒﻬﺎ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪،‬‬
‫ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ‪ < A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ‪) f1‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ( < ﺯﺭ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ‪y +‬‬
‫)‪ (268 0‬ﻭ ‪) f2‬ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪.(268 0 ،‬‬
‫• ﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﻟﻠﺰﺭ ‪ ،a‬ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ‪ < A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) f8‬ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.(270 0 ،‬‬
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‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪) AF‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻓﺮﺩﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ :‬ﻟﻸﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻘﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﹰ‬
‫‪ AF-S‬ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻟﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺮﻓﻊ‬
‫ﺇﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﺩﺍﺋﻢ ﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ :‬ﻟﻸﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﻳﻘﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬
‫‪ AF-F‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺮﻓﻊ‬
‫ﺇﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪ AF‬ﺛﻢ ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
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‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻷﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ‪ :‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﻜﺸﻒ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﻩ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ؛ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻭﺗﺮﻛﺰ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﺻﻔﺮ ﻣﺰﺩﻭﺝ )ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻪ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻗﺮﺏ ﻫﺪﻑ؛ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫! ﻫﺪﻑ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ(‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ )ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ؛ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺑﻌﻴ ﹰﺪﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ(‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺨﺘﻔﻲ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻤﺴﺖ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺏ ﻹﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻭﺗﻠﺘﻘﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺮﻓﻊ ﺇﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻋﺮﻳﻀﺔ‪ :‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺣﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﹰﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺎﻇﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ 5‬ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻋﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻣﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻓﻲ‬
‫‪ 6‬ﺃﻱ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻻﺭﺟﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ :‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻋﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪،‬‬
‫‪ 3‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﻨﺎﺀ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺃﺻﻐﺮ ﺗﹸﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻷﺻﻐﺮ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻤﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﹰ‬
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‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻫﺪﻑ‪ :‬ﺿﻊ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪ .‬ﺳﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺤﺮﻛﻪ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻹﻧﻬﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺑﺪﻻ ﹰ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺪﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺒﻊ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻟﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﻚ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﻹﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺒﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻧﺸﻄﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻟﻤﺲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺭﻓﻊ ﺇﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺒﻊ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫& ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺳﻴﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺮﻓﻊ ﺇﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺗﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻐﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﺤﺠﻮﺑﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺄﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺟ ﹰﺪﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺟ ﹰﺪﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺎﺗﻤﺔ ﺟ ﹰﺪﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻬﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪ AF‬ﺛﻢ ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
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‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫)‪ ،(111 0‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺩﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪.(40 0) X‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪X‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺫﺭﻭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺣﺪﻭﺩﹰﺍ ﻣﻠﻮﻧﺔ ﻟﻺﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‪ .‬ﻟﺘﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺫﺭﻭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫‪ i‬ﻭﺣﺪﺩ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻟـ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺫﺭﻭﺓ )‪.(45 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻗﺼﻮﻯ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﺤﺴﻦ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪Pv‬؛‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻗﺼﻮﻯ )‪ .(54 0‬ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﻴﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﺴﻮﻑ ﺗﻌﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﻴﻤﺘﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪44‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪i‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺮﺩﺓ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ i‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﻘﻞ ﻋﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻭﺯﺭ ‪ ،J‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪1‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ J‬ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ .i‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ i‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪i‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫)‪.(83 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ )‪.(180 0‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻷﻋﻠﻰ )‪.(265 0‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫)ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﺇﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺨﺺ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ؛ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺨﺺ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ‪.(271 0‬‬
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‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ )ﺗﺪﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ( ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ )‪ .(156 0‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﻓﻌﺎﻻ ﹰ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻃﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺑﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﻥ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺃﻭ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪ .‬ﻳﺴﻬﻞ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺑﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬
‫ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﻟﻠﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪ .‬ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﺩ ﻻ ﺷﻲﺀ‪ .‬ﺗﺘﻢ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ a‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪.U‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺘﻴﻦ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻠﺘﻴﻦ ﻟﻺﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺟﻨ ﹰﺒﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻨﺐ )‪ .(48 0‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺯﻭﻡ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ ﻟﻤﺤﺎﺫﺍﺓ ﻣﺒﺎﻧﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻓﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﺴﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺗﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺼﺪﺭﻩ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ )‪.(49 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻣﺖ‬
‫‪46‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺫﺭﻭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻳﹸﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺨﻄﻮﻁ ﻣﻠﻮﻧﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺯﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪ .(40 0‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ‪) 3‬ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ(‪) 2 ،‬ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ(‪،‬‬
‫‪) 1‬ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ؛‬
‫ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﻭﺓ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫‪) d8‬ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﻭﺓ‪،‬‬
‫‪.(265 0‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﻮﺟﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻓﻼﻡ ﺑﺼﻮﺭ ﺳﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﺃﺳﻮﺩ ﻭﺃﺑﻴﺾ‬
‫)‪.(52 0‬‬
‫‪47‬‬
‫ﺯﻭﻡ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﺴﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺯﻭﻡ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﺴﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ i‬ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺮﺑﻌﻴﻦ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻠﺔ ﻟﻺﻃﺎﺭ ﺟﻨ ﹰﺒﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻨﺐ ﻓﻲ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺒﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻄﻼﻉ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻄﻼﻉ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﻳﻦ ‪ X‬ﻭ ‪ (M) W‬ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (Q/Z) L‬ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪4‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﺘﻤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻤﺮﻳﺮ ﻛﻼ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺘﻴﻦ‬
‫ﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻭ ﻷﺳﻔﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‪ .‬ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪ .‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺯﻭﻡ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﺴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.i‬‬
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‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻣﺖ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫‪ i‬ﻭﺣﺪﺩ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ (1‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ (2‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻣﺖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫)ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪(1‬‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫)ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪(2‬‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺠﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﻨﺎﻇﺮ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻮﺻﻰ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻻﺭﺟﻞ‪ .‬ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ‪ CH‬ﻫﻮ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 6‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪(119 0) ISO‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﻢ ﻣﻦ ‪ Lo 1‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪.25600‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﻤﻌﺪﻝ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪.(1‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ‪ S‬ﻭ‪ Q‬ﻭ‪ E‬ﻭ‪ ،MUP‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺗﻀﻐﻂ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 15‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ )‪ CL‬ﻭ ‪ (QC‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 30‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ )‪ (CH‬ﻟﺤﺪ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ‪3‬‬
‫ﺛﻮﺍﻥ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ ،(24×16) DX‬ﻭﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪× 3600‬‬
‫ﹴ‬
‫‪ 2400‬ﻭﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ JPEG‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ★‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻣﺖ‪.‬‬
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‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻣﺖ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ )‪ (254 0‬ﻭﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ )‪ (253 0‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﹸﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﻟﻠﹼﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺄﺧﻮﺫﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺿﻮﺀ ﻓﻠﻮﺭﻱ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺯﺋﺒﻘﻲ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻣﺼﺎﺑﻴﺢ ﺻﻮﺩﻳﻮﻡ )ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﻁ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﻗﺴﻢ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ‪ ،(254 0‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﺸﻮﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﻓﻘﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﺮﻙ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﻓﻘﻲ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺣﻮﺍﻑ ﻣﺴﻨﻨﺔ ﻭﻫﻮﺍﻣﺶ ﻣﻠﻮﻧﺔ ﻭﺗﻤﻮﺝ ﻭﺑﻘﻊ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﹰ‬
‫ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﺎﺋﺔ ﺑﻌﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻣﻀﺔ ﻭﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﺘﻘﻄﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺗﻤﺖ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻟﻮﻫﻠﺔ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺻﺎﻋﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻱ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺳﺎﻃﻊ ﺧﺎﻃﻒ ﺃﺧﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻮﺍﺻﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻣﺖ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﹰ‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻣﺖ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ )‪.(255 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻷﺻﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻣﺴﻤﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺁﻟﻴﱠﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺗﹸﻌﺪﱢﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺿﻌﻲ ‪ A‬ﺃﻭ ‪ M‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻌﻲ ‪ P‬ﺃﻭ ‪.S‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪d11‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) d11‬ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪(266 0 ،‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ (1‬ﻟـﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻣﺖ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﺘﻈﻠﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻭﺟﻴﺰﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺛﻢ ﺗﻌﻮﺩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ ،(2‬ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺳﺘﻈﻬﺮ ﺃﻳﻘﻮﻧﺔ ‪ C‬ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺎ )ﺗﻀﻲﺀ ﺍﻷﻳﻘﻮﻧﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ(‪.‬‬
‫‪50‬‬
‫‪" A‬ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪"(2‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪: (2‬‬
‫‪S ،P‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫‪M‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪3 ISO‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫‪ 1‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻮﺿﻊ ‪ S‬ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻟﻠﻮﺿﻊ ‪.P‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﺗﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﻣﻦ ‪ 1/30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 1/8000‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 3‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪ ،M‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﻳﺪﻭﻳﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺗﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ Lo 1‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 25600‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺑﻤﺎ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪.EV ±3‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ J‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ )‪ (132 0‬ﻳﹸﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺳﺔ؛ ﻹﺧﻔﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ (2‬ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﺍﻳﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻣﺮﻥ )‪ (128 0‬ﻭ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫)‪ (142 0‬ﻭ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ )‪ (180 0‬ﻭ ‪) HDR‬ﻣﺪﻯ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ( )‪ (182 0‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ )‪ (253 0‬ﻭ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ )‪ (253 0‬ﻭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ )‪ (264 0‬ﻭ ﻧﻘﺎﺀ ﻣﺤﺪﺩ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ .(178 0) Picture Control‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ‪ RAW‬ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻴﺔ ‪ JPEG -‬ﺛﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪،‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ JPEG‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻠﺘﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺘﻴﻦ‪.‬‬
‫‪" A‬ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ "(2‬ﻭ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺄﺧﻮﺫﺓ ﺑﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ (2‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻣﺖ ﻭﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪) v‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ( ﻻ ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫)‪.(234 0‬‬
‫‪51‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﻮﺟﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ i‬ﻭﺣﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻮﻧﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪52‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺳﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﺑﻴﻀﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺭﻣﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ f/2.8G ED‬ﻣﻢ‪ AF-S Micro NIKKOR 60‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻭﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺿﻮﺀ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ‪) Ra‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺠﺴﻴﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ(‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﻣﻀﻲﺀ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﻓﻠﻮﺭﻱ ﺑﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺠﺴﻴﺪ ﻟﻮﻥ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ i‬ﻭﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﻜﺲ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ؛ ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻓﻼﺵ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪s‬‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻌﺎ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﹰ ﺎ ﻟﻠﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻮﻧﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺔ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺳﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﻟﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺑﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .(40 0) X‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪ J‬ﻟﻠﺒﺪﺀ‪.‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺣﻔﻈﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪.JPEG‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺨﺪﻭﺵ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺴﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻼﺷﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ JPEG‬ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻟﺠﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ؛ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺣﻔﻆ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ ﺑﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ‪ JPEG‬ﺑﺎﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺃﻭ )‪ TIFF (RGB‬ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ JPEG‬ﺟﻴﺪ★‪ .‬ﺑﻌﺾ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬
‫ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺮ‪ -‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ A‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﻩ‪.‬‬
‫‪53‬‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫‪r t‬‬
‫‪q‬‬
‫‪y‬‬
‫‪w‬‬
‫‪e‬‬
‫‪q‬‬
‫‪w‬‬
‫‪e‬‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪y‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻲ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻲ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ‪ 30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻗﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺪﺭﺝ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺑﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺑﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ(‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺑﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.(45 0) i‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ Pv‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻗﺼﻮﻯ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻗﺼﻮﻯ‬
‫)‪.(44 0‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ )‪.(41 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ )‪.(42 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺯﻟﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺑﻤﺪﺓ ‪ 30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ )ﻳﺘﺤﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺪ ﺗﻨﺎﺯﻟﻲ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﻤﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺍﺏ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻭ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﺧﺮ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺣﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪—c4‬ﺗﺄﺧﺮ ﺍﻧﻄﻔﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ < ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ؛ ‪ —264 0‬ﻳﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﻗﺒﻞ ‪ 5‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻻﻧﻄﻔﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ(‪ .‬ﺣﺴﺐ ﺃﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺑﻤﺠﺮﺩ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪54‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻹﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ .R‬ﻻ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﻲ ﺇﻻ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ )‪ (39 0‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ (2‬ﻟـ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻣﺖ )‪ .(49 0‬ﻻ ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺷﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻓﻖ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻓﻖ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ )‪(272 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺨﻄﻂ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﺨﻔﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺇﻃﺎﺭﻱ‬
‫‪55‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ )ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻭﺍﺭﻓﻊ ﺇﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺅﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫)ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ؛ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ‬
‫)ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ M‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ(‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆ ﻱ‬
‫‪ W‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ :‬ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ(‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻈﻞ ﺃﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ؛ ﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ ،‬ﺍﺭﻓﻊ‬
‫ﺃﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﺃﻋﻼﻩ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺇﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻻ‬
‫ﻳﺤﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ )‪ ،(42 0‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ‬
‫)ﺿﺒﻂ ‪ AF‬ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫‪ V‬ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‪/‬ﻏﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ X‬ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ‪ :‬ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ(‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ "ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ" )‪.(41 0‬‬
‫‪56‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪W‬‬
‫ﻹﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ )‪ (113 0‬ﻭﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪) L‬ﺍﻟﻘﻔﻞ( )‪ ،(105 0‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻻ ﻳﺰﺍﻝ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻷﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪.(42 0‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ )‪ ،(116 0‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻟﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺇﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 10‬ﺛﻮﺍﻧﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ؛ ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﻭﻋﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c3‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ‪ .(264 0 ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺗﻠﻮ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪ ،1‬ﺳﺘﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ‪.‬‬
‫‪57‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺗﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻗﻔﻞ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ )‪.(116 0‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻇﻬﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺣﻮﺍﻑ ﻣﺴﻨﻨﺔ ﻭﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﻣﻠﻮﻧﺔ ﻭﺗﻤﻮﺝ‬
‫ﻭﺑﻘﻊ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻐﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺑﺒﻌﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﻣﻊ ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻣﻀﺔ ﻭﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﺘﻘﻄﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻤﺖ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻟﻮﻫﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺻﺎﻋﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻱ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺳﺎﻃﻊ ﺧﺎﻃﻒ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ .‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺤﺪﺙ ﺗﺸﻮﻩ‬
‫ﺃﻓﻘﻴﺎ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻓﻘﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺤﺮﻙ ﻫﺪﻑ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﻁ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻣﺼﺎﺑﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻮﺭﻳﺴﻨﺖ ﻭﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺋﺒﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺩﻳﻮﻡ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ )‪ ،(258 0‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﺗﺠﻨﺐ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺗﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c2‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪ ،(263 0 ،‬ﻟﻦ ﻳﻨﻘﻀﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺼﻔﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﺼﺪﺭ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺻﻔﻴﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﻤﺖ ﺑﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪58‬‬
‫ﺃﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻗﺮﺃ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﻭﻋﺮﺿﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﺯﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪) 1‬ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻸﻓﻼﻡ(‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪.a‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺸﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻠﻪ ﻟﻴﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺋﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﻟﻦ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﹰ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪a‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺭﻣﺰ ‪0‬‬
‫ﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ (71 0) 0‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺃﻓﻼﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ U‬ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫)‪.(156 0‬‬
‫‪59‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ )‪.(41 0‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫)‪.(42 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺘﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪AF-ON‬‬
‫ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻓﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻷﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﻳﻘﻞ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪AF-ON‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺑﺪﺀ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﹰﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﻓﻲ "ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ"‬
‫)‪.(44 0‬‬
‫‪60‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫ﺍﺑﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺄﻣﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ )‪ (137 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻠﻪ ﺑﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻞ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ EV ±3‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫)‪(139 0‬؛ ﻭﻻ ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺑﻘﻌﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ AF-ON‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻲ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺠﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺪﻳﻮ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﻣﻌﺎﹰ؛ ﻻ ﺗﻐﻄﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺻﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪61‬‬
‫‪62‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻹﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻭﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﺳﻴﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻣﺘﻼﺀ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ )ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺑﻠﻮﻍ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ(‪.‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ a‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪:‬‬
‫‪S ،P‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫‪M‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫— ‪3 ،2‬‬
‫— ‪3 ،2‬‬
‫✔‬
‫‪4 ،3‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻮﺿﻊ ‪ S‬ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻟﻠﻮﺿﻊ ‪.P‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻱ ﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪< ISO‬‬
‫ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ )‪.(257 0‬‬
‫ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻟـ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ < ISO‬ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻟـ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﻝ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ ،(M‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻟـ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ ‪ VR‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﻫﻮ ‪.ISO 25600‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ < ISO‬ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬
‫‪) ISO‬ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ (M‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻱ ﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ ،M‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ 1/25‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭ ‪1/8000‬‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ )ﺃﺑﻄﺄ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ؛ ‪ .(69 0‬ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺑﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺯﺍﺋﺪ ﺃﻭ ﻧﺎﻗﺺ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ P‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ،S‬ﺃﻭﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻭﺷﻐﻞ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻣﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ A‬ﻭﻋﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪63‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺎﺭﺱ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺮﺱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) g1‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،(270 0 ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺎﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )‪ .(76 0‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ 20‬ﻓﻬﺮﺱ ﻟﻜﻞ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻬﺮﺱ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪< A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) f2‬ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪.(268 0 ،‬‬
‫• ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺆﺩﻳﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﺍﺭ ‪ Fn1‬ﻭ‪ Fn2‬ﻭ‪ Pv‬ﻭﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪ < A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) g1‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ؛ ‪.(270 0‬‬
‫• ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﻭﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪ < A‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) g1‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ( < ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ )‪.(270 0‬‬
‫• ﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﻟﻠﺰﺭ ‪ ،a‬ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ‪ < A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) f8‬ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.(270 0 ،‬‬
‫‪64‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪i‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺮﺩﺓ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ i‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺗﻨﻘﻞ ﻋﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻭﺯﺭ ‪،J‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫‪ 2‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪ .‬ﻭﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ J‬ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ .i‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ i‬ﻣﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪i‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻟﻸﻓﻼﻡ )‪.(68 0‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﻣﻌﺪﻝ‬
‫ﺣﺪﺩ ﺣﺠﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ )‪.(69 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ )‪.(69 0‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ )‪ .(180 0‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﻭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﺃﺣﺠﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ‪) 1080 × 1920‬ﺣﺮﻛﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ( ﻭ ‪.(69 0) 2160 × 3840‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﻀﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ )‪.(258 0‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻲ )‪.(295 0‬‬
‫ﻣﻮﻫﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﺩﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻛﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﻭﻣﻨﻊ ﺗﺸﻮﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺻﺎﺧﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﺩﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻲ )‪.(259 0‬‬
‫‪65‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺡ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺮﺷﺢ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ )‪.(259 0‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺘﻲ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻬﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ )‪.(256 0‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺳﻴﺆﺛﺮ‬
‫ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ‪.(45 0‬‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺁﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﻟﺘﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻵﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﻟﺘﻮﺳﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪3 ،‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻀﻴﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺑﻀﺒﻂ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﺰﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪.3‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻂ ‪ ،2‬ﻓﺴﻮﻑ ﻳﹸﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻟﻺﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻼﺕ )ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ(‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻼﺕ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) g2‬ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ‪ .(270 0 ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺫﺭﻭﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻼﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻼﺕ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻼﺕ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺳﻤﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺱ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ‬
‫‪66‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻂ ‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻂ ‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺳﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻟﺘﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪ .‬ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ‪) 1080 × 1920‬ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ( ﻭ ‪2160 × 3840‬‬
‫)‪ .(69 0‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺫﺭﻭﺓ ﻭﺳﺘﻘﻞ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻗﺺ ﺣﻮﺍﻑ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺨﻄﻮﻁ ﻣﻠﻮﻧﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺫﺭﻭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪) 3‬ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ(‪،‬‬
‫‪) 2‬ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ(‪) 1 ،‬ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ؛ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﻭﺓ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) d8‬ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﻭﺓ‪.(265 0 ،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺭﻭﺓ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻼﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﺃﺣﺠﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ‪1080 × 1920‬‬
‫)ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ( ﻭ ‪2160 × 3840‬‬
‫)‪ (69 0‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ‪D-Lighting‬‬
‫ﻧﺸﻄﺔ )‪ (180 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﺳﺘﻴﺮﻳﻮ ‪ ME-1‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻲ ‪ ME-W1‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﹰﺎ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﻟﻸﻓﻼﻡ )‪.(295 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺳﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺱ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺳﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺻﻮﺕ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ؛ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺗﻮﺧﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺬﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺳﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺱ‪.‬‬
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‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﺺ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ < ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪ .‬ﺣﺪﺩ ‪ FX‬ﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﻳﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ‬
‫"ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﺗﺴﻨﺪ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ "FX‬ﺃﻭ ﺣﺪﺩ ‪ DX‬ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﻳﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ "ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﺗﺴﻨﺪ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ ."DX‬ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺘﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪DX‬‬
‫‪FX‬‬
‫ﺗﺒﻠﻎ ﺃﺣﺠﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 20.2 × 35.9‬ﻣﻢ )ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﺗﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫‪ (FX‬ﻭ ‪ 13.2 × 23.5‬ﻣﻢ )ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﺗﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ .(DX‬ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ‬
‫‪ DX‬ﻭﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ < ﻗﺺ ‪ DX‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪ (084‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ DX‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ )ﺑﻐﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻟـ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ < ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ( ﻣﻊ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ‪) 1080 × 1920‬ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ(‪ .‬ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ ﺑﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻟـ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ i‬ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺺ‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﻗﻠﻴﻼ ﹰ‪.‬‬
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‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﻳﹸﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﻳﻦ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ )ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻜﺴﻞ( ﻭﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﹰ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎ ﻳﺤﺪﺩﺍﻥ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺖ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﻭﻋﺎﺩﻱ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﻥ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ‪1‬‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺑﺖ‬
‫)ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‪/‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ( )★‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪/‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ(‬
‫ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ‬
‫‪(4K UHD) 3840×2160‬؛ ‪30p 2‬‬
‫‪(4K UHD) 3840×2160‬؛ ‪25p 2‬‬
‫‪(4K UHD) 3840×2160‬؛ ‪24p 2‬‬
‫‪1920×1080‬؛ ‪60p‬‬
‫‪1920×1080‬؛ ‪50p‬‬
‫‪1920×1080‬؛ ‪30p‬‬
‫‪1920×1080‬؛ ‪25p‬‬
‫‪1920×1080‬؛ ‪24p‬‬
‫‪144‬‬
‫‪s‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪y/y‬‬
‫‪24/48‬‬
‫‪z/z‬‬
‫‪ 29‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ‪ 59‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪3‬‬
‫‪1/1‬‬
‫‪2/2‬‬
‫‪12/24‬‬
‫‪3/3‬‬
‫‪1280× 720 4/4‬؛ ‪60p‬‬
‫‪1280× 720 5/5‬؛ ‪50p‬‬
‫‪1920×1080‬؛ ‪30p ×4‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫)ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ( ‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪ 3 :‬ﺩﻗﺎﺋﻖ‬
‫‪36‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ 12 :‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬
‫‪1920×1080‬؛ ‪25p ×4‬‬
‫‪B‬‬
‫)ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ( ‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪ 3 :‬ﺩﻗﺎﺋﻖ‬
‫‪1920×1080‬؛ ‪24p ×5‬‬
‫‪29‬‬
‫‪C‬‬
‫)ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ( ‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ 15 :‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬
‫‪ 1‬ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻫﻮ ‪ 29.97‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺭﺟﺔ ‪ 30‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪ 23.976‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺭﺟﺔ ‪ 24‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪ 59.94‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺭﺟﺔ ‪ 60‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ "ﻋﺎﻟﻲ"‪.‬‬
‫‪ 3‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻛﻞ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 8‬ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺘﻪ ﺗﺼﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪4‬‬
‫ﺟﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‪ .‬ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﻭﻃﻮﻝ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻠﻒ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﻟـ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 4‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ "ﺃﻓﻼﻡ ﺑﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ" )‪.(70 0‬‬
‫‪69‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺃﻓﻼﻡ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺃﻓﻼﻡ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ ﺻﺎﻣﺘﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﺩ ‪1920×1080‬؛ ‪) 30p ×4‬ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ( ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪1920×1080‬؛ ‪) 25p ×4‬ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ( ﺃﻭ ‪1920×1080‬؛ ‪) 24p ×5‬ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ( ﻟـ ﺣﺠﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪ .‬ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺑـ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪5‬‬
‫ﺃﺿﻌﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﻴﺌﺔ؛ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ‪1920×1080‬؛ ‪) 30p ×4‬ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ( ﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﺈﻃﺎﺭ ‪ 120‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ )‪ (120p‬ﻭﺗﺸﻐﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﺤﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 30‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ )‪.(30p‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ *‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫‪30p‬‬
‫‪120p‬‬
‫‪1920×1080‬؛ ‪) 30p ×4‬ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ(‬
‫‪25p‬‬
‫‪100p‬‬
‫‪1920×1080‬؛ ‪) 25p ×4‬ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ(‬
‫‪24p‬‬
‫‪120p‬‬
‫‪1920×1080‬؛ ‪) 24p ×5‬ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ(‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻫﻮ ‪ 119.88‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﻛـ ‪ 120p‬ﻭ ‪29.97‬‬
‫ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﻛـ ‪ ،30p‬ﻭ ‪ 23.976‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﻛـ ‪.24p‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺃﻓﻼﻡ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺠﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ "ﻋﺎﺩﻱ" ﻭﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ‪،DX‬‬
‫ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻟـ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ < ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ )‪ .(256 0‬ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻷﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻤﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻫﺪﻑ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪ (42 0‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻋﺮﻳﻀﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪70‬‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫‪!0‬‬
‫‪io‬‬
‫‪!1‬‬
‫‪w‬‬
‫‪e‬‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪y‬‬
‫‪u‬‬
‫‪!2‬‬
‫‪!3‬‬
‫‪q‬‬
‫‪w‬‬
‫‪e‬‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪y‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ "ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ"‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺡ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺳﻤﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺱ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﺩﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ‬
‫‪ u‬ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ‬
‫‪ i‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ‪HDMI‬‬
‫‪o‬‬
‫‪!0‬‬
‫‪!1‬‬
‫‪!2‬‬
‫‪!3‬‬
‫‪q‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺃﻓﻼﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺡ )‪.(259 0‬‬
‫ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ )‪.(259 0‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺳﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺱ‪ .‬ﺇﺫ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻪ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺳﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺗﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﺩﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ )‪.(259 0‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ )‪.(258 0‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻪ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﻤﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﺟ ﹰﺪﺍ؛ ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﻭﻓﻘﹰ ﺎ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺘﺰﺍﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺮ ‪.HDMI‬‬
‫ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻫﻦ )‪.(259 0‬‬
‫ﻣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻟﻸﻓﻼﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻫﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ )‪.(69 0‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻼﺕ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻼﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ "ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻵﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻵﻟﻴﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ"‬
‫‪71‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻹﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.R‬‬
‫ﺃﻓﻖ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ )‪(272 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺨﻄﻂ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﺨﻔﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺇﻃﺎﺭﻱ‬
‫‪ D‬ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺯﻟﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ )‪.(54 0‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺯﻟﻲ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ‪ 30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺐ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺑﻤﺠﺮﺩ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺑﻐﺾ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺳﻴﻐﻠﻖ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺳﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺱ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻏﻴﺮ ‪I‬‬
‫)ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ( ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﻷﻱ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫‪ I‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺳﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪72‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ )ﺇﻣﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ(‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) g1‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ( < ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ )‪ .(270 0‬ﺗﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ‪ ،9 : 16‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﻗﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﻮﻑ ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺠﻞ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ‪ ،(69 0) 2160 × 3840‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﻟـ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ )‪(88 0‬؛ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺄﺧﻮﺫﺓ‬
‫ﺑﺤﺠﻢ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ‪ 2160 × 3840‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﺠﻮﺩﺓ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪ JPEG‬ﺟﻴﺪ★‪ .‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺣﻮﻝ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ "ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ" )‪ .(74 0‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺘﻪ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺯﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ‪1‬؛ ﻳﻮﺻﻰ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ P‬ﺃﻭ ‪ S‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ،A‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ M‬ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺯﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪.C‬‬
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‫❚❚ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺄﺧﻮﺫﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪(256 0‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻟـ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ )‪.(91 0‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪FX‬‬
‫‪DX‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬
‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬
‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ )ﺑﻜﺴﻞ(‬
‫‪4640 × 8256‬‬
‫‪3480 × 6192‬‬
‫‪2320 × 4128‬‬
‫‪3040 × 5408‬‬
‫‪2272 × 4048‬‬
‫‪1520 × 2704‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺑﻤﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﻟﻮﻥ ‪ .sRGB‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺸﻮﻩ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻣﺼﺎﺑﻴﺢ ﻓﻠﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺋﺒﻖ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺩﻳﻮﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻣﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻓﻘﻴﺎ ﹰ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﺮﻙ‬
‫ﺃﻓﻘﻴﺎ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ )ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﻭﺗﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﻗﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ‪ (258 0‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺣﻮﺍﻑ ﻣﺴﻨﻨﺔ ﻭﻫﻮﺍﻣﺶ ﻣﻠﻮﻧﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻵﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﹰ‬
‫ﻭﺗﻤﻮﺝ ﻭﺑﻘﻊ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻐﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻣﻊ ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻣﻀﺔ ﻭﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﺘﻘﻄﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻤﺖ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻟﻮﻫﻠﺔ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺿﻮﺀ ﺻﺎﻋﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻱ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺳﺎﻃﻊ ﺧﺎﻃﻒ ﺃﺧﺮ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﺗﺠﻨﺐ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻧﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺗﻼﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ )ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻜﺴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺿﺒﺎﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ( ﻭﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻌﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ )‪ (40 0‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺯﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪74‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﺳﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) g1‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ( < ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ )‪ ،(270 0‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺯﺭﺍﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺃﺳﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ )‪ (295 0‬ﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﻭﺇﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪75‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻢ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺭﻣﺰ ‪ 1‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ )‪ .(223 0‬ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ‬
‫ﺭﻣﺰ ‪ a‬ﻣﻦ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﺗﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺭﻣﺰ ‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺭﻣﺰ ‪a‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ‬
‫ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺇﺭﺟﺎﻉ‪/‬ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﻴﺌﺔ‬
‫‪76‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 3‬ﻹﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﻣﺆﻗ ﹰﺘﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻻﺳﺘﺌﻨﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻹﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﻟﻠﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻹﺭﺟﺎﻉ‪/‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﻟﻺﺭﺟﺎﻉ‪ 2 ،‬ﻟﻠﺘﻘﺪﻳﻢ‪ .‬ﺗﺰﺩﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻛﻞ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ‪ × 2‬ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫‪ × 4‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ × 8‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪× 16‬؛ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻟﻼﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺘﻪ )ﻳﺸﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ h‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﻷﻳﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ .(i‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻹﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻌﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺭﺟﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﺑﻤﻌﺪﻝ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ‬
‫ﺿﻐﻄﺔ؛ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻟﻠﺘﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺭﺟﺎﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 3‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻣﺆﻗ ﹰﺘﺎ ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﻴﺌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻟﻠﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ‪ 10‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ ﻟﻸﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻠﺨﻠﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺠﺎﻭﺯ ‪ 10‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺮﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪،‬‬
‫ﺗﺨﻄﻲ ﻟﻸﻣﺎﻡ‪/‬ﻟﻠﺨﻠﻒ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻠﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻻ ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ X‬ﻟﺮﻓﻊ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ (M) W‬ﻟﻠﺨﻔﺾ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ i‬ﺃﻭ ‪ J‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ )‪.(78 0‬‬
‫ﺧﺮﻭﺝ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ K‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺭﻣﺰ ‪p‬‬
‫ﻳﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ )‪ (64 0‬ﺑﺮﻣﺰ ‪p‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪77‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫ﺗﻬﺬﻳﺐ ﻣﻘﻄﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ JPEG‬ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ 9‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ‪/‬ﺍﻹﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﺗﻢ ﺣﺬﻓﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺤﻔﻆ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪ JPEG‬ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 4‬ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻬﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻬﺬﺑﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪:‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﺃﻭﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻣﺆﻗ ﹰﺘﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺘﺎﺣﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ )‪.(223 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬
‫"ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ" )‪ ،(76 0‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻜﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﻺﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻓﺮﻋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ‪ .‬ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺒﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪ .‬ﺃﻭﻗﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﻗ ﹰﺘﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺘﺎﺣﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪78‬‬
‫ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺣﺪﺩ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ‪/‬ﺍﻹﻧﻬﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ i‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ،J‬ﺛﻢ ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ‪/‬ﺍﻹﻧﻬﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺣﺪﺩ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺗﺒﺪﺃ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪ ،‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .J‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺤﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪.9‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳﺔ‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﺽ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻠﺘﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺭﺟﺎﻉ )ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻄﻲ ‪ 10‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ‬
‫ﻟﻸﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻒ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ؛ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻄﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﻓﻬﺮﺱ ﺃﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻄﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻻ ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ(‪.‬‬
‫‪79‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ (Q/Z) L‬ﻟﻠﺘﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳﺔ )‪ (w‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ )‪ ،(x‬ﺛﻢ ﺣﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻹﻏﻼﻕ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ .5‬ﺳﺘﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪.9‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪(Q/Z) L‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ‬
‫‪80‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻤﺠﺮﺩ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.1‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﻤﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪) J‬ﻹﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺣﻔﻆ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .(1‬ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻛﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﺃﻋﻼﻩ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪J‬؛ ﻟﺤﻔﻆ‬
‫ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻘﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪.9‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫ﺍﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺣﻔﻆ ﻛﻤﻠﻒ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ J‬ﻟﺤﻔﻆ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻠﻒ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﻻﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻝ ﻣﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺮﺭﺓ ﺑﺪﻻ ﹰ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺗﻬﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺘﻴﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ‪ .‬ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻧﻔﺲ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻭﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺣﺬﻑ ﻣﻘﻄﻊ ﺍﻓﺘﺘﺎﺣﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺧﺘﺘﺎﻣﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺘﺎﺣﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ 7‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ‬
‫‪ (Q/Z) L‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ .6‬ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﺘﺎﻣﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﺩ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ ،4‬ﺣﺪﺩ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﺘﺎﻣﻲ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻘﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ 7‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪(Q/Z) L‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪.6‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻗﺘﻄﺎﻉ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ )‪.(279 0‬‬
‫‪81‬‬
‫ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻟﺤﻔﻆ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪ JPEG‬ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺃﻭﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻣﺆﻗ ﹰﺘﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﻓﻲ "ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ" )‪ ،(76 0‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬
‫ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻜﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﻠﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻭﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﻗ ﹰﺘﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺮﻏﺐ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻧﺴﺨﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ i‬ﺃﻭ ‪ J‬ﺛﻢ ﻇﻠﻞ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ J‬ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ‪ JPEG‬ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﻟـ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ )‪.(69 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ JPEG‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺤﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ JPEG‬ﻳﻨﻘﺼﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻓﺌﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪.(229 0‬‬
‫‪82‬‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪) (36×24) FX‬ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪) (24×16) DX ،(FX‬ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪،(DX‬‬
‫‪.(24×24) 1:1 ،(30×20) 1.2× ،(30×24) 5:4‬‬
‫ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪DX‬‬
‫)‪(16 × 24‬‬
‫ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪FX‬‬
‫‪4:5‬‬
‫ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪DX‬‬
‫‪1:1‬‬
‫ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪FX‬‬
‫)‪(24 × 36‬‬
‫‪× 1.2‬‬
‫‪83‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪c‬‬
‫‪(36×24) FX‬‬
‫‪l‬‬
‫×‪(30×20) 1.2‬‬
‫‪a‬‬
‫‪(24×16) DX‬‬
‫‪b‬‬
‫‪m‬‬
‫‪(30×24) 5:4‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ FX‬ﺑﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺌﺔ ﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫‪ NIKKOR‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ 35‬ﻣﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺧﻔﺾ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﺑﻤﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪.×1.2‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ .DX‬ﻟﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺒﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪ 35‬ﻣﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺮﺏ ﻓﻲ ‪.1.5‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩ ‪.4 : 5‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪(24×24) 1:1‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩ ‪.1 : 1‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺺ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻼﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﺺ ‪ DX‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ ،DX‬ﺣﺪﺩ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ < ﻗﺺ ‪ DX‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ )‪ .(251 0‬ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻊ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﹸﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺨﻼﻑ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ .DX‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻗﺺ ‪ DX‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ DX‬ﻭﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻗﺺ ‪ DX‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪.(87 0‬‬
‫‪84‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻗﻨﺎﻉ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻟـ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ < ﻋﺮﺽ ﻗﻨﺎﻉ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﻗﺺ ×‪،(30×24) 5:4 ،(24×16) DX ،(30×20) 1.2‬‬
‫ﻭ‪ (24×24) 1:1‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺎﺩﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫×‪(30×20) 1.2‬‬
‫‪(24×16) DX‬‬
‫‪(30×24) 5:4‬‬
‫‪(24×24) 1:1‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪DX‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ DX‬ﻣﺼﻤﻤﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻊ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪ DX‬ﻭﻟﻬﺎ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﺻﻐﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪ 35‬ﻣﻢ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﺺ ‪ DX‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺑﺨﻼﻑ ‪) (24×16) DX‬ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪ (DX‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺣﻮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻈﻠﻤﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻼﺣﻆ ﺍﻧﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺣﻮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺳﻮﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪85‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ < ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺣﺪﺩ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺣﺪﺩ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﻋ ﹼﺪﻝ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺪﺩ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .J‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪86‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﻋﻴﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻷﺣﺪ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) f1‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‪ (268 0 ،‬ﻟﺘﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺮﺹ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﺺ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫)‪.(85 0‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪ FX‬ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺷﻜﻞ "‪ "36 - 24‬ﻭ ‪×1.2‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ "‪"30 - 20‬‬
‫ﻭﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪ DX‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ "‪ "24 - 16‬ﻭ‪ 4 :5‬ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺷﻜﻞ "‪ ،"30 - 24‬ﻭ ‪ 1 : 1‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ "‪."24 - 24‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻘﺺ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻣﻊ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ "ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﺺ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ" )‪.(68 0‬‬
‫• ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ "ﺳﻌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ" )‪.(362 0‬‬
‫‪87‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ D850‬ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺠﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻧﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‬
‫)‪NEF (RAW‬‬
‫‪NEF‬‬
‫)‪+ NEF (RAW‬‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﺟﻴﺪ★‪/‬‬
‫)‪+ NEF (RAW‬‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﺟﻴﺪ‬
‫)‪+ NEF (RAW‬‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ★‪/‬‬
‫)‪+ NEF (RAW‬‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫)‪+ NEF (RAW‬‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ★‪/‬‬
‫)‪+ NEF (RAW‬‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﺟﻴﺪ★‪/‬‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﺟﻴﺪ‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ★‪/‬‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ★‪/‬‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬
‫)‪TIFF (RGB‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺗﹸﺤﻔﻆ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ‪ RAW‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻭﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪JPEG‬‬
‫ﺑﺠﻮﺩﺓ ﺟﻴﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪NEF/‬‬
‫‪JPEG‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻭﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪JPEG‬‬
‫ﺑﺠﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻭﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪JPEG‬‬
‫ﺑﺠﻮﺩﺓ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺠﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ JPEG‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ ‪ 4 :1‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ‬
‫)ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺟﻴﺪﺓ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺠﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ JPEG‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ ‪ 8 :1‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ‬
‫‪JPEG‬‬
‫)ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﺎﺩﻳﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺠﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ JPEG‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ ‪ 16 :1‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ‬
‫)ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ TIFF-RGB‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﺔ ﺑﻌﻤﻖ ﺑﺖ ‪ 8‬ﺑﺖ‬
‫‪TIFF‬‬
‫ﻟﻜﻞ ﻗﻨﺎﺓ )ﻟﻮﻥ ‪ 24‬ﺑﺖ(‪ .‬ﻳﺪﻋﻢ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻛﺒﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ‬
‫)‪(RGB‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪.TIFF‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ "ﺳﻌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ" )‪.(362 0‬‬
‫‪88‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ T‬ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪T‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺿﻐﻂ ‪JPEG‬‬
‫ﻣﺨﺼﺼﺎ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ؛‬
‫ﺿﻐﻄﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻴﺰﺓ ﺑﻨﺠﻤﺔ )"★"(‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﹸ‬
‫ﺇﺫ ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ‪ .‬ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻴﺰﺓ ﺑﻨﺠﻤﺔ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﺧﺼﻴﺼﺎ ﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺃﺻﻐﺮ؛ ﺗﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ‬
‫ﻣﺼﻤﻢ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺠﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪NEF+JPEG A‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ ﺑﺈﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ NEF (RAW) + JPEG‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ JPEG‬ﻓﻘﻂ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺘﻴﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﺪﺭﺟﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﹸ‬
‫ﻧﻔﺲ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺘﻴﻦ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ‪JPEG‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ < ‪ RAW‬ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻴﺔ ‪-‬‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﺛﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺠﺐ ﺣﺬﻑ ﻛﻞ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫)‪.(251 0‬‬
‫‪89‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺿﻐﻂ )‪NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺿﻐﻂ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ )‪ ،NEF (RAW‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ )‪ < NEF (RAW‬ﺿﻐﻂ ‪NEF‬‬
‫)‪ (RAW‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ NEF‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻟﻮﻏﺎﺭﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﻜﺴﻲ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﺔ ﻻ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺗﺒﻠﻎ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 40% – 20%‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬
‫‪ N‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻧﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ NEF‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻟﻮﻏﺎﺭﻳﺘﻢ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻋﻜﺴﻲ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺗﺒﻠﻎ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 55% – 35%‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻱ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ‬
‫‪ O‬ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻁ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻲ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻁ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪.NEF‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻋﻤﻖ ﺑﺖ )‪NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﻤﻖ ﺍﻟﺒﺖ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ )‪ ،NEF (RAW‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ )‪ < NEF (RAW‬ﻋﻤﻖ ﺑﺖ‬
‫)‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ 12 q‬ﺑﺖ‬
‫‪ 14 r‬ﺑﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺑﻌﻤﻖ ﺑﺖ ‪ 12‬ﺑﺖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺑﻌﻤﻖ ﺑﺖ ‪ 14‬ﺑﺖ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎ ﹰ ﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺑﻌﻤﻖ ﺑﺖ ‪ 12‬ﺑﺖ ﻟﻜﻦ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺠﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺻﻮﺭ )‪NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻧﺴﺦ ‪ JPEG‬ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ‪ Capture NX-D‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ )‪.(278 0‬‬
‫‪90‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻜﺴﻞ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪#‬ﻛﺒﻴﺮ ﺃﻭ ‪$‬ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺃﻭ ‪%‬ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫)ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻟـ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪:(83 0 ،‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪36×24) FX‬؛ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪(FX‬‬
‫×‪(30×20) 1.2‬‬
‫‪24×16) DX‬؛ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪(DX‬‬
‫‪(30×24) 5:4‬‬
‫‪(24×24) 1:1‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬
‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬
‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬
‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬
‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬
‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ )ﺑﻜﺴﻞ(‬
‫‪5504 × 8256‬‬
‫‪4128 × 6192‬‬
‫‪2752 × 4128‬‬
‫‪4584 × 6880‬‬
‫‪3432 × 5152‬‬
‫‪2288 × 3440‬‬
‫‪3600 × 5408‬‬
‫‪2696 × 4048‬‬
‫‪1800 × 2704‬‬
‫‪5504 × 6880‬‬
‫‪4120 × 5152‬‬
‫‪2752 × 3440‬‬
‫‪5504 × 5504‬‬
‫‪4128 × 4128‬‬
‫‪2752 × 2752‬‬
‫‪91‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻟﺼﻮﺭ ‪ JPEG‬ﻭ‪ TIFF‬ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ T‬ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺮﺹ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪ .‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺠﻢ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭ )‪ ،NEF (RAW‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ < )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪T‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ JPEG‬ﻭ ‪ TIFF‬ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ < ‪ JPEG/TIFF‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫)‪ .(251 0‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﻭﻣﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬
‫)‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ 12‬ﺑﺖ ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻧﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺿﻐﻂ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻭ‬
‫ﻋﻤﻖ ﺑﺖ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ )‪.NEF (RAW‬‬
‫‪92‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺘﻲ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺘﻲ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻛﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ )‪.(250 0‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪ XQD‬ﻟﺘﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪ XQD‬ﻛﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪ SD‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪ .SD‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻠﻌﺒﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ )‪ .(250 0‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﺋﺪ )ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻣﺘﻼﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻴﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻲ )ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻛﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻼ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺘﻴﻦ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪ RAW‬ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻴﺔ ‪ JPEG -‬ﺛﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ )ﻣﺜﻞ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻋﺪﺍ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ‪ NEF/RAW‬ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﺑﺈﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪NEF/‬‬
‫‪ RAW + JPEG‬ﻓﺘﺴﺠﻞ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﺴﺠﻞ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻧﺴﺦ ‪ JPEG‬ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫‪" A‬ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻲ" ﻭ "‪ RAW‬ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻴﺔ ‪ JPEG -‬ﺛﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ"‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻗﺪﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻣﺘﻼﺀ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺘﻴﻦ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺘﻲ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻬﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ )‪.(256 0‬‬
‫‪93‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻳﺼﻒ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ )‪ (94 0‬ﺃﻭ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﹰﺎ )‪.(111 0‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ )‪ (105 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻭﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪.(108 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭ‬
‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪AF‬‬
‫)ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻦ‬
‫‪ 153‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ‪ 55‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫‪ r‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺤﻲ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫)‪.(105 0‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫‪94‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻘﺎﻃﻌﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻘﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﺘﻘﺎﻃﻌﺔ )ﻧﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻘﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺎﺩﻱ (‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪ S‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪ P‬ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﺑﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻗﺼﻮﻯ ﺗﺒﻠﻎ ‪ f/4‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﺳﺮﻉ ‪1‬‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫‪ f/4G IF-ED‬ﻣﻢ‪AF-S DX Zoom-Nikkor 24–12‬‬
‫‪ f/2.8G ED‬ﻣﻢ‪AF-S Micro NIKKOR 60‬‬
‫‪ f/4G ED VR‬ﻣﻢ‪AF-S NIKKOR 600‬‬
‫‪ f/4E FL ED VR‬ﻣﻢ‪AF-S NIKKOR 600‬‬
‫‪ f/4D IF-ED II‬ﻣﻢ‪AF-S Nikkor 600‬‬
‫‪ f/4D IF-ED‬ﻣﻢ‪AF-S Nikkor 600‬‬
‫‪ f/4G ED VR II‬ﻣﻢ‪AF-S NIKKOR 400–200‬‬
‫‪ f/4G IF-ED‬ﻣﻢ‪AF-S VR Zoom-Nikkor 400–200‬‬
‫‪ f/4G ED VR‬ﻣﻢ‪AF-S NIKKOR 500‬‬
‫‪ f/4D IF-ED II‬ﻣﻢ‪AF-S Nikkor 500‬‬
‫‪ f/4D IF-ED‬ﻣﻢ‪AF-S Nikkor 500‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪ S‬ﻭﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪ P‬ﺑﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﻗﺼﻮﻯ ﺃﺑﻄﺄ ﻣﻦ ‪1 f/4‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪ ،S‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪P‬‬
‫‪ 99‬ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﻣﺘﻘﺎﻃﻊ‬
‫‪ 63‬ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﻣﺘﻘﺎﻃﻊ‬
‫‪ 45‬ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﻣﺘﻘﺎﻃﻊ‬
‫‪ 1‬ﺑﺄﻗﺼﻰ ﺯﻭﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮﺍﺕ ﺧﻄﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻜﺘﺸﻒ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻓﻘﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪95‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﺤﻮﻻﺕ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ ‪ AF-S/AF-I‬ﻭﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ ‪ AF-S‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ،AF-I‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺤﻴﺔ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻯ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ )ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻌﺔ ﺑﺤﺪ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺃﺑﻄﺄ ﻣﻦ ‪ ،f/5.6‬ﻓﻠﻦ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻈﻼﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ )ﻧﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﻯ ‪ 1‬ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻘﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺎﺩﻱ ‪(2‬‬
‫‪ TC-14E‬ﻭ ‪ TC-14E II‬ﻭ ‪TC-14E III‬‬
‫‪f/2‬‬
‫‪TC17E II‬‬
‫‪ TC-20E‬ﻭ ‪ TC-20E II‬ﻭ ‪TC-20E III‬‬
‫‪96‬‬
‫‪ TC-14E‬ﻭ ‪ TC-14E II‬ﻭ ‪TC-14E III‬‬
‫‪f/2.8‬‬
‫‪TC17E II‬‬
‫‪ TC-20E‬ﻭ ‪ TC-20E II‬ﻭ ‪TC-20E III‬‬
‫‪f/2.8‬‬
‫‪ TC-14E‬ﻭ ‪ TC-14E II‬ﻭ ‪TC-14E III‬‬
‫‪f/4‬‬
‫‪TC17E II‬‬
‫‪f/4‬‬
‫‪1.25E ED-TC-800‬‬
‫‪f/5.6‬‬
‫‪ 153‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ )‪ 55‬ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ( ﻣﻊ ‪ 99‬ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﻣﺘﻘﺎﻃﻊ‬
‫‪ 153‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ )‪ 55‬ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ( ﻣﻊ ‪ 45‬ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﻣﺘﻘﺎﻃﻊ‬
‫‪ 37‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ )‪ 17‬ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ( ﻣﻊ ‪ 25‬ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﻣﺘﻘﺎﻃﻊ‬
‫ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﻯ ‪1‬‬
‫‪ TC-20E‬ﻭ ‪ TC-20E II‬ﻭ ‪TC-20E III‬‬
‫‪f/4‬‬
‫‪ TC-14E‬ﻭ ‪ TC-14E II‬ﻭ ‪TC-14E III‬‬
‫‪f/5.6‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ )ﻧﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻘﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺎﺩﻱ ‪(2‬‬
‫‪ 15‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ )‪ 9‬ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ( ﻣﻊ ‪ 5‬ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﻣﺘﻘﺎﻃﻊ‬
‫‪ 1‬ﺑﺄﻗﺼﻰ ﺯﻭﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮﺍﺕ ﺧﻄﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻜﺘﺸﻒ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﻁ ﺍﻷﻓﻘﻴﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻻﺣﻆ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ‪5‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﺘﻘﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺗﻜﺘﺸﻒ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ■ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﻁ ﺍﻷﻓﻘﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﺎ ﹰﺣﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺤﻮﻻﺕ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫‪ f/2.8G IF-ED‬ﻣﻢ‪.AF-S VR Micro-Nikkor 105‬‬
‫‪97‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻓﺮﺩﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ :‬ﻟﻸﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻘﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫‪ AF-S‬ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪) (I‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ؛‬
‫‪.(260 0‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ :‬ﻟﻸﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‬
‫ﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ؛ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﺤﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‪ ،‬ﺳ ﹸﺘ ﱢ‬
‫‪ AF-C‬ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪ (99 0‬ﻟﻜﻲ ﺗﺘﻨﺒﺄ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‬
‫ﻭﺗﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﺰﻡ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺤﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻣﻀﺒﻮﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﻣﻪ )ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ؛ ‪.(260 0‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻭﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪98‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺯﺭ ‪AF-ON‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ‬
‫‪ AF-ON‬ﻟﻪ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻧﺼﻒ‬
‫ﺿﻐﻄﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪AF-ON‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪ ،AF-C‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﺤﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻧﺤﻮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻌﻴ ﹰﺪﺍ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺃﻭ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ .AF-ON‬ﻳﺴﻤﺢ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺗﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺗﺤﺎﻭﻝ ﺗﻨﺒﺆ ﺃﻳﻦ ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪ < A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) a1‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ‪.(260 0 ،AF-C‬‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻓﺮﺩﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪ < A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫‪) a2‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ‪.(260 0 ،AF-S‬‬
‫• ﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪< A‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) a8‬ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.(261 0 ،‬‬
‫• ﻗﺼﺮ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪ AF-S‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪،AF-C‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪ < A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) a10‬ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.(262 0 ،‬‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪ < A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪f4‬‬
‫)ﺗﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ( < ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ )‪(269 0‬‬
‫• ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ "ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ" )‪.(41 0‬‬
‫‪99‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ؛ ﺳﺘﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ .‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ‪ ،AF-C‬ﺳﺘﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻄﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻭﺟﻴﺰﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ‪:‬‬
‫ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ ‪ 9‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 25‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﻴﺔ‬‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺴﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺗﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻊ )ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﺋﻴﻦ ﻭﺳﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺎﻕ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻀﻤﺎﺭ(‪.‬‬
‫ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ ‪ 72‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺗﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻊ )ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻼﻋﺒﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺒﺎﺭﺍﺓ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ(‪.‬‬
‫ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ ‪ 153‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺗﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻭﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺑﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ )ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻄﻴﻮﺭ(‪.‬‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫• ﺗﻌﻘﺐ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ‪،AF-C‬‬
‫ﺗﺘﻌﻘﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻐﺎﺩﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺗﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺗﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻏﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﻵﺧﺮ )ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻻﻋﺒﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺲ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻏﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺭﻓﻊ ﺇﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺃﻋﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺑﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺨﺘﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺑﺪﻻ ﹰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ‬
‫ﻟﻸﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺼﻌﺐ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩﺓ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ‬
‫ﻭﺟﻮﻩ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ‪ ،AF-S‬ﻓﺴﻮﻑ ﺗﻌﻄﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﻜﺘﺸﻒ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻭﺗﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ؛‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﻭﺟﻪ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻌﻄﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺸﺨﺺ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﻄﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻭﺟﻴﺰﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ؛ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ ،AF-C‬ﺗﻈﻞ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻣﻈﻠﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻧﻄﻔﺎﺀ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫‪101‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻌﻘﺐ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻄﺔ ﺑﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺤﻘﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻘﺐ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻧﻔﺲ ﻟﻮﻥ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺸﻐﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺟ ﹰﺪﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪102‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ ‪9‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﺎﻁ *‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ ‪25‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ *‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ ‪72‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ *‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ ‪153‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ *‬
‫ﺗﻌﻘﺐ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫* ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﻄﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﲔ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﺮ‪ .‬ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪103‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﺤﻮﻻﺕ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ ‪AF-S/AF-I‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻌﻘﺐ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ ‪ ،AF-S/AF-I‬ﻓﺴﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻓﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﻣﺠﻤﻌﺔ ﺃﺑﻄﺄ ﻣﻦ ‪.f/5.6‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ‪:‬‬
‫• ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﻓﻘﹰ ﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺒﻌﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪A‬‬
‫< ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) a3‬ﺗﻌﻘﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻔﻞ‪.(260 0 ،‬‬
‫• ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺗﻜﺘﺸﻒ ﻭﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﻌﻘﺐ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪ < A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ‪) a4‬ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﻩ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻘﺐ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‪.(260 0 ،‬‬
‫• ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﻌﻘﺐ‬
‫ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪ < A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ‪a5‬‬
‫)ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻘﺐ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‪.(261 0 ،‬‬
‫• ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪ < A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ‪) a7‬ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ‪،‬‬
‫‪.(261 0‬‬
‫• ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪ < A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ‪) a9‬ﺣﺪﺩ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.(261 0 ،‬‬
‫• ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪ < A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ‪) a12‬ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.(262 0 ،‬‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪< A ،‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ‪) f4‬ﺗﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ( < ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ )‪.(269 0‬‬
‫• ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ "ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ" )‪.(42 0‬‬
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‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ‪ 153‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ‪ 55‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺤﻲ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺘﺮﻛﻴﺒﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺃﻱ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ‪ .‬ﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )ﻓﻲ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ(‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫●‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺣﺪﺩ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪105‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻹﻏﻼﻕ )‪ (L‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﺑﺪﻻ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ )‪.(137 ،108 0‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ؛‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺸﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﺣﻈﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺃﺻﺎﺑﻌﻚ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺃﻇﺎﻓﺮﻙ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻴﻨﻚ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺿﻊ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ؛ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﺎ ﹰ‪.‬‬
‫‪106‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪A‬‬
‫< ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) a6‬ﻋﺪﺩ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.(261 0 ،‬‬
‫• ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺗﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻓﻘﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪ < A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) a7‬ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ‪.(261 0 ،‬‬
‫• ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ "ﺇﺣﺎﻃﺔ"‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ‪ < A‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪a11‬‬
‫)ﺇﺣﺎﻃﺔ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.(262 0 ،‬‬
‫• ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﻰ ﺗﻀﻲﺀ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) a12‬ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.(262 0 ،‬‬
‫• ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪ < A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) f1‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ( < ﺯﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ )‪ (268 0‬ﻭ ﻭﺳﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ )‪.(268 0‬‬
‫• ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪ < A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) f2‬ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪.(268 0 ،‬‬
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‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪،‬‬
‫ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺠﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺪﻑ ﻟﻦ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪ ،(110 0‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻲ‪ .‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪.(100 0‬‬
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‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻟﺒﺪﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﺗﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪ (I‬ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
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‫ﺍﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪:(98 0) AF-C‬‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ )‪ ،(q‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺳﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ )‪ (w‬ﻟﻐﻠﻖ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ )ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺭﻣﺰ ‪ AE-L‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ(‪ .‬ﺳﻴﻈﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻐﻠﻘﺎ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺳﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺭﻓﻌﺖ ﺇﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻻﺣﻘﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪ :AF-S‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪ ،(I‬ﻭﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﻣﻐﻠﻘﹰ ﺎ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺮﻓﻊ ﺇﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺳﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ )ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻋﻼﻩ(‪.‬‬
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‫ﺃﻋﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺻﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺒﻘﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻐﻠﻘﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ )‪ (AF-S‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﺑﻘﻴﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻭﺳﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﺎﹰ‪،‬‬
‫ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﺤﺮﻙ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺯﺭ ‪AF-ON‬‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ‬
‫‪ AF-ON‬ﺑﺪﻻ ﹰ ﻣﻦ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ )‪ .(99 0‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) a8‬ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،(261 0 ،‬ﻓﻠﻦ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ؛ ﻭﺳﺘﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺪﻻ ﹰ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‬
‫ﺑﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ AF-ON‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻭﺗﻈﻞ ﻣﻘﻔﻠﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ AF-ON‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻟﻘﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪ < A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫‪) c1‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﻟﺰﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.(263 0 ،‬‬
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‫‪ A‬ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺟﻴﺪﺓ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺟﻴﺪﺓ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﺤﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪ (I‬ﻭﺗﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺻﻔﻴﺮ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ )‪ (0111‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ )‪ (0108‬ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺃﺧﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺛﻢ ﺃﻋﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺗﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺗﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻟﻪ ﻧﻔﺲ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺗﻘﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﻗﻔﺺ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺗﻬﻴﻤﻦ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺪﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﻈﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﻓﺬ ﻓﻲ ﻧﺎﻃﺤﺔ ﺳﺤﺎﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺎﺕ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺣﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻧﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻈﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﺒﻨﻰ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺧﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺣﻘﻞ ﺯﻫﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻔﺘﻘﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ‪.‬‬
‫‪110‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ‬
‫‪ NIKKOR‬ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ( ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺤﻘﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ )‪.(110 0‬‬
‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫• ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ :AF‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ )ﺇﻥ ﻭﺟﺪ(‬
‫ﻭﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.M‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪AF‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ AF‬ﻣﻊ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ M‬ﻭﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻀﺒﻮﻁ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ .AF‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻳﻨﻄﺒﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪ S‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪ P‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ M‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.M‬‬
‫• ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‪ :‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻞ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻼﻣﻊ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻭﻗﺖ‪ ،‬ﺣﺘﻰ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻀﺒﻮﻃﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪111‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺃﻡ ﻻ )ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ 55‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ(‪ .‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺛﻢ ﺃﺩﺭ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪ .(I‬ﻻﺣﻆ‬
‫ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ "ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺟﻴﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ" )‪ ،(110 0‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧ ﹰﺎ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ؛ ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺤﻮﻻﺕ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪/S‬ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪ I‬ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ "ﻣﺤﻮﻻﺕ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪/S‬ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪ "I‬ﻭﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ )‪.(96 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪AF-P‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ (281 0) AF-P‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﻴﻮﻣﺾ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻋﻤﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ )ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻮﻣﺾ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ( ﻟﻠﺘﺤﺬﻳﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﻦ ﻳﻀﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻗﺲ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻳﺔ )‪ (E‬ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﺴﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺣﺎﻓﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻫﻲ ‪ 46.5‬ﻣﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 46.5‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫‪112‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﺮﺹ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﺤﺎﺫﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ :‬ﺗﻠﺘﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫‪S‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ ،‬ﺗﻠﺘﻘﻂ‬
‫‪ CL‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) d1‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻮﺿﻊ ‪.(264 ،114 0 ،CL‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ ،‬ﺗﻠﺘﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫‪ CH‬ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﻤﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﻲ "ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻭ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ" )‪ .(114 0‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﻪ ﻟﻸﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺻﺎﻣﺖ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ :‬ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻻ ﺗﻄﻘﻄﻖ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﻟﻤﻜﺎﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻄﻘﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﹸﺤﺪﺛﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﹰ‬
‫‪Q‬‬
‫ﺃﻫﺪﺃ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﺼﺪﺭ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺻﻔﻴﺮ ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﻴﺮ < ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪/‬ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ )‪.(274 0‬‬
‫‪ Qc‬ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ )ﻫﺎﺩﻱﺀ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ( ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ :‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪،‬‬
‫‪ Qc‬ﺗﺴﺠﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻧﺤﻮ ‪ 3‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ E‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ‪ :‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ )‪.(116 0‬‬
‫‪113‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻟﻸﻋﻠﻰ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫‪ MUP‬ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﺏ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻮﻳﺸﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ )‪.(118 0‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻷﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺪﻻﺕ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟـﻮﻳــﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ‪ 1/250‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺃﺳﺮﻉ‪ ،‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪ d1‬ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ EN-EL15a‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫‪ EP-5B‬ﻭ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ‪EH-5b/EH-5c‬‬
‫ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻊ ‪ EN-EL15a) MB-D18‬ﺃﻭ ‪(AA‬‬
‫ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻊ ‪(EN-EL18c) MB-D18‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻤﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ )ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ(‬
‫‪CH‬‬
‫‪CL‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪6-1‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪6-1‬‬
‫‪8-1‬‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺪﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ‪ .‬ﻳﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺟ ﹰﺪﺍ )ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﺆﺭﻳﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ(‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ ‪ Hi 0.3) ISO‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ (Hi 2‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ ISO‬ﻋﺒﺮ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪ ،(121 0‬ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﻣﻊ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬
‫ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﻟـ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ < ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫)‪ ،(254 0‬ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ )ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ (VR‬ﻳﻌﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ‬
‫‪ AA‬ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺰﻣﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ MB-D18‬ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﺭﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻜﺮﻳﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ CPU‬ﻣﻊ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) f4‬ﺗﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ( < ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )‪.(269 0‬‬
‫‪114‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻭﺳﻴﻄﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺣﻔﻆ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺳﻴﻘﻞ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻤﺘﻠﺊ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ )‪.(tAA‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺒﻲ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﺗﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ ﻟﺤﻈﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻓﻮﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻀﻲﺀ ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﺣﺴﺐ‬
‫ﺃﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺴﺘﻐﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺛﻮﺍﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺩﻗﺎﺋﻖ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﻨﺰﻉ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﺰﻉ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻔﺼﻞ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﻨﻄﻔﺊ ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﹸﻏﻠﻘﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺰﺍﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻧﻔﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺗﺰﺍﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺳﺘﻨﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺑﻪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪< D‬‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ‪ ،‬ﻋﺮﺽ )‪.(249 0‬‬
‫• ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺑﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪ < A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) d2‬ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪.(264 0 ،‬‬
‫• ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ "ﺳﻌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ" )‪.(362 0‬‬
‫‪115‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ )‪(E‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﺮﺹ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺛﻢ ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪.E‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻓﺮﺩﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪ ،(98 0‬ﻻ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺇﻻ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ )‪(I‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﻴﻨﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻏﻠﻖ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻟﻤﻨﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪116‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺷﻐﹼﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺒﺪﺃ ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻣﻴﺾ‪ .‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﺜﺎﻧﻴﺘﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻣﻴﺾ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺑﻌﺸﺮ ﺛﻮﺍﻧﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻹﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺮﺹ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺁﺧﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪ < A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c3‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ‪.(264 0 ،‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﺼﻔﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺼﺪﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪ < B‬ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﻴﺮ )‪.(274 0‬‬
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‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻟﻸﻋﻠﻰ )‪(MUP‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﻋﻦ ﺗﺤﺮﻙ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ‪ .‬ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ‬
‫ﻟﻸﻋﻠﻰ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﺮﺹ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺛﻢ‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪) MUP‬ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻟﻸﻋﻠﻰ(‪ .‬ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻟﺘﻌﻴﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﻟﺮﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ‪ Z‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ؛ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫)ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺭﻓﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ؛ ﺇﺫ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺼﺪﺭ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺻﻔﻴﺮ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﻴﺮ < ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪/‬ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﻴﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ )‪ .(274 0‬ﺗﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻟﻸﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻟﻸﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺃﻱ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ‪ 30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺟﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﺮﻓﻖ‪ .‬ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻻﺭﺟﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪ < A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) d6‬ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ‪.(265 0 ،‬‬
‫‪118‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻠﻀﻮﺀ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺡ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﻣﻦ ‪ ISO 64‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ ISO 25600‬ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺗﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ‪ 0.3‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ EV 1‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪ ISO 64‬ﻭ ‪ 0.3‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪EV 2‬‬
‫‪ .EV 1/3‬ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ‪ ISO 25600‬ﻟﻠﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‪ .‬ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻛﻠﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻗﻞ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﺝ ﻟﻠﻀﻮﺀ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺃﻭ ﻓﺘﺤﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺃﺻﻐﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ (Q) S‬ﺛﻢ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪(Q) S‬‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﹰ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ )‪.(252 0‬‬
‫‪119‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﺩﺕ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ،ISO‬ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﻗﻠﺖ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻓﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺃﺻﻐﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺗﺰﺩﺍﺩ ﻓﺮﺹ ﺗﺄﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ )ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻜﺴﻼﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﺎﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﻁ(‪ .‬ﺗﺰﺩﺍﺩ ﻓﺮﺹ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ Hi 0.3‬ﻭ ‪.Hi 2‬‬
‫‪Hi 0.3–Hi 2 A‬‬
‫ﺗﻤﺎﺛﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ‪ Hi 0.3‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ Hi 2‬ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ ‪ ISO‬ﺑﻘﻴﻤﺔ ‪ EV 2–0.3‬ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ‪) ISO 25600‬ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻳﻜﺎﻓﺊ ‪.(102400-ISO 32000‬‬
‫‪Lo 0.3–Lo 1 A‬‬
‫ﺗﻤﺎﺛﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ‪ Lo 0.3‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ Lo 1‬ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ ‪ ISO‬ﺑﻘﻴﻤﺔ ‪ EV 1–0.3‬ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪) ISO 64‬ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻳﻜﺎﻓﺊ ‪ .(32-ISO 50‬ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻠﻴﻼ ﹰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻱ؛ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ‪ ،‬ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ ‪ ISO‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎ ‪ISO‬‬
‫‪ 64‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺧﻄﻮﺓ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ،ISO‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪ < A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺼﺺ ‪) b1‬ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬؛ ‪.(262 0‬‬
‫• ﻋﺮﺽ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪ < A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) d3‬ﻋﺮﺽ ‪ISO‬؛ ‪.(264 0‬‬
‫• ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ ‪ ISO‬ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪ ISO NR < C‬ﻋﺎﻝ‬
‫)‪.(253 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ ‪ ISO‬ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪ ISO NR < 1‬ﻋﺎﻝ‬
‫• ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﹸ‬
‫)‪.(258 0‬‬
‫‪120‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ < ISO‬ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫)ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻼﺋﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ(‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪،‬‬
‫ﺛﻢ ﻇﻠﻞ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪) J‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‪،‬‬
‫ﺳﺘﺒﻘﻰ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ(‪.‬‬
‫‪121‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﻋ ﹼﺪﻝ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﻯ ﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ ISO‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ )ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ؛ ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ISO 64‬‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫‪ ISO‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺣﺪﺩﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺑﺪﻻ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ(‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ P‬ﻭ ‪ ،A‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻧﺎﻗﺺ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ )‪ 30-1/4000‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ؛ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ S‬ﻭ ‪ ،M‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ(‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﻑ‬
‫ﺗﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻠﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ؛ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺗﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎ ﺳﻴﻘﻠﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺡ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻙ‬
‫ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺳﺮﻳﻌﺔ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ J‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﻯ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻋﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ‪ .M‬ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻓﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﹼ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﻯ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ‪ .ISO AUTO‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻮﻣﺾ‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪122‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻄﺎ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﹰ ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺛﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ :2‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺃﺳﺮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺡ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪CPU‬؛ ﻭﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺍﺳ ﹸﺘﺨﺪﻣﺖ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ CPU‬ﻣﻊ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 1/30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻌﺬﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻟـ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ‬
‫‪ (Q) S‬ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‪ .‬ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺭﻣﺰ‬
‫‪ ISO AUTO‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭ ‪ ISO‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻓﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻓﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻢ ﺗﻜﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺃﺳﺮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) e1‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪،‬‬
‫‪ (266 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﺑﻄﺄ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) e2‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،(266 0 ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺣﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪ e2‬ﺑﺪﻻ ﹰ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺟﻨ ﹰﺒﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻨﺐ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ‬
‫‪ISO‬‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﻴﺌﺔ )ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﺘﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ،ISO‬ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ‪ < A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) e4‬ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ M ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.(267 0 ،‬‬
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‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺗﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻣﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﻌﻄﻲ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ‪ .‬ﺗﻘﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺮﻳﻀﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﺗﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﻓﻘﹰ ﺎ ﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ‪،‬‬
‫‪ L‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G‬ﺃﻭ ‪ E‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ،(281 0) D‬ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ )ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻣﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺛﻼﺛﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ ‪III‬؛ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ CPU‬ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻣﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ‪ ،III‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻲ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺛﻼﺛﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪ :‬ﺗﻘﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﺗﺨﺼﺺ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ )ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ ،CPU‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪ ،b6‬ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪263 0 ،‬؛ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ‬
‫‪ M‬ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪ CPU‬ﺃﻭ ‪ f/3.5–4.5E ED‬ﻣﻢ‪ ،AF-S Fisheye NIKKOR 15–8‬ﺗﺸﻐﻞ‬
‫ﺣﻴﺰ ﻳﹸﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﻗﻄﺮﻫﺎ ‪ 12‬ﻣﻢ(‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻱ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﱢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ؛ ﻳﻮﺻﻰ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺮﺷﺤﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ )ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ( ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻦ ‪.×1‬‬
‫ﺑﻘﻌﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﻘﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺑﻘﻄﺮ ‪ 4‬ﻣﻢ )ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 1.5%‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ(‪ .‬ﺗﺘﻤﺤﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺠﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜﻦ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰ )ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪ CPU‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪ f/3.5–4.5E ED N‬ﻣﻢ‪ AF-S Fisheye NIKKOR 15–8‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻘﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ(‪ .‬ﺗﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻟﻠﻬﺪﻑ‪ ،‬ﺣﺘﻰ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺳﻄﻮﻋﹰ ﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺘﺎﻣﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﺗﺨﺼﺺ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻟﻠﺘﻈﻠﻴﻼﺕ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﻪ ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻥ‬
‫‪ t‬ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻼﺕ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻨﺎﻧﻴﻦ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺿﻮﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺮﺡ‪.‬‬
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‫ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ Y‬ﺛﻢ ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪Y‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫‪ A‬ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪CPU‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﻯ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ CPU‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪ CPU‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ )‪ ،(218 0‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻣﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﻭﺗﺤﺴﻴﻦ ﺩﻗﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻌﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ CPU‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ CPU‬ﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻮﻓﻴﺮﻫﺎ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ‬
‫‪) CPU‬ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ AI-P NIKKOR‬ﻭﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻏﻴﺮ ‪ G‬ﺃﻭ ‪ E‬ﺃﻭ ‪D‬؛‬
‫‪.(284 0‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪ < A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫‪) b5‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ‪.(263 0 ،‬‬
‫• ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪ < A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) b7‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.(263 0 ،‬‬
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‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ I‬ﻭﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪I‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺒﺮﻣﺞ )‪ :(128 0‬ﺗﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ‬
‫‪ e‬ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﻪ ﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺴﻊ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻏﺎﻟﻖ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟـﻮﻳــﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ )‪ :(129 0‬ﻳﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫‪ f‬ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪ .‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﺘﺠﻤﻴﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺸﻮﻳﺶ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ )‪ :(130 0‬ﻳﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫‪ g‬ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪ .‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﹰ‬
‫ﻳﺪﻭﻱ )‪ :(131 0‬ﻳﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻼ ﹰ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫‪ h‬ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪) Bulb‬ﻓﺘﺢ( )‪ (A‬ﺃﻭ ‪) Time‬ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ( )‪ (%‬ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
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‫‪ A‬ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ CPU‬ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﺤﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )‪ ،(284 0‬ﺍﻗﻔﻞ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻗﻞ‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻟﻬﺎ )ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ(‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G‬ﻭ ‪ E‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﺤﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪ ،(218 0) CPU‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪) A‬ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ( ﺃﻭ ‪) M‬ﻳﺪﻭﻱ(‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ‪ A‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ .(284 0) CPU‬ﺳﻴﻮﻣﺾ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ )‪ P‬ﺃﻭ ‪ (S‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ A‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﻤﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪.Pv‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺨﺘﺎﺭﻫﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ P‬ﻭ ‪ (S‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﺧﺘﺎﺭﻫﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ )ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A‬ﻭ ‪ ،(M‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﻤﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﻤﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪Pv‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪—e5‬ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻋﻲ‬
‫‪ Creative Lighting System‬ﻣﻦ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ )‪CLS‬؛ ‪ (288 0‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺈﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ Pv‬ﺃﻡ ﻻ‪.‬‬
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‫‪ :P‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺒﺮﻣﺞ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻭﻓﻘﹰ ﺎ ﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‪ ،‬ﺗﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻣﺮﻥ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ ،P‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﻔﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ )"ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻥ"(‪ .‬ﺗﻨﺘﺞ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻟﻴﻔﺎﺕ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻧﺠﻤﺔ )"‪("U‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪ .‬ﻻﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺹ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺨﺘﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﻤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺃﺧﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ "ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ )ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ(" )‪.(34 0‬‬
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‫‪ :S‬ﻏﺎﻟﻖ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺗﺤﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻟﻬﺎ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ "‪ "p‬ﺃﻭ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺗﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ 30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭ‬
‫‪ 1/8000‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ )‪.(136 0‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫‪129‬‬
‫‪ :A‬ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺃﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻟﻬﺎ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ )‪.(136 0‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫‪ A‬ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪(284 0) CPU‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪ CPU‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫)‪ (218 0‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪،CPU‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻗﺮﺏ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪ .‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ‪،‬‬
‫ﺳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺷﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻔﺎﺕ ﻓﻘﻂ )‪ ،F‬ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪ (FA‬ﻭﻳﺠﺐ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪130‬‬
‫‪ :M‬ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ "‪"p‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺗﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ 30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭ ‪ 1/8000‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺡ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ )‪ A‬ﺃﻭ ‪ .(133 0 ،%‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ﻭﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ )‪.(136 0‬‬
‫‪131‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪AF Micro NIKKOR‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺮﺍﺽ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ‪ ،‬ﻳﻠﺰﻡ ﺃﺧﺬ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺒﺎﻥ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺳﺘﺼﺒﺢ ﺑﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﺯﺍﺋﺪ ﺃﻭ ﻧﺎﻗﺺ ﻓﻲ ﻇﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ‬
‫ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) b2‬ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،(262 0 ،‬ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﺋﺪ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﺺ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎ ‪ EV 1/3‬ﺃﻭ ‪ EV 1/2‬ﺃﻭ ‪ .EV 1‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻌﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻮﻣﺾ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪ b2‬ﻣﻀﺒﻮﻁ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 3/1‬ﺧﻄﻮﺓ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻧﺎﻗﺺ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﺯﺍﺋﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻞ‬
‫ﺑﻘﻴﻤﺔ ‪EV 3‬‬
‫ﺑﻘﻴﻤﺔ ‪EV 1/3‬‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻜﺲ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪ < A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) f7‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻋﻜﺴﻴﺔ‪.(269 0 ،‬‬
‫‪132‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﺿﻮﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ M‬ﻓﻘﻂ(‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﺿﻮﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻨﺠﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻟﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ‪) Bulb‬ﻓﺘﺢ( )‪ :(A‬ﻳﻈﻞ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻣﻔﺘﻮ ﹰﺣﺎ ﻃﻮﺍﻝ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻻﺭﺟﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺳﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ )‪.(295 0‬‬
‫• ‪) Time‬ﻭﻗﺖ( )‪ :(%‬ﺍﺑﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻈﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺡ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪) A :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ‪ 35‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪f/25 :‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺟﻬﺰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺭﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺄﺛﺮﺓ ﺑﺪﺧﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ )‪ .(116 0‬ﺗﻨﺼﺢ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻧﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺗﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﻟﺘﺠﻨﺐ ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻓﺘﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ )ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻜﺴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻜﺴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﺎﺏ( ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺣﻔﻆ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺒﺎﺏ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ ‪ NR‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ )‪.(253 0‬‬
‫‪133‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪.M‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ I‬ﺛﻢ ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ‪ M‬ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪I‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ‪Bulb‬‬
‫)ﻓﺘﺢ( )‪ (A‬ﺃﻭ ‪) Time‬ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ( )‪ .(%‬ﻻ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪) Bulb‬ﻓﺘﺢ(‬
‫)‪ (A‬ﺃﻭ ‪) Time‬ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ( )‪.(%‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺘﺢ‪ :‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺳﻠﻚ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻛﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺘﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‪ :‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
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‫‪5‬‬
‫ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺘﺢ‪ :‬ﺍﺭﻓﻊ ﺇﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‪ :‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪135‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ﻭﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻗﻔﻞ‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺒﺮﻣﺞ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﻋﻴﻦ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﺯﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﱢ‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪f1‬‬
‫)ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ﻭ ‪.(268 0‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﻗﻔﻞ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ )ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ S‬ﻭ ‪:(M‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻭﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯ ‪ F‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻭﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﺗﺨﺘﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯ ‪ F‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ A‬ﻭ ‪ :(M‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻭﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯ ‪ F‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺨﺘﻔﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯ ‪ F‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻣﻐﻠﻘﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪< A‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) f3‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ؛ ‪.(268 0‬‬
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‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪(AE‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺑﻘﻌﻴﺔ )‪ (124 0‬ﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‬
‫ﻭﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺳﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﻟﻘﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ )ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ‪ I‬ﻳﻈﻬﺮ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻈﻬﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ‪ AE-L‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺃﻋﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺳﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻁ‪ ،‬ﺃﻋﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺻﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪137‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺑﻘﻌﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻤﺖ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺗﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ )‪.(124 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻬﺎ‪:‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻣﺮﻥ؛ ‪(128 0‬‬
‫‪P‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫‪S‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻟﻘﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪ < A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫‪) c1‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﻟﺰﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .(263 0 ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ(‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻘﻔﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪.‬‬
‫‪138‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻟﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻏﻤﻖ‪ .‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺑﻘﻌﻴﺔ )‪ .(124 0‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻴﻢ‬
‫ﺗﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪) EV –5‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﻧﺎﻗﺺ( ﻭ ‪) EV +5‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺯﺍﺋﺪ( ﺑﺤﺠﻢ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺍﺕ ‪ .EV 1/3‬ﺑﻮﺟﻪ‬
‫ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺎ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﺗﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‬
‫ﻋﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﺒﺔ ﺗﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﻏﻤﻖ‪.‬‬
‫‪EV -1‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫‪EV +1‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ E‬ﺛﻢ ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪E‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫‪139‬‬
‫‪EV ±0‬‬
‫)ﺯﺭ ‪ E‬ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻁ(‬
‫‪EV -0.3‬‬
‫‪EV +2.0‬‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺧﻼﻑ ‪ ،±0.0‬ﺳﻴﻮﻣﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ‪0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻭﺳﻂ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ )ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ (M‬ﻭﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺭﻣﺰ ‪E‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺑﻌﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺤﺮﺭ ﺯﺭ‬
‫‪ .E‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪.E‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ‪ .±0.0‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪M‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ ،M‬ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻓﻘﻂ؛ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻓﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻓﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﻐﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪e3‬‬
‫)ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ (266 0 ،‬ﻟﺤﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫‪140‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪ < A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪b3‬‬
‫)ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺧﻄﻮﺓ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﻓﻼﺵ‪.(262 0 ،‬‬
‫• ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ ،E‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪ < A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫‪) b4‬ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺳﻬﻞ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.(263 0 ،‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ‪D-Lighting‬‬
‫ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ "ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ" )‪.(142 0‬‬
‫‪141‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺃﻭ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫)‪ (ADL‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺑﺴﻴﻄﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻛﻞ ﻟﻘﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺤﻴﺚ "ﻳﺼﺤﺢ" ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺼﻌﺐ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻟﻔﺤﺺ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻭﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻊ ﻛﻞ ﻟﻘﻄﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻠﺘﺠﺮﺑﺔ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ :‬ﺗﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺧﻼﻝ‬
‫ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ )‪ .(143 0‬ﻻﺣﻆ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ i-TTL‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬
‫ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ )‪(qA‬‬
‫)‪ (288 ،189 0‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﺪﻋﻮﻣﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ :‬ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﺒﺮ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ :‬ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﺒﺮ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ :WB‬ﺗﺼﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﺽ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ )‪.(148 0‬‬
‫• ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ :ADL‬ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻋﺒﺮ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ )‪.(152 0‬‬
‫‪142‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﹸﻣﻌﺪﻝ‬
‫ﺑﻤﻘﺪﺍﺭ‪EV 0 :‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﹸﻣﻌﺪﻝ‬
‫ﺑﻤﻘﺪﺍﺭ‪EV -1 :‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﹸﻣﻌﺪﻝ‬
‫ﺑﻤﻘﺪﺍﺭ‪EV +1 :‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ ،BKT‬ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪BKT‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺮ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪M‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ‪ BKT‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪143‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﺰﺍﻳﺪﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ BKT‬ﻭﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻳﺪﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪BKT‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ (1/3) 0.3‬ﻭ ‪ (2/3) 0.7‬ﻭ ‪1‬‬
‫ﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻭ ‪ .EV 3‬ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﻤﻘﺪﺍﺭ ‪ EV (1/3) 0.3‬ﻣﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ )‪(EVs‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪+0.7/+0.3/0‬‬
‫‪-0.3/-0.7/0‬‬
‫‪+0.3/0‬‬
‫‪-0.3/0‬‬
‫‪+0.3/-0.3/0‬‬
‫‪+0.7/+0.3/-0.3/-0.7/0‬‬
‫‪+1.0/+0.7/+0.3/-0.3/-0.7/-1.0/0‬‬
‫‪/-0.3/-0.7/-1.0/-1.3/0‬‬
‫‪+1.3/+1.0/+0.7/+0.3‬‬
‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ EV 2‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻫﻮ ‪ ،5‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ ،1‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.5‬‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫‪144‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﻭﺻﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﹼ‬
‫ﺳﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻟﻘﻄﺔ ﺑﻠﻘﻄﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ‪ .‬ﺗﺘﻢ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺅﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ )‪.(139 0‬‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺨﺘﻔﻲ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻛﻞ ﻟﻘﻄﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪3 :‬؛ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻳﺪﻳﺔ‪0.7 :‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬
‫‪145‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ BKT‬ﻭﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﻋﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺻﻔﺮ )‪ (r‬ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ‪ M‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ .‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺰﺭﻳﻦ )‪ ،(209 0‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﻟﻦ ﺗﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪ < A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) b2‬ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.(262 0 ،‬‬
‫• ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻟﻪ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪ < A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) e7‬ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ‪.(267 0 ،‬‬
‫• ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺆﺩﻳﻪ ﺯﺭ ‪ ،BKT‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪ < A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) f1‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ( <‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪.(268 0) y + BKT‬‬
‫‪146‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ ﻭﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ ﻭﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﺩﺋﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﺆﻗ ﹰﺘﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺌﻨﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻣﺘﻸﺕ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺌﻨﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﺮ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻜﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺒﺮﻣﺞ(‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )ﻏﺎﻟﻖ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ(‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ )ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ(‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻟـ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ < ISO‬ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪ (121 0‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ P‬ﻭ‪ S‬ﻭ‪ ،A‬ﺳﺘﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺘﻨﻮﻳﻊ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ ISO‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﻲ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ؛ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ ،M‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﻭﻻ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺣﺪ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﻲ ﺛﻢ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﻨﻮﻳﻊ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪e6‬‬
‫)ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ (267 0، (M‬ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ‪.‬‬
‫‪147‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻛﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺑﻴﺎﺽ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ ،BKT‬ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪BKT‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺮ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪W‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ WB‬ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ‪ BKT‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪148‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪WB‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ BKT‬ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﺰﺍﻳﺪﻳﺔ ﺗﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ ‪ 5‬ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪BKT‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺍﺕ ‪ 5) 1‬ﻣﻴﺮﺩ( ﺃﻭ ‪ 10) 2‬ﻣﻴﺮﺩ( ﺃﻭ ‪ 15) 3‬ﻣﻴﺮﺩ(‪ .‬ﺗﺮﻓﻊ ﻗﻴﻢ ‪ B‬ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎﺩﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﻕ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺗﺮﻓﻊ ﻗﻴﻢ ‪ A‬ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺗﻤﺎﺛﻞ ﻣﻘﺎﺩﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺒﺮﻱ )‪ .(161 0‬ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﻤﻘﺪﺍﺭ ‪ 1‬ﻣﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪1B‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪1A‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪1B‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1A‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪ 1 A‬ﻭ‪1 B‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪ 1 A‬ﻭ‪1 B‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪ 1 A‬ﻭ‪1 B‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪ 1 A‬ﻭ‪1 B‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪2 B/1 B/0‬‬
‫‪1 A/2 A/0‬‬
‫‪1 B/0‬‬
‫‪1 A/0‬‬
‫‪1 B/1 A/0‬‬
‫‪2 B/1 B/1 A/2 A/0‬‬
‫‪/1 A/2 A/3 A/0‬‬
‫‪3 B/2 B/1 B‬‬
‫‪/1 A/2 A/3 A/4 A/0‬‬
‫‪4 B/3 B/2 B/1 B‬‬
‫‪149‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﻭﺻﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﹼ‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﻛﻞ ﻟﻘﻄﺔ ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻞ‬
‫ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺑﻴﺎﺽ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‪ .‬ﺗﺘﻢ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻢ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺅﻩ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻮﻣﺾ‬
‫‪ n‬ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺘﻠﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻴﻮﻣﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ j‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪150‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ BKT‬ﻭﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﻋﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺻﻔﺮ )‪ (r‬ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ‪ W‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ .‬ﺳﻮﻑ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺰﺭﻳﻦ )‪ ،(209 0‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﻟﻦ ﺗﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻣﻊ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪ .NEF (RAW‬ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫)‪ JPEG + NEF (RAW‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ )ﻣﺤﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺒﺮﻱ‪-‬ﺍﻷﺯﺭﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪ .(161 0 ،‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺤﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ‪-‬ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻮﺍﻧﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ ،‬ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c3‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ( < ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ )‪.(264 0‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺇﻻ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ‪.‬‬
‫‪151‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ADL‬‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﺍﻟﻨﺸﻂ ﻋﺒﺮ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ ،BKT‬ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪BKT‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ADL‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺮ‪ ،‬ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ d‬ﻭﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ ADL‬ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ‪ BKT‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻟﻘﻄﺘﻴﻦ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻭﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻣﺤﺪﺩﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺧﻤﺲ ﻟﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻣﻊ ﺿﺒﻂ ‪D-Lighting‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺸﻄﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻭ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﻭ ﻋﺎﺩﻱ )ﺛﻼﺙ ﻟﻘﻄﺎﺕ(‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻭ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﻭ‬
‫ﻋﺎﺩﻱ ﻭ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ )ﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﻟﻘﻄﺎﺕ(‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻭ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﻭ ﻋﺎﺩﻱ ﻭ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﻭ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﺑﺸﺪﺓ‬
‫)ﺧﻤﺲ ﻟﻘﻄﺎﺕ(‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻘﻄﺘﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺗﺎﺑﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪.3‬‬
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‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ ،BKT‬ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪D-Lighting‬‬
‫ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪BKT‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﺍﻟﻨﺸﻄﺔ ﻣﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ADL‬‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫‪ Y‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪ Z‬ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﺑﺸﺪﺓ‬
‫‪ P‬ﻋﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫‪ Q‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫‪ R‬ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ‬
‫‪153‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﻭﺻﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﹼ‬
‫ﺳﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻟﻘﻄﺔ ﺑﻠﻘﻄﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ‪ .‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺨﺘﻔﻲ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻛﻞ ﻟﻘﻄﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪3 :‬‬
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‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬
‫❚❚ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ BKT‬ﻭﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﻋﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺻﻔﺮ )‪ (r‬ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ‪ d‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ .‬ﺳﻮﻑ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺰﺭﻳﻦ )‪ ،(209 0‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﻟﻦ ﺗﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ADL‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ ﻭﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ ﻭﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﺩﺋﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﺆﻗ ﹰﺘﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺌﻨﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻣﺘﻸﺕ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺌﻨﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﺮ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻜﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
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‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﻳﻀﻤﻦ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﺄﺛﺮ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﻮﺻﻰ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﺽ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻌﺬﺭ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ )ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ *(‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺑﻐﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫‪ v‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺇﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ )ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﺌﺔ؛ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﺤﺖ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ‬
‫ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ‪ .‬ﻷﻓﻀﻞ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫‪(K 8000–3500‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G‬ﺃﻭ ‪ E‬ﺃﻭ ‪ .D‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻓﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻋﺎﺩﻱ )‪(K 8000–3500‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺑﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﺌﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫)‪(K 8000–3500‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )‪.(229 0‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻟﻠﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ‪،‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺿﻮﺀ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪ (K 8000–4500‬ﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺃﻗﺮﺏ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺮﺍﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺮﺩﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ J‬ﺳﺎﻃﻊ )‪(K 3000‬‬
‫‪156‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ )ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ *(‬
‫‪ I‬ﻓﻠﻮﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻣﺼﺎﺑﻴﺢ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺩﻳﻮﻡ )‪(K 2700‬‬
‫ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﺩﺍﻓﺊ )‪(K 3000‬‬
‫ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ )‪(K 3700‬‬
‫ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﺑﺎﺭﺩ )‪(K 4200‬‬
‫ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﻧﻬﺎﺭﻱ )‪(K 5000‬‬
‫ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ )‪(K 6500‬‬
‫ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺯﺋﺒﻖ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ )‪(K 7200‬‬
‫‪ H‬ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ )‪(K 5200‬‬
‫‪N‬‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ )‪(K 5400‬‬
‫‪ G‬ﻏﺎﺋﻢ )‪(K 6000‬‬
‫‪ M‬ﺍﻟﻈﻞ )‪(K 8000‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫‪(K 10000–2500) K‬‬
‫‪ L‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻳﹸﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﻊ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺩﻳﻮﻡ )ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫• ﻣﺼﺎﺑﻴﺢ ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﺩﺍﻓﺊ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻣﺼﺎﺑﻴﺢ ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻣﺼﺎﺑﻴﺢ ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﺑﺎﺭﺩ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻣﺼﺎﺑﻴﺢ ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﻧﻬﺎﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻣﺼﺎﺑﻴﺢ ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ )ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻣﺼﺎﺑﻴﺢ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺋﺒﻖ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﹸﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﺎﺀﺓ ﺑﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺒﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻳﹸﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﹸ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻐﻴﻮﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﹸﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻈﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‬
‫)‪.(163 0‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻛﻤﺮﺟﻊ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫)‪.(165 0‬‬
‫* ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﻻ ﺗﻌﻜﺲ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ )ﺇﻥ ﻭﺟﺪ(‪.‬‬
‫‪157‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ U‬ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪U‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ‪) v‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ( ﺃﻭ ‪) I‬ﻓﻠﻮﺭﻱ(‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﺮﻋﻲ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ U‬ﻭﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪U‬‬
‫‪158‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ )‪ (161 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬
‫)‪ ،(257 ،252 0‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ )‪.(165 0‬‬
‫‪") v A‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ"(‬
‫‪) v‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ( ﻳﻘﺪﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ‪) v0‬ﺇﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ )ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﺌﺔ(( ﻭ ‪v1‬‬
‫)ﻋﺎﺩﻱ( ﻭ ‪) v2‬ﺇﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﺌﺔ(‪ v0 .‬ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ )ﺇﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ )ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﺌﺔ(( ﺇﻟﻰ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺳﺎﻃﻊ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺑﻴﺾ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻳﺤﺘﻔﻆ‬
‫‪) v2‬ﺇﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﺌﺔ( ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﻐﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺎ ﻧﻼﺣﻈﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪") D A‬ﺿﻮﺀ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ"(‬
‫‪) D‬ﺿﻮﺀ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ( ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻨﺎﻋﻲ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪v‬‬
‫)ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ( ﺃﻭ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﻳﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺳﺘﻮﺩﻳﻮ‬
‫‪) v‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ( ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺤﻘﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺳﺘﻮﺩﻳﻮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪) N‬ﻓﻼﺵ( ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺇﻟﻰ "ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ" ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ "ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ" )‪.(142 0‬‬
‫‪159‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺴﻮﺱ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﹸ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻫﻲ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻲ ﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪﻫﺎ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻳﻜﺘﺴﺒﻬﺎ ﺟﺴﻢ ﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺴﺨﻴﻦ ﻹﺷﻌﺎﻉ ﺿﻮﺀ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻷﻃﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﺪ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻗﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ‪ K 5500–5000‬ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺑﻴﻀﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﺪ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺃﻗﻞ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﺼﺎﺑﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻊ‪ ،‬ﺗﻈﻬﺮ‬
‫ﺻﻔﺮﺍﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺣﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺣﺪ ﻣﺎ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﺪ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺯﺭﻗﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ "ﺃﺩﻓﺄ" )ﺃﺷﺪ ﺍﺣﻤﺮﺍﺭﹰﺍ(‬
‫]‪[K‬‬
‫‪10000‬‬
‫‪8000‬‬
‫‪!1‬‬
‫‪q‬‬
‫‪w‬‬
‫‪e‬‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪y‬‬
‫‪u‬‬
‫‪i‬‬
‫‪o‬‬
‫‪!0‬‬
‫‪!1‬‬
‫ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ "ﺃﺑﺮﺩ" )ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺯﺭﻗﺔ(‬
‫‪6000‬‬
‫‪!0‬‬
‫‪tyu i‬‬
‫‪) I‬ﻣﺼﺎﺑﻴﺢ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺩﻳﻮﻡ(‪K 2700 :‬‬
‫‪) J‬ﺳﺎﻃﻊ(‪) I/‬ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﺩﺍﻓﺊ(‪K 3000 :‬‬
‫‪) I‬ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ(‪K 3700 :‬‬
‫‪) I‬ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﺑﺎﺭﺩ(‪K 4200 :‬‬
‫‪) I‬ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﻧﻬﺎﺭﻱ(‪K 5000 :‬‬
‫‪) H‬ﺿﻮﺀ ﺷﻤﺲ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ(‪K 5200 :‬‬
‫‪) N‬ﻓﻼﺵ(‪K 5400 :‬‬
‫‪) G‬ﻏﺎﺋﻢ(‪K 6000 :‬‬
‫‪) I‬ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ(‪K 6500 :‬‬
‫‪) I‬ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺯﺋﺒﻖ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ(‪K 7200 :‬‬
‫‪) M‬ﻇﻞ(‪K 8000 :‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪160‬‬
‫‪o‬‬
‫‪5000‬‬
‫‪4000‬‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫‪3000‬‬
‫‪e‬‬
‫‪w‬‬
‫‪q‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ "ﺿﺒﻂ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ" ﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺧﻼﻑ ‪) K‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ(‪ ،‬ﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﻥ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻹﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﻇﻼﻝ ﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪) 2‬ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻓﺮﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺤﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 2‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ؛ ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ "ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ" ‪.(174 0‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻮﺭ ﻋﻨﺒﺮﻱ )‪-(A‬ﺃﺯﺭﻕ )‪ (B‬ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ‪ 0.5‬ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺃﺧﻀﺮ )‪-(G‬ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻮﺍﻧﻲ )‪ (M‬ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ‪ .0.25‬ﻳﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﻓﻘﻲ )ﻋﻨﺒﺮﻱ‪-‬ﺃﺯﺭﻕ( ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻲ )ﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ‪-‬ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻮﺍﻧﻲ( ﻟﻪ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻬﺔ ﻟﻤﺮﺷﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻧﻲ )‪ (CC‬ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ‬
‫ﺑﻪ‪ .‬ﻳﺴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﻓﻘﻲ ﺑﺰﻳﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺗﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪5‬‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻲ ﺑﺰﻳﺎﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 0.05‬ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﻟﻨﺸﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﺣﺪﺍﺛﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫‪161‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﺤﻔﻆ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﻤﺔ )"‪ ("U‬ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪U‬‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟـ ﻛﻬﺮﻣﺎﻧﻲ–ﺃﺯﺭﻕ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟـ ﺃﺧﻀﺮ‪-‬‬
‫ﺃﺭﺟﻮﺍﻧﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪U‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺤﺎﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪،‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪) B‬ﺍﻷﺯﺭﻕ( ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ "ﺩﺍﻓﺊ" ﻣﺜﻞ ‪) J‬ﺳﺎﻃﻊ( ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺳﻮﻑ‬
‫ﻳﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ "ﺃﺑﺮﺩ" ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﻟﻜﻦ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺠﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﺯﺭﻗﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫‪" A‬ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺩ"‬
‫ﺃﻱ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻛﺒﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺗﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭﻩ ‪ K 1000‬ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﻛﺒﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻋﻨﺪ ‪ K 3000‬ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﺑﻜﺜﻴﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ‪ K 6000‬ﻣﻴﺮﺩ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﺴﺎﺑﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺿﺮﺏ ﻣﻌﻜﻮﺱ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ‪ ،6 10‬ﻫﻲ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺗﺄﺧﺬ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﺎﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺒﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺮﺷﺤﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫• ‪) K 3000–K 4000‬ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺑﻤﻘﺪﺍﺭ ‪ 83=(K 1000‬ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺩ‬
‫• ‪) K 6000–K 7000‬ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭﻩ ‪ 24=(K 1000‬ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺩ‬
‫‪162‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ‪) K‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ( ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻮﺓ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻮﺭﻳﺴﻨﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫‪) N‬ﻓﻼﺵ( ﺃﻭ ‪) I‬ﻓﻠﻮﺭﻱ( ﻟﺘﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‪ .‬ﻣﻊ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻂ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﺠﺮﻳﺒﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﺪﻯ ﻣﻼﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻗﻴﻤﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺒﺮﻱ ﻭﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻮﺍﻧﻲ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ .‬ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﹰ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺣﺪﺩ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺣﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﻟﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺒﺮﻱ‪-‬ﺍﻷﺯﺭﻕ ﻭﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ‪-‬ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻮﺍﻧﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺤﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺒﺮﻱ )‪–(A‬ﺍﻷﺯﺭﻕ )‪ (B‬ﻭﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ )‪–(G‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻮﺍﻧﻲ )‪ (M‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﻟﻤﺤﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺒﺮﻱ )‪–(A‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﺯﺭﻕ )‪(B‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﻟﻤﺤﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ )‪–(G‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻮﺍﻧﻲ )‪(M‬‬
‫‪163‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﺤﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺑﺨﻼﻑ ‪ 0‬ﻟﻤﺤﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ )‪-(G‬ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻮﺍﻧﻲ )‪ ،(M‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ‬
‫ﻧﺠﻤﺔ )"‪ ("U‬ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺯﺭ ‪U‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ‪) K‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ(‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ‪ U‬ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﺨﺼﺺ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﻮﺭ ﻋﻨﺒﺮﻱ )‪–(A‬ﺃﺯﺭﻕ )‪ .(B‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪U‬‬
‫ﺛﻢ ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ )ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺩ؛ ‪ .(162 0‬ﻹﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﻟﻮﻥ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ U‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪U‬‬
‫‪164‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺗﺤﺖ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻄﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺤﻮﺑﺔ ﺑﻈﻼﻝ‬
‫ﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺠﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺳﺖ ﻗﻴﻢ ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻣﻦ ‪ d-1‬ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ .d-6‬ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺘﺎﻥ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻫﺪﻑ ﻣﺤﺎﻳﺪ ﺭﻣﺎﺩﻱ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﻮﻑ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )‪ .(166 0‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ )‪ ،(59 ،37 0‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻣﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ )ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻌﺔ‪.(169 0 ،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ )‪.(172 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﻣﺨﺎﺯﻥ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ )‪.(250 0‬‬
‫‪165‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺳﻠﻂ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺪﻑ ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺿﻊ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺭﻣﺎﺩﻱ ﻣﺤﺎﻳﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﺘﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﺘﻮﺩﻳﻮ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺭﻣﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻛﻬﺪﻑ ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻲ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﺑﻤﻘﺪﺍﺭ ‪ EV 1‬ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ؛ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ ،M‬ﻋﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ‬
‫ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪.(132 0) ±0‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪) L‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ U‬ﺛﻢ ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ‪ L‬ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪U‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ )ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ(‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﻣﻨﻘﺾ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ HDR‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪.‬‬
‫‪166‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ U‬ﺛﻢ ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ )‪ d-1‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ (d-6‬ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪U‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺮﺭ ﺯﺭ ‪ U‬ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻭﺟﻴﺰﺓ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ L‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻣﻴﺾ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﻮﻣﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ D‬ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﻗﺲ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺍﻧﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺴﺒﻖ ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻣﻴﺾ‪ ،‬ﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﻤﻸ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺳﺘﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬
‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻭﺗﺨﺰﻳﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ .3‬ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ؛ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪167‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﺈﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﻮﻣﺾ‪ C ،‬ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺳﻴﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺭﻣﺰ‬
‫‪ a‬ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻣﺾ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻣﻈﻠﻤﺔ ﺟ ﹰﺪﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺟ ﹰﺪﺍ‪،‬‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻌﺬﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﻈﻬﺮ ﺭﻣﺰ ‪ a b‬ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ 5‬ﻭﻗﺲ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻣﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺃﻱ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﻣﻴﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c2‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪.(263 0 ،‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻤﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺤﻤﻴﺎ )‪ ،(174 0‬ﻓﺴﻮﻑ ﻳﻮﻣﺾ ‪ 3‬ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺣﺎﻭﻟﺖ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ؛ ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﺛﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ .J‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﺗﻜﻦ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ ،K 5200‬ﺃﻱ‬
‫ﻧﻔﺲ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
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‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ )ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻌﺔ(‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ )‪ ،(59 ،37 0‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻣﺤﺪﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﻐﻨﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻫﺪﻑ ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﺏ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪.a‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪) L‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ U‬ﺛﻢ ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ‪ L‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪U‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
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‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ U‬ﺛﻢ ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ )‪ d-1‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ (d-6‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪U‬‬
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‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺮﺭ ﺯﺭ ‪ U‬ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻭﺟﻴﺰﺓ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ L‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻣﻴﺾ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻌﺔ )‪ (r‬ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺑﻴﻀﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺭﻣﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﻣﻴﺾ ‪ L‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪ r‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺑﻴﻀﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺭﻣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‪ .‬ﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺣﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺩﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ .X‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ‬
‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﻟﻠﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺯﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺒﻴﻦ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪.6‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫ﻗﺲ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻷﺳﻔﻞ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺡ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻫﻮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c4‬ﺗﺄﺧﺮ ﺍﻧﻄﻔﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ( < ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ )‪.(264 0‬‬
‫ﺳﺘﻈﻬﺮ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﺗﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻭﻛﺮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪.5‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ U‬ﻹﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪ .‬ﻳﹸﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ )ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ(‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ‪ HDR‬ﻗﻴﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ )‪ (182 0‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻻ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺑﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.(45 0) i‬‬
‫‪171‬‬
‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ‬
‫❚❚ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ‪.‬‬
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‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺪﺩ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺣﺪﺩ ﻭﺟﻬﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﻭﺟﻬﺔ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ )‪ d-1‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪(d-6‬‬
‫ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺪﺭ‪ .‬ﻟﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺯﺭ ‪.X‬‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ (M) W‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ )‪.(224 0‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﺴﺦ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ )‪،(273 0‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ‪.‬‬
‫‪173‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﻭﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ‬
‫ﻓﻲ "ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ")‪.(161 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ‬
‫ﻹﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺤﻲ ﻣﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 36‬ﺣﺮﻓﹰﺎ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﺩ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻭﺃﺩﺧﻞ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻘﹰ ﺎ )‪.(273 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﻇﻠﻞ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ .J‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ‬
‫ﻭﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ‪.‬‬
‫‪174‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪Picture Controls‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﺪﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ‪ .‬ﺳﺘﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻟﻸﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻧﻌﻮﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬
‫‪ n‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺜﻞ ﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﺑﺎﻟﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺇﺷﺮﺍﻗﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺯﻧﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﹸﻮﺻﻰ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ‬
‫‪ Q‬ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ‬
‫‪ R‬ﻣﺤﺎﻳﺪ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﺘﺘﻢ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺘﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺤﻬﺎ ﻻﺣﻘﹰ ﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺸﺮﻗﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫‪ S‬ﻣﺸﺮﻕ‬
‫ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺗﺒﺮﺯ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪ T‬ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻳﻌﺎﻟﺞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﺸﺮﺓ ﺗﺘﺴﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ‬
‫‪ o‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻭﻣﻠﻤﺲ ﻧﺎﻋﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ p‬ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻟﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺗﻨﺒﺾ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺎﻇﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻨﺎﻇﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺪﻯ ﻛﺒﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻈﻼﻝ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﺘﺘﻢ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺘﻬﺎ‬
‫‪ q‬ﻭﺍﺿﺢ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺤﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
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‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.(Q/Z) L‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ‪.Picture Control‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪.Picture Control‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪(Q/Z) L‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬
‫‪ Picture Control‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ )‪ .(258 ،252 0‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻲ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺩﻳﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.R‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ Picture Control‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ )‪.(257 ،252 0‬‬
‫‪176‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺎ ﹰ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ )‪ (176 0‬ﻟﻜﻲ ﺗﻼﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺔ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺯﻧﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﻝ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻳﺔ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﺎ ﹰ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪.Picture Control‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪Picture‬‬
‫‪ Control‬ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ (175 0) Picture Control‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﻋ ﹼﺪﻝ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺑﺰﻳﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻗﺪﺭﻫﺎ ‪ ،1‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﺩﺭ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺑﺰﻳﺎﺩﺍﺕ ‪0.25‬‬
‫ﺗﺒﻌﺎ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫)‪178 0‬؛ ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﹰ‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﺮﺭ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺣﺪﺩ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻀﺒﻮﻃﺔ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﹰ ﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ .2‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪.(Q) O‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪Picture‬‬
‫‪ Control‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﺑﻨﺠﻤﺔ‬
‫)"‪ ("U‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪.Picture Control‬‬
‫‪177‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺨﻔﺾ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻀﺨﻴﻢ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ )ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﻌﻴﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻳﺔ(‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ )‪.(176 0‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻭﻓﻘﹰ ﺎ ﻟﻨﻮﻉ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻮﺡ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻭﺩ‪ .‬ﺣﺪﺩ ‪ A‬ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‪ .‬ﺣﺴﺐ‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﺀ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪ A‬ﻟﺘﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﺀ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻧﻘﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻇﻼﻝ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﻴﺌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻫﺎﻻﺕ ﺿﻮﺋﻴﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻛﻨﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﺀ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺒﺎﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺪﺩ ‪ A‬ﻟﻠﺴﻤﺎﺡ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﻔﻀﻪ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻼﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻈﻼﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻄﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻭﻓﻘﹰ ﺎ ﻟﻨﻮﻉ‬
‫ﻳﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺈﺷﺮﺍﻕ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ‪ .‬ﺣﺪﺩ ‪ A‬ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺻﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺻﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺪﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻗﻢ ﺑﻀﺒﻂ ﺗﺪﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻤﺤﺎﻛﺎﺓ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﺮﺷﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ‬
‫)‪.(179 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ )‪.(179 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ "‪ n‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ" ﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪ n‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪Picture‬‬
‫‪ ،Control‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ ‪ A-2‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ .A+2‬ﻻ‬
‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﺃﻱ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪) "A" D‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ(‬
‫ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﻭﺻﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G‬ﺃﻭ ‪ E‬ﺃﻭ ‪ D‬ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪.‬‬
‫‪178‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ X‬ﻟﻠﺘﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫)‪ (A‬ﻟﻠﺘﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﻭﺻﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ‪ j‬ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻤﺮﺟﻊ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ )ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻓﻘﻂ(‬
‫ﺗﺤﺎﻛﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﺮﺷﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ Y‬ﺃﺻﻔﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫‪ O‬ﺑﺮﺗﻘﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺤﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻇﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺗﻘﺎﻟﻲ ﺗﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺻﻔﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﺣﻤﺮ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺗﺒﺎﻳﻨﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺗﻘﺎﻟﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ G‬ﺃﺧﻀﺮ‬
‫ﻳﻨﻌﻢ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ R‬ﺃﺣﻤﺮ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ )ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻓﻘﻂ(‬
‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 3‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺻﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺻﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪) B&W‬ﺃﺳﻮﺩ ﻭﺃﺑﻴﺾ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ‬
‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪.Picture Control‬‬
‫‪179‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻼﺕ‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺎﻓﻆ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﺍﻟﻨﺸﻄﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﻈﻼﻝ‪ ،‬ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺑﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ‪ .‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺃﻭ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ‬
‫ﻣﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻣﺸﻤﺲ‪ .‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ‬
‫)‪.(124 0‬‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‪ Y :‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪ D-Lighting" A‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ" ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ "‪"D-Lighting‬‬
‫ﻳﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ )‪ (278 0‬ﻳﺰﻳﺪ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻈﻼﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D-Lighting D‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ )ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻜﺴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺿﺒﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ( ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ ﻣﻊ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻈﻼﻝ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻳﺔ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﻄﺒﻖ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ ‪ ISO‬ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ )‪.(Hi 0.3–Hi 2‬‬
‫‪180‬‬
‫ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .J‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ Y‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺳﺘﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪D-Lighting‬‬
‫ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫)ﻟﻜﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ ،M‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ Y‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ‪ Q‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ D-Lighting A‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻟـ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﻭﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻄﺒﻖ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ‪) 1080 × 1920‬ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺑﻄﺌﻴﺔ( ﻭ‬
‫‪.2160 × 3840‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻨﻮﻉ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ "ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ"‬
‫)‪.(142 0‬‬
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‫ﻣﺪﻯ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ )‪(HDR‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ )‪ (HDR‬ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻈﻼﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﻤﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﹸﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ‪ HDR‬ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ )‪124 0‬؛ ﻣﻊ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﺰﺓ‬
‫ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ ،CPU‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﺮﺏ ﻣﻦ‬
‫‪ .(EV 2‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ ﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺑﻴﻦ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ )‪،NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ )‪ ،(187 0‬ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ )‪ ،(142 0‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺖ ﻣﻨﻘﻀﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ‪ A‬ﻭ ‪.%‬‬
‫‪+‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ )ﻣﻌﺘﻢ(‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪182‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‬
‫)ﺳﺎﻃﻊ(‬
‫ﺣﺪﺩ ‪) HDR‬ﻣﺪﻯ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ‪) HDR‬ﻣﺪﻯ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ( ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪ HDR‬ﻣﺪﻣﻮﺟﺔ‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ HDR‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫• ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ ،HDR‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪ 0‬ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫)ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ(‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ‪ HDR‬ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺨﺘﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪.HDR‬‬
‫• ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪ HDR‬ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ(‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻜﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪ HDR‬ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ HDR‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ( ﺃﻭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ(‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ y‬ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
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‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ‬
‫ﻟﻘﻄﺘﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .J‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫ﻗﻴﻢ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ ﻟﻸﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻻﺣﻆ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻡ ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺤﻘﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔ؛ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺗﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺗﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﹼﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ‪ .‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .J‬ﺗﻨﺘﺞ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ‬
‫ﺧﻔﻴﻒ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻈﻼﻝ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻳﺔ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ‪.‬‬
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‫‪5‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺻﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﺘﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻀﻴﻦ ﺿﻮﺋﻴﻴﻦ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﻮﻣﺾ "‪ "l y‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻳﻮﻣﺾ ‪ l u‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ؛ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺃﻱ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻛﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪ .‬ﺑﻐﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻛﻞ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ(‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ‪ HDR‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪HDR‬؛ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ(‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﺨﺘﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ y‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ‪HDR‬‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ‪.HDR‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪HDR‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻗﺺ ﺣﻮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻮﺓ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﺤﺮﻛﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻞ‪ .‬ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻇﻼﻝ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﺟﺴﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻀﻴﺌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻫﺎﻻﺕ ﺿﻮﺋﻴﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻛﻨﺔ؛ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ‪.‬‬
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‫‪ A‬ﺯﺭ ‪BKT‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ‪) HDR‬ﻣﺪﻯ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ( ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) f1‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ( < ﺯﺭ ‪y + BKT‬‬
‫)‪ ،(268 0‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ HDR‬ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ‬
‫‪ BKT‬ﻭﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻭﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ BKT‬ﻭﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻭﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻤﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻫﻲ ‪ a‬ﻟـ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‪،‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻟـ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ(‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪ b‬ﻟـ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ(‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻢ‬
‫ﺭﻣﻮﺯ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻫﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪6،‬‬
‫‪ ،7، 8‬ﻭ ‪ 9‬ﻟـ ‪ ،3 EV ،2 EV ،1 EV‬ﻭ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ( ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ HDR‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﺳﺘﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪ HDR‬ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ )ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫)ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ(‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﺨﺎﺯﻥ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ HDR‬ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﺨﺰﻥ )‪ ،(250 0‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ HDR‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺨﺰﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ HDR‬ﻗﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ HDR‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﻣﺨﺰﻥ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺠﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
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‫ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ )‪ (288 0‬ﺑﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﺭﺍﺟﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺛﺎﺋﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺜﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻗﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ )‪.(i 0‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻓﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺭﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻃﻠﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺷﻐﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ؛ ﻭﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ )‪ (c‬ﻓﻲ ﺑﺎﺣﺚ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﺘﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ‪.‬‬
‫‪187‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ )‪ (192 0‬ﻭﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ )‪.(190 0‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪ 5‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻛﻤﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ‪ 250‬ﻓﻮﻟﺖ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﻊ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻋﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺗﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻤﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ .‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﺗﺼﻞ ﺑﻤﻤﺜﻞ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫‪P، A‬‬
‫‪S‬‬
‫‪M‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﻳﻀﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )‪ 1/250‬ﺙ–‪/60‬‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪﻫﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ )‪ 1/250‬ﺙ–‪ 30‬ﺙ(‬
‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪﻫﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ )‪ 1/250‬ﺙ–‪ 30‬ﺙ‪) Bulb ،‬ﻓﺘﺢ(‬
‫‪ 1‬ﺙ( *‬
‫)‪ (A‬ﻭ ‪) Time‬ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ( )‪((%‬‬
‫* ﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻘﻴﻤﺔ ‪ 30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺳﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﻊ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ ﺍﳊﻤﺮﺍﺀ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻮﺻﻞ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺳﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪188‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪i-TTL‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ‪ CLS‬ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ ،TTL‬ﺗﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪:‬‬
‫• ﻓﻼﺵ ﻗﻮﻱ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ‪ i-TTL‬ﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ SLR‬ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﺼﺪﺭ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻭﻣﻀﺎﺕ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺗﻜﺎﺩ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺮﺋﻴﺔ )ﻧﺒﻀﺎﺕ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺃﻭﻟﻴﺔ( ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﻧﺒﻀﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻌﻜﺴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ‪RGB‬‬
‫ﺑﻘﺪﺭﺓ ‪ 180‬ﺃﻟﻒ ﺑﻴﻜﺴﻞ )‪ 180000‬ﺑﻴﻜﺴﻞ( ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻭﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G‬ﺃﻭ ‪ E‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ،D‬ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻀﻤﻴﻦ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺩﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪ CPU‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻮﻓﻴﺮ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ )ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﻯ؛‬
‫‪ .(218 0‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺑﻘﻌﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻞﺀ ‪ i-TTL‬ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ SLR‬ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ‬
‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻲ؛ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﺑﺴﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺒﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﻳﻨﺼﺢ‬
‫ﺑﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﺗﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻞﺀ ‪ i-TTL‬ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺑﻘﻌﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ SLR‬ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫‪189‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻤﺎ ﻣﻮﺣ ﹰﺪﺍ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ )ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ‪ SB-5000‬ﺃﻭ ‪ SB-500‬ﺃﻭ ‪ SB-400‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪ (SB-300‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻭﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ < ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ )ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫‪ ،SB-5000‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﹰ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ(‪ .‬ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫)‪ ،(288 0‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﺗﺤﺖ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻴﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻄﻬﺎ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫• ‪ :TTL‬ﻭﺿﻊ ‪ .i-TTL‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ ‪ SB-500‬ﻭ ‪ SB-400‬ﻭ ‪ ،SB-300‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ‪.(194 0) (M) W‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻭﻓﻘﹰ ﺎ ﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫• ﻓﻼﺵ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ‪ :‬ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ .‬ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺰﺓ "ﻓﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻌﻜﺲ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ؛ ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ" ﻭﺿﻌﻲ "ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ" )‪ (qA‬ﻭ "ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪(A) "TTL‬؛ ﺇﺫ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ "ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ "ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪"TTL‬‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ "CPU‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﻯ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪ CPU‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ )‪ .(218 0‬ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻟﻼﻃﻼﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ﻷﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ؛ ﻭﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﹰ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫‪190‬‬
‫• ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺘﻜﺮﺭ‪ :‬ﻳﻮﻣﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺘﻜﺮﺭ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ )ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ( ﻭﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻟﻤﺮﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺇﻃﻼﻗﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ )ﺍﻷﻭﻗﺎﺕ( ﻭﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺇﻃﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺩﺩ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻪ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻬﺮﺗﺰ(‪ .‬ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻟـ ﺍﻷﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﻟـ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺩﺩ؛ ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﺎﺋﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺣﺪ‬
‫ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺣﺪ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺣﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺗﻨﻌﻜﺲ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻢ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺅﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻼ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺅﻫﺎ‬
‫ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ Camera Control Pro 2‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪191‬‬
‫ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻳﻮﺻﻰ ﺑﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻒ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺒﺮﻣﺞ ﻭﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪1/250‬‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻭ ‪ 1/60‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ )‪ 1/8000‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 1/60‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ‪ FP‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ؛‬
‫‪.(266 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻣﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺧﺘﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﻟﺨﻔﺾ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ "ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ" ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﻥ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ .‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻮﺻﻰ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﺳﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﺤﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ‬
‫ﻳﺠﻤﻊ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﻴﺌﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻠﺘﻘﻂ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﻣﺸﻬﺪ ﻟﻴﻠﻲ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺒﺮﻣﺞ ﻭﻭﺿﻊ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻞ ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﻫﺰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺩﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻣﻊ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ 30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺒﺮﻣﺞ ﻭﻭﺿﻊ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‪-‬‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻞ ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻨﻄﻠﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﻪ ﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﺴﺎﺭ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺧﻠﻒ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺒﺮﻣﺞ ﻭﻓﺘﺤﺔ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺳﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺳﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻞ ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ‬
‫ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﻫﺰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻄﻔﺄ‬
‫‪192‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻻ ﻳﻀﻲﺀ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪W‬‬
‫)‪ (M‬ﺛﻢ ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪:‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪(M) W‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ ‪ 1‬ﻭ ‪2‬‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ ‪1‬‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻣﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ ‪3‬‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺳﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ ‪4‬‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻄﻔﺄ‬
‫ﻳﻮﻣﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ Y‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻻ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ P‬ﻭ ‪.A‬‬
‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ S‬ﻭ ‪ ،M‬ﻳﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ P‬ﻭ ‪ .A‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ S‬ﻭ ‪ ،M‬ﻳﺘﺤﻮﻝ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻣﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ P‬ﻭ ‪ ،A‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺳﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺯﺭ ‪.(M) W‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺳﺘﻮﺩﻳﻮ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺳﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺳﺘﻮﺩﻳﻮ‪ ،‬ﻧﻈﺮﹰﺍ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻻ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪193‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﻘﻴﻢ ﻣﻦ ‪ EV -3‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ EV +1‬ﺑﺄﺣﺠﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ‪ ،EV 1/3‬ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻟﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺳﻄﻮﻋﹰ ﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻠﻪ ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺑﻘﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﻧﻌﻜﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺑﻮﺟﻪ ﻋﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﺒﺔ ﻟﺠﻌﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺳﻄﻮﻋﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﺗﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻗﺘﺎﻣﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ (M) W‬ﻭﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪ (M) W‬ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫‪EV ±0‬‬
‫)ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(W/M‬‬
‫‪EV -0.3‬‬
‫‪EV +1.0‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺧﻼﻑ ‪ ،±0.0‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ Y‬ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺯﺭ ‪ .(M) W‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪.(M) W‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬
‫‪ .±0.0‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪194‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪ < A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) b3‬ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺧﻄﻮﺓ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﻓﻼﺵ‪.(262 0 ،‬‬
‫• ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪ < A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) e3‬ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.(266 0 ،‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ "ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ"‬
‫)‪.(142 0‬‬
‫‪195‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪FV‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﻟﻘﻔﻞ ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺈﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻭﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﻣﻼﺀﻣﺔ ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻬﺪﻑ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻱ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ FV‬ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ‪ CLS‬ﻓﻘﻂ )‪.(288 0‬‬
‫ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪:FV‬‬
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‫‪1‬‬
‫ﻋﻴﻦ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ FV‬ﻷﺣﺪ ﻣﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ FV‬ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) f1‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‪.(268 0 ،‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ‪.CLS‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ‪ (288 0) CLS‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺐ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻭﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ TTL‬ﺃﻭ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ‪ ،qA‬ﺃﻭ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ‪ .A‬ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻨﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻘﺔ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻟﻼﻃﻼﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺛﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﺍﻗﻔﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ )‪ (M‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ‬
‫‪ .1‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﹸﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻧﺒﻀﺔ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺃﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺐ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻭﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺭﻣﺰ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ (e) FV‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫ﺃﻋﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪.FV‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫ﺣﺮﺭ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪.FV‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ 1‬ﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ .FV‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺮﻭﺿﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺭﻣﺰ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ (e) FV‬ﻟﻢ ﻳﻌﺪ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫‪197‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻟﻠﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺣﺪ )‪ SB-5000‬ﻭ‪ SB-500‬ﻭ‪ SB-400‬ﻭ‪ (SB-300‬ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺒﺘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ R‬ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ )‪ .(203 0‬ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﻭﻓﻘﹰ ﺎ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ‪TTL‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪123‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪198‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪187 ..........................‬‬
‫ﺭﻣﺰ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺗﺪﺓ )ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻣﺎﻟﺔ ﺭﺃﺱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻷﻋﻠﻰ(‬
‫ﺇﻧﺬﺍﺭ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫)ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ‬
‫ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺎ(‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪190 ..............................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ‪266 ...................................................FP‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ )‪194 ،190....................(TTL‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪192 .............................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪201 ..............................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪196 .................FV‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪194 ........................................‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪190 ..............................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ‪266 ...................................................FP‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ )ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ(‪194 ،190...‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ﻷﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺘﻜﺮﺭ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪190 ..............................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ‪266 ...................................................FP‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ )ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ(‬
‫‪194 ،190.........................................................‬‬
‫‪ 3‬ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‪190 ...................................................‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪190 ..............................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ‪266 ...................................................FP‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪190 .......................................‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪190 ..............................‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ )ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ( ‪190 .........................‬‬
‫‪ 3‬ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻧﺒﻌﺎﺙ )ﺍﻷﻭﻗﺎﺕ(‪190 ...................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺩﺩ‪190 ..........................................................‬‬
‫‪199‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻭﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺗﺒﻴﻦ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻭ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪.ISO‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪i‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ .‬ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺐ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻭﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫‪200‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ‬
‫ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺒﺘﺔ ﺑﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻛﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫‪ FP‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪(266 0‬‬
‫‪i-TTL‬‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ )‪(qA‬‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪(A) TTL‬‬
‫ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ )‪(GN‬‬
‫ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺘﻜﺮﺭ‬
‫—‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫‪201‬‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ )‪ (i 0‬ﻳﻘﺪﻡ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺒﻌﺜﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﹸﻣﺮﻛﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻲ‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻲ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺒﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻲ‬
‫ﻭﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻔﺲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺑـ ‪ WR-R10‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ‪ .WR-A10‬ﺭﺍﺟﻊ "ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻋﻲ ‪ Creative Lighting System‬ﻣﻦ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫)‪ "(CLS‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺰﺍﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ )‪.(288 0‬‬
‫‪202‬‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪R‬‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ R‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻭﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻭﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫‪17‬‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮﺗﻮﺙ ‪10 275............................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺮﺍﻥ ‪11 275............................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ‪275.................................Wi-Fi‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ‪276...............................Eye-Fi‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ‪12 222.................‬‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ‪253.....................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ‪14 253.......‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ‪15 253...........................‬‬
‫ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ‪16 265.........‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪17 264................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ‪255.................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﻀﻲ‪259..........................‬‬
‫& ﻣﺆﺷﺮ "ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻀﺒﻮﻃﺔ"‬
‫‪271 ،206 ........................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ "ﺍﻟﺼﻔﻴﺮ"‪274......................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪30 ..............................‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪276..................MB-D18‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪299........................MB-D18‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ‪156.............................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪Picture‬‬
‫‪175....................................................Control‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ‪253...........................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺨﺰﻥ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ‪250.....................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪83 ..............................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‪180......................‬‬
‫‪203‬‬
‫‪21 22‬‬
‫‪23‬‬
‫‪24‬‬
‫‪25‬‬
‫‪26‬‬
‫‪18 19 20‬‬
‫‪27‬‬
‫‪28‬‬
‫‪29‬‬
‫‪30‬‬
‫‪31‬‬
‫‪ 18‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ 29 266.............................‬ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪148 ،143 ......................................‬‬
‫‪ 19‬ﺭﻣﺰ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪136............................‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪152................................ADL‬‬
‫‪ 20‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪131 ،129 ..................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ‪HDR‬‬
‫‪ 21‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪130...............................‬‬
‫‪182..................................................................‬‬
‫‪ 22‬ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ(‪131 ،130 ...................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ‪) HDR‬ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ( ‪182............................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻔﺎﺕ(‪130............................‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ )ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫‪ 23‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪132.........................‬‬
‫ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ( ‪254.........................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ )ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪139....................................................‬‬
‫‪254..................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪:‬‬
‫‪ 30‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪143...................................................‬‬
‫‪143...........................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪148.................................WB‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪148.....................................WB‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪152............................... ADL‬‬
‫‪ 24‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪273..........................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺗﻔﻊ ‪HDR‬‬
‫‪182..................................................................‬‬
‫‪ 25‬ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‪273..........................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ‪254..................‬‬
‫‪ 26‬ﺭﻣﺰ ‪208......................................................... i‬‬
‫‪ 27‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻥ‪ 31 128..............................‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪113.............................................‬‬
‫‪ 28‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪126...........................‬‬
‫‪204‬‬
‫‪36‬‬
‫‪32‬‬
‫‪33‬‬
‫‪34‬‬
‫‪35‬‬
‫‪37‬‬
‫‪38‬‬
‫‪39‬‬
‫‪40‬‬
‫‪32‬‬
‫‪33‬‬
‫‪34‬‬
‫‪35‬‬
‫‪36‬‬
‫‪37‬‬
‫‪38‬‬
‫‪44 43 42 41‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪39 139..........‬‬
‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪139...........‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪194............................‬‬
‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪40 194..............................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪196.................FV‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‪124........................................................‬‬
‫ﺭﻣﺰ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪136......................................‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪41 119......................................... ISO‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪119..............................ISO‬‬
‫‪42‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪121.................‬‬
‫"‪) "k‬ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺘﺴﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ‬
‫‪43‬‬
‫‪ 1000‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ( ‪31 ...............................‬‬
‫‪44‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ‬
‫‪362 ،31 ...........................................................‬‬
‫ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﹰﺎ‪218...................................‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪88 ...............................................‬‬
‫ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ‪93 ............................‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪91 ..............................................‬‬
‫ﺭﻣﺰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪93 ،16 ..................................XQD‬‬
‫ﺭﻣﺰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪93 ،16 ..................................... SD‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪98 .............................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪103 ،100 ........................................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪190...............................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪192.............................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‪ :‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻟﻸﻏﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺤﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪205‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻹﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ R‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺃﻱ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ‪10‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻃﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺛﻮﺍﻥ‪ .‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺇﻃﻔﺎﺋﻬﺎ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫‪ < A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c4‬ﺗﺄﺧﺮ ﺍﻧﻄﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.(264 0 ،‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮ &‬
‫ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻞ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺷﺤﻨﻪ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﻳﻮﻣﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﺗﻜﻔﻲ ﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﺷﻬﺮ‬
‫ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﻣﺰ & ﻳﻮﻣﺾ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺗﻤﺖ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺠﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻱ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﻴﻦ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ <‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ )‪.(271 0‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻂ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪ < B‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ )‪.(272 0‬‬
‫‪206‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺑﻮﺍﺻﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪:‬‬
‫• ‪(91 ،88 0) T‬‬
‫• ‪156 0) U‬؛ ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺻﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ(‬
‫• ‪(126 0) I‬‬
‫• ‪(124 0) Y‬‬
‫• ‪(139 0) E‬‬
‫• ‪(119 0) S‬‬
‫• ‪(194 ،192 0) W/M‬‬
‫• ‪(142 0) BKT‬‬
‫• ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪(100 ،98 0‬‬
‫• ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﻷﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﺍﺭ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) f1‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‪ (268 0 ،‬ﺃﻭ ‪) f10‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﺍﺭ ‪ (270 0 ،MB-D18‬ﺑﺸﺮﻁ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ U‬ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻭﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻓﺮﻋﻲ ‪) v‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ( ﺃﻭ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪) I‬ﻓﻠﻮﺭﻱ(‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫)ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪" ،K‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ"(‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ )ﻭﺿﻊ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ(‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﻏﻴﺮ ‪") K‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ"( ﻭﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﻣﺎﻧﻲ )‪-(A‬ﺍﻷﺯﺭﻕ )‪ (B‬ﻭﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ )‪-(G‬ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻮﺍﻧﻲ‬
‫)‪.(M‬‬
‫‪207‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪i‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﻷﺳﻔﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ i‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻟﻤﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﻘﻞ ﻋﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻭﺯﺭ ‪ ،J‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻭ‪ J‬ﻟﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻣﺨﺰﻥ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻣﺨﺰﻥ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ ‪NR‬‬
‫‪ ISO NR‬ﻋﺎﻝ‬
‫‪208‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪250‬‬
‫‪260‬‬
‫‪268‬‬
‫‪180‬‬
‫‪86‬‬
‫‪253‬‬
‫‪253‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪i‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺰﺭﻳﻦ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﺍﺭ ‪ T‬ﻭ ‪E‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎ ﹰ ﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺘﻴﻦ )ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﺍﺭ ﻣﻤﻴﺰﺓ‬
‫ﺑﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺧﻀﺮﺍﺀ(‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻭﺟﻴﺰﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪T‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪E‬‬
‫‪209‬‬
‫❚❚‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻣﺨﺎﺯﻥ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺘﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪JPEG/TIFF‬‬
‫)‪NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪2 Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ < ﺇﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫)ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﺌﺔ(‬
‫‪A-B: 0، G-M: 0‬‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻌﺪﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ‪3‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ‪4‬‬
‫‪) HDR‬ﻣﺪﻯ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ(‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻣﺖ‬
‫‪ 1‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺰﻥ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺨﺰﻥ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ )‪ .(250 0‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 3‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﻛﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺣﻔﻆ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 4‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬ﻝ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪(M‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ‬
‫‪210‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫ﻧﻔﺲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫❚❚ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬
‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺒﺮﻣﺞ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫‪AF-S‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ‪1‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻣﺮﻥ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻋﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻻ ﺷﻲﺀ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺑﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺁﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﺰﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻼﺕ‬
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‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺳﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺱ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ‪2‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻣﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪FV‬‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ‪3‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫‪ 1‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺻﻔﺮ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪1EV‬‬
‫)ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ( ﺃﻭ ‪) 1‬ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ(‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪ Y‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ ADL‬ﺛﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 3‬ﺳﺘﺘﻢ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺰﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻣﺨﺰﻥ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ )‪ .(260 0‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
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‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻋﺒﺮ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺮ‪ ،‬ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺰﺓ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻧﺴﺨﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻻﺣﻖ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻨﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﻛﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻭﺩﻣﺠﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﺮﻣﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﻟﺘﻜﺪﻳﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﹸ‬
‫ﻃﺮﻑ ﺛﺎﻟﺚ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ AF-S‬ﺃﻭ ‪ .AF-P‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺋﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺯﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ AF‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺧﻼﻑ ‪ .E‬ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪ ،‬ﻧﺤﻦ ﻧﻨﺼﺤﻚ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ A‬ﺃﻭ ‪ M‬ﺣﺘﻰ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺈﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺘﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺤﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺣﺘﻰ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺟﺎﺭﹴ‪ .‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻂ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﺑﺔ ﻭﻗﻢ ﺑﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﺑﻤﺠﺮﺩ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ‬
‫ﺗﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺗﻚ‪ ،‬ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ‬
‫ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻞ ﻭﺑﺈﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ .‬ﺭﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻞ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﻘﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻚ‪ ،‬ﺍﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺗﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﻭﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ )ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻞ(‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ‬
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‫ﺣﺪﺩ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪:‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ )ﺣﺪ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ‪(300‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﻧﻨﺼﺤﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻌﺘﻘﺪ ﺃﻧﻚ ﺗﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺘﺼﻔﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻜﺪﻳﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻌﻴﻦ ﺃﺧﺬ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ‬
‫‪ 100‬ﻟﻘﻄﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﺼﻮﺭ ﺣﺸﺮﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺬ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﺸﻬﺪ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻒ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﺑﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﺳﻌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻊ ﻛﻞ ﻟﻘﻄﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺧﻄﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺧﻄﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪ 2‬ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺗﻪ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻠﺒﺪﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﹸﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺘﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻻ ﺗﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻦ ‪5‬؛ ﻷﻥ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺧﻄﺮ ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻜﺪﻳﺲ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﺟﺮﺏ ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
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‫• ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪:‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺍﻧﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺣﺪﺩ ‪ 00‬ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺑﻤﻌﺪﻝ ‪ 5‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪/‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ )ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ‪ S‬ﻭ‪ CL‬ﻭ‪ CH‬ﻭ‪(MUP‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪/‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ )ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ‪ Q‬ﻭ‪ .(QC‬ﻳﻮﺻﻰ ﺑﺎﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ‪ 00‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻼ ﻓﻼﺵ؛‬
‫ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻃﻮﻝ ﻓﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺎ ﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫• ﻟﺘﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺻﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻨﻪ‪::‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺻﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻏﻴﺮ ‪) M‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺻﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﺴﺮﻱ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺘﻪ ﺇﻻ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ M‬ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ(‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﻳﻠﺰﻡ ﺗﻘﺼﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻳﻮﺻﻰ ﺑﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﻟﻦ ﺗﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺷﺎﺑﻪ ﺗﺤﺖ ﻇﻞ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
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‫• ﻟﺘﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺻﺎﻣﺖ‪:‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺻﺎﻣﺖ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺣﺪﺩ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻟﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺻﺎﻣ ﹰﺘﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺣﺪﺩ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ‪:‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺑﺪﺀ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻼﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻠﺒﺪﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺪﺩ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻗﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﺮﻗﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 0001‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ‬
‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ‬
‫ﻧﻈﺮﹰﺍ ﻷﻥ ﻋﻤﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﻘﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻃﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻴﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ ﻧﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺧﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺃﺻﻐﺮ ﻭﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻗﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
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‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺑﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺑﺪﺀ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ .J‬ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ‬
‫ﺛﻮﺍﻥ‪ .‬ﺗﻠﺘﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ‬
‫‪ 3‬ﹴ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﺑﺪ ﹰﺀﺍ ﺑﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻼﻧﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﺑﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺧﻄﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻣﻊ ﻛﻞ ﻟﻘﻄﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻭﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻼﻧﻬﺎﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻹﻧﻬﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﺧﺬ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﺩ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ J‬ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻮﻣﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ Q‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪ .‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c2‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪،‬‬
‫‪ ،(263 0‬ﻟﻦ ﻳﻨﻘﻀﻲ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ‪ .‬ﺳﺘﻐﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻛﻞ ﻟﻘﻄﺔ ﺑﻤﺪﺓ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ‬
‫ﺛﻮﺍﻥ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﹰ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫ﹴ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
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‫‪ D‬ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺎ ﺃﻃﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﻓﻼﺷﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺧﺘﺮ ﻓﺎﺻﻼ ﹰ ﹰ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﻗﺼﻴﺮﹰﺍ ﺟ ﹰﺪﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﻘﺪﺭ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺇﻻ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ‪ AF-S‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪ AF-P‬ﻣﺮﻛﺒﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻀﺒﻮﻃﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺪﺭﺟﺔ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺟﻤﻌﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ )‪ (0 37‬ﻭﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ )‪ (0 59‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﻀﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ‬
‫)‪ (0 116‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ )ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﻔﺘﺢ ﺃﻭ ﻭﻗﺖ؛ ‪ (0 133‬ﻭ‪HDR‬‬
‫)ﻣﺪﻯ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ( ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ‬
‫ﺃﻧﻪ ﻧﻈﺮﹰﺍ ﻷﻥ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻡ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻘﻄﺔ ﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﹰ ﺎ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻌﺬﺭ‬
‫ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ )ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻣﻀﺒﻮﻃﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ A‬ﺃﻭ ‪،(%‬‬
‫ﻓﺴﻮﻑ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺗﺤﺬﻳﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺻﺎﻣﺖ‬
‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺻﺎﻣﺖ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪،‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ ‪ ISO‬ﻟـ ‪ Hi 0.3‬ﺣﺘﻰ ‪(119 0) Hi 2‬‬
‫• ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ )‪(187 0‬‬
‫• ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ )‪(264 0‬‬
‫• ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ )‪(258 0‬‬
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‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪CPU‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ CPU‬ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫‪ A‬ﻭ ‪ ،M‬ﻣﻊ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ .‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ )ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻗﺼﻮﻯ(‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﻭﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ CPU‬ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ‪:‬‬
‫• ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ ﺍﻵﻟﻲ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫• ﻳﺘﻢ ﺳﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ )ﻣﻊ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﻧﺠﻤﺔ( ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ‪:‬‬
‫• ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫• ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪) qA‬ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ(‬
‫• ﻳﺘﻢ ﺳﺮﺩ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )ﻣﻊ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﻧﺠﻤﺔ( ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺑﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺣﺪ ﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪:‬‬
‫• ﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻣﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ )ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺑﻘﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪(Reflex-NIKKOR‬‬
‫• ﻳﺤﺴﻦ ﺩﻗﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻞﺀ ‪ i-TTL‬ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ‪ SLR‬ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬
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‫ﻹﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪:CPU‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪.CPU‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪CPU‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪.2‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺭﻗﻢ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺭﻗﻢ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺭﻗﻢ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻠﻠﻴﻤﺘﺮ( ﺃﻭ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻗﺼﻮﻯ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺮﻭﺝ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ .J‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪219‬‬
‫ﻻﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪:CPU‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﻋﻴﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺭﻗﻢ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ CPU‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﺯﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﱢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺭﻗﻢ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪ CPU‬ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪f1‬‬
‫)ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‪.(268 0 ،‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻭﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻗﺼﻮﻯ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺭﻗﻢ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫‪ A‬ﻃﻮﻝ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﻗﺮﺏ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻠﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ ﺑﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ .CPU‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻃﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻛﺄﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻟﺘﻌﻜﺲ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪220‬‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ‪) GPS GP-1A/GP-1‬ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻞ( ﺑﻄﺮﻑ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻭ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﺩﺑﺎﺑﻴﺲ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )‪ (295 0‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻖ ﻣﻊ ‪،GP-1A/GP-1‬‬
‫ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﺗﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )‪ .(229 0‬ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﺒﻞ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ‪GP-1A/GP-1‬؛ ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ‪.GP-1A/GP-1‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻣﻮﺿﻊ‪ :‬ﺧﻂ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﺧﻂ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺴﻖ )‪ (UTC‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ‪ GPS‬ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ < ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻊ ‪ GPS‬ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﻣﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺃﻱ‬
‫ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪ .‬ﺗﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺻﻼﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c2‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﻭ ‪،(263 0‬‬
‫ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﻠﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺴﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ‪ GP-1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ،GP-1A‬ﺳﺘﻈﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ؛ ﻭﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻛﻲ ﺗﺤﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻤﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺧﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﻀﻤﻦ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻧﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ‪ GPS‬ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ < ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫ﻧﻌﻢ ﻟﻤﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺒﻴﻨﻪ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ‪.GPS‬‬
‫‪221‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺭﻣﺰ ‪o‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺭﻣﺰ ‪:o‬‬
‫• ‪) o‬ﺛﺎﺑﺖ(‪ :‬ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ ﻣﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ‪) o‬ﻭﻣﻴﺾ(‪ :‬ﺗﺒﺤﺚ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ‪ GP-1A/GP-1‬ﻋﻦ ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﻣﻴﺾ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﻻ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺭﻣﺰ‪ :‬ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻼﻡ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫‪ GP-1A/GP-1‬ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺘﻴﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ o‬ﻻ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻨﺰﻳﻞ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺫﻛﻲ ﻭﺇﺩﺭﺍﺟﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﻣﻴﺰﺓ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ‪ SnapBridge‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻌﻢ ﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ < ﺗﻨﺰﻳﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺫﻛﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )‪.(274 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺴﻖ )‪(UTC‬‬
‫ﻳﻮﻓﺮ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ‪ GPS‬ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺴﻖ )‪ (UTC‬ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪222‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫‪W‬‬
‫‪W‬‬
‫‪W‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ .K‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺃﺣﺪﺙ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺤﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﻳﻤﻴﻨﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻳﺴﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪2‬؛ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪.(229 0) 3‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪K‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺻﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ (M) W‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‪ .‬ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﻣﻦ ‪ 4‬ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫‪ 9‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 72‬ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ ،(M) W‬ﻭﻳﻘﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﻛﻞ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ .X‬ﻣﺮﺭ ﺇﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻭ ﻷﺳﻔﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪(M) W‬‬
‫‪223‬‬
‫ﻣﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪ :(Q) O‬ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫‪5 245..................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :G‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪6 248...............................‬‬
‫‪ :(Q/Z) L‬ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪240....................................................‬‬
‫‪ :X‬ﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ‪238...................................................‬‬
‫‪ :(M) W‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ‪223..................‬‬
‫‪ :J‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﻊ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻛﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ‪ J‬ﻣﻊ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬
‫‪+J‬‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‪/‬ﻣﺠﻠﺪ‪ .‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﻇﻠﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫‪+J‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ )‪.(278 0‬‬
‫‪+J‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻳﺜﺮﻧﺖ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ‪ WT-7‬ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )‪.(295 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺘﻲ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺘﻲ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪(M) W‬‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ‪ 72‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪224‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻃﻮﻟﻴﺎ‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ "ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻟﻴﺔ" )ﺍﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﻋﻤﻮﺩﻱ(‬
‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻃﻮﻟﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻃﻮﻟﻴﺎ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )‪.(249 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )‪ ،(249 0‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )ﻧﻈﺮﹰﺍ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻻ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ(‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﻤﺠﺮﺩ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺑﻌﺮﺽ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻈﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻗﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺃﻱ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‬
‫‪ < A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c4‬ﺗﺄﺧﺮ ﺍﻧﻄﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.(264 0 ،‬‬
‫• ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪< A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) f2‬ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪.(268 0 ،‬‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻟﺘﺼﻔﺢ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪ < A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) f4‬ﺗﺨﺼﻴﺺ‬
‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ( < ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )‪.(269 0‬‬
‫‪225‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺲ ﻭﺍﺳﺤﺐ ﻟﻠﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﻟﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻠﻲ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﻣﺮﺭ‬
‫ﺇﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻟﻠﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻠﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ )ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻓﻘﻂ(‬
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‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺇﻳﻤﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺪﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﺹ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ ﻭﺗﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ‬
‫)‪ .(238 0‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﹰ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻧﻘﺮﹰﺍ ﻣﺰﺩﻭ ﹰﺟﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫ﺳﺮﻳﻊ ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀ "ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ" ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ )‪ ،(223 0‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺇﻳﻤﺎﺀﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺹ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ ﺇﻳﻤﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺹ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻤﺪﺩ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ 4‬ﻭ ‪ 9‬ﻭ ‪72‬‬
‫ﺇﻃﺎﺭﹰﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ )ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫ﺑﺮﻣﺰ ‪ .(1‬ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻟﻺﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻣﺆﻗ ﹰﺘﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺌﻨﺎﻑ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ‬
‫‪ Z‬ﻹﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ )ﻻﺣﻆ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺠﻴﺐ ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ‬
‫‪227‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪i‬‬
‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ i‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺮﺩﺓ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﺃﻭ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻭﺯﺭ ‪.J‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ‪ :‬ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ )‪.(241 0‬‬
‫• ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻟﻺﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺫﻛﻲ‪/‬ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ )ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪i‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ(‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻟﺘﺤﻤﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺫﻛﻲ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ )ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ(‪ :‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ )‪(278 0‬‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ )ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﻓﻘﻂ(‪ :‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻗﺘﻄﺎﻉ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ )ﺃﻓﻼﻡ ﻓﻘﻂ(‪ :‬ﺗﻬﺬﻳﺐ ﻣﻘﻄﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺮﻏﻮﺏ )‪ .(78 0‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ i‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺽ ﻣﺆﻗ ﹰﺘﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫• ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻭﻣﺠﻠﺪ‪ :‬ﺍﻓﺘﺢ ﻣﺠﻠ ﹰﺪﺍ ﻟﻌﺮﺿﻪ‪ .‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 2‬ﻟﺴﺮﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﻇﻠﻞ ﻣﺠﻠ ﹰﺪﺍ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ J‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ i‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﻌﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ i‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
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‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻘﻞ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ "ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ" ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﻣﺨﻄﻂ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻲ ‪ RGB‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻼﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻟـ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫)‪ .(248 0‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻀﻤﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪.(221 0‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‬
‫ﻻ ﺷﻲﺀ )ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ(‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻼﺕ‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ‬
‫ﻣﺨﻄﻂ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻲ ‪RGB‬‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫‪229‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪12 3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪9 8‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ‪240...........................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ ‪278.........................................‬‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻤﻴﻞ‪243........................................‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ * ‪105 ،94 ......................‬‬
‫ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻹﺟﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﻺﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺃﻗﻮﺍﺱ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ * ‪9 .....................................................‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪88 ...............................................‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪91 ..............................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪83 ..........................................‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪271 ,21..................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪271 ,21.................................‬‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪93 ،35 ...........‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ ‪241..................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ‪250............................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‪250..............................................‬‬
‫* ﺗﹸﻌﺮﺽ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺇﺫﺍ ﰎ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )‪ (248 0‬ﻭﰎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﶈﺪﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﲔ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪230‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻼﺕ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ *‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ *‬
‫ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ—ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫* ﺗﺸﻴﺮ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻣﻀﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻊ ﺍﳌﻀﻴﺌﺔ )ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﻔﺮﻁ( ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻨﺎﺓ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ (M) W‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻼﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻋﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪(M) W‬‬
‫‪RGB‬‬
‫)ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻨﻮﺍﺕ(‬
‫‪R‬‬
‫)ﺃﺣﻤﺮ(‬
‫‪G‬‬
‫)ﺃﺧﻀﺮ(‬
‫‪B‬‬
‫)ﺃﺯﺭﻕ(‬
‫‪231‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻣﺨﻄﻂ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻲ ‪RGB‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ *‬
‫ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ—ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ‪156.............................................‬‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪163...............................‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫‪7 161...........................................................‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ‪8 165...........................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ *‬
‫ﻣﺨﻄﻂ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻲ )ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ‪ .(RGB‬ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺒﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﻓﻘﻲ‬
‫ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻜﺴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺒﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻜﺴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺨﻄﻂ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻲ )ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﻤﺮ(‬
‫ﻣﺨﻄﻂ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻲ )ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ(‬
‫ﻣﺨﻄﻂ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻲ )ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﻕ(‬
‫* ﺗﺸﻴﺮ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻣﻀﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻊ ﺍﳌﻀﻴﺌﺔ )ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﻔﺮﻁ( ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻨﺎﺓ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ (M) W‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻼﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻋﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪(M) W‬‬
‫‪RGB‬‬
‫)ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻨﻮﺍﺕ(‬
‫‪R‬‬
‫)ﺃﺣﻤﺮ(‬
‫‪G‬‬
‫)ﺃﺧﻀﺮ(‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﻴﺌﺔ‬
‫‪232‬‬
‫‪B‬‬
‫)ﺃﺯﺭﻕ(‬
‫‪ A‬ﺯﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺨﻄﻂ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .X‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ‪ X‬ﻭ ‪ (M) W‬ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ ﻭﺣﺮﻙ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺰﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﻲ ﻟﻴﻌﺮﺽ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺀ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻮﻓﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻫﻲ ﻛﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﺮﺿﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺤﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ‬
‫ﺑﻤﺪﻯ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﻋﺮﻳﺾ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺘﺴﺎﻭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻗﺎﺗﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻷﻳﺴﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻧﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻳﻤﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻳﻨﻘﻞ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻷﻳﻤﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻳﺒﺪﻝ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻷﻳﺴﺮ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﺨﻄﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﻄﻲ‬
‫ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺐ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻭﺳﻂ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻄﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪233‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‪ 6 124........................................................‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ‪94 ،41 ............................‬‬
‫‪ VR‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ )ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ( ‪3‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪131 ،129 ..................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ 7 131 ،130 ............................................‬ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ‪156........................................... 4‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ 8 126...........................‬ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪161................‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ 9 119....................................... ISO‬ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ‪253...........................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪139......................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ‬
‫‪ 10‬ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﻲ ‪263........ 2‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪83 ..........................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪218............................................‬‬
‫‪ 12‬ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ—ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪218.........................................‬‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫‪ 13‬ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪5‬‬
‫‪ 16‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪190............................ 5‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪194......................................5‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪ 14‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ‪202....................‬‬
‫‪ 15‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪192...........................................5‬‬
‫‪234‬‬
‫‪17‬‬
‫‪ 17‬ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪175...................................6 Picture Control‬‬
‫‪18‬‬
‫‪19‬‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫‪21‬‬
‫‪22‬‬
‫‪23‬‬
‫‪ 18‬ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﻋﻨﺪ ‪ ISO‬ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻲ‪20 253..........‬‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ‬
‫‪253..................................................................‬‬
‫‪ D-Lighting 19‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‪21 180..................................‬‬
‫‪22‬‬
‫‪23‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ‪HDR‬‬
‫‪182..................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺨﻔﻴﻒ ‪182........................................... HDR‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ‪253...................‬‬
‫ﺳﺠﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪278.........................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪273.....................................‬‬
‫‪235‬‬
‫‪24‬‬
‫‪25‬‬
‫‪ 24‬ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻮﺭ ‪ 25 273..........................................7‬ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ‪273........................... 7‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫ﺗﹸﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﺃﺣﻤﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﹸﻌﺮﺽ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) b7‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ (263 0 ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺻﻔﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻷﻱ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﹸﻌﺮﺽ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪) VR‬ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺄﺧﻮﺫﺓ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﹸﻌﺮﺽ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ )‪.(187 0‬‬
‫ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺰﻭﻳﺪ ﺧﻂ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺧﻂ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﻭ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ‪ GPS‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻲ ﻭ ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻓﻪ )‪ .(221 0‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﺗﺤﺪﺩ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺪﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪236‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻧﻈﺮﺓ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ‬
‫‪23‬‬
‫‪24‬‬
‫‪25‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪18 19 20 21 22‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪8 30‬‬
‫‪29‬‬
‫‪27 26‬‬
‫‪28‬‬
‫‪1 2 345‬‬
‫‪17‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫‪15 14 13 12 11 10‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
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‫‪9‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
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‫‪14‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫‪17‬‬
‫ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻹﺟﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﻺﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻤﻴﻞ‪243........................................‬‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ‪240...........................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ ‪278.........................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪273..........................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ‪221................................‬‬
‫ﺗﹸﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪.(233 0‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪88 ...............................................‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪91 ..............................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪83 ..........................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‪250..............................................‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪271 ,21..................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ‪250............................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪271 ,21.................................‬‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪93 ،35 ...........‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ ‪241..................................................‬‬
‫‪18‬‬
‫‪19‬‬
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‫‪30‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‪124........................................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪126...........................‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪131 ،129 ..................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪131 ،130 ............................................‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪119....................................... 1 ISO‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪218............................................‬‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‪180..................................‬‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫‪175..................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ‪253...........................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪192...........................................2‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ‪156.............................................‬‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪163...............................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ‪161........‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ‪165...........................‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪194......................................2‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ‪2‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪139......................‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﺗﹸﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﺃﺣﻤﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﺗﹸﻌﺮﺽ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ )‪.(187 0‬‬
‫‪237‬‬
‫ﺇﻟﻘﺎﺀ ﻧﻈﺮﺓ ﻣﻘﺮﺑﺔ‪ :‬ﺯﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ X‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺟﻌﻞ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻧﻘﺮﹰﺍ ﻣﺰﺩﻭ ﹰﺟﺎ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ‪:‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪X‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺼﻐﻴﺮ‪/‬ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻗﺺ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪238‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ X‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻤﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺪﺩ ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺣﺪ‬
‫ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ‪ ×32‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ )ﺻﻮﺭ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ (36 × 24/FX‬ﺃﻭ ‪) ×24‬ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ( ﺃﻭ ‪) ×16‬ﺻﻮﺭ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ (M) W‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻤﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺹ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ‪ .‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺮﺭ ﺇﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻘﻞ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻄﻼﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ؛ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺽ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺑﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﺻﻔﺮﺍﺀ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺤﺖ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻄﻼﻉ ﻳﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ؛ ﻭﻳﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ‪.1 :1‬‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺻﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ ،i‬ﻭﻇﻠﻞ ﻗﺺ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ .J‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﻗﺺ‬
‫ﺳﺮﻳﻊ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺘﺎ ﹰﺣﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺨﻄﻂ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻲ ‪.(233 0) RGB‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻓﻬﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﺑﻴﻀﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻄﻼﻉ‪ .‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﻩ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰﻳﻦ ‪ e‬ﺃﻭ ‪ f‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺀ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻠﻲ ﺑﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺯﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ (Q/Z) L‬ﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ )‪.(240 0‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ K‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ G‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ )‪.(248 0‬‬
‫‪239‬‬
‫ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ‬
‫‪ (Q/Z) L‬ﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺄ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺣﺬﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ‪ (Q) O‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺬﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻤﻴﺔ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺣﺬﻓﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ )‪.(271 0‬‬
‫ﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪:‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺯﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺃﻭ ﻇﻠﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪.(Q/Z) L‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ .P‬ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺣﺬﻓﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻇﻠﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ ﺛﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪.(Q/Z) L‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪(Q/Z) L‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﺍﺭ ‪ (Q/Z) L‬ﻭ ‪ (Q) O‬ﻣﻌﺎ ﹰ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺘﻴﻦ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﹰ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫‪240‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫ﺻﻨﹼﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺿﻊ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻛﺼﻮﺭ ﻣﺮﺷﺤﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺬﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻻﺣﻖ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﹰ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ‪ ViewNX-i‬ﻭ‪ .Capture NX-D‬ﻻ ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻤﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻇﻠﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ i‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻔﹰ ﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻔﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺧﻤﺲ ﻧﺠﻮﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺪﺩ ‪ d‬ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻣﺮﺷﺤﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺬﻑ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪J‬‬
‫ﻹﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪i‬‬
‫‪241‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺯﺭ ‪Fn2‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) f1‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ( < ﺯﺭ ‪ ،Fn2‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ Fn2‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪2‬‬
‫)‪.(268 0‬‬
‫‪242‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻤﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺮﻏﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻲ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﻟﺘﺤﻤﻴﻠﻬﺎ؛ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺤﺠﻢ ‪ 2‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎ‬
‫ﺑﻜﺴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﺮﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻇﻠﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ i‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻟﻺﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺫﻛﻲ‪/‬ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻟﻺﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺫﻛﻲ‪/‬ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ .J‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ ;W‬ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪ ,‬ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﻛﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ‪ 2‬ﻭ‪.3‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪i‬‬
‫‪243‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﺩ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻟﻺﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻲ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ(‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺻﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬
‫ﻟﻼﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ )ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻣﻞﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪ .(X‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪.W‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻹﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﺩ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻟﻺﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ .J‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ؛ ﻇﻠﻞ ﻧﻌﻢ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪244‬‬
‫ﺣﺬﻑ ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ .(Q) O‬ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺬﻑ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺣﺬﻓﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻔﻴﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺣﺬﻓﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ (Q) O‬ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪.(Q) O‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ (Q) O‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ .(Q) O‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪.K‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪(Q) O‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪(Q) O‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪ < D‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ‬
‫)‪.(249 0‬‬
‫‪245‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺬﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪،‬‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻹﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ Q‬ﻣﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫‪ R‬ﺍﻟﻜﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻳﺤﺬﻑ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻟﻠﻌﺮﺽ )‪.(248 0‬‬
‫ﻳﺤﺬﻑ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻳﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺘﻲ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﺬﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻣﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪ :‬ﺣﺬﻑ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻣﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫‪246‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺣﺬﻑ < ﻣﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺪﺩ ﺣﺬﻑ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ .‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﻣﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪.2‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ )ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻣﻞﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪.(X‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ .O‬ﻛﺮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ‪ 2‬ﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ؛‬
‫ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪.‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻹﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ؛ ﻇﻠﻞ ﻧﻌﻢ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪.J‬‬
‫‪247‬‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺒﻴﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺡ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ )‪.(i 0‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ :‬ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺣﺬﻑ‬
‫ﻣﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻞ‬
‫ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫)ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻞ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫ﺇﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻞ‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻻ ﺷﻲﺀ )ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻼﺕ‬
‫ﻣﺨﻄﻂ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻲ ‪RGB‬‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ‬
‫‪248‬‬
‫ﺣﺬﻑ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺻﻮﺭ )‪.(246 0‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﻞ(‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺠﻠﺪﺍ ﹰ ﻟﻠﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ .‬ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻔﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ "ﺇﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ" ﻭﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺿﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )‪.(229 0‬‬
‫ﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ(‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺪﺭ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ(‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻬﺔ‬
‫ﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ(؟‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ‬
‫ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻛﺎﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ‪ ،‬ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ‬
‫ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻃﻮﻟﻴﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﺢ‬
‫ﺑﺪﺀ‬
‫ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻓﺎﺻﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻟﻺﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻲ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ(‬
‫ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻞ‬
‫ﻳﻨﺴﺦ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻻ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻻ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺘﻲ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ(‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﻣﻪ )‪.(225 0‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ(‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ(‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ(‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﻣﻪ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ(‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ "ﻃﻮﻟﻴﺎ"‬
‫)ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﻤﻮﺩﻱ( ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﻣﻪ‬
‫)‪.(225 0‬‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺷﺮﺍﺋﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻟﺘﺤﻤﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺫﻛﻲ )‪.(244 0‬‬
‫‪249‬‬
‫‪ C‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ :‬ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺨﺰﻥ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫‪A–D‬‬
‫ﻣﺨﺎﺯﻥ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺘﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻗﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‬
‫ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪XQD‬‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪SD‬‬
‫ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﺋﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻲ‬
‫‪ RAW‬ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻴﺔ ‪ JPEG -‬ﺛﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ‬
‫‪250‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺪ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻔﻮﻇﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺒﻘﹰ ﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺨﺰﻥ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﻔﻆ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺰﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ(‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﺨﺎﺯﻥ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺳﺘﺤﻔﻆ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫)ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ S‬ﻭ ‪ ،(M‬ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ A‬ﻭ‬
‫‪ (M‬ﻭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺩﺋﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻮﻧﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺩﺋﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ "‪."DSC‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪(XQD‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻛﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺃﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺘﻲ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﹼ‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﺋﺪ(‬
‫ﺣﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺆﺩﻳﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺘﻲ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ )‪.(93 0‬‬
‫ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ‬
‫ﹼ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺩﻳﻮ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻗﺺ ‪ DX‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﻗﻨﺎﻉ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫)‪ JPEG + NEF (RAW‬ﺟﻴﺪ★‬
‫)‪ JPEG + NEF (RAW‬ﺟﻴﺪ‬
‫)‪ JPEG + NEF (RAW‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ★‬
‫)‪ JPEG + NEF (RAW‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫)‪ JPEG + NEF (RAW‬ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ★‬
‫)‪ JPEG + NEF (RAW‬ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬
‫)‪NEF (RAW‬‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﺟﻴﺪ★‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﺟﻴﺪ‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ★‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ★‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬
‫)‪TIFF (RGB‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪JPEG/TIFF‬‬
‫)‪NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺒﺘﺔ ﺑﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﻔﻼﺵ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫)‪.(190 0‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪ (83 0‬ﻭﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻗﻨﺎﻉ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ )‪.(85 0‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ JPEG‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ(‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻨﺴﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ ﻭﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ )ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪،‬‬
‫‪ .(88 0‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﻤﻞ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﻧﺠﻤﺔ‬
‫)"★"(‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﺗﻌﻄﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﻮﺩﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﺗﺤﻤﻞ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﻧﺠﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﻌﻄﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺴﻞ )‪.(91 0‬‬
‫ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻠﺔ ﻟﺼﻮﺭ ‪ JPEG/TIFF‬ﻭﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫)‪.NEF (RAW‬‬
‫‪251‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ )‪NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﺿﻐﻂ )‪NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﻋﻤﻖ ﺑﺖ )‪NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺿﻮﺀ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺳﺎﻃﻊ‬
‫ﻓﻠﻮﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻏﺎﺋﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻈﻞ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺤﺎﻳﺪ‬
‫ﻣﺸﺮﻕ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﺢ‬
‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺣﻔﻆ‪/‬ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ‬
‫ﺣﺬﻑ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ‪/‬ﺣﻔﻆ‬
‫‪252‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻭﻋﻤﻖ ﺍﻟﺒﺖ‬
‫ﻟﺼﻮﺭ )‪.(90 0) NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫)‪.(121 ،119 0‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ(‬
‫ﻃﺎﺑﻖ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ )‪.(156 0‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ(‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺳﺘﺘﻢ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺐ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺭﻏﺒﺘﻚ ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻋﻴﺔ‬
‫)‪.(175 0‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪Picture‬‬
‫‪ Control‬ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫‪sRGB‬‬
‫‪Adobe RGB‬‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﺑﺸﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻋﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ ‪NR‬‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫‪ ISO NR‬ﻋﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻋﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ‬
‫ﻋﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪(sRGB‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ(‬
‫ﺗﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﻈﻼﻝ‪،‬‬
‫ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬
‫)‪.(180 0‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ(‬
‫ﻳﻘﻠﻞ "ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ" )ﺑﻘﻊ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺿﺒﺎﺏ( ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺎﺩﻱ(‬
‫ﻳﻘﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ )ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻜﺴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻴﺎ(‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫‪ ISO‬ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺎﺩﻱ(‬
‫ﻳﻘﻠﻞ ﺍﻻﻧﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﻮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪G‬‬
‫ﻭ ‪ E‬ﻭ ‪) D‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ .(PC‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﻠﺤﻮﻅ‬
‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻗﺼﻮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ(‬
‫ﻳﻘﻠﻞ ﺗﺸﻮﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻣﻴﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺑﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﺳﻌﺔ ﻭﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺩﻱ )ﺗﺸﻮﻩ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ﻣﻨﺤﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﺍﺧﻞ( ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪253‬‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ‬
‫ﺗﻨﺸﻂ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺮ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﻟـ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺗﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺔ ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺟﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻣﺼﺎﺑﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻮﺭﻱ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺋﺒﻖ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺃﻳﻘﻮﻧﺔ ‪) FLICKER‬ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ( ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪:‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﻮﻑ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻷﻳﻘﻮﻧﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﻮﻣﺾ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﻭﻣﻴﺾ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﻟـ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ‬
‫)ﻟﺘﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﺩ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ(‪.‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ(‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺤﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪.(142 0‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪WB‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ADL‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻀﻴﻦ ﻭﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬
‫)‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻛﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩﺓ؛ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺭﹸﻏﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻛﺄﻭﻝ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﻛﺐ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﺃﻭﻝ )‪ ،(NEF‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺣﻔﻆ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺇﻻ ﺻﻮﺭ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﺃﻭﻝ )‪(NEF‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ )ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ ‪ .(L‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺜﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺡ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﺰﻳﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ‬
‫ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ )‪.(i 0‬‬
‫‪) HDR‬ﻣﺪﻯ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ(‬
‫ﻳﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻼﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪HDR‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ )‪.(182 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ‬
‫‪254‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‬
‫ﺑﺪﺀ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻳﻮﻡ‪/‬ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﻓﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺔ × ﻟﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪/‬ﻓﻮﺍﺻﻞ‬
‫ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺻﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺻﺎﻣﺖ‬
‫ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ‬
‫ﺑﺪﺀ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻋﺒﺮ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻳﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺑﺪﺀ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ )‪.(212 0‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺧﻄﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺻﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺻﺎﻣﺖ‬
‫ﺑﺪﺀ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻣﺖ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪(1‬‬
‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ )‪.(49 0‬‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪(2‬‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺜﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺡ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﺰﻳﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ )‪.(i 0‬‬
‫‪255‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪ :‬ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫ﻧﻌﻢ‬
‫ﻻ‬
‫ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻬﺔ‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪XQD‬‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪SD‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻗﺺ ‪ DX‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫‪3840×2160‬؛ ‪30p‬‬
‫‪3840×2160‬؛ ‪25p‬‬
‫‪3840×2160‬؛ ‪24p‬‬
‫‪1920×1080‬؛ ‪60p‬‬
‫‪1920×1080‬؛ ‪50p‬‬
‫‪1920×1080‬؛ ‪30p‬‬
‫‪1920×1080‬؛ ‪25p‬‬
‫‪1920×1080‬؛ ‪24p‬‬
‫‪1280× 720‬؛ ‪60p‬‬
‫‪1280× 720‬؛ ‪50p‬‬
‫‪1920×1080‬؛ ‪) 30p ×4‬ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ(‬
‫‪1920×1080‬؛ ‪) 25p ×4‬ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ(‬
‫‪1920×1080‬؛ ‪) 24p ×5‬ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ(‬
‫‪256‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻌﻢ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﻗﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺩﺋﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻮﻧﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺑﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺩﺋﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ "‪."DSC‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪(XQD‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪.(68 0‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪1920×1080‬؛ ‪(60p‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ )ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻜﺴﻞ( ﻭﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ )‪.(69 0‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫‪MOV‬‬
‫‪MP4‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫)ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪(M‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬ﻝ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪(M‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﻧﻔﺲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺿﻮﺀ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺳﺎﻃﻊ‬
‫ﻓﻠﻮﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻏﺎﺋﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻈﻞ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫ﻧﻔﺲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺤﺎﻳﺪ‬
‫ﻣﺸﺮﻕ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﺢ‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ(‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ )‪.(69 0‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪(MOV‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﻟﻸﻓﻼﻡ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ(‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻟﻸﻓﻼﻡ )‪ .(156 0‬ﺣﺪﺩ ﻧﻔﺲ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ(‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﻟﻸﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫)‪ .(175 0‬ﺣﺪﺩ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫‪257‬‬
‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺣﻔﻆ‪/‬ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ‬
‫ﺣﺬﻑ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ‪/‬ﺣﻔﻆ‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬
‫ﻧﻔﺲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﺑﺸﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻋﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫‪ ISO NR‬ﻋﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻋﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪ 50‬ﻫﺮﺗﺰ‬
‫‪ 60‬ﻫﺮﺗﺰ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ‬
‫‪258‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪Picture‬‬
‫‪ Control‬ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ(‬
‫ﺗﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﻈﻼﻝ‪،‬‬
‫ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺃﻓﻼﻡ ﺑﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ )‪ .(180 0‬ﺣﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ‬
‫ﻧﻔﺲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺎﺩﻱ(‬
‫ﻳﻘﻠﻞ "ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ" )ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻜﺴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻴﺎ(‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮﻫﺎ ﺑﺤﺴﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫‪ ISO‬ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ(‬
‫ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﻭﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻮﺭﻱ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺋﺒﻖ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ )‪ (37 0‬ﻭﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺪﻳﻮ )‪.(59 0‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ(‬
‫ﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ‬
‫)‪ (295 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻮﻫﻦ‬
‫ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﺩﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺑﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻯ‬
‫ﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺡ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﻣﻨﻘﺾ‬
‫ﺑﺪﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺻﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺻﺎﻣﺖ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ(‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻛﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﻭﻣﻨﻊ ﺗﺸﻮﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺻﺎﺧﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻯ(‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﺩﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ )‪.(295 0‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ(‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺡ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ(‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺻﻞ‬
‫ﺗﻠﺘﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﺻﺎﻣﺖ ﻣﻨﻘﺾ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺜﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺡ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﺰﻳﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ )‪.(i 0‬‬
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‫‪ A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻣﺨﺰﻥ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫‪A–D‬‬
‫‪ a‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪ a1‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ‪AF-C‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ‪ +‬ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ‪ +‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪ a2‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ‪AF-S‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺪ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻔﻮﻇﺔ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﹰ ﺎ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺨﺰﻥ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺰﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ(‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪ AF-C‬ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻳﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻰ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ )ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ( ﺃﻭ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻣﻀﺒﻮﻃﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ )ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ(‪.‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ(‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪ AF-S‬ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻳﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻣﻀﺒﻮﻃﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ )ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ( ﺃﻡ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ )ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ a3‬ﺗﻌﻘﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻔﻞ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻳﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﻓﻘﹰ ﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ‬
‫ﻣﺤﺠﻮﺑﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪ AF-C‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻋﺒﺮ‬
‫ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ(‬
‫‪ a4‬ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﻩ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻘﺐ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﺘﺸﻒ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﻩ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻭﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﻌﻘﺐ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪.(100 0‬‬
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‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺎﺩﻱ(‬
‫‪ a5‬ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻘﺐ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺩ ﺗﻌﻘﺒﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻋﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﻌﻘﺐ‬
‫ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫)‪.(100 0‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 55‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ(‬
‫‪ a6‬ﻋﺪﺩ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫‪ 55‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﹰﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 15‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ(‬
‫‪ a7‬ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺳﻴﺤﻔﻆ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻼﺗﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻓﻘﻴﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ‪/‬ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪ a8‬ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ(‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺳﺘﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻏﺎﻟﻖ‪/‬ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻦ ﺗﻀﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪.‬‬
‫‪ a9‬ﺣﺪﺩ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ )‪ 9‬ﻧﻘﺎﻁ( ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ )‪.(100 0‬‬
‫)‪ 25‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ(‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ‬
‫)‪ 72‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ(‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ‬
‫)‪ 153‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ(‬
‫ﺗﻌﻘﺐ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫‪261‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻻ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻗﻴﻮﺩ(‬
‫‪ a10‬ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪S‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ )‪.(98 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪C‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻗﻴﻮﺩ‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻻ ﺇﺣﺎﻃﺔ(‬
‫‪ a11‬ﺇﺣﺎﻃﺔ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ "ﻳﺤﻴﻂ"‬
‫ﺇﺣﺎﻃﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺣﺎﻓﺘﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪،‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺇﺣﺎﻃﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﻣﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪ a12‬ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ(‬
‫‪ a13‬ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪AF‬‬
‫ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ b‬ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‪/‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫‪ b1‬ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫‪ 1/3‬ﺧﻄﻮﺓ‬
‫‪ 1/2‬ﺧﻄﻮﺓ‬
‫ﺧﻄﻮﺓ ‪1‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 1/3‬ﺧﻄﻮﺓ(‬
‫‪ b2‬ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫‪ 1/3‬ﺧﻄﻮﺓ‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 1/2‬ﺧﻄﻮﺓ‬
‫ﺧﻄﻮﺓ ‪1‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 1/3‬ﺧﻄﻮﺓ(‬
‫‪ b3‬ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺧﻄﻮﺓ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﻓﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫‪ 1/3‬ﺧﻄﻮﺓ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 1/2‬ﺧﻄﻮﺓ‬
‫ﺧﻄﻮﺓ ‪1‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 1/3‬ﺧﻄﻮﺓ(‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪.ISO‬‬
‫‪262‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ(‬
‫‪ b4‬ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺳﻬﻞ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺑﻤﻔﺮﺩﻩ ﺑﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ ،E‬ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﻣﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﻩ(‬
‫‪ b5‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﻩ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﻩ ﻟﺘﻤﻜﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﻩ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺑﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ )‪.(124 0‬‬
‫‪ b6‬ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 12 ‬ﻣﻢ(‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺐ‬
‫ﻢ–‪ 20 ‬ﻣﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬
‫‪ 8 ‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ CPU‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪ f/3.5–4.5E ED‬ﻣﻢ‪ AF-S Fisheye NIKKOR 15–8‬ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 12‬ﻣﻢ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻻ(‬
‫‪ b7‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻌﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻨﺘﺞ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺳﻄﻮﻋﹰ ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‬
‫ﻻ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ﺗﻨﺘﺞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻗﺘﺎﻣﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ c‬ﻣﺆﻗﺘﺎﺕ‪/‬ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪ c1‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﻟﺰﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ(‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ(‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫‪ c2‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫‪ 4‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ–‪ 30‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺣﺪ‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ(‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 6‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ(‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺃﻱ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ )‪.(34 0‬‬
‫‪263‬‬
‫‪ c3‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‬
‫‪ c4‬ﺗﺄﺧﺮ ﺍﻧﻄﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫‪ d‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫‪ d1‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻮﺿﻊ ‪CL‬‬
‫‪ 6‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ–‪ 1‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ d2‬ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬
‫‪200–1‬‬
‫‪ d3‬ﻋﺮﺽ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫‪ d4‬ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺰﺍﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ‬
‫‪ d5‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫‪ 3‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ–‪ 0.2‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫‪264‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻈﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻗﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺣﻴﻦ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺃﻱ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 5‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ(‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪ .CL‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺪﻝ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ )‪.(114 0‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪(200‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺗﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ(‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺪﻻ ﹰ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ(‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻣﺘﺰﺍﻣﻨﹰﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ(‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺃﻗﻞ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﺤﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 0.2‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 3‬ﺛﻮﺍﻧﻲ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻟﻸﻋﻠﻰ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ(‬
‫‪ d6‬ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻣﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪ Q‬ﺃﻭ ‪ QC‬ﺃﻭ ‪ MUP‬ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺡ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺴﺒﺒﻪ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﻳﹸﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﻣﻴﻜﺎﻧﻴﻜﻲ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ(‬
‫‪ d7‬ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﺃﺣﻤﺮ(‬
‫‪ d8‬ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﻭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﻟﺬﺭﻭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺃﺣﻤﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺭﻭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺃﺻﻔﺮ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ i‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻭﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬
‫ﺃﺯﺭﻕ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺫﺭﻭﺓ )‪.(65 ،45 0‬‬
‫ﺃﺑﻴﺾ‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ(‬
‫‪ d9‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺇﻃﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ(‬
‫‪ d10‬ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ‪LCD‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻟﻸﺯﺭﺍﺭ ﻣﻀﺎﺀﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫‪ A‬ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ‬
‫ﻳﻮﺻﻰ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G‬ﺃﻭ ‪ E‬ﺃﻭ ‪D‬؛ ﺣﺪﺩ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻻﺣﻈﺖ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺿﺒﺎﺏ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ ISO‬ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﻣﻊ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ ﻫﻤﺎ ‪ 1/2000‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭ ‪ ISO 25600‬ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﻟﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪265‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ(‬
‫‪ d11‬ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ )ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ‪ CL‬ﻭ ‪ CH‬ﻭ ‪ (QC‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ )‪ .(37 0‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﻮﻑ ﺗﻨﻄﻔﺊ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ(‬
‫‪ d12‬ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻱ ‪VR‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻠﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫‪ AF-P‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻤﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫‪ e‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫‪ e1‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫‪ 1/250‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ )‪ FP‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ(‪ 1/250 ،‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪-‬‬
‫‪ 1/60‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ e2‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫‪ 1/60‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ–‪ 30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ e3‬ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ‪ 1/250‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ(‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 1/60‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ(‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﺑﻄﺄ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ P‬ﻭ ‪.A‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ(‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺗﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﺪ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﺪ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻠﻲ ﺃﺑﻄﺄ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﻤﻜﻨﺔ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻟﻖ )‪ 30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ‪.(%‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ‪) X‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ( ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ‪ FP‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ‪ FP‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺗﺪﻋﻤﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺠﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻗﺼﻮﻯ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻖ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻟﻠﻨﻄﺎﻕ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺑﺈﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻊ‪ .‬ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ "‪ "FP‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ‪ FP‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
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‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ(‬
‫‪ e4‬ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ M ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫ﺑﺪﻗﺔ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ(‬
‫‪ e5‬ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ‪CLS‬‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫)‪ (288 0‬ﺗﺼﺪﺭ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ Pv‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻋﺒﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻼﺵ‪/‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ(‬
‫‪ e6‬ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪(M‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺄﺛﺮﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ‪/‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪.M‬‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ‪/‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ‪ < MTR‬ﺗﺤﺖ < ﻓﻮﻕ(‬
‫‪ e7‬ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫‪ < MTR‬ﺗﺤﺖ < ﻓﻮﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻭﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺖ < ‪ < MTR‬ﻓﻮﻕ‬
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‫‪ f‬ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫‪ f1‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ‪y +‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪Fn1‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪y + Fn1‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪Fn2‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪AF-ON‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺳﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺳﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ‪y +‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪BKT + y‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ‪y +‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫‪ f2‬ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫‪ f3‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
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‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪،‬‬
‫ﺳﻮﺍ ﹰﺀ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻓﺮﺩﻱ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻠﻌﺒﻪ ﻭﺳﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻗﻔﻞ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ S‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ،M‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ A‬ﺃﻭ ‪.M‬‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫‪ f4‬ﺗﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺴﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫‪ f5‬ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻔﻌﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ‬
‫‪ f6‬ﺯﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺹ‬
‫ﻧﻌﻢ‬
‫ﻻ‬
‫‪ f7‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻋﻜﺴﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺆﺩﻳﻬﺎ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻻ ﺗﻔﻌﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ(‬
‫ﻔﻌﻞ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻳ ﹸ ﱢ‬
‫ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ )‪ (34 0‬ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﻣﻪ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻻ(‬
‫ﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻌﻢ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﻔﺬ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﺍﺭ ﻭﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺅﻫﺎ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻧﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫)‪ ،(W‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﻘﻴﻢ‬
‫ﺳﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﻭﻗﻴﻢ ﻣﻮﺟﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ‪ .‬ﺣﺪﺩ‬
‫)‪ (V‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ‪.‬‬
‫(‬
‫‪269‬‬
‫‪ f8‬ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ )ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ(‬
‫ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ‬
‫‪ D f9‬ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ‪(D) LCD‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫‪ f10‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﺍﺭ ‪MB-D18‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪Fn‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪y + Fn‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪AF-ON‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬
‫‪ g‬ﻓﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫‪ g1‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ‪y +‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪Fn1‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪y + Fn1‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪Fn2‬‬
‫ﻭﺳﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺳﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ‪y +‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫‪ g2‬ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫‪180-255‬‬
‫‪270‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ(‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪ ،a‬ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺄ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ‪(D) LCD‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﺎﺀﺓ ﺑﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪.D‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻨﺪﺓ ﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺇﻣﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺑﻔﻮﻟﻄﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪.(299 0) MB-D18‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻓﺮﺩﻱ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺯﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 1‬ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪،‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻷﻱ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﺧﻼﻑ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪(248‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻼﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪ .‬ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﻗﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺭﺗﻔﻊ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺳﻴﻈﻬﺮ ﻛﺘﻈﻠﻴﻼﺕ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ‪ ،255‬ﻓﺴﻮﻑ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻤﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﺿﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﺯﺍﺋﺪ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ :‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪XQD‬‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪SD‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ )‪(Language‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.345‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺫﻛﻲ‬
‫ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻔﻲ‬
‫ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺪﺩ ﻧﻌﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺗﺤﺬﻑ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﻧﻬﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ‪ .‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻔﻆ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻴﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﺋﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ‪ ،‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻔﻲ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺫﻛﻲ ﻭﺗﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ‪ SnapBridge‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺷﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻐﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﺰﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﻳﻦ ‪ (Q) S‬ﻭ ‪ :(Q) O‬ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻼ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﻳﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺁﻥ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﻳﻦ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ‬
‫ﹼ‬
‫ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﻳﻦ ﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﺘﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺩ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﺮﻣﺰ ﻭﺍﻣﺾ‪ .‬ﺃﺩﺭ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫‪271‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻓﻖ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺩﻗﺔ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﺷﻐﻞ‪/‬ﻭﻗﻒ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻔﻮﻇﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﺒﺪﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺳﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻔﻮﻇﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪CPU‬‬
‫ﺭﻗﻢ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻠﻠﻴﻤﺘﺮ(‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻗﺼﻮﻯ‬
‫ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺍﻵﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﺪﺀ‪/‬ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺃﻓﻖ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﻣﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ(‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ ﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻱ؛ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ؛ ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﺰﻳﻠﻪ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ )‪.(i 0‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻗﺼﻮﻯ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ ،CPU‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺠﻮﺯﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪CPU‬‬
‫)‪.(218 0‬‬
‫ﻫﺰ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ )‪.(312 0‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻟﻸﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﻜﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺮﻭﺣﺔ )‪ .(315 0‬ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺎ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫)‪ J‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻗﻞ( ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺫﻛﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮﺗﻮﺙ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ‪.USB‬‬
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‫ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺪﺀ‬
‫ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺛﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺇﺭﻓﺎﻕ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺩﺧﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‬
‫ﺇﺭﻓﺎﻕ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻖ ﻧﺴﺦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻨﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‬
‫ﻃﻠﺐ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻢ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪.(ii 0) Capture NX-D‬‬
‫ﻳﻀﻴﻒ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻛﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ ViewNX-i‬ﺃﻭ ‪.(ii 0) Capture NX-D‬‬
‫ﻳﻀﻴﻒ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﻛﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ ViewNX-i‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪.(ii 0) Capture NX-D‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﻧﺺ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﻣﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﺰﻡ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﻧﺺ‪ .‬ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻭﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ )ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻘﻞ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻷﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﻭﺭﻣﻮﺯ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ(‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻹﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺷﺮ )ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻣﺘﻼﺀ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻞ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻑ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻞ(‪ .‬ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ .(Q) O‬ﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ (M) W‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ .2‬ﻹﺗﻤﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ‬
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‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪/‬ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻐﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ‬
‫ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ‪/‬ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ )‪.(12 0‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ‬
‫ﻧﻘﺮ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫‪HDMI‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻟﻠﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ‪.HDMI‬‬
‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻭﺿﻮﺡ ﺍﻟﺨﺮﺝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻘﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ‬
‫ﺗﻨﺰﻳﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺫﻛﻲ‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ )‪.(221 0‬‬
‫ﻣﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ‪ GPS‬ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻲ )‪(WR‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ‪ LED‬ﻭﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻂ ﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ‪LED‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻂ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪ (WR) Fn‬ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪ‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻻ ﺷﻲﺀ(‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻠﻌﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ Fn‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪FV‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ )ﻉ ﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ(‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪M‬ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ‪/‬ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ‬
‫)‪+ NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻻ ﺷﻲﺀ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻐﻤﺔ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﻴﺮ‪.‬‬
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‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺮﺍﻥ‬
‫ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺫﻛﻲ‬
‫ﺑﺪﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺑﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﺮﻭﺭ‬
‫ﺇﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺫﻛﻲ )ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ(‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫‪Wi-Fi‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺑﻠﻮﺗﻮﺙ‬
‫ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ‬
‫ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﻣﺘﺰﺍﻭﺟﺔ‬
‫ﺇﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻹﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ(‬
‫ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺮﺍﻥ ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﻭﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺻﻼﺕ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ‪ Eye-Fi‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮﺗﻮﺙ ﻭ ‪ Wi-Fi‬ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻼﺕ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺇﺭﺳﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻲ ﺑﻔﻚ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻹﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﻗﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺫﻛﻲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ‬
‫‪ SnapBridge‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﻓﻲ ‪ SnapBridge‬ﺩﻟﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ )ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ‪.(D-SLR‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ(‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻟﺘﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻲ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪) Wi-Fi‬ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﻣﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ(‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻮﺻﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮﺗﻮﺙ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﻗﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻳﺼﻞ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺧﻤﺲ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺫﻛﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﺠﻬﺎﺯ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺧﺎﺩﻡ ‪ ftp‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﻟﻺﻳﺜﺮﻧﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ‪ .WT-7‬ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ‪.WT-7‬‬
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‫ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ‪Eye-Fi‬‬
‫ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ‬
‫ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪MB-D18‬‬
‫‪) LR6‬ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻗﻠﻮﻳﺔ ‪(AA‬‬
‫‪) HR6‬ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪(Ni-MH AA‬‬
‫‪) FR6‬ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﻴﺜﻴﻮﻡ ‪(AA‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺗﻔﻀﻴﻞ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ‪MB-D18‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭﻻ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺗﻔﺮﻳﻎ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
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‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ(‬
‫ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﻣﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﹰ ﺎ‪ .‬ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪ Eye-Fi‬ﻣﺪﻋﻮﻣﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻠﺘﺰﻡ ﺑﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪) LR6‬ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻗﻠﻮﻳﺔ ‪((AA‬‬
‫ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻔﻬﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺇﻣﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺑﻔﻮﻟﻄﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ MB-D18‬ﻣﻊ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻣﻘﺎﺱ‬
‫‪ ،AA‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ‬
‫ﻳﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻔﻀﻴﻞ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ‪(MB-D18‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺳﺘﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺃﻭﻻ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺇﻣﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺑﻔﻮﻟﻄﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪.MB-D18‬‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ(‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ‬
‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﻣﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﻔﻆ‪/‬ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ‬
‫ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ‬
‫ﺍﺣﻔﻆ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻭ ﺣﻤﻞ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ‪ D850‬ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻋﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺈﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ )‪ (Language‬ﻭﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﻭﺍﻹﺩﺧﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻟﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻢ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‪ .‬ﻧﻮﺻﻲ ﺑﺤﻔﻆ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﻔﻆ‪/‬ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ‪.‬‬
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‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ )‪NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ )ﺻﻮﺭ(‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻬﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻬﺬﻳﺐ‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ )ﺻﻮﺭ(‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻬﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬
‫‪D-Lighting‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
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‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ‪ JPEG‬ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ )‪.NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻘﺘﺼﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻈﻼﻝ‪ .‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻤﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺻﺤﺢ "ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ" ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻓﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻌﺪﻟﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 5°‬ﺑﺰﻳﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻗﺪﺭﻫﺎ ‪ 0.25°‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺑﺘﺸﻮﻩ ﻣﺤﻴﻄﻲ ﺃﻗﻞ‪ .‬ﻳﹸﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻮﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻣﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺑﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﺳﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺤﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﺘﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻧﻈﺮﻱ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ‬
‫ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﺩﺍﻓﺊ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺃﺳﻮﺩ ﻭﺃﺑﻴﺾ‬
‫ﺑﻨﻲ ﺩﺍﻛﻦ‬
‫ﺃﺯﺭﻕ ﻓﺎﺗﺢ‬
‫ﺗﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻗﺘﻄﺎﻉ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺟﻨﺒﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻨﺐ‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻊ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭ ﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺗﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ‪ :‬ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ‬
‫• ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﺩﺍﻓﺊ‪ :‬ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﺌﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﺄﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺃﺳﻮﺩ ﻭﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻨﻲ‬
‫ﺩﺍﻛﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺯﺭﻕ ﻓﺎﺗﺢ )ﺃﺯﺭﻕ ﻭﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺠﻤﻊ ﺗﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻴﻦ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺑﺘﻨﺴﻴﻖ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﻔﻈﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ G‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻮﻳﺐ ‪.N‬‬
‫ﺗﻬﺬﻳﺐ ﻣﻘﺎﻃﻊ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻌﺪﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫)‪.(78 0‬‬
‫ﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺤﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﺎﺡ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺟﻨﺒﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻨﺐ‬
‫ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫‪ 2‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ‬
‫‪ J‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ i‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺃﺻﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪279‬‬
‫‪ O‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‪ m/‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﻨﻮﺩ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺑﻨﻮﺩ‬
‫ﺑﻨﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﺗﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺒﻮﻳﺐ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ‬
‫‪280‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 20‬ﺑﻨ ﹰﺪﺍ‬
‫ﻣﺤﺪﺩﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺬﻑ ﺑﻨﻮﺩ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺻﻨﻒ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ(‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻮﻳﺐ "ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‪/‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ"‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎ ﻣﺆﺧﺮﹰﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ‪ 20‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﹰﺍ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻗﺮﺃ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻭﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻭﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﻣﺎﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺗﻔﻌﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺧﻄﺄ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺍﺟﻬﺖ ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪AF‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪6 CPU‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G‬ﺃﻭ ‪ E‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 7 D‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪ AF-S‬ﺃﻭ ‪ AF-P‬ﺃﻭ ‪✔ AF-I‬‬
‫ﻣﻢ‪PC NIKKOR 19‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪f/4E ED‬‬
‫ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ‪PC-E‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪10 NIKKOR‬‬
‫ﻣﻢ‪PC Micro 85‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪11 ,10 f/2.8D‬‬
‫ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ ‪AF-S /‬‬
‫✔‬
‫‪13 AF-I‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪AF NIKKOR‬‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ )ﻣﺎﻋﺪﺍ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ✔‬
‫‪(F3AF‬‬
‫‪AI-P NIKKOR‬‬
‫—‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪) M‬ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﻣﺪﻯ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ( ‪1‬‬
‫‪P‬‬
‫‪S‬‬
‫‪L‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫ﺛﻼﺛﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻮﻥ‬
‫‪M‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫—‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪M‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪N‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫✔‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫✔‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫✔‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫✔‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫‪9 ،8‬‬
‫✔‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫✔‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫✔‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫✔‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫✔‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫‪9 ،8‬‬
‫✔‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫✔‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫✔‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫‪9 ،8‬‬
‫✔‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫‪281‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪CPU 16‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪NIKKOR‬‬
‫‪ AI‬ﺃﻭ ‪-AI‬ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ‪17 E‬‬
‫‪Medical-NIKKOR‬‬
‫‪ f/4‬ﻣﻢ‪120‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪AF‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪) M‬ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﻣﺪﻯ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ( ‪1‬‬
‫✔‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫✔‬
‫‪Reflex NIKKOR‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪PC NIKKOR‬‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪P‬‬
‫‪S‬‬
‫‪L‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫ﺛﻼﺛﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻮﻥ‬
‫‪M‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‬
‫‪19‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪M‬‬
‫‪t 4‬‬
‫‪N‬‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫‪18‬‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫‪21‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫‪18‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫‪22‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫✔‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫— ✔‬
‫— ✔‬
‫✔‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‪23 AI-‬‬
‫ﻣﻠﺤﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪24‬‬
‫ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻣﻨﻔﺎﺥ‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫— ✔ ‪— 26‬‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪25 PB-6‬‬
‫ﺣﻠﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺪﻳﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ‪PK-‬‬
‫‪18‬‬
‫‪24‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫‪ 11A‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 12‬ﺃﻭ ‪13‬؛‬
‫‪(PN-11‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﻣﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 3‬ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 4‬ﺑﻘﻌﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 5‬ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 6‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪.IX-NIKKOR‬‬
‫‪ 7‬ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ VR‬ﺧﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ )‪.(VR‬‬
‫‪ 8‬ﺗﺘﻢ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺑﻘﻌﻴﺔ )‪.(124 0‬‬
‫‪ 9‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 10‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺿﺒﺎﺏ ﻭﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ )"ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ"( ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺄﺧﻮﺫﺓ ﺑﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻣﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻨﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) d6‬ﻏﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ‪.(265 0 ،‬‬
‫‪ 11‬ﻻ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺳﻠﻴﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺇﻣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 12‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫‪282‬‬
‫‪24‬‬
‫‪18‬‬
‫‪19‬‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫‪ 13‬ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﻣﺪﻯ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ "ﻣﺤﻮﻻﺕ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ ‪ "AF-S/AF-I‬ﻭﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ )‪.(96 0‬‬
‫‪ 14‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﻢ‪AF 200–80‬‬
‫‪ f/2.8‬ﺃﻭ ‪ f/2.8‬ﻣﻢ‪ AF 70–35‬ﺃﻭ ‪ f/3.5–4.5‬ﻣﻢ‪> AF 85–28‬ﺟﺪﻳﺪ< ﺃﻭ ‪ f/3.5–4.5‬ﻣﻢ‪ AF 85–28‬ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﺎ ﹰ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 15‬ﻣﻊ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻗﺼﻮﻯ ‪ f/5.6‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﺳﺮﻉ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 16‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ؛ ﺍﻧﻈﺮ "ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪CPU‬‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ" )‪.(285 0‬‬
‫‪ 17‬ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ ‪ f/2.8 ED‬ﻣﻢ‪ AI 200–80‬ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺒﺘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻻﺭﺟﻞ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺤﺎﺕ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫‪ f/4 ED‬ﻣﻢ‪ AI 400–200‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 18‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺣﺪ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪ ،(218 0) CPU‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 19‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ‬
‫‪ .(218 0) CPU‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺑﻘﻌﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 20‬ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻗﺔ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪CPU‬‬
‫)‪.(218 0‬‬
‫‪ 21‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ ﻣﻊ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺃﺑﻄﺄ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 22‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺎ ﹰ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ‬
‫ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺗﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺎ ﹰ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﺣﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 23‬ﻳﺘﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ f/3.5–4.5‬ﻣﻢ‪AI 85–28‬‬
‫‪ f/3.5–4.5،‬ﻣﻢ‪ f/3.5–4.5، AI 105–35‬ﻣﻢ‪ AI 135–35‬ﺃﻭ ‪ f/2.8D‬ﻣﻢ‪.AF-S 200–80‬‬
‫‪ 24‬ﻣﻊ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺣﺪ ﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ ‪ f/5.6‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﺳﺮﻉ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 25‬ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺗﻤﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪ PK-12‬ﺃﻭ ‪ .PK-13‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ‪ PB-6D‬ﺣﺴﺐ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 26‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻠﺤﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻳﺘﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ PA-4‬ﻣﻊ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ‪.PF-4 Reprocopy Outfit‬‬
‫• ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ .ISO‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﻁ ﹰ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ ‪ ISO‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪283‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ CPU‬ﻭﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ ‪ ،G‬ﻭ‪ ،E‬ﻭ‪D‬‬
‫)ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ ﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ ‪ G‬ﻭ‪ E‬ﻭ‪ ،(D‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪CPU‬‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ .IX-NIKKOR‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ CPU‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﻮﺻﻼﺕ ‪ ،CPU‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G‬ﻭ‪ E‬ﻭ‪ D‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G‬ﻭ ‪ E‬ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﺤﻠﻘﺔ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻮﺻﻼﺕ ‪CPU‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪CPU‬‬
‫ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪G/E‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪D‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ f‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﻯ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ CPU‬ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪ (218 0) CPU‬ﻟﺘﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ ،CPU‬ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻣﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ؛ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﻮﻓﻴﺮ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺑﺪﻻ ﹰ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻣﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻮﻓﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻔﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻭﻳﺠﺐ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪284‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻛﻤﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ CPU‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪:D850‬‬
‫• ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‬
‫• ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ ‪TC-16A AF‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ f/2.8،‬ﻣﻢ‪F3AF (AF 80‬‬
‫• ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ‪AI‬‬
‫‪ f/3.5 ED‬ﻣﻢ‪ ،AF 200‬ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ‪AF‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪(Teleconverter TC-16‬‬
‫‪ f/4.5) AU-1‬ﻣﻢ‪ f/5.6 ،400‬ﻣﻢ‪ ،600‬ﻣﻢ‪800‬‬
‫• ‪ f/4‬ﻣﻢ‪) PC 28‬ﺭﻗﻢ ﻣﺴﻠﺴﻞ ‪ 180900‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪ f/11 ،f/8‬ﻣﻢ‪(1200‬‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ(‬
‫• ﻋﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻜﺔ )‪ f/5.6‬ﻣﻢ‪ f/5.6 ،6‬ﻣﻢ‪ ،7.5‬ﻣﻢ‪8‬‬
‫• ‪ f/2.8‬ﻣﻢ‪) PC 35‬ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﻣﺴﻠﺴﻞ ‪–851001‬‬
‫‪ f/5.6 ،f/8‬ﻣﻢ‪(OP 10‬‬
‫‪(906200‬‬
‫• ‪ f/4‬ﺳﻢ‪2.1‬‬
‫• ‪ f/3.5‬ﻣﻢ‪) PC 35‬ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﻢ(‬
‫• ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺗﻤﺪﻳﺪ ‪K2‬‬
‫• ‪ f/6.3‬ﻣﻢ‪) Reflex 1000‬ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﻢ(‬
‫• ‪ f/8 ED‬ﻣﻢ‪) 600–180‬ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﻣﺴﻠﺴﻞ‬
‫• ‪ f/11‬ﻣﻢ‪) Reflex 1000‬ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﻣﺴﻠﺴﻞ‬
‫‪(174180–174041‬‬
‫‪(143000–142361‬‬
‫• ‪ f/11 ED‬ﻣﻢ‪) 1200–360‬ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﻣﺴﻠﺴﻞ‬
‫• ‪ f/11‬ﻣﻢ‪) Reflex 2000‬ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﻣﺴﻠﺴﻞ‬
‫‪(174127–174031‬‬
‫‪(200310–200111‬‬
‫• ‪ f/9.5‬ﻣﻢ‪) 600–200‬ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﻣﺴﻠﺴﻞ‬
‫‪(300490–280001‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ )‪(VR‬‬
‫ﻳﻮﺻﻰ ﺑﻌﺪﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺮﺩﺓ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺑﺤﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻧﻈﺮﹰﺍ ﻷﻥ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺑﺈﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ )‪ ،(VR‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺠﺔ ﻣﺸﻮﺓ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﺎﺏ‪ .‬ﻧﻮﺻﻲ ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ VR‬ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫• ‪ f/2.8G ED VR‬ﻣﻢ‪AF-S NIKKOR 400‬‬
‫• ﻣﻢ‪AF-S VR Zoom-Nikkor 120–24‬‬
‫• ‪ f/4G ED VR‬ﻣﻢ‪AF-S NIKKOR 500‬‬
‫‪f/3.5–5.6G IF-ED‬‬
‫• ﻣﻢ‪AF-S DX VR Zoom-Nikkor 200–18‬‬
‫• ﻣﻢ‪AF-S VR Zoom-Nikkor 200–70‬‬
‫‪f/3.5–5.6G IF-ED‬‬
‫‪f/2.8G IF-ED‬‬
‫• ﻣﻢ‪AF-S DX NIKKOR 85–16‬‬
‫• ﻣﻢ‪AF-S VR Zoom-Nikkor 300–70‬‬
‫‪f/3.5–5.6G ED VR‬‬
‫‪f/4.5–5.6G IF-ED‬‬
‫• ﻣﻢ‪AF-S DX NIKKOR 200–18‬‬
‫• ‪ f/2G IF-ED‬ﻣﻢ‪AF-S VR Nikkor 200‬‬
‫‪f/3.5–5.6G ED VR II‬‬
‫• ‪ f/2.8G IF-ED‬ﻣﻢ‪AF-S VR Nikkor 300‬‬
‫• ﻣﻢ‪AF-S DX Micro NIKKOR 85‬‬
‫• ‪ f/4G ED VR‬ﻣﻢ‪AF-S NIKKOR 35–16‬‬
‫‪f/3.5G ED VR‬‬
‫• ‪ f/4G ED VR‬ﻣﻢ‪AF-S NIKKOR 120–24‬‬
‫• ﻣﻢ‪AF-S DX NIKKOR 300–55‬‬
‫• ﻣﻢ‪AF-S NIKKOR 300–28‬‬
‫‪f/4.5–5.6G ED VR‬‬
‫‪f/3.5–5.6G ED VR‬‬
‫‪285‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪ 35‬ﻣﻢ )‪ .(135‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ 35‬ﻣﻢ ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ‪ 35‬ﻣﻢ )‪× 35.9‬‬
‫‪ 23.9‬ﻣﻢ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﺰﻡ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ 35‬ﻣﻢ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﻤﻌﺪﻝ ‪ 1.5‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ‪ 1.2‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ‪ (24×16) DX‬ﺃﻭ ×‪ (30×20) 1.2‬ﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺃﻗﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ‪ (30×24) 5:4‬ﺃﻭ ‪.(24×24) 1:1‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﺿﺔ ﻭﻓﻘﹰ ﺎ ﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪ (36×24) FX 2‬ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫)‪ 23.9 × 35.9‬ﻣﻢ‪ ،‬ﻣﺴﺎﻭ ﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ 35‬ﻣﻢ(‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪ (30×20) 1.2× 3‬ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫)‪ 19.9 × 29.9‬ﻣﻢ(‬
‫‪ (24×16) DX 4‬ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫)‪ 15.7 × 23.5‬ﻣﻢ‪ ،‬ﻣﺴﺎﻭ ﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪(DX‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪ 5‬ﻗﻄﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪ 6‬ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪(36×24) FX‬؛ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ‬
‫‪ 35‬ﻣﻢ(‬
‫‪ 7‬ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )×‪((30×20) 1.2‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫‪286‬‬
‫‪ 8‬ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪(24×16) DX‬؛ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ‬
‫‪(DX‬‬
‫‪ (30×24) 5:4 9‬ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫)‪ 23.9 × 29.9‬ﻣﻢ(‬
‫‪ (24×24) 1:1 10‬ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫)‪ 23.9 × 23.9‬ﻣﻢ(‬
‫‪ 11‬ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪((30×24) 5:4‬‬
‫‪ 12‬ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪((24×24) 1:1‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ(‬
‫ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ (24×16) DX‬ﺃﺻﻐﺮ ‪ 1.5‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﹰ ﻣﻦ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ 35‬ﻣﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ×‪ (30×20) 1.2‬ﺃﺻﻐﺮ ‪ 1.2‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﹰ ﻭﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ (30×24) 5:4‬ﺃﺻﻐﺮ ‪ 1.1‬ﻣﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ (24×24) 1:1‬ﺃﺻﻐﺮ ‪ 1.3‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﹰ‪ .‬ﻟﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ 35‬ﻣﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻓﻲ ‪ 1.5‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ‪ (24×16) DX‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪1.2‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ×‪ ،(30×20) 1.2‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 1.1‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ‪ ،(30×24) 5:4‬ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 1.3‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬
‫‪) (24×24) 1:1‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻝ ﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ‪ 50‬ﻣﻢ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ 35‬ﻣﻢ ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫‪ 75‬ﻣﻢ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪ ،(24×16) DX‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 60‬ﻣﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ×‪ (30×20) 1.2‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 55‬ﻣﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ (30×24) 5:4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 65‬ﻣﻠﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ‪.((24×24) 1:1‬‬
‫‪287‬‬
‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻋﻲ ‪(CLS) Creative Lighting System‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻳﻘﺪﻡ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻄﻮﺭ )‪ (CLS‬ﻣﻦ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻻ ﹰ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻭﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ‪CLS‬‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‬
‫‪ SB-910‬ﻭ‪SB-900‬‬
‫‪SB-800‬‬
‫‪SB-700‬‬
‫‪SB-600‬‬
‫‪SB-500‬‬
‫‪SU-800‬‬
‫‪SB-R200‬‬
‫‪SB-5000‬‬
‫‪288‬‬
‫‪SB-400‬‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻞﺀ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫‪ i-TTL‬ﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫‪ SLR‬ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ ‪1‬‬
‫‪ i-TTL‬ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻞﺀ ‪i-TTL‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ✔ ‪✔ 2‬‬
‫‪ SLR‬ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪ qA‬ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫✔ ✔‬
‫—‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪TTL‬‬
‫✔‬
‫ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ﻷﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ‬
‫✔ ✔‬
‫‪ GN‬ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫‪ M‬ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫✔ ✔‬
‫‪ RPT‬ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺘﻜﺮﺭ‬
‫✔ ✔‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫‪SB-300‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ‪:CLS‬‬
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‫‪5‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫✔‬
‫—‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪SB-5000‬‬
‫‪ SB-910‬ﻭ‪SB-900‬‬
‫‪SB-800‬‬
‫‪SB-700‬‬
‫‪SB-600‬‬
‫✔‬
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‫‪SB-500‬‬
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‫✔‬
‫‪SU-800‬‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫—‬
‫‪SB-R200‬‬
‫✔‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫—‪7‬‬
‫—‬
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‫‪SB-400‬‬
‫✔‬
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‫—‬
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‫‪SB-300‬‬
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‫ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ )ﻓﻼﺵ(‬
‫✔‬
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‫—‬
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‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫—‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫‪i-TTL i-TTL‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫]‪ [A:B‬ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻲ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‬
‫‪ qA‬ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪TTL‬‬
‫‪ M‬ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫‪ RPT‬ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺘﻜﺮﺭ‬
‫‪i-TTL i-TTL‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫]‪ [A:B‬ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻲ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪/‬‬
‫‪ qA/A‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪TTL‬‬
‫‪ M‬ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫‪ RPT‬ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺘﻜﺮﺭ‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺩﻳﻮ‬
‫ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ )ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ‬
‫‪(LED‬‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ‪ FP‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ‪10‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪11 FV‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺣﺪ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫✔‬
‫‪8‬‬
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‫‪9‬‬
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‫‪5‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
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‫‪289‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺑﻘﻌﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ ﹰ‬
‫‪ 3‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ qA/A‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪ CPU‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ "‪"A‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪.CPU‬‬
‫‪ 4‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪ CPU‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪ TTL‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪.CPU‬‬
‫‪ 5‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 6‬ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﺏ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 7‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪ CPU‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪ (A) TTL‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ ،CPU‬ﺑﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 8‬ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪ qA‬ﻭ ‪ A‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻟﻠﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 9‬ﻳﺪﻋﻢ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﺍﻳﺎ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻭﺩﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ AWL‬ﺑﺼﺮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 10‬ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ i-TTL‬ﻭ ‪ qA‬ﻭ ‪ A‬ﻭ ‪ GN‬ﻭ ‪.M‬‬
‫‪ 11‬ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ i-TTL‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﺼﺪﺭ ﻓﻼﺷﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ qA‬ﺃﻭ ‪.A‬‬
‫‪ 12‬ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 13‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ﻟـ ‪ SB-910‬ﻭ‪ SB-900‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﻔﻼﺵ ‪ Speedlight‬ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻲ ‪ :SU-800‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ‪ ،CLS‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ SU-800‬ﻛﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ SB-5000‬ﺃﻭ ‪ SB-910‬ﺃﻭ ‪ SB-900‬ﺃﻭ ‪ SB-800‬ﺃﻭ ‪ SB-700‬ﺃﻭ ‪ SB-600‬ﺃﻭ ‪SB-500‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ‪ SB-R200‬ﺗﺼﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ SU-800‬ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺼﺪﺭ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ‪ CLS‬ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ .Pv‬ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺰﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻹﺟﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﻪ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) e5‬ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‪.(267 0 ،‬‬
‫‪290‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪ TTL‬ﻭﻳﺪﻭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪،1 SB-27 ،SB-30‬‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ SB-80DX‬ﻭ‬
‫‪،2 SB-29 ،SB-23‬‬
‫‪،SB-22 ،SB-22S‬‬
‫‪ SB-28DX‬ﻭ‬
‫‪SB-50DX‬‬
‫‪،2 SB-21B‬‬
‫‪،SB-16B ،SB-20‬‬
‫‪ SB-28‬ﻭ ‪ SB-26‬ﻭ‬
‫‪2 SB-29S‬‬
‫‪SB-15‬‬
‫‪ SB-25‬ﻭ ‪SB-24‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪TTL‬‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫‪ M‬ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫ﻣﺘﻜﺮﺭ‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ‬
‫‪G‬‬
‫✔‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺳﺘﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫‪REAR‬‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ ‪3‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ TTL‬ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫‪ 1‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ‪) A‬ﻓﻼﺵ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪.(TTL‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ f/2.8G IF-ED‬ﻣﻢ‪ AF-S VR Micro-Nikkor 105‬ﻭ‬
‫‪ f/2.8G ED‬ﻣﻢ‪ AF-S Micro NIKKOR 60‬ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 3‬ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ FV‬ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ (196 0) FV‬ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ‪ TTL‬ﻭ )ﺇﻥ ﻭﺟﺪ( ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ :‬ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﻠﺸﺎﺷﺔ ‪ qA‬ﻭﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﻠﺸﺎﺷﺔ ‪) A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻖ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ(‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻟﻠﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ TTL‬ﺃﻭ ‪ qA‬ﺃﻭ ‪.A‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻘﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ FV‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻛﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ‪ 6‬ﻣﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫‪i-TTL‬‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺗﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‬
‫‪qA‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫‪i-TTL‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ )ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻣﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫‪qA‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺗﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‬
‫ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ(‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫‪291‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺭﺟﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻛﺘﻴﺐ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﻣﻔﺼﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺩﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‬
‫‪ ،CLS‬ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ‪ SLR‬ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ‪ .CLS‬ﻻ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺃﺩﻟﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ SB-80DX‬ﻭ‪ SB-28DX‬ﻭ‪ SB-50DX‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ D850‬ﻓﻲ ﻓﺌﺔ "ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ‪SLR‬‬
‫ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻼﺵ ‪ i-TTL‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ 64‬ﻭ ‪ .12800‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ‪ ،12800‬ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻮﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻴﻀﺎ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺛﻮﺍﻧﻲ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺻﺪﺭ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ )‪(M‬‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪ i-TTL‬ﺃﻭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪ ،TTL‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻗﺪ ﺍﻧﻄﻠﻖ ﺑﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻃﺎﻗﺘﻪ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻧﺎﻗﺺ )ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ‪CLS‬‬
‫ﻓﻘﻂ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ ‪ 17 SC‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 28‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 29‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺑﻔﻼﺵ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪.i-TTL‬‬
‫ﻧﻨﺼﺤﻚ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻞﺀ ‪ i-TTL‬ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻲ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻂ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﺠﺮﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﺎﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ ،i-TTL‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺃﻭ ﺿﺎﺑﻂ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻘﻴﻦ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ .‬ﻻ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﺡ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﻧﺸﺮ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ ،P‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ )ﺃﻗﻞ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ( ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﺣﺴﺐ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ،ISO‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﺴﺎﻭﻱ‪:‬‬
‫‪12800 6400‬‬
‫‪3200‬‬
‫‪1600‬‬
‫‪800‬‬
‫‪400‬‬
‫‪200‬‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫‪64‬‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪7.1‬‬
‫‪5.6‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3.5‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﺃﻋﻼﻩ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﺎﺋﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ‪ SD-9‬ﺃﻭ ‪ SD-8A‬ﻣﺜﺒﺘﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﻗﻠﻞ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺃﻭ ﻗﻢ ﺑﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺣﺰﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪292‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ )ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ(‬
‫ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ SB-5000‬ﻭ ‪ SB-910‬ﻭ ‪ SB-900‬ﻭ ‪ SB-800‬ﻭ ‪ SB-700‬ﻭ ‪ SB-600‬ﻭ‬
‫‪ SB-500‬ﻭ ‪ SB-400‬ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ ‪ SB-5000‬ﻭ ‪ SB-910‬ﻭ ‪SB-900‬‬
‫ﻭ ‪ SB-800‬ﻭ ‪ SB-700‬ﻭ ‪ SB-600‬ﻭ ‪ SU-800‬ﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻮﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫• ‪ :SB-5000‬ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺑﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻦ ‪ 24‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 135‬ﻣﻢ ﺑﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪ 84–50‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 49–24‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 135-85‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫• ‪ SB-910‬ﻭ ‪ :SB-900‬ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺑﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻦ ‪ 17‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 135‬ﻣﻢ ﺑﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪ 135-20‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 19–17‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫• ‪ SB-800‬ﻭ ‪ SB-600‬ﻭ ‪ :SU-800‬ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺑﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻦ ‪ 24‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 105‬ﻣﻢ ﺑﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 34–24‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪ 49–35‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 105–50‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪293‬‬
‫• ‪ :SB-700‬ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺑﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻦ ‪ 24‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 135‬ﻣﻢ ﺑﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪ 27–24‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 135-28‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫ﻭﻓﻘﹰ ﺎ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺠﻞ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫)‪ (I‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ i-TTL‬ﻭﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ )‪ ،(qA‬ﺗﺘﻢ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ‪ (M) W‬ﻭﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪294‬‬
‫ﺇﻛﺴﺴﻮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ‪.D850‬‬
‫ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﻳﻮﻥ ﻟﻴﺜﻴﻮﻡ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ‪EN-EL15/EN-EL15a/EN-EL15b‬‬
‫)‪(347 ،14 0‬؛ ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ EN-EL15‬ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ‪ EN-EL15a/EN-EL15b‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺷﺤﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﺮﺓﹰ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫)‪(365 0‬‬
‫ﺷﺎﺣﻦ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪(347 ،14 0) MH-25a‬‬
‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻣﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺑﻔﻮﻟﻄﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ‪MB-D18‬‬
‫ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪ ،EP-5B‬ﻭ‪ EH-5c‬ﻭﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ‪EH-5b‬‬
‫ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻹﺭﺳﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻲ‬
‫)‪(275 0‬‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ • ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪WR-1‬‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫• ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ‪) WR-R10‬ﺗﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻬﺎﻳﺊ ‪WR‬‬
‫‪(WR-A10‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ‬
‫• ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪WR-T10‬‬
‫• ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﻣﻄﺎﻃﻴﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪DK-19‬‬
‫ﺇﻛﺴﺴﻮﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ • ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﺑﺘﺮ ‪DK-17C‬‬
‫• ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ‪DK-17M‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫• ﻣﻜﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ‪) DG-2‬ﻳﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻬﺎﻳﺊ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ‪(DK-18‬‬
‫• ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻣﺔ ﺗﻜﺜﻒ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﺎﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ‪/DK-14‬ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻣﺔ ﺗﻜﺜﻒ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﺎﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ‪DK-17A‬‬
‫• ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻋﻴﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﺑﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﻟﻮﺭﻳﻦ ‪DK-17F‬‬
‫• ﻣﻠﺤﻖ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺑﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺣﺎﺩﺓ ‪/DR-5‬ﻣﻠﺤﻖ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺑﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺣﺎﺩﺓ ‪DR-4‬‬
‫ﻛﺎﺑﻼﺕ ‪ HDMI‬ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ‪ HDMI‬ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪HC-E1‬‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪/BS-3‬ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪BS-1‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻏﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻢ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻢ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪/BF-1B‬ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻢ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪BF-1A‬‬
‫ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺇﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻲ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪WT-7‬‬
‫‪295‬‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪Camera Control Pro 2‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﻣﺞ‬
‫• ﺳﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ‪/MC-22‬ﺳﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ‪) MC-22A‬ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺇﻛﺴﺴﻮﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫‪ 1‬ﻡ *(‬
‫ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫• ﺳﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ‪/MC-30‬ﺳﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ‪) MC-30A‬ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫‪ 80‬ﺳﻢ*(‬
‫• ﺳﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ‪/MC-36‬ﺳﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ‪) MC-36A‬ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ‬
‫‪ 85‬ﺳﻢ*(‬
‫• ﺳﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺪﻳﺪ ‪/MC-21‬ﺳﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺪﻳﺪ ‪) MC-21A‬ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ‪ 3‬ﻡ*(‬
‫• ﺳﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ‪/MC-23‬ﺳﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ‪) MC-23A‬ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ‪ 40‬ﺳﻢ*(‬
‫• ﺳﻠﻚ ﻣﻬﺎﻳﺊ ‪/MC-25‬ﺳﻠﻚ ﻣﻬﺎﻳﺊ ‪) MC-25A‬ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ‪ 20‬ﺳﻢ*(‬
‫• ﻣﻬﺎﻳﺊ ‪WR-A10 WR‬‬
‫‪† (221‬‬
‫• ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ‪ GPS‬ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪/GP-1‬ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ‪ GPS‬ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪0) GP-1A‬‬
‫• ﻃﻘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ‪ML-3‬‬
‫* ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫† ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻵﻥ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ‪.GP-1A/GP-1‬‬
‫ﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬
‫• ﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﺳﺘﻴﺮﻳﻮ ‪ME-1‬‬
‫• ﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻲ ‪ME-W1‬‬
‫)‪(67 0‬‬
‫ﺃﻏﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺻﻞ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ‪UF-4 USB‬‬
‫ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‪ .‬ﺯﺭ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻨﺎ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺩﻟﺘﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺪﺙ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪296‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻭﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ )ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻞ( ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﻄﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺴﻚ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺈﺣﻜﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻐﻄﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻷﺳﻔﻞ ﺑﺎﻹﺑﻬﺎﻡ ﻭﺃﺩﺧﻠﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻭﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻻﺝ )‪،(q‬‬
‫ﺃﻣﺴﻚ ﺑﺨﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻘﺔ ‪ DK-17F‬ﺑﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺇﺻﺒﻌﻴﻦ ﻭﺃﺩﺭﻫﺎ ﻭﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﺯﺍﻟﺘﻬﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ )‪ .(w‬ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺑﻞ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺇﺯﺍﻟﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪297‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﺸﺒﻚ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ‪USB/HDMI‬‬
‫ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﻧﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺄ‪ ،‬ﺛﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺒﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺎﺑﻼﺕ ‪ HDMI‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ‬
‫‪ USB‬ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺢ )ﻳﺒﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺤﻲ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ‪USB‬؛ ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺒﻚ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻛﺎﺑﻼﺕ ‪ HDMI‬ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ(‪ .‬ﺍﺣﺘﻔﻆ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺸﺒﻚ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺑﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ‪ HDMI‬ﻫﻨﺎ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ‪ HDMI‬ﻫﻨﺎ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ‪ HDMI‬ﻫﻨﺎ‬
‫ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ‪USB‬‬
‫‪298‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻛﻮﺍﺑﻞ ‪ HDMI‬ﻭ‬
‫‪ USB‬ﺑﺘﺰﺍﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ MB-D18‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺄﺧﺬ ‪ MB-D18‬ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ EN-EL15a‬ﺃﻭ ‪ EN-EL18c‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺛﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺣﺠﻢ ‪) AA‬ﻗﻠﻮﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ‪ Ni-MH‬ﺃﻭ ﻟﻴﺜﻴﻮﻡ( ﻭﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ "ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻟﻲ" )ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﺩﻱ(‪ :‬ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺰﺭﻳﻦ ‪ AF-ON‬ﻭ‪ ،Fn‬ﻭﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪MB-D18‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪17‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫ﻣﺎﺳﻚ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ‪302................‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪301.....................................................AF-ON‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ‪301..........................‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪301...................................‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ‪302...........................................‬‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺎﻣﻞ‪307................‬‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺣﺠﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪304............................‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪304.......................................‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫‪17‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﺣﺠﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪304............................‬‬
‫ﻣﻮﺻﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪/‬ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ‪302.........................‬‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻢ ‪302..........................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﻤﺎﺭ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ‪302..........................................‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪301...........................................................Fn‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪301.........................................‬‬
‫ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪301.........................................‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﺮﻋﻲ‪301...................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﺒﺲ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻻﺭﺟﻞ‬
‫‪299‬‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫‪22‬‬
‫‪21‬‬
‫‪18‬‬
‫‪19‬‬
‫‪ 21‬ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻣﻞ ‪ MS-D12‬ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬
‫‪ 18‬ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪MS-D12EN‬‬
‫‪304............................................................ AA‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ‪304........... *EN-EL15a‬‬
‫‪ 19‬ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻴﺔ ‪ 22 304................................‬ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻴﺔ )ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫‪304................................................. (MS-D12‬‬
‫‪ 20‬ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻴﺔ )ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫‪304........................................... (MS-D12EN‬‬
‫* ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ‪ MS-D12EN‬ﻓﻲ ‪ MB-D18‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﻭﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ ‪ EH-5b/EH-5c‬ﻭﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪ EP-5B‬ﻣﻊ‬
‫‪ MB-D18‬ﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﺮ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﻣﻮﺛﻮﻕ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ )‪ .(307 0‬ﺃﺩﺧﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪ EP-5B‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ MS-D12EN‬ﻭﻭﺻﻞ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺡ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ )‪.(i 0‬‬
‫‪300‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ ،‬ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻫﺬﻩ ﻧﻔﺲ‬
‫ﻭﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻇﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺃﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻐﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) f5‬ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪،‬‬
‫‪ ،(269 0‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ‪ MB-D18‬ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫❚❚ ﺯﺭ ‪ Fn‬ﻭﺯﺭ ‪AF-ON‬‬
‫ﻣﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪f10‬‬
‫)ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﺍﺭ ‪.(270 0 ،MB-D18‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪Fn‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪AF-ON‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪MB-D18‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ‪ MB-D18‬ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺩﻭﻥ ﻗﺼﺪ‪ .‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻠﻚ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ‬
‫"ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻟﻲ" )ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ(‪ ،‬ﺣﺮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻔﻞ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ‪ .‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺇﻃﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻐﻠﻖ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻐﻠﻖ‬
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‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫❚❚ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻐﻠﻘﺔ ﻭﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ MB-D18‬ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪.L‬‬
‫‪302‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ MB-D18‬ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺤﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ‪ .‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﺯﺍﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﻄﺎﺀ )‪ (q‬ﻭﺿﻌﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ‪.(w) MB-D18‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺿﻊ ‪ ،MB-D18‬ﻣﻊ ﺇﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﻣﺴﻤﺎﺭ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ‪ (w) MB-D18‬ﻣﺤﺎﺫﻳﹰﺎ ﻟﻤﻘﺒﺲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻻﺭﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )‪ ،(q‬ﻭﺃﺣﻜﻢ ﺭﺑﻂ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬
‫ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺢ ﺑﺴﻬﻢ ‪) LOCK‬ﺍﻟﻘﻔﻞ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫‪ .MB-D18‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﻔﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺑﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ .MB-D18‬ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺘﻔﻆ ﺑﻐﻄﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ MB-D18‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺁﻣﻦ ﻟﺘﺠﻨﺐ ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻧﻪ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺒﺎﻋﺪ ﻣﻨﻔﺎﺥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ PB-6D‬ﻭ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪ PK-13‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻣﻠﺤﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻣﻨﻔﺎﺥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ PB-6‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ‪.MB-D18‬‬
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‫❚❚ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ ‪ ،MB-D18‬ﺃﻃﻔﺊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﻲ ‪ MB-D18‬ﻋﻠﻰ ‪،L‬‬
‫ﺛﻢ ﻗﻢ ﺑﻔﻚ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﺑﺴﻬﻢ‬
‫‪) LOCK‬ﺍﻟﻘﻔﻞ( ﻭﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﺯﺍﻟﺔ ‪.MB-D18‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ‪ MB-D18‬ﻣﻊ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪EN-EL15a‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ‪ EN-EL18c‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﻊ ﺛﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ‪ .AA‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻐﻠﻘﺔ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ MB-D18‬ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪.L‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪304‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﻔﻚ ‪ MB-D18‬ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻣﺰﻻﺝ ﺣﺠﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ A‬ﻭﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﺯﺍﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺟﻬﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪.‬‬
‫‪ :EN-EL15a‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﻤﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺩﺋﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫‪ ،MS-D12EN‬ﻭﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻢ‬
‫ﻣﺘﺠﻬﺎ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫)‪ (E‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ )‪ .(q‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﺮﻓﻖ ﻷﺳﻔﻞ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺩﻓﻌﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻢ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺴﺘﻘﺮ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ )‪.(w‬‬
‫‪ :EN-EL18c‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬
‫‪ BL-5‬ﻻ ﻳﻐﻄﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻢ ‪،G‬‬
‫ﺣﺮﻙ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ‬
‫ﻳﻐﻄﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻢ )‪ .(q‬ﺃﺩﺧﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﻟﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻐﻄﺎﺀ ‪ (w) BL-5‬ﻭﺗﺄﻛﺪ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺗﺤﺮﻙ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻢ )‪.(e‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫‪305‬‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ‪ :AA‬ﺿﻊ ﺛﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ‪AA‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﺎﺳﻚ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ MS-D12‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪306‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ‪ EN-EL18c‬ﻓﻲ ‪ MB-D18‬ﻭﺭﻛﺐ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺣﺠﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺎﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻻﺝ؛ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻘﻂ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻐﻄﺎﺀ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ )‪ .(30 0‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﻤﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻟـ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ MB-D18‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻣﻊ ﻧﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺧﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ )‪ .(276 0‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ )‪.(276 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪EP-5B‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ ،EP-5B‬ﺿﻌﻪ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ MS-D12EN‬ﻣﻊ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻢ )‪(E‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ )‪ .(q‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺻﻞ ﺑﺮﻓﻖ ﻷﺳﻔﻞ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺩﻓﻌﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻢ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺴﺘﻘﺮ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ )‪ .(w‬ﺍﻓﺘﺢ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻣﺮﺭ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪ EP-5B‬ﻋﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )‪.(e‬‬
‫‪307‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺇﺳﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﻔﻚ ‪ MB-D18‬ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻣﺰﻻﺝ ﺣﺠﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ A‬ﻭﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﺯﺍﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺣﺠﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪.BL-5‬‬
‫‪ :EN-EL15a‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪) PUSH‬ﺩﻓﻊ(‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﺋﺬ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺒﻴﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﺧﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪ EP-5B‬ﻫﻲ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫‪.EN-EL15a‬‬
‫‪308‬‬
‫‪ :EN-EL18c‬ﺣﺮﻙ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻢ )‪(G‬‬
‫ﻭﻓﻚ ‪.BL-5‬‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ‪ :AA‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ‪ .‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺇﺳﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪309‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻳﻮﻥ ﻟﻴﺜﻴﻮﻡ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ‬
‫ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫‪ EN-EL15a‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ،EN-EL18c‬ﺛﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻗﻠﻮﻳﺔ )‪ 1.5‬ﻓﻮﻟﺖ(‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻟﻴﺜﻴﻮﻡ )‪ 1.5‬ﻓﻮﻟﺖ( ‪ ،AA‬ﺃﻭ ﺛﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻫﻴﺪﺭﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﻜﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺪﻧﻲ )‪ 1.2‬ﻓﻮﻟﺖ( ‪ AA‬ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ‪) EH-5b/EH-5c‬ﻳﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪(EP-5B‬؛‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ‪ EN-EL15‬ﻭ‪ EN-EL15b‬ﻭ‪ EN-EL18‬ﻭ‪ EN-EL18a‬ﻭ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻣﺪﻋﻮﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪EN-EL15‬‬
‫‪ EN-EL18b‬ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ‪/EN-EL15b‬‬
‫‪ EN-EL15a‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺷﺤﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺮﺓﹰ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪EN-EL18‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ‬
‫‪ EN-EL18a/EN-EL18b/EN-EL18c‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺷﺤﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺮﺓﹰ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫)‪ (365 0‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ‪ EN-EL18c‬ﻭ‪ EN-EL18b‬ﻭ‪ EN-EL18a‬ﻭ‬
‫‪ EN-EL18‬ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺷﺎﺣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ MH-26a‬ﺃﻭ ‪MH-26‬‬
‫ﻭﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺣﺠﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪) BL-5‬ﻛﻼﻫﻤﺎ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻞ(‬
‫‪° 0‬ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ ‪° 40 -‬ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ )ﻋﺮﺽ × ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ × ﻋﻤﻖ( ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 79 × 51 × 152‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫• ‪ 355‬ﺟﻢ ﻣﻊ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ MS-D12EN‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺯﻥ )ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺒﻲ(‬
‫‪EN-EL15a‬‬
‫• ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ‪ 450‬ﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﻣﻊ ‪ MS-D12‬ﻭﺛﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺣﺠﻢ ‪AA‬‬
‫)ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﻴﻊ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ(‬
‫• ‪ 305‬ﺟﻢ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎﺳﻚ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ MS-D12EN‬ﻭﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ ‪EP-5B‬‬
‫• ‪ 435‬ﺟﻢ ﻣﻊ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺣﺠﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ ‪ BL-5‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫‪EN-EL18c‬‬
‫• ‪ 280‬ﺟﻢ ﻣﻊ ‪MS-D12EN‬‬
‫• ‪ 265‬ﺟﻢ ﻣﻊ ‪MS-D12‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺘﻔﻆ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻭﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺇﺧﻄﺎﺭ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ‪ .‬ﻟﻦ ﺗﺘﺤﻤﻞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺿﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻨﺠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻱ ﺃﺧﻄﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﺗﺮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
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‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻣﻤﺘﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺰﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺧﺰﻧﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﺭﺩ‬
‫ﻭﺟﺎﻑ ﻣﻊ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻑ‪ .‬ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻔﻦ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻄﺮﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺧﺰﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺟﺎﻑ ﺟﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻮﺋﺔ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﺨﺰﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﺘﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻛﺮﺍﺕ ﻛﺎﻓﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺘﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻛﻦ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻮﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﺿﺔ ﻟﺮﻃﻮﺑﺔ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ‪60%‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻭﺭﺓ ﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﻛﻬﺮﻭﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻗﻮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺍﺩﻳﻮ‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﺿﺔ ﻟﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ‪° 50‬ﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪° -10‬ﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺮﻭﺣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺍﻛﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﻣﺴﺤﻬﺎ ﺑﺮﻓﻖ‬
‫ﺑﻘﻄﻌﺔ ﻗﻤﺎﺵ ﻧﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﺟﺎﻓﺔ‪ .‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﺊ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺠﺎﻧﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ‪ ،‬ﺗﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻣﻼﺡ ﺑﻘﻄﻌﺔ ﻗﻤﺎﺵ ﻣﺒﻠﻠﺔ ﻗﻠﻴﻼ ﹰ ﺑﻤﺎﺀ ﻣﻘﻄﺮ ﺛﻢ‬
‫ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺟﻔﻒ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﺎﻡ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺣﺪﺍﺙ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻒ ﻻ ﻳﻐﻄﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﺟﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﻋﺮﺿﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﺴﺮ ﺑﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺮﻭﺣﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺮﻭﺣﺔ ﺿﺒﺎﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﻮﺓ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺭﺃﺳﻲ ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﺧﺮﻭﺝ ﺳﺎﺋﻞ‪ .‬ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺼﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺻﺎﺑﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻘﻊ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺃﺿﻒ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ﻗﻤﺎﺵ ﻧﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﻭﻧﻈﻒ‬
‫ﺑﺤﺮﺹ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﻟﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺮﻭﺣﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺼﻤﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺻﺎﺑﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻘﻊ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﺴﺢ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﺢ ﺑﺮﻓﻖ ﺑﻘﻄﻌﺔ ﻗﻤﺎﺵ ﻧﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺟﻠﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺷﻤﻮﺍﺓ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻠﻒ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻛﺤﻮﻻ ﹰ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺨﻔﻒ ﺩﻫﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﻛﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻃﻴﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
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‫ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺗﺸﻚ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺍﻵﻥ‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ "ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺍﻵﻥ"‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻷﺳﻔﻞ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﺩ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪ .J‬ﺳﺘﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻔﺤﺺ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﺑﺪﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ‪ .‬ﻳﻮﻣﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ 1‬ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻻ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻗﻴﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﻨﺰﻉ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻔﺼﻞ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﻨﺘﻬﻲ‬
‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪.‬‬
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‫❚❚ "ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﺪﺀ‪/‬ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ"‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﺪﺀ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 5‬ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ‬
‫ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 6‬ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﺪﺀ ﻭﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﺪﺀ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 7‬ﻭﻭﻗﻒ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ‬
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‫ﺣﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﺪﺀ‪/‬ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻛﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻣﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ "ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺍﻵﻥ" )‪ .(312 0‬ﻇﻠﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﺪﺀ‪/‬ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
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‫‪ D‬ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﺯﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻳﻘﺎﻃﻊ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺗﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻧﻈﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﹰﺎ )‪ (315 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺸﺮ ﻣﻤﺜﻞ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﻗﺼﻴﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
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‫❚❚ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻌﺬﺭ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪ (312 0‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﻨﺪﺋﺬ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ‬
‫ﻳﺪﻭﻳﺎ ﹰ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺭﻗﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ ﻧﻮﺻﻲ ﺑﺄﻻ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻣﻤﺜﻞ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ‪.‬‬
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‫ﺍﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺻﻞ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻌﻴﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻓﺤﺺ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺗﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﺮﺩﺩ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ‪ J‬ﻭﻟﻢ ﺗﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺫﻛﻲ ﻋﺒﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮﺗﻮﺙ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻋﺒﺮ ‪.USB‬‬
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‫ﻓﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﻓﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
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‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﻇﻠﻞ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
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‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺳﺘﻈﻬﺮ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻭﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺻﻒ ﺷﺮﻃﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ .‬ﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ‬
‫ﻓﺤﺺ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
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‫ﺍﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺭﻓﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻭﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺳﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪،‬‬
‫ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﺘﻨﻄﻔﺊ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺑﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﺳﻴﻮﻣﺾ ﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻃﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
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‫ﺍﻓﺤﺺ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻣﺴﻚ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﺴﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻓﺤﺺ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺑﺤﺜﹰﺎ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺃﻳﺔ ﺃﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻧﺴﺎﻟﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺃﺟﺴﺎﻡ‬
‫ﻏﺮﻳﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺧﻄﻮﺓ ‪.8‬‬
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‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻱ ﺃﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﻭﻧﺴﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺮﻭﺣﺔ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﺮﺷﺎﺓ ﻣﺮﻭﺣﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﻻ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻳﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺷﻌﻴﺮﺍﺗﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻣﺮﻭﺣﺔ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺪ ﻓﻨﻲ‬
‫ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ‪ .‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻟﻤﺲ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺴﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ‪.‬‬
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‫ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﺘﻌﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻟﻮﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻠﻲ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻭﺳﺘﻐﻠﻖ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﺃﻋﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻢ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺭﻗﻴﻖ ﻭﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻧﻔﺪﺕ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‪ .‬ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﺤﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﻄﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻐﻄﺎﺀ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻐﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﺰﻉ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻔﺼﻞ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻧﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺻﻔﻴﺮ ﻭﺳﻴﻮﻣﺾ‬
‫ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ ﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻬﻚ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺧﻔﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺘﻴﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﺤﺺ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
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‫‪ D‬ﺍﻷﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﺗﻠﺘﺼﻖ ﺍﻷﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻓﻚ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻏﻄﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻢ )ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﻧﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﺯﻳﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺤﻴﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺟﺴﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ(‬
‫ﺑﻤﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻖ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻐﻄﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻱ ﺃﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻏﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﻣﻠﺘﺼﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻤﻮﺿﻊ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻢ‪ .‬ﺗﺠﻨﺐ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻢ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺃﺗﺮﺑﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺃﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﻏﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﻓﻲ "ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ" )‪ .(312 0‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‬
‫ﻧﻈﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﹰﺎ )‪ (315 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻃﻠﺐ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻨﻲ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﹼ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺄﺛﺮﺓ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﻏﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺻﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺫﻭ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻭﺗﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺻﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺩﻭﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﺗﻨﺼﺢ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﻔﺤﺺ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺪ ﻣﻮﺯﻉ ﺃﺻﻠﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻤﺜﻞ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻛﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺎﻣﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻴﺎﻧﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻛﻞ‬
‫ﺛﻼﺙ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺧﻤﺲ ﺃﻋﻮﺍﻡ )ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺼﻴﻞ ﺭﺳﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺨﺪﻣﺔ(‪ .‬ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺤﺺ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻬﻨﻲ ﻣﺤﺘﺮﻑ‪ .‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﺇﺭﻓﺎﻕ‬
‫ﺃﻱ ﻛﻤﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﺘﻈﻢ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻓﺤﺺ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
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‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﺴﻘﻄﻪ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻟﻘﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻴﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺟﺎﻓﹰﺎ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻡ ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺼﻴﺒﻪ ﻗﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻏﻤﺮﻩ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻃﻮﺑﺔ‪ .‬ﺻﺪﺃ ﺁﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻒ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﺻﻼﺣﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺠﻨﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﺟﺊ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﺟﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺪﺙ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺒﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺗﺪﻓﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺑﺎﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺴﺒﺐ ﺗﻜﺜﻒ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺜﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻘﻴﺒﺔ ﺣﻤﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻛﻴﺲ ﺑﻼﺳﺘﻴﻚ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﺟﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﻌﻴ ﹰﺪﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺨﺰﻧﻪ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺗﻮﻟﺪ ﺇﺷﻌﺎﻉ ﻛﻬﺮﻭﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﻗﻮﻱ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﺘﺴﺒﺐ‬
‫ﺷﺤﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﺘﺠﻬﺎ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺇﺭﺳﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺩﻳﻮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺗﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺰﻧﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺘﺞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﺘﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻮﺟﻬﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺗﺘﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻮﺟﻬﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺿﻮﺀ‬
‫ﻗﻮﻳﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻣﻤﺘﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻓﺴﺎﺩ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺗﺸﻮﻳﺶ‬
‫ﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻧﺰﻉ ﺃﻭ ﻓﺼﻞ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺗﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﺰﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻥ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﺤﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﺨﻄﺄ‪ ،‬ﺗﺠﻨﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻵﺧﺮ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺑﻤﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬‬
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‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ‪ :‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺮﻭﺣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺍﻛﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﻟﺔ ﺑﺮﻓﻖ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﻣﺴﺤﻬﺎ ﺑﺮﻓﻖ ﺑﻘﻄﻌﺔ ﻗﻤﺎﺵ ﻧﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﺟﺎﻓﺔ‪ .‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﺊ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺠﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ‪ ،‬ﺗﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻣﻼﺡ ﺑﻘﻄﻌﺔ ﻗﻤﺎﺵ ﻣﺒﻠﻠﺔ ﻗﻠﻴﻼ ﹰ ﺑﻤﺎﺀ ﻧﻈﻴﻒ‬
‫ﺛﻢ ﺟﻔﻒ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺩﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ‪ .LCD‬ﻻ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺘﻌﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺘﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﻭﺟﻴﺰﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻣﻌﺮﺿﺘﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﻟﺔ ﺑﺮﻓﻖ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻣﺮﻭﺣﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺮﻭﺣﺔ ﺿﺒﺎﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺴﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﻮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺭﺃﺳﻲ ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﺗﺴﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺼﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺻﺎﺑﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻘﻊ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﺿﻒ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ﻗﻤﺎﺵ ﻧﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﻭﻧﻈﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺤﺮﺹ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ "ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ" )‪ (312 0‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻮﺻﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ :‬ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻈﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻠﻤﺲ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ :‬ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺭﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻳﺔ ﻭﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻟﻠﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﺄﻱ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻟﻤﺴﻪ ﺑﺄﺩﺍﺓ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻀﻪ ﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻫﻮﺍﺀ ﻗﻮﻱ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺮﻭﺣﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﺗﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺧﺪﺵ‪ ،‬ﺗﺸﻮﻳﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻤﺰﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻐﻄﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺳﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﺄﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﺘﻐﺎﻳﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﺃﻱ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‪.‬‬
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‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‪ :‬ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻔﻦ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻄﺮﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺧﺰﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺟﺎﻑ ﺟﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻮﺋﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﻨﺖ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻓﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻮﻝ ﻟﺘﺠﻨﺐ ﻧﺸﻮﺏ ﺣﺮﻳﻖ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺰﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﺘﺠﻨﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺮﻳﺐ ﻭﺧﺰﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻴﺲ ﺑﻼﺳﺘﻴﻚ ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺠﻔﻔﺔ‪ .‬ﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺗﺨﺰﻥ ﻋﺒﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻴﺲ ﺑﻼﺳﺘﻴﻚ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻓﺴﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻨﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻔﻔﺔ ﺗﻔﻘﺪ ﻗﺪﺭﺗﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻣﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﺮﻃﻮﺑﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺞ‬
‫ﻭﻳﺠﺐ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻟﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﻨﺘﻈﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﺠﻨﺐ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻔﻦ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻄﺮﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻬﺮ‪ .‬ﺷﻐﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺣﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﺧﺰﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﺭﺩ ﻭﺟﺎﻑ‪ .‬ﺭﻛﺐ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﺼﻨﻮﻋﺔ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺔ؛ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ﺗﺒﻠﻎ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺑﻜﺴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﺔ ‪ ،99.99%‬ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻦ ‪ 0.01%‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﻔﻘﻮﺩ ﺃﻭ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ )ﺑﻴﻀﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺣﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺯﺭﻗﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺧﻀﺮﺍﺀ( ﺃﻭ ﻣﻄﻔﺄﺓ ﹰ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺑﻜﺴﻞ ﻣﻀﻴﺌﺔ ﹰ‬
‫)ﺳﻮﺩﺍﺀ(‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻄﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻱ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺑﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺐ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻠﻒ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺮﻭﺣﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻊ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﺴﺤﻬﺎ ﺑﺮﻓﻖ ﺑﻘﻄﻌﺔ ﻗﻤﺎﺵ ﻧﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺟﻠﺪ ﺷﻤﻮﺍﻩ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﺴﺮ‪ ،‬ﻳﺠﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻺﺻﺎﺑﺔ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﺰﺟﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺴﻮﺭ ﻭﺗﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﻟﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﻳﺴﺘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺒﺸﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻢ‪.‬‬
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‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﺘﺴﺮﻳﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﻧﻔﺠﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﺑﺄﺳﻠﻮﺏ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪ .‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻮﺍﺣﻦ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻬﺐ ﺃﻭ ﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﻣﻔﺮﻃﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻈﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺃﻭﻗﻒ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﻝ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻑ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﻛﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﺿﺌﻴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﻐﻠﻘﺔ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﻔﺮﻳﻐﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺧﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﻓﺮﻏﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺇﺧﺮﺍﺟﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‪ .‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺨﺰﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﺭﺩ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪° 15‬ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ ﻭ ‪° 25‬ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ؛ ﺗﺠﻨﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺷﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﺩﺓ(‪ .‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺸﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺗﻔﺮﻳﻐﻬﺎ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻛﻞ ﺳﺘﺔ ﺃﺷﻬﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻤﺎﻣﺎ ﺳﻴﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻘﺼﻴﺮ‬
‫• ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺘﻜﺮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﺎﺭﻏﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﻤﺎﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﻟﻠﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭﻏﺔ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫• ﻗﺪ ﺗﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‪ .‬ﻣﺤﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ‬
‫ﺟﺰﺋﻴﺎ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﺳﻴﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺿﻌﻒ ﺃﺩﺍﺋﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺤﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺒﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺷﺤﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺰﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﻣﺤﻴﻄﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪° 5‬ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ ﻭ ‪° 35‬ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻻ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪° 0‬ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ‪° 40‬ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ؛ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺗﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻘﻠﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻋﻤﻠﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺔ ﻭﺗﺰﺩﺍﺩ ﺃﻭﻗﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪° 0‬ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪° 15‬ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﻣﻦ ‪° 45‬ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫‪° 60‬ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻦ ﺗﺸﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪° 0‬ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ‪° 60‬ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
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‫• ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻣﻴﺾ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﻊ ﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ‪) CHARGE‬ﺷﺤﻦ( )ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻮﻣﻴﺾ ﺛﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ(‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ‪ ،‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺛﻢ ﺍﻓﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ ﻭﺍﻧﺰﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺭﻛﺒﻬﺎ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﺎﺋﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺰﺋﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻤﺜﻞ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﺤﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻠﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ‪ .‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﺟ ﹰﺪﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻛﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺷﺤﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﺰﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺭﻛﺒﻬﺎ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻗﺪ ﺗﻘﻞ ﺳﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺷﺤﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺷﺤﻨﺖ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪° 5‬ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫)‪ (276 0‬ﺍﻧﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺷﺤﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺿﻌﻒ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻳﺪﻝ ﺍﻻﻧﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻮﻅ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﺣﺘﻔﺎﻅ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺸﺤﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺸﺮﺍﺀ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﻣﻬﺎﻳﺊ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻘﻴﻦ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻊ ﺷﺎﺣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ‬
‫‪ MH-25a‬ﻓﻘﻂ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻌﻪ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ .‬ﺍﻓﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻮﺻﻞ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺑﺒﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ )ﻗﺼﺮ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ(‪ .‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺳﺨﻮﻧﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻟﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺎﺕ ﻫﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﺟﻬﺰ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ .‬ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺐ ﺷﺮﺍﺀ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ ﺣﺠﺰ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ‬
‫ﺃﻧﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﺗﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﺳﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﺎﺥ ﺑﺎﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﺣﺘﻔﻆ ﺑﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﻓﺊ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﻟﻬﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﺰﻭﻡ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﺴﺘﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺩﺓ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺤﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﻤﺠﺮﺩ ﺗﺪﻓﺌﺘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ؛ ﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮﻫﺎ‪.‬‬
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‫ﺗﺤﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻞ ﻭﺍﺻﻼﺣﻪ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﺗﻨﺠﺢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﻭﻇﺎﺋﻔﻬﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻊ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻛﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺋﻌﺔ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺋﻊ ﻟﺪﻳﻚ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻤﺜﻞ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺠﻴﺐ‪ :‬ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺰﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺭﻛﺒﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻓﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻮﻝ ﺛﻢ ﺃﻋﺪ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﻳﺔ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺟﺎﺭﻱ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻟﻦ ﺗﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﺑﻨﺰﻉ ﺃﻭ ﻓﺼﻞ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ :‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ )‪ .(9 0‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺫﻟﻚ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻓﺮﺩﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪AF-S‬؛ ‪ ،(98 0‬ﻭﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ )‪ ،(100 0‬ﻭﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻱ )‪ ،(105 0‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﻫﺪﻓﹰﺎ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﺑﺘﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺑﻮﺿﻮﺡ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﺰﻡ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ )‪.(295 0‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺩﺍﻛﻦ‪ :‬ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ )‪.(30 ،14 0‬‬
‫ﺗﹸﻐﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﺤﺬﻳﺮ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺗﺄﺧﺮ ﺃﻃﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c2‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ؛ ‪ (263 0‬ﺃﻭ ‪) c4‬ﺗﺄﺧﺮ ﺍﻧﻄﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ؛ ‪.(264 0‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺠﻴﺐ ﺷﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺑﺈﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻓﺘﺮﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ ﻟﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﻤﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ :‬ﻳﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻣﺮﹰﺍ‬
‫ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﻄﻞ‪.‬‬
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‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﻐﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻟﻠﺒﺪﺀ‪ :‬ﺍﺣﺬﻑ ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺠﻠﺪﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻢ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻣﻘﻔﻠﺔ )ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ‪ SD‬ﻓﻘﻂ؛ ‪ ،(17 0‬ﻣﻤﺘﻠﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻟﻬﺎ )‪.(31 0‬‬
‫• ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺗﻔﺮﻳﻎ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫)‪ (276 0‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )‪.(16 0‬‬
‫• ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ‪ CPU‬ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻣﻘﻔﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ )ﻻ ﻳﻨﻄﺒﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G‬ﻭ ‪ .(E‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ‪ B‬ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) f4‬ﺗﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ( < ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )‪.(269 0‬‬
‫• ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ S‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪ A‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪ %‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫)‪.(133 ،129 0‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﺠﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺒﻂﺀ ﻟﺰﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺩ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) d5‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ؛ ‪.(264 0‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪ :‬ﺃﻭﻗﻒ ‪) HDR‬ﻣﺪﻯ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ( )‪.(182 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪.(94 0) AF‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪.(111 ,108 0‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺻﻔﻴﺮ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﻴﺮ < ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪/‬ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ )‪.(274 0‬‬
‫• ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪ AF-C‬ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪.(98 0‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻗﻴﺪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) e1‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ(؛ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪ 1/250‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ )‪ FP‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ( ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ )‪.(266 0‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ‪ :AF-C‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﻟﻘﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪.(108 0‬‬
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‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺣﺮﺭ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪.(105 0‬‬
‫• ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻷﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻌﺎ ﺁﺧﺮ )‪.(100 ،42 0‬‬
‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
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‫• ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )‪ (223 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﻗﻴﺪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ )‪.(248 0‬‬
‫• ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ )‪.(34 0‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺩ ﻻ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻗﻴﻮﺩ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) a10‬ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.(262 0 ،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ :‬ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ )‪.(253 0‬‬
‫ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ )ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻜﺴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺿﺒﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ( ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪:‬‬
‫• ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻜﺴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺒﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﻁ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪.ISO‬‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ ‪ NR‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻟﻠﺤﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﺑﻘﻊ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺿﺒﺎﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺃﺑﻄﺄ ﻣﻦ ‪ 1‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ )‪.(253 0‬‬
‫• ﻗﺪ ﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻘﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ‬
‫ﻧﻈﺮﹰﺍ ﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺑﻬﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻈﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺒﺮﺩ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺌﻨﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻠﺘﻘﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻌﺾ‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺣﺪﺙ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺃﻗﻞ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ ‪ ISO‬ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺧﻔﺾ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻜﺴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻴﺎ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺎﺩﻱ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ‪ ISO NR‬ﻋﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫)‪.(258 ،253 0‬‬
‫• ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ ‪ ISO‬ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﺒﺪﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻜﺴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﺎﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﻁ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﻣﺤﻴﻄﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻣﻊ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫)‪ (175 0‬ﺃﻭ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻗﻴﻢ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪.(178 0‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻭ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺗﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﺑﻤﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﻤﺎﺛﻞ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺒﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )‪.(45 0‬‬
‫‪326‬‬
‫ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺗﺮﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ )‪.(258 0‬‬
‫ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ :‬ﺗﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻣﻀﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻗﺼﻴﺮﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﻟﻄﺨﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ :‬ﻧﻈﻒ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻧﻈﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪.(312 0‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻟﻤﻨﻊ‬
‫ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﺃﻭ ﻻ ﻳﺒﺪﺃ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻄﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫• ﺗﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﻤﺘﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫• ﺗﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﻤﺘﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ ،a‬ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺒﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﺛﻢ ﺃﻋﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻭﻟﺔ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺩﺍﻓﺌﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﻄﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺃﺧﻄﺎﺀ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ "ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ" )ﺑﻴﻜﺴﻼﺕ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺿﺒﺎﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻌﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﻤﺖ ﺑﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫)‪ (40 0‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ؛ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻭﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻜﺴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺒﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻘﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺑﺤﺠﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ )‪ .(69 0‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻨﺸﺄ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻜﺴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﺎﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻘﻊ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ؛ ﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪ :‬ﻫﺪﻑ ﺷﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻹﻇﻼﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺳﺎﻃﻊ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻳﺔ )‪.(166 0‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻛﻤﺼﺪﺭ ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪ :‬ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫‪.(172 0) D850‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺃﻭ ‪ NEF+JPEG‬ﻓﻲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪.(88 0‬‬
‫• ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻧﺸﻂ )‪.(254 0‬‬
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‫ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ Picture Control‬ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ :‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪،Picture Control‬ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺑﻨﺎ ﹰﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪) A‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ( ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻮﺿﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺻﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺁﺧﺮ )‪.(177 0‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻧﺸﻂ )‪.(138 0‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ P‬ﺃﻭ ‪ S‬ﺃﻭ ‪A‬‬
‫)‪.(139 ،126 0‬‬
‫ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ )ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺣﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺸﻮﻫﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ( ﻓﻲ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ‪ :‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻤﻜﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ )‪.(253 0‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪ :‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﻟـ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ )‪.(258 0‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ )‪ :NEF (RAW‬ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺠﻮﺩﺓ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪.(89 0) NEF + JPEG‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺑﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻤﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )‪.(248 0‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺍﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ "ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻟﻲ" )ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ( ﻓﻲ ﺍﺗﺠﺎﻩ "ﻋﺮﻳﺾ" )ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ(‪:‬‬
‫• ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ )‪.(249 0‬‬
‫• ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻃﻮﻟﻴﺎ )‪.(249 0‬‬
‫• ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪.(249 0‬‬
‫• ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻮﺟﻬﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺳﻔﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺤﻤﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻎ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ )‪.(240 0‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻔﻴﺪ ﺑﻌﺪﻡ ﺍﺣﺘﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻳﺔ ﺻﻮﺭ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )‪.(248 0‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻭ ‪ TIFF‬ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ‬
‫‪ USB‬ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻭﻗﻢ ﺑﻄﺒﺎﻋﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ‪ .(ii 0) Capture NX-D‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺣﻔﻆ ﺻﻮﺭ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ JPEG‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ )‪.(278 0) NEF (RAW‬‬
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‫ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺪﻳﻮ ﺍﻟﺠﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ‪) HDMI‬ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ‬
‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ( ﻣﺘﺼﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺤﻘﻖ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ Capture NX-D‬ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ‪:‬‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺻﻮﺭ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ :‬ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺃﻭ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫‪.(ii 0) Capture NX-D‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ‪ :‬ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻗﺎﺭﺉ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮﺗﻮﺙ ﻭ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ‪) Wi-Fi‬ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ(‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﺮﻑ ‪ SSID‬ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ(‪:‬‬
‫• ﺗﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺮﺍﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )‪.(275 0‬‬
‫• ﺗﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻠﻮﺗﻮﺙ < ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺣﺎﻭﻝ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ‪ Wi-Fi‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻲ ﺛﻢ ﺃﻋﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻠﻪ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺬﺭ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﺎﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ‪.SnapBridge‬‬
‫ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﻣﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪ :‬ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻀﺒﻮﻃﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺳﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻴﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺰﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻓﺤﺺ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﺑﺎﻧﺘﻈﺎﻡ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻭﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﻨﺪ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺗﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬‬
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‫ﺭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻞ‬
‫ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﺭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺄ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪،‬‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫‪B‬‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻀﺒﻮﻃﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻞ‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺤﻠﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫)ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ؛ ‪.(127 0‬‬
‫ﺟﻬﺰ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫ﹼ‬
‫‪ d‬ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ‪.‬‬
‫‪H‬‬
‫)‪.(30 ،14 0‬‬
‫• ﺍﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﻟﻬﺎ‬
‫• ﻧﻔﺪﺕ ﺷﺤﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫)‪.(295 ،30 ،14 0‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ • .‬ﺍﺗﺼﻞ ﺑﻤﻤﺜﻞ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫• ﺗﻢ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻳﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻳﻮﻥ ﻟﻴﺜﻴﻮﻡ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻴﺜﻴﻮﻡ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ‬
‫‪d‬‬
‫‪H‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻨﻔﺪﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﻔﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ( )ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫ﺑﻤﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺇﻣﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺑﻔﻮﻟﻄﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ‬
‫‪.MB-D18‬‬
‫• ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ‪ • .‬ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻈﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺒﺮﺩ‪.‬‬
‫‪330‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫‪ CPU‬ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ‬
‫‪F‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺷﻜﻞ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻭﻗﻔﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫‪ F H‬ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫—‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺳﺎﻃﻊ ﺟ ﹰﺪﺍ؛ ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﺯﺍﺋﺪ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺗﻮﻣﺾ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺩﺍﻛﻦ ﺟ ﹰﺪﺍ؛ ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻧﺎﻗﺺ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻞ‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ )‪.(218 0‬‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﹰﺎ )‪.(111 ،32 0‬‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺃﻗﻞ )‪.(119 0‬‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ‪ ND‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪ S‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ )‪(129 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺃﺻﻐﺮ )ﺭﻗﻢ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ؛‬
‫‪(130 0‬‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺃﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫)‪.(119 0‬‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ )‪(187 0‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪ S‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ )‪(129 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ )ﺭﻗﻢ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺃﻗﻞ؛‬
‫‪(130 0‬‬
‫‪331‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫‪%‬‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ‪ A‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪.S‬‬
‫ﺗﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ‪ %‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪.S‬‬
‫‪ k 1‬ﺟﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ( )ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﻣﻴﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ‬
‫‪ 3 c‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ‬
‫—‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ( ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻧﺎﻗﺺ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻖ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫‪Y‬‬
‫—‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻞ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﹼ‬
‫ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ )‪.(131 ،129 0‬‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﹼ‬
‫ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ )‪.(131 ،129 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﻜﺘﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺎﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ؛ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬
‫ﺑﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻧﺎﻗﺺ‪ ،‬ﻋﺪﻝ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺣﺎﻭﻝ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ‬
‫)‪.(288 ،193 0‬‬
‫• ﻗﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺠﻮﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ )‪.(91 ،88 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻻ ﺗﻜﻔﻲ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫• ﺍﺣﺬﻑ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻤﺔ‬
‫‪ j n‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻱ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺁﺧﺮ‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ( )ﻳﻮﻣﺾ( ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﻔﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ‬
‫)‪.(245 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ )‪.(16 0‬‬
‫ﺣﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬
‫‪O‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻇﻬﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﺗﺼﻞ ﺑﻤﻤﺜﻞ‬
‫ﺧﻠﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪332‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻞ‬
‫ﺃﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ S .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫)‪.(16 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺧﻄﺄ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ • ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ )‪.(360 0‬‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺄ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺇﺧﺮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻟﻬﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻤﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻫﺬﻩ‪W .‬‬
‫ﺗﺎﻟﻔﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺗﺼﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺎﺋﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻤﺜﻞ‬
‫‪،R‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ‪.‬‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ • ﺍﺣﺬﻑ ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺎﻣﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻱ‬
‫ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺁﺧﺮ )‪.(360 ،245 ،16 0‬‬
‫• ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪.Eye-Fi‬‬
‫‪ ،W‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫• ﺍﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬
‫‪ O‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫‪m‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪ Eye-Fi‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ( ‪.Eye-Fi‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺃﺧﺮ ﻭﻫﻴﺊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫‪،‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﻔﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ ‪ W‬ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻣﻘﻔﻠﺔ‬
‫‪) X‬ﻣﺤﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻔﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫"ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻊ "ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ" )‪.(17 0‬‬
‫‪،W‬‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪ Eye-Fi‬ﻣﻘﻔﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪ Eye-Fi‬ﻣﻘﻔﻠﺔ‪) O .‬ﻣﺤﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫‪333‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻢ ﺗﺘﻢ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪334‬‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻢ ﺗﺘﻢ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫[‬
‫]‬
‫‪ C‬ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻟﺘﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻲ‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ .‬ﻳﺮﺟﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻈﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫—‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻳﺔ ﺻﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫—‬
‫ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻣﺨﻔﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫—‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‪.‬‬
‫—‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‪.‬‬
‫—‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻞ‬
‫ﻫﻴﺊ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ )‪.(360 ،271 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺒﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﻜﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺩﺧﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ )ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪﺍﺕ(‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎ‬
‫)‪.(248 ،16 0‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺃﺧﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺇﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻣﺨﻔﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻠﺴﻤﺎﺡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ﺑﻌﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ )‪.(248 0‬‬
‫ﻣﻠﻒ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻩ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻠﻪ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﻛﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﻠﻒ‬
‫ﺗﺎﻟﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻻ‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﺑﺄﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺤﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫—‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫—‬
‫ﺧﻄﺄ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻞ‬
‫• ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﺑﺄﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺘﻴﻦ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ )‪.(81 0‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻠﻤﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ )ﺇﻥ ﻭﺟﺪ( *‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ‬
‫—‬
‫ﺗﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺸﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻕ ﻣﺤﺸﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ‬
‫—‬
‫ﺍﻧﺤﺸﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ *‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﻭﺭﻕ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫ﻧﻔﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫—‬
‫ﻧﻔﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ *‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺒﺮ‪ .‬ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺌﻨﺎﻑ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻣﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺧﻄﺄ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺒﺮ‪.‬‬
‫—‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ *‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺒﺮ‪.‬‬
‫—‬
‫ﻧﻔﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺤﺒﺮ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ *‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻔﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺒﺮ‪.‬‬
‫* ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﳌﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﻭﺭﻕ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ *‪.‬‬
‫‪335‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ‬
‫❚❚ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪D850‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻋﺎﻛﺲ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ‪) F‬ﺑﺄﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﻭﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺇﻗﺮﺍﻥ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ(‬
‫ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪ FX‬ﻣﻦ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺑﻜﺴﻞ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺑﻜﺴﻞ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫‪ 45.7‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺑﻜﺴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻜﺴﻞ(‬
‫‪336‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ‪ 23.9 × 35.9 CMOS‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 46.89‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )ﻳﺘﻌﻴﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪(Capture NX-D‬‬
‫• ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪(36×24) FX‬‬
‫‪) 5504 × 8256‬ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‪ 45.4 :‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎ(‬
‫‪) 4128 × 6192‬ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‪ 25.6 :‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎ(‬
‫‪) 2752 × 4128‬ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‪ 11.4 :‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎ(‬
‫• ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ×‪(30×20) 1.2‬‬
‫‪) 4584 × 6880‬ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‪ 31.5 :‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎ(‬
‫‪) 3432 × 5152‬ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‪ 17.7 :‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎ(‬
‫‪) 2288 × 3440‬ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‪ 7.9 :‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎ(‬
‫• ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪(24×16) DX‬‬
‫‪) 3600 × 5408‬ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‪ 19.5 :‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎ(‬
‫‪) 2696 × 4048‬ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‪ 10.9 :‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎ(‬
‫‪) 1800 × 2704‬ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‪ 4.9 :‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎ(‬
‫• ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪(30×24) 5:4‬‬
‫‪) 5504 × 6880‬ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‪ 37.9 :‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎ(‬
‫‪) 4120 × 5152‬ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‪ 21.2 :‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎ(‬
‫‪) 2752 × 3440‬ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‪ 9.5 :‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻜﺴﻞ(‬
‫ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‬
‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻂ‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺘﻲ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ‬
‫• ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪(24×24) 1:1‬‬
‫‪) 5504 × 5504‬ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‪ 30.3 :‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎ(‬
‫‪) 4128 × 4128‬ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‪ 17.0 :‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎ(‬
‫‪) 2752 × 2752‬ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‪ 7.6 :‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎ(‬
‫• ﺻﻮﺭ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ FX‬ﻣﺄﺧﻮﺫﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫‪) 4640 × 8256‬ﻛﺒﻴﺮ(‬
‫‪) 3480 × 6192‬ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ(‬
‫‪) 2320 × 4128‬ﺻﻐﻴﺮ(‬
‫• ﺻﻮﺭ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ DX‬ﻣﺄﺧﻮﺫﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫‪) 3040 × 5408‬ﻛﺒﻴﺮ(‬
‫‪) 2272 × 4048‬ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ(‬
‫‪) 1520 × 2704‬ﺻﻐﻴﺮ(‬
‫• )‪ 12 :NEF (RAW‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 14‬ﺑﺖ؛ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻥ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪،‬‬
‫ﺿﻐﻂ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺿﻐﻂ؛ ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻐﻴﺮ )ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﻤﻖ ﺑﺖ ‪ 12‬ﺑﺖ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻥ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ(‬
‫• )‪TIFF (RGB‬‬
‫• ‪ :JPEG‬ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭ ‪ JPEG-Baseline‬ﻣﻊ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺟﻴﺪ‬
‫)ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ ‪ ،(4 : 1‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ )ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ ‪ ،(8 : 1‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ )ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ ‪(16 :1‬‬
‫ﺿﻐﻂ؛ ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﺑﺠﻮﺩﺓ ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫• )‪ :JPEG+NEF (RAW‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﺑﻜﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻭ‪JPEG‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﺤﺎﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﺸﺮﻕ‪ ،‬ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺿﺢ؛ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ؛ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ‪ XQD‬ﻭ ‪ (Secure Digital) SD‬ﻭ‪ UHS-II‬ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ‪ SDHC‬ﻭ‪SDXC‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺘﻴﻦ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻠﻨﺴﺦ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻔﺼﻞ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻭ‬
‫‪JPEG‬؛ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ DCF 2.0‬ﻭ ‪ Exif 2.31‬ﻭ‬
‫‪PictBridge‬‬
‫‪337‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺪﻯ ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺩﻳﻮﺑﺘﺮ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺁﺓ ﻋﺎﻛﺴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﻤﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫‪338‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﺑﻤﻨﺸﻮﺭ ﺧﻤﺎﺳﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺑﻌﺎﻛﺲ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫• ‪ :(36×24) FX‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﹰ ‪ 100%‬ﺃﻓﻘﻲ ﻭ ‪ 100%‬ﺭﺃﺳﻲ‬
‫• ×‪ :(30×20) 1.2‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﹰ ‪ 97%‬ﺃﻓﻘﻲ ﻭ ‪ 97%‬ﺭﺃﺳﻲ‬
‫• ‪ :(24×16) DX‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﹰ ‪ 97%‬ﺃﻓﻘﻲ ﻭ ‪ 97%‬ﺭﺃﺳﻲ‬
‫• ‪ :(30×24) 5:4‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﹰ ‪ 97%‬ﺃﻓﻘﻲ ﻭ ‪ 100%‬ﺭﺃﺳﻲ‬
‫• ‪ :(24×24) 1:1‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﹰ ‪ 97%‬ﺃﻓﻘﻲ ﻭ ‪ 100%‬ﺭﺃﺳﻲ‬
‫‪ × 0.75‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ )ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪50‬ﻣﻢ ‪ f/1.4‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻼﻧﻬﺎﻳﺔ‪–1 –1.0 ،‬ﻡ(‬
‫‪ 17‬ﻣﻢ )‪–1 –1.0‬ﻡ؛ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻄﺢ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ(‬
‫‪–1 +1 – –3‬ﻡ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ‪ BriteView‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ B‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻻﻣﻌﺔ ‪ Mark VIII‬ﺑﺄﻗﻮﺍﺱ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﻳﺔ(‬
‫ﺍﺭﺗﺪﺍﺩ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ ،Pv‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﺧﺘﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻌﻴﻦ ‪ A‬ﻭ ‪ (M‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﺎﺭﺗﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫)ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻌﻴﻦ ‪ P‬ﻭ ‪(S‬‬
‫ﺍﺭﺗﺪﺍﺩ ﻓﻮﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ ،AF NIKKOR‬ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G‬ﻭ ‪ E‬ﻭ ‪) D‬ﺗﻄﺒﻖ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ (PC‬ﻭﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ‬
‫‪) DX‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ ،(DX 24 × 16‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ‬
‫‪ AI-P NIKKOR‬ﻭﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ AI‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪) CPU‬ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ A‬ﻭ ‪ M‬ﻓﻘﻂ(‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪IX‬‬
‫‪ NIKKOR‬ﻭﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ F3AF‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪.AI‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻯ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻬﺎ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺣﺪ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ ‪ f/5.6‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﺳﺮﻉ‪).‬ﻳﺪﻋﻢ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ ‪ 15‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻟﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺣﺪ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ ‪ f/8‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﺳﺮﻉ ﻭﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺑﻬﺎ ‪ 9‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﻣﻴﻜﺎﻧﻴﻜﻲ ﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﺆﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﺭﺃﺳﻲ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ؛‬
‫ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺎﺩﺉ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻷﻋﻠﻰ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 30 – 1/8000‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 1/3‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ،1/2‬ﺃﻭ ‪ EV 1‬ﺃﻭ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺃﻭ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪X250‬‬
‫‪ 1/250 = X‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ؛ ﺗﺰﺍﻣﻦ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ‪ 1/250‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺑﻄﺄ؛‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ‪ FP‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫‪) S‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ(‪) CL ،‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ(‪) CH ،‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ(‪) Q ،‬ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺻﺎﻣﺖ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻟﻖ(‪) QC ،‬ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺻﺎﻣﺖ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻟﻖ(‪) E ،‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ(‪) MUP ،‬ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻟﻸﻋﻠﻰ(‬
‫‪339‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺒﻲ • ﻣﻊ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ EN-EL18c‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪MB-D18‬‬
‫‪ 8-1 :CL‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ 9 :CH‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ 3 :QC‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫• ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫‪ 6-1 :CL‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ 7 :CH‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ 3 :QC‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺘﺎﻥ‪ 5 ،‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ‪ 10 ،‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ‪ 20 ،‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ؛ ‪ 9–1‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﺑﻔﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ‬
‫‪ 0.5‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ‪ TTL‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ‪ RGB‬ﺑﻤﻌﺪﻝ‬
‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 180‬ﺃﻟﻒ ﺑﻴﻜﺴﻞ )‪ 180000‬ﺑﻴﻜﺴﻞ(‬
‫• ﻣﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻣﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺛﻼﺛﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ ‪) III‬ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G‬ﻭ ‪ E‬ﻭ ‪(D‬؛ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻣﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ‪) III‬ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ‬
‫‪ CPU‬ﺃﺧﺮﻯ(؛ ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻣﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ CPU‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫• ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪ :‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ 75%‬ﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺑﻘﻄﺮ ‪ 12‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻗﻄﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 8‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 15‬ﺃﻭ ‪20‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻭﻓﻘﹰ ﺎ ﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ )ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ CPU‬ﻭ‬
‫‪ f/3.5–4.5E ED‬ﻣﻢ‪ AF-S Fisheye NIKKOR 15–8‬ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ‪ 12‬ﻣﻢ(‬
‫• ﺑﻘﻌﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺑﻘﻄﺮ ‪ 4‬ﻣﻢ )ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 1.5%‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ(‬
‫ﻣﺘﻤﺮﻛﺰﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ )ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫‪ CPU‬ﺃﻭ ‪ f/3.5–4.5E ED‬ﻣﻢ‪(AF-S Fisheye NIKKOR 15–8‬‬
‫• ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G‬ﻭ‪ E‬ﻭ‪D‬‬
‫• ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪EV +20 – -3 :‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ )‪ ،ISO 100‬ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫‪ ،f/1.4‬ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ‪° 20‬ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ( • ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺑﻘﻌﻴﺔ‪EV 20 – 2 :‬‬
‫• ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ‪EV 20 – 0 :‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺞ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ CPU‬ﻭ ‪AI‬‬
‫ﺇﻗﺮﺍﻥ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
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‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺒﺮﻣﺞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻥ )‪(P‬؛ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫)‪(S‬؛ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ )‪(A‬؛ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ )‪(M‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫‪ EV +5 – -5‬ﺑﺄﺣﺠﺎﻡ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 1/3‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 1/2‬ﺃﻭ ‪EV 1‬‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻣﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﺑﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﻣﻜﺘﺸﻔﺔ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪) ISO‬ﻣﻌﺪﻝ‬
‫‪ 25600 – ISO 64‬ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 1/3‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 1/2‬ﺃﻭ ‪ .EV 1‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺻﻰ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 0.3‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 0.5‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 0.7‬ﺃﻭ ‪ EV 1‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﹰ )ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﺎﻓﺊ‬
‫ﺑﻪ(‬
‫‪ (ISO 32‬ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪ ISO 64‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 0.3‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 0.5‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 0.7‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪EV 2‬‬
‫)ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﺎﻓﺊ ‪ (ISO 102400‬ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ‪ISO 25600‬؛ ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺤﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﺑﺸﺪﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺎﺩﻱ ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪ Multi-CAM 20K‬ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﻃﻮﺭ ‪ TTL‬ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻭ ‪ 153‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫)ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ 99‬ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﺘﻘﺎﻃﻊ ﻭ ‪ 15‬ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮﹰﺍ‬
‫ﻳﺪﻋﻢ ‪ (f/8‬ﻭ ‪ 35) 55‬ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﺘﻘﺎﻃﻊ ﻭ ‪ 9‬ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮﹰﺍ‬
‫‪ (f/8‬ﻟﻠﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬
‫‪ ،ISO 100) EV +20 – -4‬ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ‪° 20‬ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ(‬
‫ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫• ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪ :(AF‬ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻓﺮﺩﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫)‪(AF-S‬؛ ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪(AF-C‬؛ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‬
‫• ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ )‪ :(M‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ‬
‫‪ 153‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ‪ 55‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 15‬ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮﻳﻦ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ ‪ 9‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 25‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 72‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 153‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﻘﺐ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ )ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻓﺮﺩﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ( ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺳﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
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‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻋﻲ‬
‫‪Creative Lighting System‬‬
‫)‪ (CLS‬ﻣﻦ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
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‫‪ :TTL‬ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ i-TTL‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ‪RGB‬‬
‫ﺑﻤﻌﺪﻝ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 180‬ﺃﻟﻒ ﺑﻴﻜﺴﻞ )‪ 180000‬ﺑﻴﻜﺴﻞ( ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ؛‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻞﺀ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ‪ i-TTL‬ﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ SLR‬ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﻭﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻞﺀ ‪ i-TTL‬ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ SLR‬ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻌﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺳﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﻣﺎﻣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺳﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺳﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫‪ EV +1 – -3‬ﺑﺄﺣﺠﺎﻡ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 1/3‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 1/2‬ﺃﻭ ‪EV 1‬‬
‫ﻳﻀﻲﺀ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻛﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺷﺤﻦ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ؛ ﻳﻮﻣﺾ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻃﺎﻗﺘﻪ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ‪ ISO 518‬ﻣﻊ ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻭﻗﻔﻞ ﺃﻣﺎﻥ‬
‫‪ i-TTL‬ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺑﻬﺎ ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺑﺼﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ ،FV‬ﺗﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﺇﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ‪ FP‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ‪ ،‬ﺗﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺣﺪ‬
‫ﻃﺮﻑ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ‪ ISO 519‬ﻣﻊ ﺗﺴﻨﻴﻦ ﻟﻠﻘﻔﻞ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪ 3‬ﻧﻮﻉ(‪ ،‬ﺿﻮﺀ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﺎﻃﻊ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻮﺭﻱ )‪ 7‬ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ(‪،‬‬
‫ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﻏﺎﺋﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻈﻞ‪ ،‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ‬
‫ﻳﺪﻭﻱ )ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ 6‬ﻗﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺗﺎﺣﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻌﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ(‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫)‪ ،(K10000- K 2500‬ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻊ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻼﺵ‪ ,‬ﻭﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪ ,‬ﻭ‪ADL‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ‬
‫‪) C‬ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ(‪) 1 ،‬ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻸﻓﻼﻡ(‬
‫ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫• ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪ :(AF‬ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻓﺮﺩﻱ ﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪(AF-S‬؛‬
‫ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﺩﺍﺋﻢ ﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪(AF-F‬‬
‫• ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ )‪(M‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻷﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻋﺮﻳﻀﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻋﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻫﺪﻑ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻻﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫)ﺗﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻷﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ(‬
‫ﻓﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ TTL‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ )ﺑﻜﺴﻞ( ﻭﻣﻌﺪﻝ • ‪(4K UHD) 2160 × 3840‬؛ ‪) 30p‬ﺗﻘﺪﻣﻲ(‪24p ،25p ،‬‬
‫• ‪1080 × 1920‬؛ ‪ 60p‬ﻭ ‪ 50p‬ﻭ ‪ 30p‬ﻭ ‪ 25p‬ﻭ ‪24p‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫• ‪720 × 1280‬؛ ‪ 60p‬ﻭ ‪50p‬‬
‫• ‪) 1080×1920‬ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ(; ‪ 30p ×4‬ﻭ ‪ 25p ×4‬ﻭ ‪24p ×5‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺪﻻﺕ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴﺔ ‪ 60p‬ﻭ‪ 50p‬ﻭ‪ 30p‬ﻭ‪25p‬‬
‫ﻭ‪ 24p‬ﻫﻲ ‪ 59.94‬ﻭ‪ 50‬ﻭ‪ 29.97‬ﻭ‪ 25‬ﻭ‪ 23.976‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﻟﻲ؛ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﺣﺠﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ‪3840‬‬
‫× ‪) 2160‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻮﺩﺓ ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ★( ﻭ ‪1080 × 1920‬‬
‫ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ )ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻮﺩﺓ ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ "ﻋﺎﺩﻱ"(‬
‫‪MP4 ،MOV‬‬
‫ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‬
‫‪ MPEG-4/H.264‬ﺗﺸﻔﻴﺮ ﻓﻴﺪﻳﻮ ﻣﺘﻘﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺪﻳﻮ‬
‫‪ PCM‬ﺧﻄﻲ‪AAC ،‬‬
‫ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ‬
‫ﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻮﻥ ﺳﺘﺮﻳﻮ ﺃﻭ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ؛ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ‬
‫‪343‬‬
‫ﻓﻴﻠﻢ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪) ISO‬ﻣﻌﺪﻝ‬
‫• ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ P‬ﻭ ‪ S‬ﻭ ‪ :A‬ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺻﻰ‬
‫‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪ ISO 64‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ (Hi 2‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﻟﻼﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺑﻪ(‬
‫• ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ :M‬ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫)‪ ISO 64‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ‪ (2‬ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﻟﻼﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ؛‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪ ISO 64‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 25600‬ﺑﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 1/3‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 1/2‬ﺃﻭ ‪(EV 1‬‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 0.3‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 0.5‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 0.7‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪EV 2‬‬
‫)ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻝ ‪ (ISO 102400‬ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ‪ISO 25600‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﺑﺸﺪﺓ ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺎﺩﻱ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺮﺱ‪ ،‬ﺃﻓﻼﻡ ﻣﻨﻘﻀﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ‬
‫‪USB‬‬
‫ﺧﺮﺝ ‪HDMI‬‬
‫‪344‬‬
‫‪8‬ﺳﻢ‪ 3.2/‬ﺑﻮﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻺﻣﺎﻟﺔ ‪TFT‬‬
‫‪ LCD‬ﺑﺪﻗﺔ ‪ 2359‬ﺃﻟﻒ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ )‪ (XGA‬ﺑﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ‬
‫‪ ،170°‬ﻣﺪﻯ ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ‪ ،100%‬ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ )‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 9‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 72‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ( ﻣﻊ ﺯﻭﻡ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﻭﻗﺺ ﺯﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺷﺮﺍﺋﺢ ﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻼﺕ ﻭﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ ﻭﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‬
‫‪) SuperSpeed USB‬ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ‪(USB 3.0 Micro-B‬؛ ﻳﻮﺻﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻀﻤﻦ‬
‫ﺑﻤﻨﻔﺬ ‪USB‬‬
‫ﹼ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ‪ HDMI‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪C‬‬
‫ﱢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ‬
‫ﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ‬
‫ﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ‬
‫ﻃﺮﻑ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻭ‬
‫ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﺩﺑﺎﺑﻴﺲ‬
‫‪/Wi-Fi‬ﺑﻠﻮﺗﻮﺙ‬
‫‪Wi-Fi‬‬
‫ﺑﻠﻮﺗﻮﺙ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ )ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻋﻮﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻋﻮﻣﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺒﺲ ﺳﻦ ﺻﻐﻴﺮ ﺳﺘﻴﺮﻳﻮ )ﻗﻄﺮ ‪ 3.5‬ﻣﻢ؛ ﺩﻋﻢ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺒﺲ(‬
‫ﻣﻘﺒﺲ ﺳﻦ ﺻﻐﻴﺮ ﺳﺘﻴﺮﻳﻮ )ﻗﻄﺮ ‪ 3.5‬ﻣﻢ(‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺃﺳﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫‪ MC-36A/MC-30A‬ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ‪ IEEE 802.11b :‬ﻭ ‪IEEE 802.11g‬‬
‫• ﺗﺮﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪ 2462–2412 :‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﻫﺮﺗﺰ )ﺍﻟﻘﻨﻮﺍﺕ ‪(11–1‬‬
‫• ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﻯ‪ 1.6 :‬ﺩﻳﺴﻴﺒﻞ ﻣﻠﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﻁ )ﺇﻳﺮﺏ(‬
‫• ﺗﻮﺛﻴﻖ‪ :‬ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺢ‪WPA2-PSK ،‬‬
‫• ﺑﺮﻭﺗﻮﻛﻮﻻﺕ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮﺗﻮﺙ ﺍﻹﺻﺪﺍﺭ ‪4.1‬‬
‫• ﺗﺮﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪:‬‬
‫ﺑﻠﻮﺗﻮﺙ‪ 2480-2402 :‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﻫﺮﺗﺰ‬
‫ﺑﻠﻮﺗﻮﺙ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‪ 2480-2402 :‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﻫﺮﺗﺰ‬
‫• ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﻯ )ﺇﻳﺮﺏ(‪:‬‬
‫ﺑﻠﻮﺗﻮﺙ‪ 0.4– :‬ﺩﻳﺴﻴﺒﻞ ﻣﻠﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﻁ‬
‫ﺑﻠﻮﺗﻮﺙ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‪ 0.4– :‬ﺩﻳﺴﻴﺒﻞ ﻣﻠﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﻁ‬
‫ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 10‬ﻡ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺗﺪﺍﺧﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﻗﻮﺓ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺗﻮﺍﺟﺪ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﻮﺍﺟﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺒﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻐﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻐﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻨﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺴﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ(‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻴﻜﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻤﺮﻛﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻬﻮﻟﻨﺪﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻠﻨﺪﻳﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺪﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﻧﺪﻭﻧﻴﺴﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﻳﻄﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻜﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺗﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻨﺮﻭﻳﺠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭﺳﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻮﻟﻨﺪﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺗﻐﺎﻟﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺗﻐﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﺯﻳﻞ(‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺮﻭﻣﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺳﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻣﻴﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻴﻠﻮﺟﻮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻳﻼﻧﺪﻳﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻭﻛﺮﺍﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺘﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻳﻮﻥ ﻟﻴﺜﻴﻮﻡ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ‪EN-EL15a‬؛ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻻﺣﻆ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ‪ EN-EL15/EN-EL15b‬ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ EN-EL15‬ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ‪(365 0) EN-EL15a/EN-EL15b‬‬
‫‪345‬‬
‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺒﺲ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻻﺭﺟﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺒﺲ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻻﺭﺟﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻮﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ )ﻋﺮﺽ × ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ×‬
‫ﻋﻤﻖ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺯﻥ‬
‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺇﻣﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺑﻔﻮﻟﻄﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ‬
‫‪ MB-D18‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻳﻮﻥ ﻟﻴﺜﻴﻮﻡ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪) EN-EL18c‬ﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻞ( ﺃﻭ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻳﻮﻥ ﻟﻴﺜﻴﻮﻡ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ EN-EL15a‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺛﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ‪ AA‬ﻗﻠﻮﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ‪ Ni-MH‬ﺃﻭ ﻟﻴﺜﻴﻮﻡ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺷﺎﺣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ MH-26a‬ﺃﻭ ‪ MH-26‬ﻭﻏﻄﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪) BL-5‬ﻛﻼﻫﻤﺎ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻞ( ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ‪ .EN-EL18c‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺩﻋﻢ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ‪EN-EL18b‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ‬
‫ﻭ‪ EN-EL18a‬ﻭ‪ EN-EL18‬ﻭ‪ EN-EL15b‬ﻭ‪ EN-EL15‬ﹰ‬
‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ EN-EL18‬ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ‪ EN-EL18a/EN-EL18b/EN-EL18c‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺷﺤﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺓﹰ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ EN-EL15‬ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ‪ EN-EL15a/EN-EL15b‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺷﺤﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺮﺓﹰ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ )‪.(365 0‬‬
‫ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺗﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪EH-5b/EH-5c‬؛ ﻳﺘﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻮﺻﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪) EP-5B‬ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ(‬
‫‪ 1/4‬ﺑﻮﺻﺔ )‪(ISO 1222‬‬
‫ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 78.5 × 124 × 146‬ﻣﻠﻢ‬
‫‪ 1005‬ﺟﺮﺍﻡ‪ ،‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ‪ XQD‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻢ؛ ‪ 915‬ﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ )ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻘﻂ(‬
‫ﺑﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫‪° 40 - 0‬ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬
‫‪ 85%‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻗﻞ )ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﻜﺜﻴﻒ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻃﻮﺑﺔ‬
‫• ﻣﺎ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻨﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ ﺍﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻭﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )‪ (CIPA‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻴﻬﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﻫﻲ ﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺗﺤﺘﻔﻆ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻭﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺇﺧﻄﺎﺭ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ‪ .‬ﻟﻦ ﺗﺘﺤﻤﻞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺿﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻨﺠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻱ‬
‫ﺃﺧﻄﺎﺀ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪346‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺷﺎﺣﻦ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪MH-25a‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻤﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ )ﻋﺮﺽ × ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ×‬
‫ﻋﻤﻖ(‬
‫ﻃﻮﻝ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ )ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻣﺮﻓﻘﹰ ﺎ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺗﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﺮﺩﺩ ‪ 240–100‬ﻓﻮﻟﺖ‪ 60/50 ،‬ﻫﺮﺗﺰ‪ 0.12–0.23 ،‬ﺃﻣﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺗﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ‪ 8.4‬ﻓﻮﻟﺖ‪ 1.2/‬ﺃﻣﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﻳﻮﻥ ﻟﻴﺜﻴﻮﻡ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫‪EN-EL15/EN-EL15a/EN-EL15b‬‬
‫ﺳﺎﻋﺘﻴﻦ ﻭ‪ 35‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﹰ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﺤﻴﻄﺔ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬
‫‪° 25‬ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻧﻔﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ‬
‫‪° 0‬ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ ‪° 40 -‬ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬
‫‪ 71 × 33.5 × 95‬ﻣﻢ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﺯ‬
‫‪ 1.5‬ﻡ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﹰ‬
‫‪ 115‬ﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻖ )ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺎﺋﻂ(‬
‫ﺗﻤﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪ q ،DC p ،AC m‬ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺔ ‪) II‬ﻫﻴﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻣﺰﺩﻭﺝ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻝ‪(.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻳﻮﻥ ﻟﻴﺜﻴﻮﻡ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪EN-EL15a‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ )ﻋﺮﺽ × ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ×‬
‫ﻋﻤﻖ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﻳﻮﻥ ﻟﻴﺜﻴﻮﻡ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ‬
‫‪ 7.0‬ﻓﻮﻟﺖ‪ 1900/‬ﻣﻠﻠﻲ ﺃﻣﺒﻴﺮ‪/‬ﺳﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫‪° 0‬ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ ‪° 40 -‬ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬
‫‪ 20.5 × 56 × 40‬ﻣﻢ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﹰ‬
‫‪ 78‬ﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺘﻔﻆ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻭﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺇﺧﻄﺎﺭ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ‪ .‬ﻟﻦ ﺗﺘﺤﻤﻞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺿﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻨﺠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻱ ﺃﺧﻄﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﺗﺮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
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‫‪ A‬ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫‪ IOS‬ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺸﺮﻛﺔ ‪ .Cisco Systems، Inc‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﻏﻴﺮﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﺑﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﺗﺮﺧﻴﺺ‪ .‬ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ ‪ Windows‬ﺇﻣﺎ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ‪ Microsoft Corporation‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ Mac .‬ﻭ ‪ macOS‬ﻭ ‪ OS X‬ﻭ ‪ ®Apple‬ﻭ ‪ ®App Store‬ﻭﺷﻌﺎﺭﺍﺕ ‪ Apple‬ﻭ ‪®iPhone‬‬
‫ﻭ ‪ ®iPad‬ﻭ ‪ ®iPod touch‬ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ‪ .Apple Inc‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﺗﻌﺪ ‪ Android‬ﻭ‪ Google Play‬ﻭﺷﻌﺎﺭ ‪ Google Play‬ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺸﺮﻛﺔ‬
‫‪ .Google LLC‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ‪ Android‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ‬
‫ﻭﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ‪ Google‬ﻭﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻭﻓﻘﹰ ﺎ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺮﺧﻴﺺ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻋﻲ ‪ .3.0‬ﻳﻌﺪ ﺷﻌﺎﺭ ‪ PictBridge‬ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ XQD .‬ﻫﻲ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺸﺮﻛﺔ‬
‫‪ .Sony‬ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺎﺭﺍﺕ ‪ SD‬ﻭ ‪ SDHC‬ﻭ ‪ SDXC‬ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺸﺮﻛﺔ ‪SD-3C، LLC. HDMI‬‬
‫ﻭﺷﻌﺎﺭ ‪ HDMI‬ﻭ ‪ High-Definition Multimedia Interface‬ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ‪.HDMI Licensing LLC‬‬
‫ﺗﹸﻌﺪ ‪ Wi-Fi‬ﻭﺷﻌﺎﺭ ‪ Wi-Fi‬ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﻻﺗﺤﺎﺩ ‪.Wi-Fi Alliance‬‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺑﻠﻮﺗﻮﺙ )‪ (®Bluetooth‬ﻭﺷﻌﺎﺭﺍﺗﻬﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﻭﻣﻤﻠﻮﻛﺔ ﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ‬
‫‪ ،Bluetooth SIG‬ﻭﺃﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻟﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺑﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﺭﺧﺼﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻨﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺘﺞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﻚ ﻫﻲ ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻤﺎﻟﻜﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪Use of the Made for Apple badge means that an accessory has been‬‬
‫‪designed to connect specifically to the Apple products identified‬‬
‫‪in the badge, and has been certified by the developer to meet‬‬
‫‪Apple performance standards. Apple is not responsible for the‬‬
‫‪operation of this device or its compliance with safety and regulatory‬‬
‫‪standards. Please note that the use of this accessory with an Apple‬‬
‫‪product may affect wireless performance.‬‬
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‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻋﻮﻣﺔ‬
‫• ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ DCF‬ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ‪ :2.0‬ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )‪ (DCF‬ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺑﻜﺜﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﺑﻴﻦ‬
‫ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ‪ Exif‬ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ‪ :2.31‬ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ ) Exif‬ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ( ﺍﻹﺻﺪﺍﺭ ‪ ،2.31‬ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﻄﺎﺑﻌﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ‪.Exif‬‬
‫• ‪ :PictBridge‬ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺎﺕ‪،‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻧﺴﺨﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺃﻭﻻ ﹰ‪.‬‬
‫• ‪ :HDMI‬ﻭﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻂ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺑﺠﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﻟﻮﺍﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﻼﻛﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﺚ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺻﻮﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺇﺷﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻟﻸﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ‪ HDMI‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﻜﺎﺑﻞ ﻓﺮﺩﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ )‪.(276 0‬‬
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‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺮﺧﻴﺺ ‪(FreeType2) FreeType‬‬
‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺧﺎﺿﻌﺔ ﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ © ﻟﻤﺸﺮﻭﻉ ‪ FreeType‬ﻟﻌﺎﻡ ‪2012‬‬
‫)‪ .(http://www.freetype.org‬ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﻣﺤﻔﻮﻇﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺮﺧﻴﺺ ‪) MIT‬ﺣﺮﻑﺑﺎﺯ(‬
‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺧﺎﺿﻌﺔ ﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ © ﻟﻤﺸﺮﻭﻉ ‪ HarfBuzz‬ﻟﻌﺎﻡ ‪2017‬‬
‫)‪ .(http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/HarfBuzz‬ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﻣﺤﻔﻮﻇﺔ‪.‬‬
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‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ f/4G‬ﻣﻢ‪AF-S NIKKOR 120–24‬‬
‫‪ED VR‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻟﻤﺸﺘﺮﻱ ﻃﻘﻢ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫‪ f/4G ED VR‬ﻣﻢ‪ AF-S NIKKOR 120–24‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻮﻓﱠﺮ ﺃﻃﻘﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫❚❚ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﺳﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ‬
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‫ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪357..........................................‬‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪357.............‬‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ‪357.....................‬‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ‪357.................‬‬
‫ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
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‫‪15‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ‪111...............................‬‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪19 ..............................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺸﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺎﻃﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺻﻼﺕ ‪284...........................................CPU‬‬
‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪111.....................‬‬
‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ‪355.................‬‬
‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ‪355.....................‬‬
‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ f/4G ED VR‬ﻣﻢ‪351 AF-S NIKKOR 120–24‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻋﻮﻣﺔ )ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫‪AF‬‬
‫‪MF‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫‪M/A‬‬
‫‪M‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﻣﺪﻯ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﺔ(‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ‬
‫‪) M/A‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ(‬
‫ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ )‪:(M/A‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪.M/A‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‪ ،‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ )ﺃﻭ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﺰﺭ ‪ ،AF-ON‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ .(AF-ON‬ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ AF-ON‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 352‬ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ f/4G ED VR‬ﻣﻢ‪AF-S NIKKOR 120–24‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ ﻭﻋﻤﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ ﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻟﻌﻤﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ )ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﻤﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫‪ .(IF) Internal Focusing‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺗﻨﺎﻗﺼﺖ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻌﺪ‬
‫ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻛﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﻌﻤﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ ﻭﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ∞ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺑﻌﻴﺪ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ f/4G ED VR‬ﻣﻢ‪353 AF-S NIKKOR 120–24‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ‪ 0.6‬ﻣﺘﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺈﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﺧﺮﻓﺔ )ﺍﻟﻈﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺷﺌﺔ ﺣﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺗﺤﺠﺐ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﻤﻦ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺧﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫ﻇﻞ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺑﺄﻛﻤﻠﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻴﻨﺔ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪:‬‬
‫ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ‬
‫‪) D750‬ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪/(FX‬‬
‫‪) D610‬ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪/(FX‬‬
‫‪) D600‬ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪(FX‬‬
‫ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ‪) D810‬ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪(FX‬‬
‫ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ‪) D800‬ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪(FX‬‬
‫‪ 24‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 28‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 120–50‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 28‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 120–35‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 24‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 120–35‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 24‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 120–35‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 24‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 120–35‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 24‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 120–28‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪) D700‬ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪(FX‬‬
‫ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ‪D100/D200/D300‬‬
‫‪/D80/D90‬ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ‪D50/D70‬‬
‫‪/D5100/D5200/D5300/D5500/D5600‬‬
‫‪D3200/D3300‬‬
‫‪ 354‬ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ f/4G ED VR‬ﻣﻢ‪AF-S NIKKOR 120–24‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﻧﻰ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺯﺧﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫‪ 2.0‬ﻣﺘﺮ‬
‫‪ 1.0‬ﻣﺘﺮ‬
‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺯﺧﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫‪ 1.0‬ﻣﺘﺮ‬
‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺯﺧﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫‪ 3.0‬ﻣﺘﺮ‬
‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺯﺧﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫‪ 1.0‬ﻣﺘﺮ‬
‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺯﺧﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫‪ 1.5‬ﻣﺘﺮ‬
‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺯﺧﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫‪ 1.5‬ﻣﺘﺮ‬
‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺯﺧﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫‪/D60/D3000/D3100/D5000‬ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ‪D40‬‬
‫‪D3400‬‬
‫ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ‬
‫‪ 24‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 120–35‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 24‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 28‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 120–35‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫ﺃﺩﻧﻰ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺯﺧﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫‪ 2.5‬ﻣﺘﺮ‬
‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺯﺧﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫‪ 1.5‬ﻣﺘﺮ‬
‫‪ 1.0‬ﻣﺘﺮ‬
‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺯﺧﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫❚❚ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ )‪(VR‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ‪ ON/OFF‬ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ‬
‫• ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪) ON‬ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ( ﻟﺘﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪ ،‬ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﻘﻠﻞ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺍﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪) OFF‬ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ( ﻹﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ‬
‫ﺤﺴﻦ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ‬
‫• ﺣﺪﺩ ‪) NORMAL‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ( ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤ ﱠ‬
‫ﹸ‬
‫• ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪) ACTIVE‬ﻧﺸﻂ( ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺮﻛﺒﺔ ﻣﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺤﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ f/4G ED VR‬ﻣﻢ‪355 AF-S NIKKOR 120–24‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ‪ :‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ‬
‫• ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻈﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺴﺘﻘﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﺸﻄﺎ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻄﻞ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺣﺮﻙ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ NORMAL‬ﻟﻤﺴﺢ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﺗﻌﺪ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﻓﻘﻲ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻘﻂ(‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺃﺳﻬﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺴﻼﺳﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻗﻮﺳﻲ ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻐﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺰﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺼﺪﺭ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺷﺨﺸﺨﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯﻫﺎ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻌﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﻗﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻔﻼﺵ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﺰﺭ ‪ ،AF-ON‬ﻓﻠﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ‬
‫‪.AF-ON‬‬
‫• ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪) OFF‬ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ( ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺜﺒﺘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻻﺭﺟﻞ ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺃﺱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻻﺭﺟﻞ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺜﺒﺘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻻﺭﺟﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﻳﻮﺻﻰ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪) ON‬ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ 356‬ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ f/4G ED VR‬ﻣﻢ‪AF-S NIKKOR 120–24‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﺗﺤﺠﺐ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻨﺎﺛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻫﺞ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺗﺸﻮﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﻤﺤﺎﺫﺍﺓ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ )●( ﻣﻊ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﻣﺤﺎﺫﺍﺓ ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ )‬
‫ﺛﻢ ﺃﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻴﺔ )‪ (w‬ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺘﺤﺎﺫﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ ● ﻣﻊ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ )—‪.(‬‬
‫(‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺴﻜﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺗﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﺠﻨﺐ‬
‫ﺇﻣﺴﺎﻛﻬﺎ ﺑﻘﻮﺓ ﻣﻔﺮﻃﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﺤﺪﺙ ﺯﺧﺮﻓﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﻜﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻘﺔ‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻣﻲ ‪ 77‬ﻣﻢ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪LC-77‬‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻲ ‪LF-4‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪HB-53‬‬
‫ﺣﻘﻴﺒﺔ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﺮﻧﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪CL-1218‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺷﺤﺎﺕ ‪ 77‬ﻣﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﻬﺎ ﺑﻤﺴﺎﻣﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ f/4G ED VR‬ﻣﻢ‪357 AF-S NIKKOR 120–24‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻗﺼﻮﻯ‬
‫ﺑﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ‬
‫ﺷﻔﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺸﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺸﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺜﺒﻴﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺯﻥ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G AF-S‬ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ CPU‬ﻭﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ‪F‬‬
‫‪ 120–24‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪f/4‬‬
‫‪ 17‬ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﻓﻲ ‪ 13‬ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ )ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻨﺼﺮﻱ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ 2 ED‬ﻭ‪3‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺷﺒﻪ ﻛﺮﻭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﻄﻼﺀ ﻧﺎﻧﻮ ﻛﺮﻳﺴﺘﺎﻝ(‬
‫• ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ‪ D-SLR‬ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪´20 °20 – °84 :FX‬‬
‫• ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ‪ D-SLR‬ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪´20 °13 – °61 :DX‬‬
‫ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺠﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻠﻠﻲ ﻣﺘﺮ )‪(120 ،85 ،70 ،50 ،35 ،28 ،24‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺮﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺯﻭﻡ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺯﻭﻡ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ )‪ (IF‬ﻣﻦ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻊ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﺤﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻣﺖ‬
‫ﻭﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺴﻼﺳﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺤﺮﻙ ﻟﻮﻟﺐ ﺻﻮﺗﻲ )‪(VCM‬‬
‫‪ 0.45‬ﻣﺘﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺔ )∞(‬
‫‪ 0.45‬ﻣﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ‬
‫‪) 9‬ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻏﺸﺎﺀ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ(‬
‫ﺃﻭﺗﻮﻣﺎﺗﻴﻜﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫‪f/4–22‬‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬
‫‪ 77‬ﻣﻢ )‪ 0.75 = P‬ﻣﻢ(‬
‫ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ﻗﻄﺮ ‪ 84‬ﻣﻢ ﺑﺤﺪ ﺃﺩﻧﻰ × ‪ 103.5‬ﻣﻢ )ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻔﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ(‬
‫ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 710‬ﺟﺮﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺘﻔﻆ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻭﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺇﺧﻄﺎﺭ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ‪ .‬ﻟﻦ ﺗﺘﺤﻤﻞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺿﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻨﺠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻱ ﺃﺧﻄﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﺗﺮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 358‬ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ f/4G ED VR‬ﻣﻢ‪AF-S NIKKOR 120–24‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫• ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻈﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ‪.CPU‬‬
‫• ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺤﺸﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺎﻃﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻭﺗﻮﺟﻪ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻟﻠﺼﻴﺎﻧﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺮﻭﺣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ .‬ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻊ‬
‫ﻭﺑﺼﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺻﺎﺑﻊ‪ ،‬ﺿﻊ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭﹰﺍ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻳﺜﺎﻧﻮﻝ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻨﻈﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ﻗﻤﺎﺵ‬
‫ﻗﻄﻨﻴﺔ ﻧﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﻭﻧﻈﻴﻔﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻤﺎﺵ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻂ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺗﻠﻄﺦ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﺰﺟﺎﺝ ﺑﺈﺻﺒﻌﻚ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺬﻳﺒﺎﺕ ﻋﻀﻮﻳﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﺮﻗﻖ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺰﻳﻦ ﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺮﺷﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻳﺪ )‪ (NC‬ﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻣﻲ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺭﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﻐﻄﺎﺀﻳﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻣﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻲ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻠﺒﺘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺗﻌﻤﺪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻣﺴﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺨﺰﻳﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﺭﺩ ﻭﺟﺎﻑ ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺃ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻔﻦ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﺨﺰﻧﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻊ ﻛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﺘﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻛﺎﻓﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺟﺎﻓﺔ‪ .‬ﺻﺪﺃ ﺁﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺗﻠﻒ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺇﺻﻼﺣﻪ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺷﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻒ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﺤﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻨﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺳﺘﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﻮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ f/4G ED VR‬ﻣﻢ‪359 AF-S NIKKOR 120–24‬‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻤﺪﺓ‬
‫❚❚ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ‪XQD‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ‪ .XQD‬ﻳﻮﺻﻰ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ‪ 45‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‪/‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ )‪ (×300‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ؛ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺑﻄﺄ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﺗﻘﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻨﺘﻈﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﺗﺼﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻨﻌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪360‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ‪SD‬‬
‫ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ‪ SD‬ﻭ ‪ SDHC‬ﻭ ‪ ،SDXC‬ﻭﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ‪ SDHC‬ﻭ‪ SDXC‬ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻣﻊ ‪ UHS-I‬ﻭ‪ .UHS-II‬ﻳﻮﺻﻰ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ‪ UHS‬ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﺼﻨﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺔ ‪ 3‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ؛ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺃﺑﻄﺄ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻧﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺭﺉ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻮﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‪ .‬ﺍﺗﺼﻞ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺠﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻨﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﻗﻴﻮﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪361‬‬
‫ﺳﻌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺒﻲ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺣﻔﻈﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪Sony‬‬
‫‪ QD-G64E XQD‬ﺳﻌﺔ ‪ 64‬ﺟﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺒﺘﻤﺒﺮ ‪.(2017‬‬
‫❚❚‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪* (36×24) FX‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫)‪ ،NEF (RAW‬ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﺔ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻧﻬﺎ‪،‬‬
‫‪ 12‬ﺑﺖ‬
‫)‪ ،NEF (RAW‬ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﺔ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻧﻬﺎ‪،‬‬
‫‪ 14‬ﺑﺖ‬
‫)‪،NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﺔ‪ 12 ،‬ﺑﺖ‬
‫)‪،NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﺔ‪ 14 ،‬ﺑﺖ‬
‫‪ ،(NEF (RAW‬ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﺔ‪ 12 ،‬ﺑﺖ‬
‫‪ ،(NEF (RAW‬ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﺔ‪ 14 ،‬ﺑﺖ‬
‫ﺳﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ ‪2‬‬
‫‪170‬‬
‫‪94‬‬
‫‪56‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬
‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ ‪1‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ‪1‬‬
‫‪ 41.5‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪ 30.0‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪ 21.9‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪763‬‬
‫‪1000‬‬
‫‪1400‬‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫‪ 51.6‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪589‬‬
‫‪51‬‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫‪ 34.2‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪1000‬‬
‫‪200‬‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫‪ 43.8‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪865‬‬
‫‪74‬‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫‪ 70.3‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪763‬‬
‫‪55‬‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫‪ 92.0‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪589‬‬
‫‪29‬‬
‫‪32‬‬
‫‪408‬‬
‫‪ 134.6‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫‪35‬‬
‫‪718‬‬
‫‪ 76.6‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬
‫)‪TIFF (RGB‬‬
‫‪39‬‬
‫‪1500‬‬
‫‪ 34.9‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫‪200‬‬
‫‪1900‬‬
‫‪ 22.0‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﺟﻴﺪ ‪3‬‬
‫‪200‬‬
‫‪3200‬‬
‫‪ 12.6‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬
‫‪200‬‬
‫‪6700‬‬
‫‪ 6.6‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫‪200‬‬
‫‪3800‬‬
‫‪ 11.5‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ ‪3‬‬
‫‪200‬‬
‫‪6400‬‬
‫‪ 6.8‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬
‫‪200‬‬
‫‪13000‬‬
‫‪ 3.4‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫‪200‬‬
‫‪7400‬‬
‫‪ 4.2‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ ‪3‬‬
‫‪200‬‬
‫‪12500‬‬
‫‪ 2.8‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬
‫‪200‬‬
‫‪24500‬‬
‫‪ 1.8‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫* ﲟﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﰎ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ‪ DX‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﺺ‬
‫‪ DX‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪362‬‬
‫❚❚‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪* (24×16) DX‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫)‪ ،NEF (RAW‬ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﺔ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻧﻬﺎ‪،‬‬
‫‪ 12‬ﺑﺖ‬
‫)‪ ،NEF (RAW‬ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﺔ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻧﻬﺎ‪،‬‬
‫‪ 14‬ﺑﺖ‬
‫)‪،NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﺔ‪ 12 ،‬ﺑﺖ‬
‫)‪،NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﺔ‪ 14 ،‬ﺑﺖ‬
‫)‪ ،NEF (RAW‬ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﺔ‪ 12 ،‬ﺑﺖ‬
‫)‪ ،NEF (RAW‬ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﺔ‪ 14 ،‬ﺑﺖ‬
‫ﺳﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ ‪2‬‬
‫‪200‬‬
‫‪200‬‬
‫‪200‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬
‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ ‪1‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ‪1‬‬
‫‪ 19.4‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪ 14.1‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪ 11.0‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪1700‬‬
‫‪2300‬‬
‫‪3000‬‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫‪ 23.9‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪1300‬‬
‫‪200‬‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫‪ 15.9‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪2300‬‬
‫‪200‬‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫‪ 19.8‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪1900‬‬
‫‪200‬‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫‪ 30.8‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪1700‬‬
‫‪200‬‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫‪ 40.2‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪1300‬‬
‫‪200‬‬
‫‪113‬‬
‫‪936‬‬
‫‪ 58.4‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫‪200‬‬
‫‪1600‬‬
‫‪ 33.3‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬
‫)‪TIFF (RGB‬‬
‫‪200‬‬
‫‪3400‬‬
‫‪ 15.6‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫‪200‬‬
‫‪4200‬‬
‫‪ 10.1‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﺟﻴﺪ ‪3‬‬
‫‪200‬‬
‫‪6900‬‬
‫‪ 6.2‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬
‫‪200‬‬
‫‪12900‬‬
‫‪ 3.4‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫‪200‬‬
‫‪8200‬‬
‫‪ 5.3‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ ‪3‬‬
‫‪200‬‬
‫‪13500‬‬
‫‪ 3.3‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬
‫‪200‬‬
‫‪24500‬‬
‫‪ 1.8‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫‪200‬‬
‫‪15900‬‬
‫‪ 2.4‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ ‪3‬‬
‫‪200‬‬
‫‪25100‬‬
‫‪ 1.7‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬
‫‪200‬‬
‫‪43100‬‬
‫‪ 1.0‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫* ﲟﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﰎ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ DX‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﺺ ‪DX‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪363‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮﻩ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻴﺔ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ .ISO 100‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﻨﺠﻤﺔ )”★“(‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 3‬ﺗﻔﺘﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺿﻐﻂ ‪ JPEG‬ﻷﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ‪ .‬ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺰﻭﹼﺩ ﺑﻨﺠﻤﺔ )"★"؛‬
‫ﺿﻐﻂ ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻲ( ﺇﻟﻰ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺣﺠﻢ ﻣﻠﻒ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪JPEG‬؛ ﻭﺍﻧﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﺳﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺘﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻓﻘﹰ ﺎ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‪.‬‬
‫‪—d2 A‬ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ )‪(264 0‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻱ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ‪ 1‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪.200‬‬
‫‪364‬‬
‫ﻋﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﻘﻄﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻭﻃﻮﻝ ﻣﺪﺓ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ‪ ،AA‬ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺔ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻭﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ؛ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻳﻠﻲ ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺇﻣﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺑﻔﻮﻟﻄﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪.MB-D18‬‬
‫• ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ )ﻃﺒﻘﹰ ﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻻﺗﺤﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ‪(1 CIPA‬‬
‫ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ EN-EL15a‬ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ‪) 2‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ(‪ 1840 :‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ‬‫ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ EN-EL15a‬ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ‪ 1840 :(MB-D18) 2‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ‬‫ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ EN-EL18c‬ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ‪ 3300 :(MB-D18) 3‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ‬‫ ﺛﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻗﻠﻮﻳﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ‪ 1740 :(MB-D18) AA‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ‬‫• ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ )ﻃﺒﻘﺎ ﻟﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ‪(4‬‬
‫ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ EN-EL15a‬ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ‪) 2‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ(‪ 4030 :‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ‬‫ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ EN-EL15a‬ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ‪ 4030 :(MB-D18) 2‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ‬‫ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ EN-EL18c‬ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ‪ 7700 :(MB-D18) 3‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ‬‫ ﺛﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻗﻠﻮﻳﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ‪ 2960 :(MB-D18) AA‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ‬‫• ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ‪5‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ EN-EL15a‬ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ )ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ(‪ :‬ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 70‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻣﻘﻄﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ‬‫ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﺔ‬
‫ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ EN-EL15a‬ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ‪ :(MB-D18) 2‬ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 70‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻣﻘﻄﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺪﻗﺔ‬
‫ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ EN-EL18c‬ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ‪ :(MB-D18) 3‬ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 145‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻣﻘﻄﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺪﻗﺔ‬
‫ ﺛﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻗﻠﻮﻳﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ‪ :(MB-D18) AA‬ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 65‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻣﻘﻄﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ‬‫ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﺔ‬
‫‪365‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪° 23‬ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ )‪° ±2‬ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ( ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ f/4G ED VR‬ﻣﻢ‪AF-S NIKKOR 120–24‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻼﻧﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ﻟﻠﻤﺪﻯ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺑﺎﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻛﻞ ‪ 30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻢ ﻳﹸﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ EN-EL15b‬ﺃﻭ ‪ EN-EL15‬ﹰ‬
‫ﺑﺪﻻ ﻣﻦ ‪ ،EN-EL15a‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫‪ EN-EL15‬ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺘﻴﻦ ‪ EN-EL15a/EN-EL15b‬ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺷﺤﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺮﺓﹰ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺷﺎﺣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ MH-26a‬ﺃﻭ ‪ MH-26‬ﻭﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺣﺠﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ‬
‫‪) BL-5‬ﻛﻼﻫﻤﺎ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻞ(‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ‪ EN-EL18b‬ﻭ‪ EN-EL18a‬ﻭ‬
‫‪ EN-EL18‬ﹰ‬
‫ﺑﺪﻻ ﻣﻦ ‪ ،EN-EL18c‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ EN-EL18‬ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ‪ EN-EL18a/EN-EL18b/EN-EL18c‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺷﺤﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺮﺓﹰ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪° 23‬ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ )‪° ±2‬ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ( ﺑﻌﺪﺳﺔ ‪ f/2.8E FL ED VR‬ﻣﻢ‪AF-S NIKKOR 200–70‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﻣﻐﻠﻖ‪ ،‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ JPEG‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‪ ،‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ‪ 1/250‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻼﻧﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ‬
‫ﺛﻮﺍﻥ؛ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ﻟﻠﻤﺪﻯ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ‪ 3‬ﹴ‬
‫ﺛﻮﺍﻥ ﺛﻢ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻓﻬﺎ؛ ﺗﻜﺮﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺑﻤﺠﺮﺩ‬
‫ﺳﺖ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﻭﺗﻢ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ‪ 5‬ﹴ‬
‫ﺍﻧﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻢ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ‪° 23‬ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ )‪° ±2‬ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ( ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫‪ f/4G ED VR‬ﻣﻢ‪ AF-S NIKKOR 120–24‬ﺗﺤﺖ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺣﺪﺩﻫﺎ ﺍﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻭﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ‪ .(CIPA) Camera and Imaging Products Association‬ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻣﻠﻒ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‪ ،‬ﻛﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺣﺠﻤﻪ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 4‬ﺟﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ ﻭﺗﺼﻞ ﻣﺪﺗﻪ ﺍﻹﺟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪29‬‬
‫ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ‪ 59‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ؛ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﻌﺖ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻘﻠﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﻟﻠﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫• ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‬
‫• ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻜﺮﺭﺓ‬
‫• ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺃﻭ )‪TIFF (RGB‬‬
‫• ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ‪) Wi-Fi‬ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﻣﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ( ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮﺗﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻊ ﻛﻤﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺘﺼﻠﺔ‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪) VR‬ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ( ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪VR‬‬
‫• ﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪.AF-P‬‬
‫ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪:EN-EL15a‬‬
‫• ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻈﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻴﻔﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺷﺤﻨﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺳﺘﻔﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺤﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﺖ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪366‬‬
‫ﻓﻬﺮﺱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫‪) P‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺒﺮﻣﺞ( ‪128 ،126 .........................‬‬
‫‪) S‬ﻏﺎﻟﻖ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟـﻮﻳــﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ(‪129 ،126 ...................‬‬
‫‪) A‬ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ(‪130 ،126 .......................‬‬
‫‪) M‬ﻳﺪﻭﻱ(‪131 ،126 .....................................................‬‬
‫‪) S‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ( ‪113.......................................................‬‬
‫‪) CL‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ( ‪264 ،113 ...........‬‬
‫‪) CH‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ(‪113..............................‬‬
‫‪) Q‬ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺻﺎﻣﺖ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻟﻖ( ‪113.................................‬‬
‫‪) QC‬ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺻﺎﻣﺖ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻟﻖ(‪113................‬‬
‫‪) E‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ(‪264 ،116 ،113 ...............................‬‬
‫‪) MUP‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﻩ ﻷﻋﻠﻰ(‪118 ،114 ...........................‬‬
‫‪) K‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ(‪100 .......‬‬
‫‪) I‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ(‪100 .......................................................‬‬
‫‪) T‬ﺗﻌﻘﺐ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ(‪101 .................................‬‬
‫‪) N‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ(‬
‫‪101‬‬
‫‪) H‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ(‪101 ..............‬‬
‫! )ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻷﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ( ‪42 ..........‬‬
‫‪) 5‬ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﺳﻌﺔ(‪42 .......‬‬
‫‪) 6‬ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﺎﺩﻳﺔ( ‪42 .........‬‬
‫‪) 3‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺋﻲ( ‪42 .....................‬‬
‫& )ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻤﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻫﺪﻑ(‪43 .......‬‬
‫‪) L‬ﻣﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ(‪124 ...................................................‬‬
‫‪) M‬ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ(‪124 ......................................‬‬
‫‪) N‬ﺑﻘﻌﺔ(‪124 ...........................................................‬‬
‫‪) t‬ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ(‪124 .......................................‬‬
‫‪) R‬ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ( ‪203 ،72 ،55 .................................‬‬
‫‪) a‬ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ(‪270 ،169 ،59 ،37 .....................‬‬
‫‪) Q‬ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ(‪25 ........................................................‬‬
‫‪) t‬ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ( ‪362 ،115 ......................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪228 ،208 ،200 ،65 ،45 .................................. i‬‬
‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ‪270 ،6....................................................... D‬‬
‫‪) I‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ(‪112 ،108 ،33 ..............‬‬
‫‪) L‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ( ‪165 ،157 .....................‬‬
‫‪84 ........................................................ (20×30) ×1.2‬‬
‫‪84 ...........................................................(24×24) 1:1‬‬
‫‪ 12‬ﺑﺖ‪90 .....................................................................‬‬
‫‪ 14‬ﺑﺖ‪90 .....................................................................‬‬
‫‪84 .......................................................... (24×30) 5:4‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫‪253 .......................................................Adobe RGB‬‬
‫‪B‬‬
‫‪ BKT‬ﺯﺭ‪268 ،186 ،153 ،152 ،149 ،148 ،144 ،143 ..‬‬
‫‪C‬‬
‫‪288 ......................................................................CLS‬‬
‫‪D‬‬
‫‪278 .........................................................D-Lighting‬‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ‪258 ،253 ،180 ،152 ،65 ،45‬‬
‫‪87 ،84.................................................... (16×24) DX‬‬
‫‪E‬‬
‫‪349 ...................................................................... Exif‬‬
‫‪F‬‬
‫‪84 ...........................................................(24×36) FX‬‬
‫‪G‬‬
‫‪221 ..................................................................... GPS‬‬
‫‪H‬‬
‫‪343 .................................................................. H.264‬‬
‫‪349 ،274 .......................................................... HDMI‬‬
‫‪) HDR‬ﻣﺪﻯ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ(‪182 ........................‬‬
‫‪120 ..........................................................................Hi‬‬
‫‪I‬‬
‫‪ ISO NR‬ﻋﺎﻝ‪258 ،253..............................................‬‬
‫‪288 ،198 ،190 ،189 ........................................i-TTL‬‬
‫‪367‬‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫‪278 ،92 ،88 ..................................................... JPEG‬‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ‪88 .....................................................‬‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﺟﻴﺪ‪88 ............................................................‬‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‪88 ...........................................................‬‬
‫‪L‬‬
‫‪) L‬ﻛﺒﻴﺮ(‪91 ،74 ...........................................................‬‬
‫‪120 ......................................................................... Lo‬‬
‫‪M‬‬
‫‪) M‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ(‪111 ،44 ...................................‬‬
‫‪) M‬ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ(‪91 ،74 ...................................................‬‬
‫‪N‬‬
‫)‪278 ،92 ،90 ،88 ................................... NEF (RAW‬‬
‫‪P‬‬
‫‪349 .........................................................PictBridge‬‬
‫‪R‬‬
‫‪ RAW‬ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻴﺔ‪ JPEG ،‬ﺛﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ )ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ( ‪93 ..............................................................‬‬
‫‪253 ،232 ،88.....................................................RGB‬‬
‫‪S‬‬
‫‪) S‬ﺻﻐﻴﺮ( ‪91 ،74 ........................................................‬‬
‫‪253 ...................................................................sRGB‬‬
‫‪T‬‬
‫)‪92 ،88.................................................... TIFF (RGB‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪222 ،22 ...............................................................UTC‬‬
‫‪V‬‬
‫‪ii ................................................................ ViewNX-i‬‬
‫‪W‬‬
‫‪257 ،252 ،156 ،148 ...........................................WB‬‬
‫‪275 ،xx ............................................................ Wi-Fi‬‬
‫ﺃ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ‪279 ،175 ...............................................‬‬
‫‪368‬‬
‫ﺇﺣﺎﻃﺔ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪262 .........................‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻟﻺﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺫﻛﻲ‪/‬ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪249‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ‪224 ،93 ...........................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻴﺔ ‪250 ،93 ........................‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ )ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ( ‪،157 .....‬‬
‫‪163‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺒﻮﻳﺐ‪280 .........................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ‪/‬ﺍﻹﻧﻬﺎﺀ‪78................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ‪111 ،94 ،41 ...............‬‬
‫ﺇﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪248 ........................................................‬‬
‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪258 ،252................ Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﻧﺺ‪273 ...........................................................‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﻧﻰ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‪127 ،20 ...................................................‬‬
‫ﺇﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺫﻛﻲ )ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ( ‪275 ......................‬‬
‫ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪20 ...............................‬‬
‫ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ ‪273 ...............‬‬
‫ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺑﻨﻮﺩ )ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ(‪280 ...........................................‬‬
‫ﺃﺯﺭﻕ ﻓﺎﺗﺢ )ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ( ‪279 ...................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻣﺤﺠﻮﺑﺔ‪260 ...........................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ‪.....‬‬
‫‪221‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ‪277 ،256 ،209 ...‬‬
‫ﺃﺳﻮﺩ ﻭﺃﺑﻴﺾ )ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ( ‪279 .............................‬‬
‫ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ‪277 ....................................‬‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪265 ،6......................................‬‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪6 ..........................................................‬‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ‪265 ،6........................................LCD‬‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﻨﻮﺩ )ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ(‪280 .......................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪33 ......‬‬
‫ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪113.............................................................‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ‪277 ،256 ،209 ......................................‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺰﺭﻳﻦ‪209 ..............................................‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪277 ..........................‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‪256 ..................‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪257 ،252 ..........................ISO‬‬
‫ﺃﻓﻖ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ‪272 ،72 ،55 ........................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻗﺘﻄﺎﻉ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ‪279 ،78 ..............................................‬‬
‫ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪264 ......................................‬‬
‫ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪257 ،122 .....................................‬‬
‫ﺃﻗﻮﺍﺱ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪9 ،7 ....‬‬
‫ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﻩ ‪263 ،260......................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺫﻛﻲ‪275 .........................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪184 ....................‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﺩﺩﺍﺕ‪259 ،65 ..................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ‪280 ...............................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ‪260 .........................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪277 ،256 ،209 .....................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‪271 ،23 ...........................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ‪99 .......................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ ‪253 .........................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ‪228 ........................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﺔ ‪52...................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ‪261 ...................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ‪184 ...........................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﺋﺪ )ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ(‪93 ......‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻃﻮﻟﻴﺎ ‪249 ....................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪262-260 ،112-94 ،44 ،43-41.......‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪260 ،98 ...................... C‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪41 .................................F‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪260 ،98 ،41................ S‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ‪241 ...........................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ‪58-37‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻣﺖ ‪255 ،49 .....................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻼﺕ‪231 ..........................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻔﻲ ‪271 ،23 .....................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ‪278 ،91 ،74 ...................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ )ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪179 .....(Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪284 ،130..............................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪268 ......................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ‪275 ..............................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪220 .....................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ‪268 ،136 ،131 ،130 ...................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻵﻟﻴﺔ ‪66 .....................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ‪295 ..........................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ‪271 ،21.............................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺫﻛﻲ ‪271 ..................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺲ ﻭﺍﺳﺤﺐ ‪274 ،12............................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻲ )ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫‪93‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻬﺔ ‪256 ...............................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ‪271 ،23 ...........................................................‬‬
‫ﺏ‬
‫ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪175 ..Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪296 ..................... Camera Control Pro 2‬‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ii .........................................Capture NX-D‬‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻣﺮﻥ‪128 .........................................................‬‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪347 ،276 ،30 ،16 ،14 ...................................‬‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻳﻮﻥ ﻟﻴﺜﻴﻮﻡ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ‬
‫‪347 ،30 ،14 ،ii‬‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪360 ،93 ،16 .........................................XQD‬‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪360 ،271 ،93 ،16 ............................‬‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ‪361 ،93 ،16 ..................................SD‬‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ‪ ،‬ﻋﺮﺽ ‪249 ............................................‬‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ‪249 ........................................................‬‬
‫ﺑﻘﻌﻴﺔ ‪124 .................................................................‬‬
‫ﺑﻠﻮﺗﻮﺙ‪275 ،xx ..........................................................‬‬
‫ﺑﻨﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﺗﺒﺔ )ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ(‪280 ........................................‬‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪234 .................................................‬‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ‪221 ....................................................‬‬
‫ﺕ‬
‫ﺗﺄﺧﺮ ﺍﻧﻄﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ‪264 .....................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺘﺎﺑﻊ ‪264 ،249...........................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺻﺎﻣﺖ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪113........................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺻﺎﻣﺖ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻟﻖ ‪113.......................‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻣﺘﺰﺍﻣﻦ‪264 ....................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ‪278 ................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪251 ،190 ،189 ...............................‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ‪253 ..................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪257 ،121 ......‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪267 ........... M‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻧﻈﺮﻱ‪279 ......................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ‪276 ..................................................Eye-Fi‬‬
‫ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪115....................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪269 ..............................‬‬
‫ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‪249 .......................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪279 ....................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺮ