Nikon | DF | Nikon Df دليل المستخدم

Nikon Df دليل المستخدم
‫ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫‪Ar‬‬
‫ﺷﻜﺮﺍ ﹰ ﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﻚ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻋﺎﻛﺲ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ )‪ (SLR‬ﻣﻦ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺟﺎﺀ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺘﻔﻆ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ‬
‫ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺴﻬﻴﻞ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺜﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺗﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪D‬‬
‫ﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ؛ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻳﺠﺐ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺗﻬﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﺤﺎﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫ﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ؛ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻳﺠﺐ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺗﻬﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫ﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺑﻨﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺨﻂ ﺳﻤﻴﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺮﺍﺽ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺧﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻨﻮﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 15‬ﻟﻠﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺳﻼﻣﺘﻚ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‪ ،‬ﺍﻗﺮﺃ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺎﺏ "ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺳﻼﻣﺘﻚ"‬
‫)‪.(xii-x 0‬‬
‫ﻣﺤﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﻮﺓ‬
‫ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﻮﺓ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪BS-1‬‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻢ ‪BF-1B‬‬
‫ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪Df‬‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻳﻮﻥ ﻟﻴﺜﻴﻮﻡ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ‬
‫‪) EN-EL14a‬ﻣﺰﻭﺩﺓ ﺑﻐﻄﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻑ(‬
‫ﺣﺰﺍﻡ ‪(18 0) AN-DC9‬‬
‫ﺷﺎﺣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪) MH-24‬ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺇﺭﻓﺎﻕ ﻣﻬﺎﻳﺊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﺲ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ؛ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻊ‪(.‬‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ‪DK-26‬‬
‫)‪(23 0‬‬
‫ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ‪ USB‬ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪UC-E6‬‬
‫ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻟﻐﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ )‪(23 0‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻁ ‪ViewNX 2‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ )ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ(‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﺮﻭﻥ ﻟﻄﺎﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺣﺘﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﻮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻞ )‪ .(363 0‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺷﺮﺍﺅﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ؛ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺪﻋﻮﻣﺔ‪ .‬ﻧﻌﺘﺬﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻱ ﺇﺯﻋﺎﺝ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬
‫‪i‬‬
‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺳﻼﻣﺘﻚ‪x ...............................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ‪xiii.........................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪1 ........................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻗﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪15 .................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‪18 ...............................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫‪29‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪29 .................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ‪34 .............................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ‪35 ....................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫‪36‬‬
‫‪ :P‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺒﺮﻣﺞ‪38 ........................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :S‬ﻏﺎﻟﻖ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪39 ..............................................................................................‬‬
‫‪) 1/3 STEP‬ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ S‬ﻭ ‪40 ..........................................................(M‬‬
‫‪ :A‬ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪41 ............................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :M‬ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‪42 .......................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ )ﻭﺿﻊ ‪ M‬ﻓﻘﻂ( ‪44 .......................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫‪46‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪46 ............................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ‪48 ..............................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻷﻋﻠﻰ‪50 .....................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ii‬‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪51‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪51 ...............................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪55 .......................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪55 ...............................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪58 .............................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪59‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪59 ............................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪59 ...................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪62 ....................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪64 .....................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪66 ....................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‪68 ...............................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫‪70‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪70 ....................................................................................................... ISO‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪72 .................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫‪75‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ‪75 ...............................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪77 ...................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪79 .............................................................................................‬‬
‫‪iii‬‬
‫‪81‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ‪81 .......................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪84 .......................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪88 ..................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‪90 ..........................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪90 ................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ )ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻌﺔ( ‪93 ................................................................‬‬
‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ‪96 .................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪100................................................................Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪106..............‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻈﻼﻝ ‪110................................................‬‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‪110..................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺪﻯ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ )‪112.................................................................................(HDR‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫‪116‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻓﻼﺵ‪116..............................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪124...............................................................................................i-TTL‬‬
‫ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪125................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪128..............................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪130.................................................................................................. FV‬‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫‪133‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺰﺭﻳﻦ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪133....................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪136..........................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ‪149...................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‪156............................................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪163................................................................................CPU‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪167....................................................................................................... AI‬‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ‪170.................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪iv‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫‪172‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪175...........................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪179.......................................................................................................P‬‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪180...........................‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪182.......................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‪183.......................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫‪185‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‪185............................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪188.....................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ‪196........................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﻳﻢ ‪197................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺇﻟﻘﺎﺀ ﻧﻈﺮﺓ ﻣﻘﺮﺑﺔ‪ :‬ﺯﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪199.....................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ ‪201............................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺣﺬﻑ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪203..................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‪ ،‬ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﻳﻢ‪203............................................................‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪205............................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ‬
‫‪208‬‬
‫ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪208.............................................................................................ViewNX 2‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪211.......................................................................................ViewNX 2‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‪211...........................................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪213..............................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪214...............................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ‪222...................................................................................‬‬
‫‪v‬‬
‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫‪224‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪224.....................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ :‬ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ‪229....................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪230......................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺇﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪230.........................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪232.......................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪232....................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ‪233..........................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻃﻮﻟﻴﺎ‪233.......................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﺢ ‪234....................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ C‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ :‬ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪235..........................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺨﺰﻥ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪236.........................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ ‪237....................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‪239....................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪240......................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ‪241.............................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ‪241......................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ ‪) NR‬ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ(‪242.......................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ ISO NR‬ﻋﺎﻝ‪242........................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪243....................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺨﺰﻥ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪245................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :a‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪246...............................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :a1‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ‪246......................................................................................AF-C‬‬
‫‪ :a2‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ‪246...................................................................................... AF-S‬‬
‫‪ :a3‬ﺗﻌﻘﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻔﻞ‪247................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :a4‬ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪247...............................................................‬‬
‫‪ :a5‬ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪248.......................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :a6‬ﺇﺣﺎﻃﺔ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪249......................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :a7‬ﻋﺪﺩ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪249............................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :b‬ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‪/‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪250................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :b1‬ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪250...........................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :b2‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪250..................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :c‬ﻣﺆﻗﺘﺎﺕ‪/‬ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪251............................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :c1‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﻟﺰﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪251....................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :c2‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ‪251.........................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :c3‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ‪252....................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :c4‬ﺗﺄﺧﺮ ﺍﻧﻄﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪253..................................................................................‬‬
‫‪vi‬‬
‫‪ :d‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪253...................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :d1‬ﺻﻮﺕ ﺻﻔﻴﺮ‪253..................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :d2‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪253.......................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :d3‬ﻋﺮﺽ ‪254..................................................................................................... ISO‬‬
‫‪ :d4‬ﺗﻠﻤﻴﺤﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪254................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :d5‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻮﺿﻊ ‪254..............................................................................CL‬‬
‫‪ :d6‬ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ‪254..................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :d7‬ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‪255...................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :d8‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪256.........................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :d9‬ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ‪256......................................................................................LCD‬‬
‫‪ :d10‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪256..................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :e‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪257.................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :e1‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪257................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :e2‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪258....................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :e3‬ﻓﻼﺵ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ‪258...............................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :e4‬ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪259...................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :e5‬ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‪259................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :e6‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪259................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :e7‬ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪260........................................................................(M‬‬
‫‪ :e8‬ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ ‪260............................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :f‬ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ‪261....................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :f1‬ﺯﺭ ‪261...............................................................................................................D‬‬
‫‪ :f2‬ﺯﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻖ ‪261.........................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :f3‬ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ‪262.......................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :f4‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪263................................................................................................... Fn‬‬
‫‪ :f5‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‪266............................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :f6‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻋﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪267.....................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :f7‬ﺗﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪267...........................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :f8‬ﺯﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺹ‪269.......................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :f9‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺗﻔﺮﻳﻎ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪269............................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :f10‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻋﻜﺴﻴﺔ‪269.......................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ :f11‬ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺳﻠﺲ ﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪270.....................................................................‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ :‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪271..................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪272.........................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪273.................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪273............................................................................‬‬
‫ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ‪274....................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ‪276................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪276..................................................................................‬‬
‫‪vii‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ )‪277............................................................................................. (Language‬‬
‫ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‪277...........................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪278................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‪279....................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺣﻔﻆ‪/‬ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪280.....................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺃﻓﻖ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ‪282.......................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ ‪283................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪ Fn‬ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪ ‪284............................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻬﺎﻳﺊ ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻲ ﻣﺤﻤﻮﻝ‪284...................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ‪285....................................................................................................Eye-Fi‬‬
‫ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ‪286.....................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ‪287...................................................................‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ‪289................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪291..........................................................................................................D-Lighting‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ‪292.....................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻬﺬﻳﺐ‪293..................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪294..........................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ‪295..................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪296............................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪297.....................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ )‪300.........................................................................................NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ‪302......................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‪304........................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ‪304...................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ ‪305..................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻜﺔ ‪305.....................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪306......................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ‪306.....................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻧﻈﺮﻱ‪307.......................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﺗﺼﻐﻴﺮ‪308.........................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪309......................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺟﻨﺒﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻨﺐ‪311........................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ O‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‪ m/‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ‪313.................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ‪317......................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪viii‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫‪318‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ‪318.....................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪323................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ‪326.......................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪328...........................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ ‪328.....................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ‪328...................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺩﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‪329..................................................................................‬‬
‫"ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺍﻵﻥ"‪329..................................................................................................‬‬
‫"ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﺪﺀ‪/‬ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ"‪330.............................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ‪331.................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ ‪335........................................................................‬‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪339.......................................................................... (P‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻞ ﻭﺇﺻﻼﺣﻪ‪340...................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪/‬ﻋﺮﺽ‪340.............................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪341........................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ‪343..........................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﻣﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ‪345......................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺄ‪346.................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ‪352.....................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ f/1.8G‬ﻣﻢ‪360...............................................(Special Edition) AF-S NIKKOR 50‬‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻤﺪﺓ‪363...........................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺳﻌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪364.....................................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﻟﻠﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪367...........................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺮﺱ‪368..........................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ix‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺳﻼﻣﺘﻚ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﺤﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺭ ﺑﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﻚ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﻧﻔﺴﻚ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻟﺨﻄﺮ ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺟﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ‪ .‬ﺍﺣﺘﻔﻆ ﺑﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻣﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺗﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻗﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺤﺪﺙ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﻌﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ‬
‫ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫ﻳﺪﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺬﻳﺮﺍﺕ‪ .‬ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻱ ﺇﺻﺎﺑﺔ ﻣﻤﻜﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺟﺎﺀ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺬﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺗﺤﺬﻳﺮﺍﺕ‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫‪x‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ‬
‫ﺍﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﻋﻄﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ ﺍﻧﺒﻌﺎﺙ ﺩﺧﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺭﺍﺋﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻋﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ )ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ(‪ ،‬ﺍﻓﺼﻞ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻧﺸﻮﺏ ﺣﺮﻳﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﻭﺍﻧﺰﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻳﺠﺐ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺧﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺬﺭ ﻟﺘﺠﻨﺐ ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ ﺑﺤﺮﻭﻕ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻺﺻﺎﺑﺔ‪ .‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﻮﺟﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺻﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻔﺤﺺ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺻﺎﺑﺔ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺑﺼﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻻ ﺗﻔﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﺑﺘﺮﻱ‬
‫ﻟﻤﺲ ﺍﻷﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻺﺻﺎﺑﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﻋﻄﻞ‪،‬‬
‫ﻛﻦ ﺣﺬﺭ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻚ ﻟﻘﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ‬
‫ﻳﺠﺐ ﺗﺼﻠﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺪ ﻓﻨﻲ ﻣﺆﻫﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﺑﺘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻓﻘﻂ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻟﻠﻜﺴﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺑﻌﻴﻨﻚ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻻ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ‬
‫ﻭﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺋﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﺴﻘﻮﻁ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺃﺻﺎﺑﻌﻚ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻴﻨﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﺨﻄﺄ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﺤﺎﺩﺙ ﺃﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺰﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﻭﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺻﻴﺎﻧﺔ‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺳﻂ ﻏﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻟﻠﻔﺤﺺ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻼﺷﺘﻌﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺳﻂ ﻏﺎﺯﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻼﺷﺘﻌﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻧﻔﺠﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻧﺸﻮﺏ ﺣﺮﻳﻖ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺤﻔﻆ ﺑﻌﻴﺪ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻻﺣﻆ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻟﺨﻄﺮ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻨﺎﻕ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺑﺘﻼﻉ ﻃﻔﻞ ﺃﻱ‬
‫ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻃﺒﻴﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻻ ﺗﻀﻊ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺭﻗﺒﺔ ﺭﺿﻴﻊ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻃﻔﻞ ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻟﻒ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺭﻗﺒﺔ ﺭﺿﻴﻊ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻃﻔﻞ ﺻﻐﻴﺮ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻌﺮﺿﻪ ﻟﻼﺧﺘﻨﺎﻕ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻻ ﺗﻼﻣﺲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺎﺣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻤﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺗﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ‬
‫ﻣﻼﻣﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻟﻠﺒﺸﺮﺓ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﺤﺮﻭﻕ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻻ ﺗﺘﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻓﻴﻪ‬
‫ﻟﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺳﻴﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻐﻠﻘﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻒ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻧﺸﻮﺏ ﺣﺮﻳﻖ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﺗﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﺘﺴﺮﻳﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﻧﻔﺠﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﺑﺄﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪ .‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺼﺼﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻮﺻﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ )ﻗﺼﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ( ﺃﻭ ﺗﻔﻜﻜﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺗﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻣﺘﺮﺩﺩ‪ ،‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺼﻠﻪ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﺤﺎﻭﻝ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻜﺲ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻬﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻔﺮﻃﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻐﻤﺮﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺭﻛﺐ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻧﻘﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﻨﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺨﺰﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺃﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﻣﻌﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻼﺋﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺩﺑﺎﺑﻴﺲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻋﺮﺿﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺴﺮﻳﺐ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻔﺮﻳﻐﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻟﻠﺘﻠﻒ‪ ،‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻧﺰﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻧﻔﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺭﻛﺐ‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﻭﺧﺰﻧﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺭﺩ ﻭﺟﺎﻑ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺳﺎﺧﻨﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻣﻤﺘﺪﺓ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﺒﻞ‬
‫ﻧﺰﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﺗﺮﻛﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﺗﺒﺮﺩ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻝ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ ﺃﻱ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪xi‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻻ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺳﺎﺋﻖ ﻣﺮﻛﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺣﻮﺍﺩﺙ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ‬
‫• ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺟﺎﻓﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﻁ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺗﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﺃﻭ ‪ A‬ﺍﻧﺘﺒﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻧﺸﻮﺏ ﺣﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺻﺪﻣﺔ ﻛﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺏ‬
‫• ﻳﺠﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺴﺒﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﺲ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺏ‬
‫ﺣﺮﻭﻕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ﻗﻤﺎﺵ ﺟﺎﻓﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺇﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻧﺸﻮﺏ‬
‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺣﺮﻳﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﻗﺔ ﻟﺤﻈﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻻ ﻳﻘﻞ‬
‫ﺭﻋﺪﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺎﺻﻔﺔ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ‬
‫ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺗﻘﺘﺮﺏ‬
‫•ﻻ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺘﺮ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‪ .‬ﻳﺠﺐ‬
‫ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ‬
‫ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺇﺑﺪﺍﺀ ﻋﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺻﺪﻣﺔ ﻛﻬﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻘﻢ ﺑﻤﻨﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﺲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ ﺑﻴﺪﻳﻦ ‪ A‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﺗﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﻣﻼﻣﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﻳﺴﺘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﺴﺮ‪ ،‬ﻳﺠﺐ‬
‫ﻣﺒﺘﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﻁ ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻺﺻﺎﺑﺔ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬
‫ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺗﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﺃﻭ ﻧﺸﻮﺏ ﺣﺮﻳﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺟﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺴﻮﺭ ﻭﺗﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﻟﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﻳﺴﺘﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺻﺪﻣﺔ ﻛﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﻟﻠﺒﺸﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺃﻭ‬
‫• ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺤﻮﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻮﻟﻄﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺗﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﺮﺩﺩ‪ A .‬ﻻ ﺗﺤﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻞ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻠﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﺃﻭ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺨﻮﻧﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻧﺸﻮﺏ‬
‫ﻓﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻨﺰﻟﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺼﻄﺪﻡ ﺑﺎﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺣﺮﻳﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺄ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺻﺎﺑﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺳﻼﻙ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﻣﻮﻇﻔﻲ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺮﺍﻥ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺃﺳﻼﻙ ﺑﻤﻘﺒﺲ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻞ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﻔﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺮﺝ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺍﻷﺳﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺈﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺗﺮﺩﺩﺍﺕ ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﻔﺎﻅ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻌﻄﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻴﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﺯﺍﻟﺔ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻣﺠﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻱ ﺇﻛﺴﺴﻮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻣﺠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺭﻛﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﻛﺘﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻹﻗﻼﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﺒﻮﻁ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‪ .‬ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺸﺂﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﻓﺮﻳﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻣﺠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺻﻮﺕ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺣﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‪.‬‬
‫‪xii‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ‬
‫• ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺃﻱ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﻴﺒﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺤﻮﻳﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻧﺴﺨﻬﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺩﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺃﻱ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺑﺄﻱ ﺷﻜﻞ‪ ،‬ﺑﺄﻱ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺇﺫﻥ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺗﺤﺘﻔﻆ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻭﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺇﺧﻄﺎﺭ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻟﻦ ﺗﺘﺤﻤﻞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻱ ﺃﺿﺮﺍﺭ ﺗﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺗﻢ ﺑﺬﻝ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﻮﺩ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺩﻗﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﻴﺒﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ‬
‫ﺃﻧﻨﺎ ﻧﺮﺣﺐ ﺑﺈﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺃﻱ ﺃﺧﻄﺎﺀ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻓﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﻣﻤﺜﻞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺘﻚ )ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻭﻳﻦ ﻣﺮﻓﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻞ(‪.‬‬
‫‪xiii‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺑﺮﺟﺎﺀ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻻ ﻳﺤﺬﻑ‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻧﻬﺎﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺬﻭﻓﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﻤﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺳﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﻘﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﻴﺔ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻘﻞ ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺘﻪ ﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺃﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﻟﺤﺬﻑ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻫﻴﺊ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺛﻢ ﺍﻣﻸﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺼﻮﺭ ﻻ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬
‫)ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺻﻮﺭ ﺳﻤﺎﺀ ﻓﺎﺭﻏﺔ(‪ .‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻝ ﺃﻱ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ )‪ .(90 0‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺹ ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻺﺻﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺪﻣﻴﺮ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺑﻐﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪xiv‬‬
‫ﻣﻠﺤﻮﻇﺔ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ ﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬
‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎﻗﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺠﺮﺩ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻔﺎﻅ ﺑﻤﻮﺍﺩ ﺗﻢ ﻧﺴﺨﻬﺎ ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺎ ﹰ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺎﺳﺢ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻱ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻻ ﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﻧﺴﺨﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ‬
‫• ﺗﺤﺬﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬
‫ﺃﺻﺪﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺗﺤﺬﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻨﺴﺦ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﻴﺪ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺕ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻟﻠﺴﻨﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺼﺪﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ )ﺍﻷﺳﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺗﻴﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻜﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻗﺴﺎﺋﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﺘﻰ ﻭﻟﻮ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﺍﻳﺎ‪ ،‬ﺇﻟﺦ(‪ ،‬ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺬﺍﻛﺮ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ "ﻋﻴﻨﺔ" ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺋﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻻ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻡ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﻳﻀﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﻧﺴﺦ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺕ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺟﻮﺍﺯﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺼﺪﺭﻫﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺻﻜﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺃﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺮﺧﺺ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺼﺪﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﻛﺎﻻﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻬﻮﻳﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻃﻮﺍﺑﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻳﺪ ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺬﺍﻛﺮ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﻭﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺪﺍﻭﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻳﺪﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺼﺪﺭﻫﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺟﺒﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺤﻘﻮﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﺑﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺪﺩ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺼﺪﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻨﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺛﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻧﺴﺦ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻨﺺ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﺤﻔﻮﻇﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺳﻴﻘﻰ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺒﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺒﻮﻋﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺨﺮﺍﺋﻂ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‬
‫ﺑﻐﺮﺽ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺧﺮﻕ‬
‫ﻗﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‪.‬‬
‫‪xv‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺍﻹﻛﺴﺴﻮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺗﻢ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﹰ ﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻳﻴﺲ ﻭﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﻛﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻏﺎﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻘﻴﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻘﻂ ﺍﻹﻛﺴﺴﻮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻨﻮﻋﺔ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ )ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﻛﺴﺴﻮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻣﺤﻮﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ( ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺼﺪﻕ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻤﺖ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻤﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺇﻛﺴﺴﻮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﻳﺤﺮﻣﻚ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﻳﻮﻥ‪-‬ﻟﻴﺜﻴﻮﻡ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻊ‬
‫ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻻ ﺗﺤﻤﻞ ﺷﻌﺎﺭ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺻﺪﻭﺭ ﺷﺮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﻻﻧﻔﺠﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺮﻳﺐ‪ .‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻹﻛﺴﺴﻮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺗﺼﻞ ﺑﻤﻮﺯﻉ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻤﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪xvi‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺇﻛﺴﺴﻮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻓﻘﻂ ﺍﻹﻛﺴﺴﻮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻨﻮﻋﺔ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺼﺪﻕ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻚ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻤﺖ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺇﻛﺴﺴﻮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﻳﺤﺮﻣﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺻﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻹﻛﺴﺴﻮﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺫﻭ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻭﺗﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺻﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺩﻭﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﺗﻨﺼﺢ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﻔﺤﺺ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺪ ﻣﻮﺯﻉ ﺃﺻﻠﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻤﺜﻞ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻛﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺎﻣﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻴﺎﻧﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻛﻞ‬
‫ﺛﻼﺙ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺧﻤﺲ ﺃﻋﻮﺍﻡ )ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺼﻴﻞ ﺭﺳﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺨﺪﻣﺔ(‪ .‬ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺤﺺ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻬﻨﻲ ﻣﺤﺘﺮﻑ‪ .‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﺇﺭﻓﺎﻕ‬
‫ﺃﻱ ﺇﻛﺴﺴﻮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﺘﻈﻢ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻓﺤﺺ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﻣﺔ )ﻣﺜﻞ ﺣﻔﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﻓﺎﻑ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﺧﺬ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺭﺣﻠﺔ(‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻂ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﺠﺮﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ‪ .‬ﻟﻦ ﺗﺘﺤﻤﻞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻱ ﺃﺿﺮﺍﺭ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺧﺴﺎﺋﺮ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺤﺪﺙ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﻘﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ‬
‫ﻛﺠﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﻬﺪ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ »ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ« ﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﺮ ﺩﻋﻢ ﺩﺍﺋﻢ ﻭﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺗﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻮﻓﻴﺮ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﻳﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫• ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻴﻦ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ‪http://www.nikonusa.com/ :‬‬
‫• ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﺎ ﻭﺇﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺎ‪http://www.europe-nikon.com/support/ :‬‬
‫• ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺁﺳﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭﻗﻴﺎﻧﻮﺳﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﻕ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ‪http://www.nikon-asia.com/ :‬‬
‫ﺗﻔﻀﻞ ﺑﺰﻳﺎﺭﺓ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻟﻺﻟﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﺄﺣﺪﺙ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‪ ،‬ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺇﺟﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻟﻸﺳﺌﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺋﻌﺔ )‪ ،(FAQs‬ﻭﻧﺼﺎﺋﺢ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺑﺨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻲ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻤﺜﻞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺘﻚ‪ .‬ﺗﻔﻀﻞ ﺑﺰﻳﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ‪http://imaging.nikon.com/ :‬‬
‫‪xvii‬‬
xviii
‫‪X‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻣﻨﺢ ﻧﻔﺴﻚ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﻌﺘﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺷﺎﺷﺎﺗﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﺗﺠﺪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺷﻴﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺗﻚ ﻟﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫‪10 11‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪17‬‬
‫ﺛﻘﺐ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪79 ...............‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫‪79 ......................................................................‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪70 ..................................ISO‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪70 ..............ISO‬‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻳﺔ )‪69 ...................(E‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ )ﻟﺘﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ( ‪116....................................................‬‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪116.............................‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪39 .................‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫‪17‬‬
‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪5 ...............................................‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪31 ............................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﺒﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪323..........................................‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪6 ......................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪D‬‬
‫ﺿﻮﺀ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ‪5 ......................................LCD‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺰﺭﻳﻦ‪133...................................‬‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ‪8 ..................................................‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪7 ........................................‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ‪39 ....................................‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ(‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ‪50 ............................................................‬‬
‫ﺫﺭﺍﻉ ﺇﻗﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ‪167....................................‬‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪24 ...............................‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪D‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪145 ،141 ،137 .............................‬‬
‫ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ‪48 ..............................‬‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻃﺮﻑ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ‪USB‬‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ‪HDMI‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪325...............................‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ‪25 ........................................‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪176 ،175 ،63 ،60 ...........................AF‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ‪175 ،68 ،59 ........‬‬
‫ﻃﺮﻑ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪117................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ‪214 ،211..................................... USB‬‬
‫ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ‪ HDMI‬ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‪222.................................‬‬
‫ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪325..........................................‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ‪267.............................‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪Pv‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ‪266 ،174 ،41 ........................ Pv‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪Fn‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ‪263..........................................Fn‬‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺣﺠﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪/‬ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ‪19 .........................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺣﺠﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪/‬ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ‪19 .........................................................‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪326................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻮﺻﻼﺕ ‪UPC‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪24 ...........................................‬‬
‫ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺇﻗﺮﺍﻥ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺒﺲ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻞ‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻢ‪324 ،24 ....................................‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ(‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪17‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪18‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪19‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫‪21‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪O‬‬
‫ﺣﺬﻑ ‪203 ،35 ..............................................‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪K‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ‪185 ،34 ..............................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪11 ......................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ‪34 ...........................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪172..........................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‪185....................................‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ‪224 ،15 .............................................‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪U/L‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ‪15 .................................................‬‬
‫ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ ‪201...................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪82 ...........................................‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪T/X‬‬
‫ﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ‪199......................................‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ‪/‬ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪58 ،56 ........................‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪M/W‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺽ‪/‬‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ ‪197 ،196...............................‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺰﺭﻳﻦ‪133.................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪126........................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪128....................................‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪P‬‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫‪14 .................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪179...................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ‪290......................................‬‬
‫ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪23 ......................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪28 ..............................................‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﺑﺘﺮ‪28 ....................‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪A‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪267 ،77 ،67 .................................................‬‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫‪17‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪B‬‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪60 ............................‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‪267...........................‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‪76 ............................................‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪) J‬ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻖ( ‪261 ،16 ....................................‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ‪16 .....................................‬‬
‫‪18‬‬
‫‪19‬‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫‪21‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪64 .........................‬‬
‫ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪32 ،20 .......‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪) R‬ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ( ‪11 .....................................‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪172......................................................... a‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﻹﻏﻼﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺿﻮﺀ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ‪LCD‬‬
‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ D‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ )ﺿﻮﺀ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ‪ ،(LCD‬ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻈﻼﻡ‪ .‬ﻭﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﻈﻞ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻣﻀﺎﺀﺓ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ‬
‫‪ 6‬ﺛﻮﺍﻧﻲ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ D‬ﻣﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪D‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻼﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺮﺩﺓ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﺍﺭﻓﻊ ﻭﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪ — P‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺒﺮﻣﺞ )‪(38 0‬‬
‫‪ — S‬ﻏﺎﻟﻖ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ )‪(39 0‬‬
‫‪ — A‬ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ )‪(41 0‬‬
‫‪ — M‬ﻳﺪﻭﻱ )‪(42 0‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ )‪.(46 0‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫‪S‬‬
‫ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‬
‫‪CL‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺗﻠﺘﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺑﻤﻌﺪﻝ ﺑﻄﻲﺀ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ‬
‫‪CH‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺗﻠﺘﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺑﻤﻌﺪﻝ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺻﺎﻣﺖ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻝ ﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪E‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪MUP‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻟﻸﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ‪42 ،39 .......................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ ‪158 .............................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪29 ..........................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪137 .....................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪141 .................................WB‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪145 ................................ADL‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪150 ..........‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ( ‪42 ،41 ........................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻔﺎﺕ(‪37 ...............................‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﻓﺎﺻﻞ‪158 ...................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ‪325 .............................‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪ 6‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ‪37 .................................‬‬
‫‪) "k" 7‬ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺘﺴﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ‬
‫‪ 1000‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ( ‪30 .................................‬‬
‫‪ 8‬ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ‪30 ......................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻣﺘﻼﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ ‪47 ...................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ‪91 .........................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ‪325 ................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ‪223 ....................... HDMI-CEC‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫‪11 12 13 14 15‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫‪21 22 23 24‬‬
‫‪25‬‬
‫‪26‬‬
‫‪19‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‪ :‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻷﻏﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺇﻃﺎﺭﻳﺔ )ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫‪253.............................................................. (d2‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪249 ،64 ..........................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪62 .....‬‬
‫ﺃﻗﻮﺍﺱ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪189 ،28 .............................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪69 ،32 ...........................‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ‪75 ..........................................................‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪77 .....(AE‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪36 ..............................‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫‪6 78‬‬
‫‪18‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪17‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻥ‪38 .................................‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪42 ،39 ........................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪59 .............................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ( ‪42 ،41 ........................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻔﺎﺕ(‪37 ...............................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ‪100....................................‬‬
‫)ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ(‬
‫ﺗﺤﺬﻳﺮ ﺍﻧﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪29 ............‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫‪17‬‬
‫‪18‬‬
‫‪19‬‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫‪21‬‬
‫‪22‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‪111.......................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ‪112............................................... HDR‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪70 ................................ ISO‬‬
‫"‪) "k‬ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺘﺴﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ‬
‫‪ 1000‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ(‪30 ..................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪131..................FV‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪257..............................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪37 ..................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪43 ...........................‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪80 ..............‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ‪265.............................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪128.............................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪80 .............‬‬
‫‪23‬‬
‫‪24‬‬
‫‪25‬‬
‫‪26‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪137......................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪141................................. WB‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪145................................ ADL‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪72 ...................‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ‪30 ......................................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻣﺘﻼﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ‪47 .....................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪91 ..........................................................‬‬
‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪80 ..............‬‬
‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪128..............................‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪70 ............................................ISO‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪62 .....‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ *‪121 ........................‬‬
‫* ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ )‪ .(118 0‬ﻳﻀﻴﺊ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺷﺤﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻻ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺳﺘﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻨﻔﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‪ .‬ﺗﺴﺘﻌﻴﺪ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺗﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺷﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺷﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻨﺨﻔﺾ‬
‫ﺃﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‪.‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ R‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﻀﻲﺀ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﻭﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪R‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪56‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪1 23‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫‪25‬‬
‫‪24‬‬
‫‪23‬‬
‫‪22‬‬
‫‪21‬‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫‪20 19 18 17‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‪ :‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻷﻏﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪36 ..............................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻥ‪38 .................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪257..............................‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪42 ،39 ........................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪137.....................‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫‪141............................................................. WB‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ )ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ(‪151........................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫‪163...........................................................(CPU‬‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪88 .........................................‬‬
‫‪ 5‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ‪88 .............................‬‬
‫‪ 6‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪37 ..................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪168..............................AI‬‬
‫‪ 7‬ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ( ‪42 ،41 ........................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻔﺎﺕ(‪37 ...............................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻳﺪﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪142 ،138..........‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫‪145............................................................ADL‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ‪150.....................‬‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻗﺼﻮﻯ )ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫‪166...........................................................(CPU‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‪64 .........‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ‪64 .......................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪64 .......................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻌﻘﺐ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‪64 ..........................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪43 ...........................‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪80 ........................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪137..................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪141..........................................WB‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ "ﺻﻮﺕ ﺻﻔﻴﺮ" ‪253...............................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ‪171..................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ‪160 ............................‬‬
‫"‪) "k‬ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺘﺴﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ‬
‫‪ 1000‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ(‪30 ..................................‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ‪30 ......................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪152......................................................‬‬
‫ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﹰﺎ‪166....................................‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫‪17‬‬
‫‪18‬‬
‫‪19‬‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫‪21‬‬
‫‪22‬‬
‫‪23‬‬
‫‪24‬‬
‫‪25‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ "ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻀﺒﻮﻃﺔ"‪276 ،27 ......‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪263.............................................Fn‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪/‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪267.................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪101....................................... Picture Control‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ‪242.......................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺨﺰﻥ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ‪245......................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ‪241........‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪81 ................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ‪85 ......‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪55 ................................................‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪58 ..............................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪125..............................................‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻤﺴﺢ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ R‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﺳﺘﻐﻠﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺃﻱ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ‪ 10‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﻧﻈﺮﹰﺍ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻈﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻗﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪c4‬‬
‫)ﺗﺄﺧﺮ ﺍﻧﻄﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .(253 0 ،‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻂ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) d8‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ .(256 0 ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ؛ ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.273‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ )ﺗﺎﺑﻊ(‬
‫‪28 29 30 31 32‬‬
‫‪26 27‬‬
‫‪33‬‬
‫‪47‬‬
‫‪46‬‬
‫‪45‬‬
‫‪44‬‬
‫‪43‬‬
‫‪34‬‬
‫‪35‬‬
‫‪36‬‬
‫‪37‬‬
‫‪38‬‬
‫‪26‬‬
‫‪27‬‬
‫‪28‬‬
‫‪29‬‬
‫‪30‬‬
‫‪31‬‬
‫‪32‬‬
‫‪33‬‬
‫‪34‬‬
‫‪35‬‬
‫‪36‬‬
‫‪37‬‬
‫‪39‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪52 ...............................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪46 ،7............................................‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ‪254......................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪256.................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪131..................FV‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪128.............................‬‬
‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪128..............................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪153..........‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪80 .............‬‬
‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪80 ..............‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪111.................................ADL‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ‪279..........................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪29 ...............................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪278..........................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪70 ................................ ISO‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪70 ............................................ISO‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪72 ...................‬‬
‫‪40‬‬
‫‪38‬‬
‫‪39‬‬
‫‪40‬‬
‫‪41‬‬
‫‪42‬‬
‫‪43‬‬
‫‪44‬‬
‫‪45‬‬
‫‪46‬‬
‫‪47‬‬
‫‪41‬‬
‫‪42‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪266........................................... Pv‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ‪113............................................... HDR‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ‬
‫‪114........................................................... HDR‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‪111.......................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ ‪ ISO‬ﻋﺎﻟﻲ‪242.............‬‬
‫ﻣﺨﺰﻥ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪236...............................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪59 .............................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ‪285................................Eye-Fi‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ‪241............................‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ‪75 ..........................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪137......................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪141................................. WB‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪145................................ ADL‬‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪P‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻳﻌﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﺘﻜﺮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ P‬ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ .‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ P‬ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺮﺩﺓ ﺃﺳﻔﻞ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻇﻠﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪P‬‬
‫ﻣﺨﺰﻥ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪236...............................‬‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﻋﻨﺪ ‪ ISO‬ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻲ ‪242.........‬‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ‪110..................................‬‬
‫‪) HDR‬ﻣﺪﻯ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ( ‪112.................‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪266........................................... Pv‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪263............................................ Fn‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪/‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪267.................‬‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪100...................................... Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ‪242.......................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺨﺰﻥ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ‪245......................‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻠﻤﻴﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺗﻠﻤﻴﺢ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺗﻠﻤﻴﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) d4‬ﺗﻠﻤﻴﺤﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ؛ ‪.(254 0‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﻧﻈﺮﹰﺍ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ‪ P‬ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ ،179‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 290‬ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫ﻗﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻗﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.G‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻮﻳﺐ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫• ‪ :D‬ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )‪(229 0‬‬
‫• ‪ :C‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )‪(235 0‬‬
‫• ‪ :A‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ )‪(243 0‬‬
‫• ‪ :B‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ )‪(271 0‬‬
‫• ‪ :N‬ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ )‪(287 0‬‬
‫• ‪ :m/O‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ‬
‫)ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ؛ ‪(313 0‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫ﻳﺒﻴﻦ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺭﻣﻮﺯ‪.‬‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪d‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ d‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﻷﻳﺴﺮ ﺃﺳﻔﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﻨﺪﺋﺬ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ .(U) L‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﻭﺻﻒ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪3‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﻤﺮﻳﺮ ﻋﺒﺮ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(U) L‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ J‬ﻟﺘﺼﻔﺢ ﻗﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺤﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﻷﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪ :J‬ﺣﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ‬
‫ﻟﻺﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻓﺮﻋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺤﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﻷﺳﻔﻞ‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫ﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ G‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺿﻊ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ‪ .‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.G‬‬
‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫• ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﺭﻣﺎﺩﻱ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 2‬ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﹰ ﻟﻪ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ ،J‬ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫• ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‬
‫)‪.(33 0‬‬
‫‪17‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺭﻛﹼﺐ ﺣﺰﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺍﻡ ﺑﺈﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫ﺍﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺰﻭﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻳﻮﻥ ﻟﻴﺜﻴﻮﻡ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ‪EN-EL14a‬‬
‫)ﻣﺮﻓﻘﺔ(‪ .‬ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ‪ ،‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺸﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ MH-24‬ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻖ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻮﻓﻴﺮ ﻣﻬﺎﻳﺊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﺲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﺲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺋﻄﻲ ﻭﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﻳﺊ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﺲ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﺟﺎﺭﻱ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻛﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﻐﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﻭ ‪ 50‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺷﺤﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻧﻔﺎﺫﻫﺎ‬
‫ﺗﻤﺎﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ‪ .‬ﺍﻓﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ ﻭﺍﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻛﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫‪ D‬ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺸﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺗﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ 35 - 5‬ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻦ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﺇﺫ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪ 0‬ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ‪ 60‬ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪18‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪.OFF‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﻭﺇﺧﺮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺧﺮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﹰ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﻓﺘﺢ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺣﺠﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪/‬ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺮﺭ ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺣﺠﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪/‬ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫)‪ (q‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﻓﺘﺤﻪ )‪.(w‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺢ )‪ ،(q‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﹰ ﺎ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻧﺒﻴﻦ‪ .‬ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺒﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻟﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ )‪.(w‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫‪ A‬ﻻ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ EN-EL14a‬ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻧﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ S‬ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪19‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻜﺲ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺇﺗﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ .‬ﻟﻦ ﻳﻐﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻐﻄﺎﺀ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪16GB‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻣﺴﻚ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺩﻓﻌﻬﺎ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻮﻳﻒ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺴﺘﻘﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻬﺎ ﻭﻳﺼﺪﺭ‬
‫ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺻﻮﺕ ﻧﻘﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﻀﻲﺀ ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻟﻌﺪﺓ ﺛﻮﺍﻧﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺣﺠﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪/‬ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺇﺧﺮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻓﺘﺢ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺣﺠﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪/‬ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻢ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺳﺤﺒﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻴﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫‪16GB‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺇﺧﺮﺍﺝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻀﻲﺀ‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺍﻓﺘﺢ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺣﺠﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪/‬ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻹﺧﺮﺍﺟﻬﺎ )‪ .(q‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﻨﺪﺋﺬ ﺇﺧﺮﺍﺝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻴﺪ )‪.(w‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻗﺮﺃ ﻭﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺬﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ‪ xii-x‬ﻭ ‪ 338-335‬ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ‪ .‬ﻻ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪°0‬ﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ‪°40‬ﻡ؛ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺗﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻘﻠﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻋﻤﻠﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺔ ﻭﺗﻄﻮﻝ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪°0‬ﻡ ﺣﺘﻰ ‪°15‬ﻡ ﻭﺑﻴﻦ ‪°45‬ﻡ ﺣﺘﻰ ‪°60‬ﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻣﻴﺾ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﻊ ﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ‪) CHARGE‬ﺷﺤﻦ( )ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻮﻣﻴﺾ ﺛﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ(‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ‪ ،‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺛﻢ ﺍﻓﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ ﻭﺍﻧﺰﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺭﻛﺒﻬﺎ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﺎﺋﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺰﺋﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻤﺜﻞ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻮﺻﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ )ﻗﺼﺮ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ(؛ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﻭﺇﺗﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﺤﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻠﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ‪ .‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﺟ ﹰﺪﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻛﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺣﻴﻦ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﺰﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺭﻛﺒﻬﺎ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻌﻪ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ .‬ﺍﻓﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪21‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻤﺖ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻟﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ )‪ .(272 0‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺳﻴﺤﺬﻑ ﺃﻱ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺤﻮﻳﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻧﻬﺎﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺃﻳﺔ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻔﺎﻅ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫• ﻗﺪ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺳﺎﺧﻨﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‪ .‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺬﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺧﺮﺍﺝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﺨﺮﺝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ‬
‫• ﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻐﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻔﻚ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻔﺼﻞ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺣﺬﻑ ﺃﻭ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‪ .‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺿﻴﺎﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻠﻤﺲ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺑﺄﺻﺎﺑﻌﻚ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺄﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﻣﻌﺪﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻠﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺴﻘﻄﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﻟﺼﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﻴﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻠﻒ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﺨﻮﻧﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻃﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻬﻴﺊ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‪.‬‬
‫‪B‬‬
‫‪16G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ SD‬ﻣﺰﻭﺩﺓ ﺑﻤﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺄ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ "ﺍﻟﻘﻔﻞ" ﻭﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ )ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺗﺤﺬﻳﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻭﻟﺖ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ(‪ .‬ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺣﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ "ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ"‪.‬‬
‫‪22‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻖ ﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺰﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ‪.‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻗﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻟﻦ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﻄﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺑﻚ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺭﻓﻌﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﻋﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻳﺠﺐ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﻋﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﺑﺘﺮ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﻣﺴﻜﻬﺎ ﺑﺮﻓﻘﻚ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺇﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻭﺍﻹﺑﻬﺎﻡ ﻭﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮﻫﺎ‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ‪.‬‬
‫‪23‬‬
‫ﺭﻛﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺠﺐ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺃﻱ ﺃﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻟﻸﻏﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺤﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫‪ f/1.8G‬ﻣﻢ‪.(Special Edition) AF-S NIKKOR 50‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻲ‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ )ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ(‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ )ﻋﺪﺳﺔ(‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﻤﺤﺎﺫﺍﺓ ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺼﺪﺭ ﺻﻮﺗﹰﺎ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻬﺎ‬
‫‪24‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻓﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻐﻠﻘﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻓﻚ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻟﻔﻚ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫)‪ (q‬ﻣﻊ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﻋﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ )‪ .(w‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﻓﻚ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺭﻛﺐ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﺰﻭﺩﺓ ﺑﻤﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﺩ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،A) ،‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ،M/A‬ﺃﻭ ‪.(A/M‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ CPU‬ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﺤﻠﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ CPU‬ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﺤﻠﻘﺔ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ )‪ ،(320 0‬ﺍﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻗﻞ ﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﻟﻬﺎ )ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪/CPU‬ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪AI‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ CPU‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﺰﺓ‬
‫ﺑﺂﻟﻴﺎﺕ ‪) AI‬ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪AI‬؛ ‪.(163 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪ DX‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪.(51 0) DX‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪25‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬
‫ﺳﻴﻈﻬﺮ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻟﻐﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ )ﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻞ ‪ UTC‬ﻓﺎﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ‬
‫ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺴﻖ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ،UTC‬ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ(‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪26‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺑﻪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪ J‬ﻟﻼﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻔﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻔﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻔﻲ ﻣﻐﻠﻖ ﺣﺴﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﻤﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻔﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ‪ 1 ،‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪ 3‬ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺗﻨﺴﻴﻖ ‪ 24‬ﺳﺎﻋﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ )‪(Language‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫)‪ (277 0‬ﻭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ )‪ (276 0‬ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﹰ‬
‫ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻊ ‪GPS‬‬
‫)‪.(170 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻞ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺷﺤﻨﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺗﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﺮﺩﺩ )‪ .(323 0‬ﻳﻮﻣﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﺗﻜﻔﻲ ﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ‬
‫ﺃﺷﻬﺮ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﹰ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻌﺮﺽ ﺗﺤﺬﻳﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻳﻔﻴﺪ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻀﺒﻮﻃﺔ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﻣﺰ ‪ Y‬ﻳﻮﻣﺾ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﻔﺪﺓ ﻭﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻄﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﻴﻦ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻗﻞ ﺩﻗﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺰﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﺭﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺘﻈﻢ ﺑﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺩﻗﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﺒﻄﻬﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﺰﻡ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪27‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺰﻭﺩﺓ ﺑﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺩﻳﻮﺑﺘﺮ ﻟﺘﻼﺀﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺑﺼﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﺰﻉ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﺷﻐﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﺑﺘﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ‬
‫ﺃﻗﻮﺍﺱ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺣﺎﺩ‪ .‬ﻛﻦ ﺣﺬﺭﹰﺍ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻚ ﻷﺩﺍﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﺑﺘﺮ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺑﻌﻴﻨﻚ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻻ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﺃﺻﺎﺑﻌﻚ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺃﻇﺎﻓﺮﻙ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻴﻨﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻗﻮﺍﺱ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﻨﺖ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﺃﻋﻼﻩ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻌﺰﺯ‬
‫ﻓﺮﺩﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪AF-S‬؛ ‪ ،(59 0‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ )‪ ،(62 0‬ﺛﻢ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ )‪ ،(65 0‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﻫﺪﻑ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﺑﺘﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺑﻮﺿﻮﺡ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﺰﻡ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ )‪.(324 0‬‬
‫‪28‬‬
‫‪s‬‬
‫ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺷﻐﱢﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻓﺤﺺ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﻋﺪﺩ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫‪s‬‬
‫ﺷﻐﱢﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﺳﺘﻀﻲﺀ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪L‬‬
‫ﺟﺰﺋﻴﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﺭﻏﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫—‬
‫‪K‬‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺟﻬﺰ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﱢ‬
‫‪d‬‬
‫‪H‬‬
‫ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﻔﺪﺓ؛ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫‪d‬‬
‫‪H‬‬
‫ﺍﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﻟﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫‪29‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪ 1000‬ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻗﺮﺏ ﻣﺌﺔ؛ ﻣﺜﻼﹰ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ 2900‬ﻭ ‪2999‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺷﻜﻞ ‪ .(K 2.9‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ‪ ،‬ﻳﻮﻣﺾ ‪ A‬ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺷﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺭﻣﺰ ‪ n‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪ j‬ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻣﺾ‪ .‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺣﺬﻑ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫‪s‬‬
‫ﺍﺭﻓﻊ ﻗﺮﺹ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮﻩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺗﻬﺰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺩﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻐﻄﻲ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻱ ﺃﺗﺮﺑﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )‪.(329 0‬‬
‫‪30‬‬
‫ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺴﻚ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺒﺾ ﺍﻟﻴﺪ ﻓﻲ ﻳﺪﻙ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻨﻰ ﻭﺍﺣﻤﻞ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﻴﺪﻙ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﻨﺪ ﻣﺮﻓﻘﻴﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﺬﻋﻚ ﻟﺪﻋﻢ‬
‫ﺫﺭﺍﻋﻴﻚ ﻭﻗﺪﻡ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﻗﺪﻣﻴﻚ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺧﻄﻮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﻠﺤﻔﺎﻅ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﻧﺼﻔﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻱ‪ .‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻃﻮﻟﻲ )ﻋﻤﻮﺩﻱ(‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﺴﻚ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻷﺳﻔﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪s‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺐ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺸﻄﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪31‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫)‪ (I‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫‪I‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪4 2‬‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺧﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻗﻔﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ )"‪"t‬؛ ‪ (47 0‬ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪s‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ "ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬
‫ﺟﻴﺪﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ" )‪.(61 0‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﺑﺮﻓﻖ ﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﻀﻲﺀ ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﺨﺮﺝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﺰﻉ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻔﺼﻞ‬
‫ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﻨﻄﻔﺊ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ‬
‫ﻭﺗﻜﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪32‬‬
‫ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﺰﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﻤﺴﺘﻮﻳﻴﻦ‪ .‬ﺗﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪ .‬ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‪ :‬ﻳﻀﻐﻂ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‬
‫ﻳﺼﻮﺭ‪ :‬ﻳﻀﻐﻂ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﺷﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ‪ 6‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺴﺒﻖ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c2‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪.(251 0 ،‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻻ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬
‫‪s‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻐﻠﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫‪33‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.K‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪K‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪s‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﻌﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ .2‬ﻟﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﻭ‪.(188 0) 3‬‬
‫‪1/ 12‬‬
‫‪NIKON D f‬‬
‫‪50mm‬‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫‪F5. 6‬‬
‫‪1/ 125‬‬
‫‪0, 0‬‬
‫‪N OR‬‬
‫‪ORMAL‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬
‫‪4928x3280‬‬
‫‪100NC_DF‬‬
‫‪DSC_0001. JPG‬‬
‫‪15 / 10 / 2013 10: 02: 28‬‬
‫ﻹﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻧﺼﻒ‬
‫ﺿﻐﻄﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )‪ ،(232 0‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻟﺜﻮﺍﻥ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪34‬‬
‫ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ .O‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺬﻭﻓﺔ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﺬﻓﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﺣﺬﻓﻬﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ .O‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪﻱ؛ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ O‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪.K‬‬
‫‪s‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪O‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ‬
‫ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ )‪ ،(205 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻣﺤﺪﺩ )‪ ،(206 0‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ )‪ ،(205 0‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺬﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫‪35‬‬
‫‪#‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻼﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺭﻓﻊ ﻭﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪#‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺒﺮﻣﺞ )‪ :(38 0‬ﺗﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ‬
‫‪ P‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﻪ ﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺴﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻏﺎﻟﻖ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ )‪ :(39 0‬ﻳﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫‪ S‬ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪ .‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﺘﺠﻤﻴﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺸﻮﻳﺶ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ )‪ :(41 0‬ﻳﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪ .‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﹰ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪M‬‬
‫‪36‬‬
‫ﻳﺪﻭﻱ )‪ :(42 0‬ﻳﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻼ ﹰ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﻀﺒﻂ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺘﺢ )‪ (B‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ )‪ (T‬ﻣﻊ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ CPU‬ﺑﺤﻠﻘﺔ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )‪ ،(320 0‬ﺍﻗﻔﻞ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻗﻞ‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻟﻬﺎ )ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ(‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G‬ﻭ ‪ E‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﺤﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ ،(163 0) CPU‬ﺣﺪﺩ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ A‬ﺃﻭ ‪M‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ P‬ﺃﻭ ‪ S‬ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ ،CPU‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ A‬ﻭ ‪ 7‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬
‫ﺳﻴﻈﻬﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 318‬ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪(163 0) CPU‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪ CPU‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ )‪ (163 0‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ ،CPU‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻗﺮﺏ ﻋﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪ .‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺷﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻔﺎﺕ ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫)‪ ،F‬ﻣﻊ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪ (AF‬ﻭﻳﺠﺐ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻋﺪﺩ ‪ f‬ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﺂﻟﻴﺎﺕ ‪) AI‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪ (AI‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )‪.(168 0‬‬
‫‪#‬‬
‫‪37‬‬
‫‪ :P‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺒﺮﻣﺞ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﹰ ﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻣﺪﻣﺞ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ‪.‬‬
‫‪#‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻣﺮﻥ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ ،P‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﻔﺎﺕ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ )"ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻥ"(‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺹ ﻳﻤﻴﻨﹰﺎ ﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ )ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﺆﺭﻳﺔ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ( ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻮﻳﺶ ﺗﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺳﺮﻳﻌﺔ "ﺗﺠﻤﺪ"‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺹ ﻟﻠﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ )ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ‪ f‬ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ(‬
‫ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻤﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ ﺗﺸﻮﺵ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﺘﺞ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻟﻴﻔﺎﺕ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ‪ E‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ .‬ﻻﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﻳﺨﺘﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﺃﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﻧﻈﺮﹰﺍ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 339‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻣﺞ‪.‬‬
‫‪38‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫‪ :S‬ﻏﺎﻟﻖ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻟﻬﺎ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻞ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺇﻗﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺹ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ 1/3 STEP‬ﻭ‪ X‬ﻭ‪T‬؛ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺁﺧﺮ‪،‬‬
‫ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺹ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫‪#‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫‪ 1/4000‬ﺙ–‪ 1/2‬ﺙ‬
‫ﺗﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ‪(40 0) EV 1/3‬‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ )‪(257 0‬‬
‫‪ 4-1‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ )ﺃﺣﻤﺮ(‬
‫• ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪) T‬ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‪ (44 0 ،‬ﻭ‪) B‬ﻓﺘﺢ‪ (44 0 ،‬ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪.M‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﻧﻈﺮﹰﺍ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) f11‬ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺳﻠﺲ ﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ؛‪ .(270 0‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 347‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻇﻬﺮ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ‬
‫"‪ "A‬ﺃﻭ "‪ "%‬ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻣﺾ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫‪39‬‬
‫‪) 1/3 STEP‬ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ S‬ﻭ ‪(M‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪،1/3 STEP‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﺋﺬ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﻘﻴﻢ ﺗﺰﺍﻳﺪﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻤﻘﺪﺍﺭ ‪ EV 1/3‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ؛ ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻗﻴﻢ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ 1/4000‬ﻭ‪ 30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫‪ ،M‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ"ﻓﺘﺢ" ﻭ"ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ"‬
‫ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪#‬‬
‫‪40‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫‪ :A‬ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺃﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻟﻬﺎ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻞ‪ .‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ؛ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫‪#‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﺤﻠﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) f7‬ﺗﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ( < ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )‪ ،(268 0‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﻤﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ .Pv‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺨﺘﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ P‬ﻭ‪ (S‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﺧﺘﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫)ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ A‬ﻭ‪ ،(M‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﻤﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﻤﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪Pv‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪—e5‬ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻋﻲ‬
‫‪ Creative Lighting System‬ﻣﻦ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ )‪CLS‬؛ ‪ (118 0‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺈﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ Pv‬ﺃﻡ ﻻ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 259‬ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪41‬‬
‫‪ :M‬ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺗﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ؛ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ ،‬ﺣﺎﻓﻆ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻘﻖ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪.‬‬
‫‪#‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫‪ 1/4000‬ﺙ–‪ 1/2‬ﺙ‬
‫ﺗﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ‪(40 0) EV 1/3‬‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ )‪(257 0‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫‪42‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ )‪(44 0‬‬
‫‪ 4-1‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ )ﺃﺣﻤﺮ(‬
‫‪ A‬ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﺤﻠﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) f7‬ﺗﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ( < ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )‪ ،(268 0‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺧﻼﻑ "ﻓﺘﺢ" ﺃﻭ "ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ"‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺳﺘﺼﺒﺢ ﺑﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﻔﺮﻁ ﺃﻭ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻛﺎﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻇﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻌﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻮﻣﺾ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻞ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻛﺎﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺑﻤﻘﺪﺍﺭ ‪EV 1/3‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﺯﺍﺋﺪ ﺑﻤﻘﺪﺍﺭ‬
‫‪EV 2‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﻧﻈﺮﹰﺍ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) f11‬ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺳﻠﺲ ﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ؛‪ .(270 0‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻜﺲ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) f10‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻋﻜﺴﻴﺔ‪.(269 0 ،‬‬
‫‪#‬‬
‫‪43‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ )ﻭﺿﻊ ‪ M‬ﻓﻘﻂ(‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﺿﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻨﺠﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻟﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻓﺘﺢ )‪ :(B‬ﻳﻈﻞ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺡ ﻃﻮﺍﻝ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﺗﺸﻮﺵ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ 35 :‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻞ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪f/25 :‬‬
‫)‪ (325 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺳﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ )‪.(325 0‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ )‪ :(T‬ﺍﺑﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻠﻚ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻈﻞ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺡ‬
‫ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺛﻼﺛﻴﻦ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫‪#‬‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺭﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻛﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺗﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ )ﺑﻘﻊ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻜﺴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺿﺒﺎﺏ( ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ؛‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ ‪ NR‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫)‪ .(242 0‬ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻖ )‪.(23 0‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪44‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫‪.M‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ ,‬ﻭﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪B‬‬
‫)ﻓﺘﺢ( ﺃﻭ ‪) T‬ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ؛ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ ،1/3 STEP‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ(‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ "ﻓﺘﺢ"‪،‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫‪ ،A‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ‪ %‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫"ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﻓﺘﺢ‬
‫‪#‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺘﺢ‪ :‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺳﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻛﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‪ :‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺘﺢ‪ :‬ﺍﺭﻓﻊ ﺇﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‪ :‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺛﻼﺛﻴﻦ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪45‬‬
‫‪k‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ )‪.(7 0‬‬
‫‪k‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ :‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ‬
‫‪ S‬ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ ،‬ﺗﺴﺠﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪5-1‬‬
‫‪ CL‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ 1 .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) d5‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻮﺿﻊ ‪.(254 0 ،CL‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ ،‬ﺗﺴﺠﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺣﺘﻰ ‪5.5‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪ CH‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺻﺎﻣﺖ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ :‬ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻻ ﺗﻄﻘﻄﻖ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻜﺎﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺃﻫﺪﺃ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻄﻘﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﹸﺤﺪﺛﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﹰ‬
‫ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻟﻦ ﻳﺼﺪﺭ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) d1‬ﺻﻮﺕ ﺻﻔﻴﺮ؛‪.(253 0‬‬
‫‪ E‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ‪ :‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ )‪.(48 0‬‬
‫ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻟﻸﻋﻠﻰ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫‪ MUP‬ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺗﻴﻠﻴﻔﻮﺗﻮ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﺏ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻙ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺗﺸﻮﻳﺶ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪46‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ EN-EL14a‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ ﺃﻭ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ‪ 1/200‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺃﺳﺮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺑﺨﻼﻑ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪ d5‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻣﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ EN-EL14a‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ ﺃﻭ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ‪ 1/200‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺃﺳﺮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻣﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻓﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻳﺔ )ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﺆﺭﻳﺔ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ( ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ )ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻭﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺑﺨﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ( ﺃﻭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪ ،(72 ،70 0‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻭﺳﻴﻄﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ 100‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ؛ ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻣﺘﻼﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ )‪ .(tAA‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺒﻲ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺤﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺘﺒﻘﻰ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ ﺗﺘﺴﻊ‬
‫ﻟﺤﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 55‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻀﻲﺀ ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﺣﺴﺐ‬
‫ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺴﺘﻐﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺛﻮﺍﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺩﻗﺎﺋﻖ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﻨﺰﻉ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﺰﻉ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻔﺼﻞ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﻨﻄﻔﺊ ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﹸﻏﻠﻘﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺰﺍﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻧﻔﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺰﺍﻝ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺳﺘﻨﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪k‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫)‪ ،(172 0‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻋﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﻧﻈﺮﹰﺍ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺑﻀﻐﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) d6‬ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪ .(254 0 ،‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺗﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.364‬‬
‫‪47‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺭﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺭﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪.E‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫‪3 k‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻖ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪.(23 0) DK-26‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ‬
‫)ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ(‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺒﺪﺃ ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻣﻴﺾ‪ .‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺜﺎﻧﻴﺘﻴﻦ‪،‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻣﻴﺾ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺸﺮ ﺛﻮﺍﻧﻲ‪ .‬ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺃﺧﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪48‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﻧﻈﺮﹰﺍ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c3‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ؛ ‪ .(252 0‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺼﺪﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) d1‬ﺻﻮﺕ‬
‫ﺻﻔﻴﺮ؛ ‪.(253 0‬‬
‫‪k‬‬
‫‪49‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻷﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﻋﻦ ﺗﺤﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﻨﺼﺢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻟﻸﻋﻠﻰ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪.MUP‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺮﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪k‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻟﻸﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻂ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺟﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﺮﻓﻖ‪ .‬ﺗﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻟﻸﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺃﻱ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ‪ 30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪50‬‬
‫‪d‬‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ‪ 1.0× (24×36) FX‬ﻭ ‪.1.5× (16×24) DX‬‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫‪d‬‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺈﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪(16×24) DX‬‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺈﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪(24×36) FX‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪DX‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ DX‬ﻣﺼﻤﻤﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻊ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪ DX‬ﻭﻟﻬﺎ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﺻﻐﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪35‬ﻣﻢ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﺺ ‪ DX‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ‪) 1.0× (36×24) FX‬ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪ (FX‬ﻓﻲ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪،DX‬‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺣﻮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻈﻠﻤﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻧﺨﻔﺎﺿﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺣﻮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺳﻮﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻼﺣﻆ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫‪51‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫‪ DX‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ DX‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻗﺺ ‪ DX‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪.(53 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪1.0× (36×24) FX‬‬
‫‪c‬‬
‫)ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪(FX‬‬
‫‪1.5× (24×16) DX‬‬
‫‪a‬‬
‫)ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪(DX‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ FX‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪ 23.9 × 36.0‬ﻣﻢ(‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﺘﺠﺔ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺴﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫‪ NIKKOR‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ 35‬ﻣﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ‪ 15.5 × 23.4‬ﻣﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ .DX‬ﻟﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺒﻲ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪35‬ﻣﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺮﺏ ﻓﻲ ‪.1.5‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻗﺺ ‪ DX‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪d‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻗﺺ ‪ DX‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪.DX‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺗﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻗﺺ ‪ DX‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ .DX‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪،‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺺ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺺ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻗﺺ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪ DX‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ؛ ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﺺ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺎﺩﻱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫‪) a5‬ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ( < ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪.(248 0‬‬
‫ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪DX‬‬
‫‪52‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺑﻀﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ G‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪ .‬ﻇﻠﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫)‪ (235 0‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﻗﺺ ‪ DX‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫‪d‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﻋ ﹼﺪﻝ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺪﺩ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .J‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫)‪.(52 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪53‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﻋﻴﻦ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻷﺣﺪ ﻣﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺪﺩ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻛﺨﻴﺎﺭ "ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ‪ +‬ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ" ﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ )‪ .(266 0‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻟﺰﺭ ‪) Fn‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪ ،f4‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪ (263 0 ،Fn‬ﺃﻭ ﻟﺰﺭ ‪) Pv‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪،f5‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‪ ،(266 0 ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻟﺰﺭ ‪ A‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪ /‬ﻋﺮﺽ )ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪،f6‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻋﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪.(267 0‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺃﺯﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﺺ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ )‪.(51 0‬‬
‫‪d‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ‬
‫‪ FX‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ "‪ "24 - 36‬ﻭﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪ DX‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ‬
‫"‪."16 - 24‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻗﺺ ‪ DX‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ DX‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﺺ ‪ DX‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪.(58 0‬‬
‫‪54‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺸﻐﻠﻬﺎ ﻛﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺣﺠﻤﻬﺎ ﻳﺤﺪﺩﺍﻥ ﹰ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﻛﺒﺮ ﻭﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺑﺄﺣﺠﺎﻡ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺗﺤﺘﺎﺝ‬
‫ﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫)‪.(364 0‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻨﺴﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ ﻭﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ )ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫)‪NEF (RAW‬‬
‫)‪TIFF (RGB‬‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﺟﻴﺪ‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬
‫)‪+NEF (RAW‬‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﺟﻴﺪ‬
‫)‪+NEF (RAW‬‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫)‪+NEF (RAW‬‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‬
‫ﺗﹸﺤﻔﻆ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ‪ Raw‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫‪NEF‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ TIFF-RGB‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﺔ ﺑﻌﻤﻖ ﺑﺖ ‪ 8‬ﺑﺖ ﻟﻜﻞ‬
‫)‪ TIFF (RGB‬ﻗﻨﺎﺓ )ﻟﻮﻥ ‪ 24‬ﺑﺖ(‪ .‬ﻳﺪﻋﻢ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻛﺒﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ‬
‫‪.TIFF‬‬
‫*‬
‫ﻳﺴﺠﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ JPEG‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4:1‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ )ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺟﻴﺪﺓ(‪.‬‬
‫*‬
‫‪JPEG‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺠﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ JPEG‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 8:1‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ )ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﺎﺩﻳﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫*‬
‫ﻳﺴﺠﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ JPEG‬ﺑﻤﻌﺪﻝ ﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 16:1‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﹰ )ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻭﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪ JPEG‬ﺑﺠﻮﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺟﻴﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻭﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪ JPEG‬ﺑﺠﻮﺩﺓ‬
‫‪JPEG/NEF‬‬
‫ﻋﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻭﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪ JPEG‬ﺑﺠﻮﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪d‬‬
‫* ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ ﻟـ ﺿﻐﻂ ‪.JPEG‬‬
‫‪55‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (T) X‬ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(T) X‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫‪d‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )‪.(235 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ )‪NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻣﺜﻞ ‪) Capture NX 2‬ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ‬
‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ؛ ‪ (325 0‬ﺃﻭ ‪) ViewNX 2‬ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﻄﻮﺍﻧﺔ ‪ ViewNX 2‬ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻘﺔ(‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻟﺤﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻻ ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺻﻮﺭ )‪NEF (RAW‬؛ ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‪ ،‬ﺗﺤﺘﻔﻆ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ NEF (RAW) ،‬ﺑﺎﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮﺓ )ﺣﺠﻢ ‪ (#‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻭﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ .58‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻧﺴﺦ ‪ JPEG‬ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬
‫)‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ )‪.(300 0‬‬
‫‪NEF+JPEG A‬‬
‫ﺳﺘﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ ﺑﺈﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ NEF (RAW) + JPEG‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪،‬‬
‫ﹸ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ JPEG‬ﻓﻘﻂ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻄﺖ ﺑﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ‬
‫‪ NEF‬ﻭ ‪ JPEG‬ﻣﻌﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪56‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ G‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‬
‫ﻭﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺿﻐﻂ ‪JPEG‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻟﺼﻮﺭ ‪.JPEG‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ O‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬
‫‪ P‬ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺗﹸﻀﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﻣﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺎ ﹰ‪.‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮﻩ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ )‪ < NEF (RAW‬ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻟﺼﻮﺭ )‪.NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫‪N‬‬
‫ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻧﻬﺎ‬
‫‪ O‬ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻁ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ NEF‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻟﻮﻏﺎﺭﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﻜﺴﻲ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺗﺒﻠﻎ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ %40 - %20‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ NEF‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻟﻮﻏﺎﺭﻳﺘﻢ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻋﻜﺴﻲ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺗﺒﻠﻎ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ %55 -%35‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻱ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﹰ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪.NEF‬‬
‫‪d‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ )‪ < NEF (RAW‬ﻋﻤﻖ ﺑﺖ )‪NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﻤﻖ ﺑﺖ ﻟﺼﻮﺭ )‪.NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ 12 q‬ﺑﺖ‬
‫‪ 14 r‬ﺑﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺑﻌﻤﻖ ﺑﺖ ‪ 12‬ﺑﺖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺑﻌﻤﻖ ﺑﺖ ‪ 14‬ﺑﺖ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎ ﹰ ﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺑﻌﻤﻖ ﺑﺖ ‪ 12‬ﺑﺖ ﻟﻜﻦ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺠﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪57‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﻜﺴﻞ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ #‬ﻛﺒﻴﺮ ﺃﻭ ‪ $‬ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺃﻭ ‪ %‬ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫)ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪:(51 0 ،‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪1.0× (36×24) FX‬‬
‫)ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪(FX‬‬
‫‪1.5× (24×16) DX‬‬
‫)ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪(DX‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬
‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬
‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ )ﺑﻜﺴﻞ(‬
‫‪3280 × 4928‬‬
‫‪2456 × 3696‬‬
‫‪1640 × 2464‬‬
‫‪2128 × 3200‬‬
‫‪1592 × 2400‬‬
‫‪1064 × 1600‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ )ﺳﻢ( *‬
‫‪27.8 × 41.7‬‬
‫‪20.8 × 31.3‬‬
‫‪13.9 × 20.9‬‬
‫‪18.0 × 27.1‬‬
‫‪13.5 × 20.3‬‬
‫‪9.0 × 13.5‬‬
‫* ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺒﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ ‪ 300‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺑﻌﺔ‪ .‬ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻮﺻﺔ ﻳﺴﺎﻭﻱ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﻜﺴﻞ ﻣﻘﺴﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻭﺿﻮﺡ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺑﻌﺔ )ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺑﻌﺔ؛ ‪ 1‬ﺑﻮﺻﺔ = ‪ 2.54‬ﺳﻢ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (T) X‬ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪d‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(T) X‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )‪.(235 0‬‬
‫‪58‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫‪N‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻳﺼﻒ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ )ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ( ﺃﻭ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﺎ ﹰ )‪.(68 0‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ )‪ (64 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻭﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﺎ ﹰ )‪.(66 0‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪.AF‬‬
‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪N‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻓﺮﺩﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ :‬ﻟﻸﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﹸﻐﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫‪ AF-S‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪) (I‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ؛ ‪.(246 0‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ :‬ﻟﻸﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ؛ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﺤﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫‪ AF-C‬ﺑﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪ (60 0‬ﻟﻜﻲ ﺗﺘﻨﺒﺄ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻭﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻭﺗﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﺰﻡ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺤﺮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻣﻀﺒﻮﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺃﻭ ﻏﻴﺮﻩ )ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ؛ ‪.(246 0‬‬
‫‪59‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪N‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫‪AF-S‬‬
‫‪AF-C‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺯﺭ ‪B‬‬
‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺄﻏﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫‪ B‬ﻧﻔﺲ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪B‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪ ،AF-C‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﺤﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻧﺤﻮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻌﻴ ﹰﺪﺍ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺃﻭ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ .B‬ﻳﺴﻤﺢ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺗﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻣﺤﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺗﺘﺒﻊ ﺃﻳﻦ ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﻧﻈﺮﹰﺍ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) a1‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ‪ .(246 0 ،AF-C‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻓﺮﺩﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) a2‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ‪.(246 0 ،AF-S‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 175‬ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪60‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺟﻴﺪﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺟﻴﺪﺓ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺯﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﺤﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪ (I‬ﻭﺗﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺻﻔﻴﺮ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﺎ ﹰ‬
‫)‪ (68 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ )‪ (66 0‬ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺃﺧﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺛﻢ ﺃﻋﺪ‬
‫ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺗﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺗﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻟﻪ ﻧﻔﺲ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺗﻘﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﻗﻔﺺ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺗﻬﻴﻤﻦ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺪﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﻈﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﻓﺬ ﻓﻲ ﻧﺎﻃﺤﺔ ﺳﺤﺎﺏ‪.‬‬
‫‪N‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺎﺕ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺣﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻧﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻈﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﺒﻨﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺧﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺣﻘﻞ ﺯﻫﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻔﺘﻘﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ‪.‬‬
‫‪61‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪N‬‬
‫‪62‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪64‬؛ ﺳﺘﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ .‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ .64‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ‪ ،AF-C‬ﺳﺘﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻄﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻭﺟﻴﺰﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪:‬‬
‫ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ ‪ 9‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬‫ﻳﺘﺴﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ‬
‫ﺗﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻊ )ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﺋﻴﻦ ﻭﺳﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺎﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﻤﺎﺭ(‪.‬‬
‫ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ ‪ 21‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺗﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻊ )ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻼﻋﺒﻴﻦ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﺒﺎﺭﺍﺓ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ(‪.‬‬
‫ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ ‪ 39‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺗﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻭﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺑﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ )ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻄﻴﻮﺭ(‪.‬‬
‫• ﺗﻌﻘﺐ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ .64‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ‪ ،AF-C‬ﺗﺘﻌﻘﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻐﺎﺩﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺗﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺗﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻏﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﻵﺧﺮ )ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻻﻋﺒﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺲ(‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻏﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺭﻓﻊ ﺃﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﻭﺃﻋﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﻜﺘﺸﻒ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‬
‫ﻭﺗﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G‬ﺃﻭ ‪ E‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ،(320 0) D‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺟﻴﺪ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﻄﺔ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻭﺟﻴﺰﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ؛ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ ،AF-C‬ﺗﻈﻞ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻣﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻧﻄﻔﺎﺀ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫‪N‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻌﻘﺐ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻄﺔ ﺑﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺤﻘﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻘﺐ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻧﻔﺲ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺸﻐﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﺟﺪﺍ ﹰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪63‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ ‪ 39‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ *‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ ‪ 9‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ *‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ ‪ 21‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ *‬
‫* ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﻄﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ .‬ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻄﻲ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻘﺐ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪N‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﻧﻈﺮﹰﺍ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﺘﻈﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﺮﻙ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) a3‬ﺗﻌﻘﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻔﻞ‪.(247 0 ،‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 177‬ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪ 39‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﺘﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ●‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪64‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻤﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫‪ J‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻹﻏﻼﻕ )‪ (L‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪.‬‬
‫‪N‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺿﻊ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ؛ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﺎ ﹰ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﻧﻈﺮﹰﺍ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﻰ ﺗﻀﻲﺀ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) a5‬ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ .(248 0 ،‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ "ﺇﺣﺎﻃﺔ"‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) a6‬ﺇﺣﺎﻃﺔ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ .(249 0 ،‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﺪﺩ‬
‫ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫‪) a7‬ﻋﺪﺩ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ .(249 0 ،‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ ،J‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫‪) f2‬ﺯﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻖ‪.(261 0 ،‬‬
‫‪65‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪،‬‬
‫ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺠﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺪﻑ ﻟﻦ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪ ،(61 0‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺃﺧﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻲ‪ .‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﺧﺮ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪.(62 0‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﺗﺤﻘﻖ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪ (I‬ﻇﺎﻫﺮ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪2 N‬‬
‫ﺍﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ‪ :AF-C‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ )‪ ،(q‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ A‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪/‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪ (w‬ﻟﻘﻔﻞ ﻛﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ )ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺭﻣﺰ ‪ AE-L‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ(‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺒﻘﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻐﻠﻘﺎ ﹰ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪/‬ﻗﻔﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺣﺘﻰ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺭﻓﻌﺖ ﺃﺻﺒﻌﻚ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪ A‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪/‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ‪ :AF-S‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪ ،(I‬ﻭﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﻣﻐﻠﻘﹰ ﺎ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺮﻓﻊ ﺇﺻﺒﻌﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻏﻠﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ A‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪/‬ﻗﻔﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻋﻼﻩ(‪.‬‬
‫‪66‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺃﻋﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺒﻘﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻐﻠﻘﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻧﺼﻒ‬
‫ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ )‪ (AF-S‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺃﺑﻘﻴﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ A‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪/‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﺤﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪N‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪B‬‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ B‬ﺑﺪﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺯﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻟﻘﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪ .(60 0‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) a4‬ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،(247 0 ،‬ﻟﻦ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻌﻤﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ; ﺑﺪﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺑﻌﻤﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ ،B‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻭﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﻣﻘﻔﻼ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) a1‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ‪ (246 0 ،AF-C‬ﻭﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪a2‬‬
‫)ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ‪ ،(246 0 ،AF-S‬ﻭﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪ (I‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﻧﻈﺮﹰﺍ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c1‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﻟﺰﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ (251 0 ،‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻟﻘﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) f6‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻋﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪،‬‬
‫‪ (267 0‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻠﻌﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ A‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪/‬ﻗﻔﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪67‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ‬
‫‪ NIKKOR‬ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ( ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺤﻘﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ )‪.(61 0‬‬
‫• ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ :AF-S‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ ‪.M‬‬
‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫• ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ :AF‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ )ﺇﻥ ﻭﺟﺪ( ﻭﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.M‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪AF‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ AF‬ﻣﻊ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ M‬ﻭﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻀﺒﻮﻁ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.AF‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺇﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ‪ :‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.M‬‬
‫‪N‬‬
‫‪68‬‬
‫ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻞ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻼﻣﻊ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻭﻗﺖ‪ ،‬ﺣﺘﻰ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻀﺒﻮﻃﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻯ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺃﻡ ﻻ )ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ 39‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ(‪ .‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﺛﻢ ﺃﺩﺭ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪ .(I‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪،61‬‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧ ﹰﺎ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ؛ ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ‪ AF-S/AF-I‬ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺢ‬
‫‪.321‬‬
‫‪N‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻗﺲ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻳﺔ )‪ (E‬ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺷﻔﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻳﺔ ﻫﻲ ‪ 46.5‬ﻣﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 46.5‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫‪69‬‬
‫‪S‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ ISO 100‬ﻭ ‪ ISO 12800‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﺰﺍﻳﺪﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻤﻘﺪﺍﺭ ‪ ،EV 1/3‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 0.3‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ EV 1‬ﺗﺤﺖ ‪ ISO 100‬ﻭ‪ 0.3‬ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫‪ EV 4‬ﻓﻮﻕ ‪ ISO 12800‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ .ISO‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﺮﺹ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺹ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫‪S‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺹ‪.‬‬
‫‪70‬‬
‫‪Hi 4–Hi 0.3 A‬‬
‫ﺗﻤﺎﺛﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ‪ Hi 0.3‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ Hi 4‬ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ ‪ ISO‬ﺑﻘﻴﻤﺔ ‪EV 4-0.3‬‬
‫ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ‪) ISO 12800‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﺎﻓﺊ ‪ .(204800-ISO 16000‬ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻋﺮﺿﺔ ﻟﻠﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ )ﻣﺮﺑﻌﺎﺕ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﻣﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺿﺒﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ(‪.‬‬
‫‪Lo 1–Lo 0.3 A‬‬
‫ﺗﻤﺎﺛﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ‪ Lo 0.3‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ Lo 1‬ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ ‪ ISO‬ﺑﻘﻴﻤﺔ ‪ EV 1-0.3‬ﺃﻗﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ‪) ISO 100‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﺎﻓﺊ ‪ .(50– ISO 80‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﻪ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺘﺤﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻠﻴﻼ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻱ؛ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ‪ ،‬ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺤﺴﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ ‪ ISO‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎ ‪ ISO 100‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﻧﻈﺮﹰﺍ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ‪ ISO NR‬ﻋﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ ‪ ISO‬ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.242‬‬
‫‪S‬‬
‫‪71‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ < ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻟﻢ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ )ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻼﺋﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ(‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.G‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .2‬ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪.ISO‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪S‬‬
‫‪72‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪) J‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﺒﻘﻰ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻗﺮﺹ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪.(ISO‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﻋ ﹼﺪﻝ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﻯ ﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ ISO‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ )ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ؛ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ISO 100‬‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺣﺪﺩﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺑﺪﻻ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ(‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ P‬ﻭ ‪،A‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻛﺎﻑ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ )‪ 1–1/2000‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ؛ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ؛ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ S‬ﻭ‪ ،M‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ(‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﻑ‬
‫ﺗﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻠﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪J‬‬
‫ﺗﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪S‬‬
‫‪73‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‬
‫‪ :2‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻧﻌﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺡ‪ .‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺘﺎ ﹰﺣﺎ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ CPU‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪CPU‬؛ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪ CPU‬ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﻮﻓﻴﺮ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 1/30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻌﺬﺭ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ )ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻜﺴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺿﺒﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ( ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺿﺔ ﻟﻠﻈﻬﻮﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ‪ ISO NR‬ﻋﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ )ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ .(242‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻓﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺠﺎﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) e1‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ .(257 0 ،‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ )ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ؛‪ ،(116 0‬ﻣﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪S‬‬
‫‪74‬‬
‫‪Z‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺗﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻣﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﻌﻄﻲ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ‪ .‬ﺗﻘﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺣﻴﺰ ﻛﺒﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﺗﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﹰ ﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﻮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G‬ﺃﻭ ‪ E‬ﺃﻭ‪ ،(320 0) D‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﻓﻘﹰ ﺎ ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫)ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻣﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺛﻼﺛﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ ‪II‬؛ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ CPU‬ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫‪a‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻣﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ‪ ،II‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻲ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺛﻼﺛﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ(‪ .‬ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ ،CPU‬ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻣﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﺤﺪﺩﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ‬
‫‪ CPU‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ )‪(164 0‬؛ ﻭﺇﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪ :‬ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﺗﻌﻴﻦ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ )ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ ،CPU‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪ ،b1‬ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪250 0 ،‬؛ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫‪Z‬‬
‫ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ ،CPU‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﻄﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ‪ 12‬ﻣﻢ(‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻱ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ؛‬
‫ﻳﻮﺻﻰ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺮﺷﺤﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ )ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ( ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻦ‬
‫‪1‬پ~‪.‬‬
‫‪b‬‬
‫‪Z‬‬
‫ﺑﻘﻌﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﻘﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺑﻘﻄﺮ ‪ 4‬ﻣﻢ )ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ %1.5‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ(‪ .‬ﺗﺘﻤﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺠﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜﻦ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰ )ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ CPU‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻘﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ(‪ .‬ﺗﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻟﻠﻬﺪﻑ‪ ،‬ﺣﺘﻰ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻈﻠﻤﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻳﻔﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‪.‬‬
‫‪75‬‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫‪Z‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﻧﻈﺮﹰﺍ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) 1b‬ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪ .(250 0 ،‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪b2‬‬
‫)ﺿﺒﻂ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.(250 0 ،‬‬
‫‪76‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﻟﻦ ﺗﺤﻘﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻭﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪/‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻘﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫)ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ‪ I‬ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪ A‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ‬
‫‪ AE-L‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪/‬ﻗﻔﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪Z‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺃﻋﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ A‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪/‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﹰ ﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻋﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺻﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪77‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺳﺔ ﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺑﻘﻄﺮ ‪-4‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻤﺮﻛﺰﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺳﺔ ﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺑﻘﻄﺮ ‪-12‬ﻣﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻬﺎ‪:‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫‪P‬‬
‫‪S‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻥ؛ ‪(38 0‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﻧﻈﺮﹰﺍ ﹰ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c1‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﻟﺰﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪،(251 0 ،‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ A‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪/‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) f6‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻋﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.(267 0 ،‬‬
‫‪Z‬‬
‫‪78‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻟﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻏﻤﻖ‪ .‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻌﻴﺔ )‪ .(75 0‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺗﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ‬
‫ﺑﻴﻦ ‪) EV -3‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﻧﺎﻗﺺ( ﻭ ‪) EV +3‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺯﺍﺋﺪ( ﺑﻘﻴﻢ ﺗﺰﺍﻳﺪﻳﺔ ‪ .EV 1/3‬ﺑﻮﺟﻪ ﻋﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‬
‫ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺎ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﺗﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺃﻏﻤﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﺒﺔ ﺗﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫‪EV –1‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫‪EV +1‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫‪Z‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫‪79‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺹ‪.‬‬
‫‪EV ±0‬‬
‫‪EV –0.3‬‬
‫‪EV +2.0‬‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﻏﻴﺮ‪ ،0‬ﺳﻴﻮﻣﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ ‪ 0‬ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻭﺳﻂ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ )ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ P‬ﻭ ‪ S‬ﻭ‬
‫‪ A‬ﻓﻘﻂ( ﻭﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ E‬ﺑﻤﺠﺮﺩ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ‪.0‬‬
‫‪Z‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪M‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ ،M‬ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻓﻘﻂ؛ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻓﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻓﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﻐﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫‪) e4‬ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ (259 0 ،‬ﻟﺤﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.136‬‬
‫‪80‬‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﻳﻀﻤﻦ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﺄﺛﺮ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﻮﺻﻰ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺑﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻌﺬﺭ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ v‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺇﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﺌﺔ‬
‫‪ J‬ﺳﺎﻃﻊ‬
‫‪ I‬ﻓﻠﻮﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪* .‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ‪ .‬ﻷﻓﻀﻞ‬
‫ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G‬ﺃﻭ ‪ E‬ﺃﻭ ‪.D‬‬
‫‪K 8000–3500‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺑﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ‪.‬‬
‫‪K 3000‬‬
‫ﻣﺼﺎﺑﻴﺢ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺩﻳﻮﻡ‬
‫‪K 2700‬‬
‫ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﺩﺍﻓﺊ‬
‫ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ‬
‫ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﺑﺎﺭﺩ‬
‫ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﻧﻬﺎﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ‬
‫‪K 3000‬‬
‫‪K 3700‬‬
‫‪K 4200‬‬
‫‪K 5000‬‬
‫‪K 6500‬‬
‫ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺯﺋﺒﻖ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬
‫‪K 7200‬‬
‫‪ H‬ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫‪K 5200‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﻊ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺩﻳﻮﻡ )ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫• ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﺩﺍﻓﺊ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﺑﺎﺭﺩ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﻧﻬﺎﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻧﻬﺎ )ﻋﻠﻲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ ﻣﺼﺎﺑﻴﺢ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺋﺒﻖ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﺎﺀﺓ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺿﻮﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫‪81‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪N‬‬
‫‪G‬‬
‫‪M‬‬
‫‪K‬‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪* .‬‬
‫‪K 5400‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺒﺪ‬
‫‪K 6000‬‬
‫ﻏﺎﺋﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻐﻴﻮﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ‬
‫‪K 8000‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻈﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻈﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ‪K 10000–2500‬‬
‫)‪.(88 0‬‬
‫‪ L‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫—‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻛﻤﺮﺟﻊ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ )‪.(90 0‬‬
‫* ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﻻ ﺗﻌﻜﺲ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ )ﺇﻥ ﻭﺟﺪ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (U) L‬ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(U) L‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )‪ ،(235 0‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ )‪ (84 0‬ﺃﻭ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ )‪ .(90 0‬ﻳﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﺎﺩﻱ ﻭ ﺇﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻨﺘﺠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻊ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ‪ I‬ﻓﻠﻮﺭﻱ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺑﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫‪82‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺳﺘﻮﺩﻳﻮ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺤﻘﻖ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺳﺘﻮﺩﻳﻮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ‬
‫ﻣﺼﺪﺭ‬
‫ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺴﻮﺱ‬
‫ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﹸ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻫﻲ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻲ ﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪﻫﺎ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺠﺐ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﺘﺴﺒﻬﺎ ﺟﺴﻢ ﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺴﺨﻴﻦ ﻹﺷﻌﺎﻉ ﺿﻮﺀ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻷﻃﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﺪ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻗﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ‪ K 5500-5000‬ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺑﻴﻀﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﺪ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺃﻗﻞ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﺼﺎﺑﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻊ‪ ،‬ﺗﻈﻬﺮ‬
‫ﺻﻔﺮﺍﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺣﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺣﺪ ﻣﺎ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﺪ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺯﺭﻗﺎﺀ‪ .‬ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺗﻼﺋﻢ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫• ‪) H‬ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ(‪K 5200 :‬‬
‫• ‪) I‬ﻣﺼﺎﺑﻴﺢ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺩﻳﻮﻡ(‪K 2700 :‬‬
‫• ‪) N‬ﻓﻼﺵ(‪K 5400 :‬‬
‫• ‪) J‬ﺳﺎﻃﻊ(‪) I/‬ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﺩﺍﻓﺊ(‪:‬‬
‫• ‪) G‬ﻏﺎﺋﻢ(‪K 6000 :‬‬
‫‪K 3000‬‬
‫• ‪) I‬ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ(‪K 6500 :‬‬
‫• ‪) I‬ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ(‪K 3700 :‬‬
‫• ‪) I‬ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺯﺋﺒﻖ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ(‪K 7200 :‬‬
‫• ‪) I‬ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﺑﺎﺭﺩ(‪K 4200 :‬‬
‫• ‪) M‬ﺍﻟﻈﻞ(‪K 8000 :‬‬
‫• ‪) I‬ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﻧﻬﺎﺭﻱ(‪K 5000 :‬‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫‪83‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ "ﺿﺒﻂ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ" ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﻥ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻹﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﻇﻼﻝ ﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (U) L‬ﺛﻢ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.G‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪،‬‬
‫ﺛﻢ ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺛﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .2‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺁﺧﺮ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﺧﻼﻑ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻠﻮﺭﻱ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺗﺎﺑﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ .2‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻓﻠﻮﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ .2‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.97‬‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫‪84‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﻌﻤﻞ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺒﺮﻱ )‪-(A‬ﺃﺯﺭﻕ )‪ (B‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻮﺭ ﺃﺧﻀﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺣﺪﺍﺛﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫)‪-(G‬ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻮﺍﻧﻲ )‪ .(M‬ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﻓﻘﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ‬
‫)ﻋﻨﺒﺮﻱ‪-‬ﺃﺯﺭﻕ( ﻳﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﻛﻞ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 5‬ﻣﻴﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻲ )ﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ‪-‬ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻮﺍﻧﻲ( ﻟﻪ‬
‫ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻬﺔ ﻟﻤﺮﺷﺤﺎﺕ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ )‪ (CC‬ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺧﻀﺮ )‪(G‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺒﺮﻱ )‪(A‬‬
‫ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ‬
‫ﺃﺯﺭﻕ )‪(B‬‬
‫ﺃﺭﺟﻮﺍﻧﻲ )‪(M‬‬
‫ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺒﺮﻱ‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻮﺍﻧﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﻕ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﺤﻔﻆ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﺑﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﻧﺠﻤﻴﺔ )"‪ ("E‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪85‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(U) L‬‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺧﻼﻑ ‪) K‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ( ﻭ ‪) L‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ(‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (U) L‬ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻮﺭ ﻋﻨﺒﺮﻱ )‪–(A‬ﺃﺯﺭﻕ )‪(B‬‬
‫)‪85 0‬؛ ﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪ ،L‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻛﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ .(84‬ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺳﺘﺔ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺗﺠﺎﻫﻴﻦ؛ ﻛﻞ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪5‬‬
‫ﻣﻴﺮﺩ )‪ .(87 0‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (U) L‬ﻭﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﺗﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺒﺮﻱ )‪ .(A‬ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﺗﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﻕ )‪ .(B‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺑﺨﻼﻑ ‪ ،0‬ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﻤﺔ )"‪ ("E‬ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (U) L‬ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫‪86‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺤﺎﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪،‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪) B‬ﺍﻷﺯﺭﻕ( ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ "ﺩﺍﻓﺊ" ﻣﺜﻞ ‪) J‬ﺳﺎﻃﻊ( ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺳﻮﻑ‬
‫ﻳﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ "ﺃﺑﺮﺩ" ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﻟﻜﻦ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺠﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﺯﺭﻗﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫‪" A‬ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺩ"‬
‫ﺃﻱ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻛﺒﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭﻩ‬
‫‪ K 1000‬ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﻛﺒﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻋﻨﺪ ‪ K 3000‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﺑﻜﺜﻴﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ‪K 6000‬‬
‫ﻣﻴﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﺴﺎﺑﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺿﺮﺏ ﻣﻌﻜﻮﺱ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ‪ ،10 6‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﺎﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺒﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺮﺷﺤﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫• ‪) K 3000-K 4000‬ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺑﻤﻘﺪﺍﺭ ‪ 83=(K 1000‬ﻣﻴﺮﺩ‬
‫• ‪) K 6000-K 7000‬ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺑﻤﻘﺪﺍﺭ ‪ 24=(K 1000‬ﻣﻴﺮﺩ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﹰ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ WB‬ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) e6‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،(259 0 ،‬ﺳﺘﻨﺸﺊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻣﻊ ﻛﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺑﺤﻴﺚ‬
‫"ﻳﺼﺤﺢ" ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺠﻴﺎ ﹰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ )‪.(141 0‬‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫‪87‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ‪) K‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ( ﻣﻊ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ ،(U) L‬ﻭﺯﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻭﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻮﺓ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻮﺭﻳﺴﻨﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫‪) N‬ﻓﻼﺵ( ﺃﻭ ‪) I‬ﻓﻠﻮﺭﻱ( ﻟﺘﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‪ .‬ﻣﻊ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻂ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬
‫ﻣﺪﻯ ﻣﻼﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺒﺮﻱ ﻭﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻮﺍﻧﻲ )‪.(85 0‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺣﺪﺩ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ G‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﻇﻠﻞ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪.2‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪2 r‬‬
‫ﺣﺪﺩ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻟﻸﺯﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺒﺮﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﻮﺭ ﻋﻨﺒﺮﻱ )‪ -(A‬ﺃﺯﺭﻕ )‪(B‬‬
‫‪88‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺣﺪﺩ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻟﻸﺧﻀﺮ ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻮﺍﻧﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻮﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫)ﺃﺧﻀﺮ( ﺃﻭ ‪) M‬ﺃﺭﺟﻮﺍﻧﻲ( ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪ 3‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻣﺤﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ )‪ -(G‬ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻮﺍﻧﻲ )‪(M‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﺤﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺧﻼﻑ ‪ 0‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻮﺭ ﺃﺧﻀﺮ )‪-(G‬ﺃﺭﺟﻮﺍﻧﻲ‬
‫)‪ ،(M‬ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﻤﻴﺔ )"‪ ("E‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(U) L‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (U) L‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﻮﺭ ﻋﻨﺒﺮﻱ )‪ -(A‬ﺃﺯﺭﻕ‬
‫)‪ (B‬ﻓﻘﻂ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (U) L‬ﻭﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ )ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻴﺮﺩ؛ ‪ .(87 0‬ﻹﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺗﺰﺍﻳﺪﻳﺔ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎ ‪ ،K 10‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (U) L‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(U) L‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫‪89‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺗﺤﺖ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻄﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺤﻮﺑﺔ ﺑﻈﻼﻝ ﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺠﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﻗﻴﻢ ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻓﻲ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ‪ d-1‬ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ .d-4‬ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺘﺎﻥ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻫﺪﻑ ﻣﺤﺎﻳﺪ ﺭﻣﺎﺩﻱ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﻮﻑ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﻘﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ )‪ ،(172 0‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻣﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ )ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻌﺔ‪،‬‬
‫‪.(93 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ )‪.(96 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫‪90‬‬
‫ﺳﻠﻂ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺪﻑ ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺿﻊ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺭﻣﺎﺩﻱ ﻣﺤﺎﻳﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﺘﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﺘﻮﺩﻳﻮ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﺭﻣﺎﺩﻱ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻛﻬﺪﻑ ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺑﻤﻘﺪﺍﺭ ‪ EV 1‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ؛ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ ،M‬ﻋﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪.(43 0) ±0‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪) L‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (U) L‬ﺛﻢ ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ‪ L‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(U) L‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ )ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ(‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ‪ HDR‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ )‪.(149 ،112 0‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (U) L‬ﺛﻢ ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ )‪ d-1‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ (d-4‬ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (U) L‬ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (U) L‬ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻭﺟﻴﺰﺓ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ D‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻣﻴﺾ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫‪91‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻣﻴﺾ‪ ،‬ﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﻤﻸ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺛﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺳﺘﻘﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻭﺗﺨﺰﻧﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ .3‬ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ؛ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻮﻣﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ C‬ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺳﺖ ﺛﻮﺍﻧﻲ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺳﻴﻮﻣﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪a‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻣﻈﻠﻤﺔ ﺟﺪﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺟﺪﺍ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﻮﻣﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ b a‬ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺳﺖ ﺛﻮﺍﻧﻲ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﹰ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ 5‬ﻭﻗﺲ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻤﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺤﻤﻴﺎ )‪ ،(99 0‬ﻓﺴﻮﻑ ﻳﻮﻣﺾ ‪ 3‬ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺣﺎﻭﻟﺖ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪92‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺃﻱ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﻣﻴﺾ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺎﺕ‪،‬‬
‫ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻉ ﺍﻷﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ‪) c4‬ﺗﺄﺧﺮ ﺍﻧﻄﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ( < ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ )‪ (253 0‬ﻭﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪c2‬‬
‫)ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪.(251 0) ،‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺢ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ؛‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ .J‬ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻟﻢ ﺗﻜﻦ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ ،K 5200‬ﻧﻔﺲ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ )ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻌﺔ(‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻣﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﻐﻨﻲ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻫﺪﻑ ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﺏ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.a‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪a‬‬
‫‪93‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪) L‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (U) L‬ﺛﻢ ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ‪ L‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(U) L‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (U) L‬ﺛﻢ ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ )‪ d-1‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ (d-4‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (U) L‬ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫‪4 r‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (U) L‬ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻭﺟﻴﺰﺓ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ L‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻣﻴﺾ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻌﺔ )‪ (r‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫‪94‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺑﻴﻀﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺭﻣﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﻣﻴﺾ ‪ D‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪ r‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺑﻴﻀﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺭﻣﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‪.‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫ﻗﺲ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ J‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫ﻷﺳﻔﻞ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪ .‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺡ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪c4‬‬
‫)ﺗﺄﺧﺮ ﺍﻧﻄﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ( < ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ )‪.(253 0‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﺗﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪،‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻭﻛﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪.4‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ‪.‬‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ )ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ(‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ‪ HDR‬ﻗﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ‬
‫)‪.(112 0‬‬
‫‪95‬‬
‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ‬
‫❚❚ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪) L‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ(‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟـ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ G‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﻇﻠﻞ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺟﻬﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﻭﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ )‪d-1‬‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ (d-4‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.(M) W‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(M) W‬‬
‫‪3 r‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺪﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺪﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪96‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ )‪ ،(278 0‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻧﺴﺦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺪﺭ‬
‫ﻟﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ ،4‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫‪.(T) X‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫)‪ (d-4 – d-1‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﺃﺧﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﻭﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.85‬‬
‫‪97‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ‬
‫ﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﻹﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻭﺻﻔﻲ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺳﺘﺔ ﻭﺛﻼﺛﻮﻥ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪) L‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.(M) W‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(M) W‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺣﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.107‬‬
‫‪98‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻤﻲ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﻭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪) L‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.(M) W‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(M) W‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‪.‬‬
‫‪99‬‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻳﺠﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ ﻭﺻﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻭﺗﺪﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫‪ Picture Control‬ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ Q‬ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬
‫‪ R‬ﻣﺤﺎﻳﺪ‬
‫‪ S‬ﻣﺸﺮﻕ‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺯﻧﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻮﺻﻰ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﺘﺘﻢ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺘﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺤﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺸﺮﻗﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺗﺒﺮﺯ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪ T‬ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻳﻌﺎﻟﺞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﺸﺮﺓ ﺗﺘﺴﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ‬
‫‪ e‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻭﻣﻠﻤﺲ ﻧﺎﻋﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ f‬ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻟﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺗﻨﺒﺾ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻨﺎﻇﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪.Picture Control‬‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.G‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫‪ 2‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺑﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪.Picture Control‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪.Picture Control‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ Picture Control‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )‪ .(106 0‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺣﻔﻆ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺇﻟﻲ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺩﻳﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ )‪.(109 0‬‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.R‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫‪101‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺪﺓ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺎ ﹰ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ )‪ (106 0‬ﻟﻜﻲ ﺗﻼﺋﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺔ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺯﻧﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﻝ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻳﺔ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﺎ ﹰ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪.Picture Control‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ‪ (100 0) Picture Control‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪.2‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ‬
‫)‪ (103 0‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﺮﺭ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻀﺒﻮﻃﺔ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺎ ﹰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.O‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﻨﺠﻤﺔ )"‪.("E‬‬
‫‪102‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻳﺔ‬
‫)ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻓﻘﻂ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻳﺔ‬
‫)ﻓﻘﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ )ﻛﻞ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪(Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ(‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ‪ –2‬ﻭ ‪ +2‬ﻟﺨﻔﺾ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻀﺨﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬
‫‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ )ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﻌﻴﺪ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻳﺔ(‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﻴﻢ ﻣﻮﺟﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺸﺮﻕ ﻳﺠﻌﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺇﺷﺮﺍﻗﺎ‪ .‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻣﻊ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Control‬ﻣﺤﺎﻳﺪ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻮﺡ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻭﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪ A‬ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻧﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺗﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪) 0‬ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ( ﻭ ‪) 9‬ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺢ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪ A‬ﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻴﻢ‬
‫ﺗﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ –3‬ﻭ ‪) +3‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻻ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ "ﻣﻤﺴﻮﺣﺔ" ﻓﻲ ﺿﻮﺀ‬
‫ﺗﺒﺎﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻇﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪ –1‬ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺃﻗﻞ‪ +1 ،‬ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‪ .‬ﻻ‬
‫ﺳﻄﻮﻉ‬
‫ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻧﻮﻉ‬
‫ﻳﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺈﺷﺮﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪ A‬ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺻﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺻﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺗﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ –3‬ﻭ ‪) +3‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺗﻘﻠﻞ‬
‫ﺻﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ ﺗﺰﻳﺪﻩ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺳﺎﻟﺒﺔ )ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ‪ (–3‬ﻟﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﻗﺮﻣﺰﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺰﺭﻗﺎﺀ ﺧﻀﺮﺍﺀ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻀﺮﺍﺀ ﺻﻔﺮﺍﺀ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﺒﺔ )ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﺗﺪﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫‪ (+3‬ﻟﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﺑﺮﺗﻘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻀﺮﺍﺀ ﺯﺭﻗﺎﺀ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺰﺭﻗﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻗﺮﻣﺰﻳﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ‬
‫ﻳﺤﺎﻛﻲ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﺮﺷﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪) Off‬ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ(‪ ،‬ﺃﺻﻔﺮ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺗﻘﺎﻟﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﺣﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﻀﺮ )‪.(105 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ‬
‫‪) B&W‬ﺃﺳﻮﺩ ﻭﺃﺑﻴﺾ(‪) Sepia ،‬ﺑﻨﻲ ﺩﺍﻛﻦ(‪) Cyanotype ،‬ﺃﺯﺭﻕ ﻓﺎﺗﺢ( )ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻣﺸﻮﺏ ﺑﺎﻷﺯﺭﻕ(‪) Red ،‬ﺃﺣﻤﺮ(‪) Yellow ،‬ﺃﺻﻔﺮ(‪) Green ،‬ﺃﺧﻀﺮ(‪،‬‬
‫‪) Blue Green‬ﺃﺧﻀﺮ ﻣﺰﺭﻕ(‪) Blue ،‬ﺃﺯﺭﻕ(‪) Purple Blue ،‬ﺃﺯﺭﻕ ﻗﺮﻣﺰﻱ(‪،‬‬
‫‪) Red Purple‬ﻗﺮﻣﺰﻱ ﻣﺤﻤﺮ( )‪.(105 0‬‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫‪103‬‬
‫‪) "A" D‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ(‬
‫ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﻭﺻﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G‬ﺃﻭ ‪ E‬ﺃﻭ ‪ D‬ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺄﺳﺴﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ‪ Picture Control‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(M) W‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ 2‬ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 102‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﻭﺻﻔﺎﺀ ﻟﻮﻥ‬
‫‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ )ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ(‪ .‬ﺣﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫‪ (M) W‬ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ‪.Picture Control‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺭﻣﻮﺯ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﻭﺻﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ ،Picture Control‬ﻭﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﻁ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺍﺯﻳﺔ ﻟﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺨﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫‪ Picture Control‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺫﻟﻚ‬
‫ﻛﻤﺮﺟﻊ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫‪104‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ )ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻓﻘﻂ(‬
‫ﺗﺤﺎﻛﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﺮﺷﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪Y‬‬
‫‪O‬‬
‫‪R‬‬
‫‪G‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺃﺻﻔﺮ‬
‫ﻳﺤﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺑﺮﺗﻘﺎﻟﻲ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺎﻇﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺗﻘﺎﻟﻲ ﺗﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺻﻔﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﺣﻤﺮ‬
‫ﺃﺣﻤﺮ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺗﺒﺎﻳﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺗﻘﺎﻟﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺧﻀﺮ‬
‫ﻳﻨﻌﻢ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺠﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻭﺿﻮﺣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺠﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﺟﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ )ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻓﻘﻂ(‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺻﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 3‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺻﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪) B&W‬ﺃﺳﻮﺩ ﻭﺃﺑﻴﺾ(‪.‬‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫‪105‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻭﺣﻔﻈﻬﺎ ﻛﺈﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪Picture‬‬
‫‪ Control‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.G‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫‪106‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺣﻔﻆ‪/‬ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺣﻔﻆ‪/‬ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪.Picture Control‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺎ ﹰ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ ،2‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻼﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ 5‬ﻟﺤﻔﻆ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 103‬ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺃﻱ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.O‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻬﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ )‪ C-1‬ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ (C-9‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﻤﺎ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪.Picture Control‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺢ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺑﺈﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻗﻤﻴﻦ )ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺨﺼﻴﺼﻪ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ( ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ؛ ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ .7‬ﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ (M) W‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﻹﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .J‬ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪.O‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻞ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺃﺳﻤﺎﺀ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﺴﻌﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺣﺮﻑ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺃﻱ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﻋﺸﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪107‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.(T) X‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (T) X‬ﻟﺤﻔﻆ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺮﻭﺝ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﻈﻬﺮ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪.Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(T) X‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ < Picture Control‬ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪.Picture Control‬‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ < Picture Control‬ﺣﺬﻑ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ Picture Control‬ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺭﻣﺰ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺭﻣﺰ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻀﺒﻮﻁ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﹰ ﺎ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺮﺗﻜﺰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ﺑﺮﻣﺰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﻷﻳﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪108‬‬
‫ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﺎﺻﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ Picture Control Utility‬ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ ViewNX 2‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻣﺜﻞ‬
‫‪ Capture NX 2‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻭﺗﺤﻤﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ Df‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺛﻢ ﺣﺬﻓﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﺝ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ‪/‬ﺣﻔﻆ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬
‫‪ Picture Control‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .2‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ :‬ﺍﻧﺴﺦ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ‪ C-1‬ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ C-9‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻷﺳﻤﺎﺀ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﻭﺻﻔﻪ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﺣﺬﻑ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻴﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺣﺬﻑ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪Picture Control‬؛ ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﻧﻌﻢ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻧﺴﺦ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ )‪ C-1‬ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ (C-9‬ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ )‪ 1‬ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ (99‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺣﻔﻆ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ 99‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻭﻗﺖ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺪﺓ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺎ ﹰ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )‪ (100 0‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺃﺳﻤﺎﺋﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺬﻓﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪109‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻈﻼﻝ‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺎﻓﻆ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﻈﻼﻝ‪ ،‬ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭ ﺑﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ‪ .‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺃﻭ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻣﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻳﻮﻡ ﻣﺸﻤﺲ‪ .‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻣﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ )‪.(75 0‬‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻣﻐﻠﻖ‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‪ Y :‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫‪ D-Lighting" A‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ" ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑـ "‪"D-Lighting‬‬
‫ﻳﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ )‪ (291 0‬ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻈﻼﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪110‬‬
‫ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.G‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .J‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪ Y‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺳﺘﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ‬
‫ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )ﻟﻜﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ ،M‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ‪ Y‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ‪ Q‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ(‪.‬‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫‪ D-Lighting D‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ )ﻣﺮﺑﻌﺎﺕ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﻣﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺿﺒﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ( ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ ﻣﻊ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻈﻼﻝ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻳﺔ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO Hi 0.3‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﻧﻈﺮﹰﺍ ﹰ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ ADL‬ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) e6‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،(259 0 ،‬ﺳﺘﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ )‪.(145 0‬‬
‫‪111‬‬
‫ﻣﺪﻯ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ )‪(HDR‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ )‪ (HDR‬ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻈﻼﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻴﻦ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﻤﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ‪ HDR‬ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ )‪75 0‬؛ ﻣﻊ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫‪ ،CPU‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺴﺎﻭﻳﹰﺎ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﺮﺏ ﻣﻦ ‪ .(EV 2‬ﻻ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ )‪ .NEF (RAW‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ‪ HDR‬ﻣﻊ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ )‪ ،(136 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ )‪ ،(149 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ‪) B‬ﻓﺘﺢ(‬
‫ﺃﻭ ‪) T‬ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ(‪.‬‬
‫‪+‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬
‫)ﺃﻏﻤﻖ(‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‬
‫)ﺳﺎﻃﻊ(‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪) HDR‬ﻣﺪﻯ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ G‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ‪) HDR‬ﻣﺪﻯ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ(‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫‪112‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪ HDR‬ﻣﺪﻣﻮﺟﺔ‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ HDR‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫• ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪HDR‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﺩ ‪ 6‬ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫)ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ(‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ‪ HDR‬ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﺗﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫‪.HDR‬‬
‫• ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪ HDR‬ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﺩ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ(‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻜﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪ HDR‬ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ HDR‬ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﺩ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ u‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ‪.HDR‬‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫‪113‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺑﻴﻦ ﻟﻘﻄﺘﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .J‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻗﻴﻢ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ ﻟﻸﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻻﺣﻆ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻡ ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺤﻘﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔ؛ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﺳﺘﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺗﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﺑﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺗﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﹼﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫‪114‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﺘﺞ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺧﻔﻴﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻈﻼﻝ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻳﺔ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ‪.‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﻗﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﺘﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻀﻴﻦ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ‪ l k‬ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻳﻮﻣﺾ‬
‫‪ l u‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺩﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ؛‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﻜﺘﻤﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪ .‬ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻘﻂ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ(‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ‪ HDR‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪HDR‬؛ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ(‪،‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ‪ HDR‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﺨﺘﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ u‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ‪.HDR‬‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪HDR‬‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻗﺺ ﺣﻮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻮﺓ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﺤﺮﻛﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻞ‪ .‬ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻇﻼﻝ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﺟﺴﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻀﻴﺌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻫﺎﻻﺕ ﺿﻮﺋﻴﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻛﻨﺔ؛ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ( ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ HDR‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﺳﺘﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪ HDR‬ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ )ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ(‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ(‪.‬‬
‫‪115‬‬
‫‪l‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻓﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻋﻲ )‪ Creative Lighting System (CLS‬ﻣﻦ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ‪ .CLS‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻘﻔﻞ ﺃﻣﺎﻥ ﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻤﺴﻤﺎﺭ ﻗﻔﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﺰﻉ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺭﻛﺐ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻃﻠﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻖ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻟﻠﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪l‬‬
‫‪116‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ‪ .‬ﻻ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻢ ﺑﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﻔﻼﺵ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺳﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻛﻤﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ‬
‫‪ 250‬ﻓﻮﻟﺖ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﻊ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻋﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺗﻼﻑ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ .‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﹰ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﺗﺼﻞ ﺑﻤﻤﺜﻞ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪l‬‬
‫‪117‬‬
‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻋﻲ )‪ Creative Lighting System (CLS‬ﻣﻦ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻳﻘﺪﻡ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻋﻲ )‪ Creative Lighting System (CLS‬ﻣﻦ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻻ ﹰ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ‬
‫ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ‪CLS‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ‪:CLS‬‬
‫• ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ SB-910‬ﻭ ‪ SB-900‬ﻭ ‪ SB-800‬ﻭ ‪ SB-700‬ﻭ ‪ SB-600‬ﻭ ‪ SB-400‬ﻭ‪ SB-300‬ﻭ‬
‫‪:SB-R200‬‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫‪SB-910‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﻴﺔ‬
‫‪34‬‬
‫‪ISO 100‬‬
‫ﺭﻗﻢ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪SB-900‬‬
‫‪34‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪SB-800‬‬
‫‪38‬‬
‫‪SB-700‬‬
‫‪28‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪SB-600‬‬
‫‪30‬‬
‫‪SB-400‬‬
‫‪21‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪SB-300‬‬
‫‪18‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪SB-R200‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪25‬‬
‫‪30‬‬
‫‪42‬‬
‫‪39‬‬
‫‪53‬‬
‫‪48‬‬
‫‪48‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ‪ISO 200 4‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﻟﻮﻧﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ SB-910‬ﺃﻭ ‪ SB-900‬ﺃﻭ ‪ SB-700‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫)ﻓﻼﺵ( ‪ v‬ﺃﻭ ‪ N‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻜﺘﺸﻒ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻭﺗﻀﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻼﺋﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 3‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ SB-910‬ﺃﻭ ‪ SB-900‬ﺃﻭ ‪ SB-800‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪ SB-700‬ﺃﻭ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ‪ Speedlight‬ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪.SU-800‬‬
‫‪ 4‬ﻣﺘﺮ‪°20 ،‬ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﻓﻼﺵ ‪ SB-910‬ﻭ ‪ SB-900‬ﻭ ‪ SB-800‬ﻭ ‪ SB-700‬ﻭ ‪ SB-600‬ﻣﻊ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻨﺪ ‪ 35‬ﻣﻢ؛ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ SB-910‬ﻭ ‪ SB-900‬ﻭ ‪ SB-700‬ﻣﻊ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ‬
‫ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫• ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﻔﻼﺵ ‪ Speedlight‬ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻲ ‪ :SU-800‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ‪ ،CLS‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ SU-800‬ﻛﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ SB-910‬ﺃﻭ ‪ SB-900‬ﺃﻭ ‪ SB-800‬ﺃﻭ ‪ SB-700‬ﺃﻭ ‪ SB-600‬ﺃﻭ ‪ SB-R200‬ﻓﻲ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ SU-800‬ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫‪l‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻟﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻗﺴﻢ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻫﻮ ‪ 34‬ﻣﺘﺮ )ﻋﻨﺪ ‪ °20 ،ISO 100‬ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ(؛‬
‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ‪ f/5.6‬ﻫﻮ ‪ 5.6÷34‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 6.1‬ﻣﺘﺮ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ‪ .‬ﻣﻊ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻀﺎﻋﻔﺔ ﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ،ISO‬ﺍﺿﺮﺏ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺬﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﻴﻌﻲ ﻟﻠﺮﻗﻢ ﺍﺛﻨﺎﻥ )‪ 1.4‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ(‪.‬‬
‫‪118‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ‪:CLS‬‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ‪CLS‬‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‬
‫‪SU-800‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫‪SB-910‬‬
‫ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ‬
‫‪SB-900‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﺮﺏ ‪SB-300 SB-400 SB-R200‬‬
‫‪ SB-600 SB-700 SB-800‬ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ ﻗﻮﻱ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ‪i-TTL‬‬
‫ﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ SLR‬ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ ‪1‬‬
‫‪i-TTL‬‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ ‪ i-TTL‬ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ SLR‬ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ AA‬ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪TTL‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪ GN‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪ RPT‬ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺘﻜﺮﺭ‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫—‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪i-TTL i-TTL‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻲ‬
‫]‪[A:B‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‬
‫‪ AA‬ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪ M‬ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪TTL‬‬
‫‪ M‬ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪ RPT‬ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺘﻜﺮﺭ‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪i-TTL i-TTL‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻲ‬
‫]‪[A:B‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‬
‫‪ AA‬ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪TTL‬‬
‫‪ M‬ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫‪ RPT‬ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺘﻜﺮﺭ‬
‫ﺇﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ‪ FP‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪FV‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪z‬‬
‫‪l‬‬
‫‪119‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺑﻘﻌﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ AA/A‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻢ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺅﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪ CPU‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ "‪ "A‬ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪.CPU‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪ CPU‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ )‪ TTL (A‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ ،CPU‬ﺑﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ i-TTL‬ﻭ‪ AA‬ﻭ‪ A‬ﻭ‪ GN‬ﻭ‪.M‬‬
‫ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ i-TTL‬ﻭ‪ AA‬ﻭ‪.A‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ﻟـ ‪ SB-910‬ﻭ ‪ SB-900‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪l‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺼﺪﺭ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ‪ ،CLS‬ﻣﺜﻞ ‪ SB-910‬ﻭ‪ SB-900‬ﻭ‪ SB-800‬ﻭ‪ SB-700‬ﻭ‬
‫‪ SB-600‬ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ Pv‬ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺰﺓ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻹﺟﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﻪ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﻓﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) e5‬ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ؛ ‪.(259 0‬‬
‫‪120‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪ TTL‬ﻭﻳﺪﻭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪،1SB-27 ،SB-30‬‬
‫‪،2 SB-29 ،SB-23 ،SB-22 ،SB-22S‬‬
‫‪،2 SB-21B‬‬
‫‪،SB-16B ،SB-20‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪SB-29S‬‬
‫‪SB-15‬‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪،SB-80DX‬‬
‫‪،SB-28DX‬‬
‫‪،SB-26 ،SB-28‬‬
‫‪SB-50DX‬‬
‫‪SB-24 ،SB-25‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪TTL‬‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫‪ M‬ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫‪ G‬ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺘﻜﺮﺭ‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺳﺘﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫‪REAR‬‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ TTL‬ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫‪ 1‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫‪) A‬ﻓﻼﺵ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪.(TTL‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ f/2.8G IF-ED‬ﻣﻢ‪ AF-S VR Micro-Nikkor 105‬ﻭ‬
‫‪ f/2.8G ED‬ﻣﻢ‪ AF-S Micro NIKKOR 60‬ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 3‬ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺭﺟﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ ‪ Speedlight‬ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﻣﻔﺼﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺩﻋﻢ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ‪ ،CLS‬ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ‪ SLR‬ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ‪ .CLS‬ﻻ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺃﺩﻟﺔ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ SB-80DX‬ﻭ ‪ SB-28DX‬ﻭ ‪ SB-50DX‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ Df‬ﻓﻲ ﻓﺌﺔ "ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ‬
‫‪ SLR‬ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ"‪.‬‬
‫‪l‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻼﺵ ‪ i-TTL‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ 100‬ﻭ ‪ .12800‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ‪ ،12800‬ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻮﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻣﻴﺾ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺛﻮﺍﻧﻲ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺃﺿﺎﺀ ﺑﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻃﺎﻗﺘﻪ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻧﺎﻗﺺ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ ‪ 17 SC‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 28‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 29‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﻌﻴﺪ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ .i-TTL‬ﻧﻨﺼﺤﻚ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻼﺵ ‪ i-TTL‬ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻲ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻂ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﺠﺮﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﺎﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ ،i-TTL‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻮﺡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺃﻭ ﺿﺎﺑﻂ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻖ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺃﻟﻮﺍﺡ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﻧﺸﺮ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫‪121‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ SB-910‬ﻭ ‪ SB-900‬ﻭ ‪ SB-800‬ﻭ ‪ SB-700‬ﻭ ‪ SB-600‬ﻭ ‪ SB-400‬ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ ‪ SB-910‬ﻭ ‪ SB-900‬ﻭ ‪ SB-800‬ﻭ ‪ SB-700‬ﻭ ‪ SB-600‬ﻭ‬
‫‪ SU-800‬ﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫• ‪ SB-910‬ﻭ‪ :SB-900‬ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪ 135-17‬ﻣﻢ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ‬
‫‪ 135-106‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 105-20‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 19-17‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ‪.‬‬
‫• ‪ SB-800‬ﻭ‪ SB-600‬ﻭ‪ :SU-800‬ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺿﻮﺀ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻊ‬
‫‪ 105-50‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 49-35‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪ 34-24‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪105-24‬‬
‫ﻣﻢ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ‬
‫ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻊ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ‪.‬‬
‫• ‪ :SB-700‬ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪ 135-24‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪ 135-24‬ﻣﻢ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻊ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ ،P‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ )ﺃﻗﻞ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ( ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﺣﺴﺐ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ،ISO‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﺴﺎﻭﻱ‪:‬‬
‫‪12800‬‬
‫‪6400‬‬
‫‪3200‬‬
‫‪1600‬‬
‫‪800‬‬
‫‪400‬‬
‫‪200‬‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪9.5‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪6.7‬‬
‫‪5.6‬‬
‫‪4.8‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﺃﻋﻼﻩ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪l‬‬
‫‪122‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺒﺘﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻛﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫‪ FP‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪(257 0‬‬
‫‪i-TTL‬‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ )‪(AA‬‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪(A) TTL‬‬
‫ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ )‪(GN‬‬
‫ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺘﻜﺮﺭ‬
‫—‬
‫‪l‬‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫‪123‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪i-TTL‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺃﺣﺪ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ‪ (118 0) CLS‬ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ ،TTL‬ﺗﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪:‬‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻞﺀ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ‪ i-TTL‬ﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ SLR‬ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﺼﺪﺭ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻭﻣﻀﺎﺕ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺗﻜﺎﺩ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺋﻴﺔ )ﻧﺒﻀﺎﺕ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺃﻭﻟﻴﺔ( ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﻧﺒﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻌﻜﺴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ‪ RGB‬ﺑﻤﻘﻄﻊ ‪2016‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻭﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G‬ﺃﻭ ‪ E‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ،D‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻀﻤﻴﻦ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺩﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ CPU‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻮﻓﻴﺮ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫)ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ؛ ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪ .(163 0‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺑﻘﻌﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ ‪ i-TTL‬ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ SLR‬ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ؛ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﺑﺴﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺒﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﺗﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻓﻼﺵ ‪ i-TTL‬ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ SLR‬ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻌﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪l‬‬
‫‪124‬‬
‫ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻳﻮﺻﻰ ﺑﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻒ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺒﺮﻣﺞ ﻭﻭﺿﻊ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‪-‬‬
‫ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ 1/200‬ﻭ ‪ 1/60‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫)‪ 1/4000‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 1/60‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ‪ FP‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ؛ ‪.(257 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻣﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ )ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ‪ SB-910‬ﻭ‪ SB-900‬ﻭ‪ SB-800‬ﻭ‪SB-700‬‬
‫ﻭ‪ SB-600‬ﻭ ‪ SB-400‬ﻓﻘﻂ( ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ "ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ" ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻨﺸﺄ ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧ ﹰﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ .‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻮﺻﻰ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﺳﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﺤﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺠﻤﻊ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﻴﺌﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻠﺘﻘﻂ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﻣﺸﻬﺪ ﻟﻴﻠﻲ‪ .‬ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ‪ SB-910‬ﻭ‪ SB-900‬ﻭ‪ SB-800‬ﻭ‪ SB-700‬ﻭ‪ SB-600‬ﻭ ‪ SB-400‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺒﺮﻣﺞ ﻭﻭﺿﻊ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻞ ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺩﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻣﻊ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻤﻘﺪﺍﺭ ‪ 30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﻛﻼ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺧﺎﻓﺘﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺒﺮﻣﺞ ﻭﻭﺿﻊ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻨﺼﺢ‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻞ ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻨﻄﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﻪ ﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﺴﺎﺭ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﺧﻠﻒ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺒﺮﻣﺞ ﻭﻓﺘﺤﺔ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺳﺘﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺳﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻨﺼﺢ‬
‫ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻞ ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﺶ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪l‬‬
‫‪125‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(M)W‬‬
‫ﺛﻢ ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(M) W‬‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ‬
‫‪2 ،1‬‬
‫ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ‬
‫‪l‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪126‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺳﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻣﻴﺔ‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﻳﻮﻣﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ Y‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻻ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ P‬ﻭ ‪ .A‬ﻭﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ S‬ﻭ ‪ ،M‬ﻳﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ P‬ﻭ ‪ .A‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ S‬ﻭ ‪ ،M‬ﻳﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻣﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ P‬ﻭ ‪ ،A‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺳﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.(M) W‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺳﺘﻮﺩﻳﻮ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺳﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺳﺘﻮﺩﻳﻮ‪ ،‬ﻧﻈﺮﹰﺍ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻻ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫‪P‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫‪2 ,1‬‬
‫)‪ 1/200‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪–1/60‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ(‬
‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻣﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫)‪ 1/200‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪–30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ(‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫‪2 ،1‬‬
‫)‪ 1/200‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪–1/60‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ(‬
‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻣﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫)‪ 1/200‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪–30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺢ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ(‬
‫‪S‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫‪M‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻣﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬
‫‪38‬‬
‫‪39‬‬
‫‪41‬‬
‫‪42‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻘﻴﻤﺔ ‪ 30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺳﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪ 1/250‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ )‪ FP‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ( ﺃﻭ ‪ 1/200‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ )‪ FP‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ( ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) e1‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،(257 0 ،‬ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺑﻘﻴﻤﺔ ‪ 1/4000‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ‪ FP‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 3‬ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻭﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ .ISO‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ A‬ﻭ ‪ ،M‬ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﻧﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻖ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﻧﻈﺮﹰﺍ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) e1‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪،‬‬
‫‪ .(257 0‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﺑﻄﺄ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) e2‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.(258 0 ،‬‬
‫‪l‬‬
‫‪127‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﻘﻴﻢ ﻣﻦ ‪ EV –3‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ EV +1‬ﺑﺄﺣﺠﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ‪ ،EV 1/3‬ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻟﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺳﻄﻮﻋﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻠﻪ ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺑﻘﻊ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻧﻌﻜﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (M)W‬ﻭﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﺑﻮﺟﻪ ﻋﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﺒﺔ ﻟﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺳﻄﻮﻋﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﺗﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻗﺘﺎﻣﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (M) W‬ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﻏﻴﺮ ‪ ،±0.0‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ Y‬ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.(M) W‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.(M)W‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ‪ .±0.0‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪EV ±0‬‬
‫)ﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪((M) W‬‬
‫‪l‬‬
‫‪EV -0.3‬‬
‫‪EV +1.0‬‬
‫‪128‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻢ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﻧﻈﺮﹰﺍ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) e4‬ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ .(259 0 ،‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.136‬‬
‫‪l‬‬
‫‪129‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪FV‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﻟﻘﻔﻞ ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺈﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻭﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻬﺪﻑ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻱ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ ISO‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ FV‬ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ‪ CLS‬ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫)‪.(118 0‬‬
‫ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪:FV‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﻋﻴﻦ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ FV‬ﻷﺣﺪ ﻣﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺪﺩ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ FV‬ﻛﺨﻴﺎﺭ "ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ" ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) f4‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪ ،(263 0 ،Fn‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) f5‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‪ ،(266 0 ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) f6‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻋﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.(267 0 ،‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ‪.CLS‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ‪ (118 0) CLS‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺐ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻭﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ TTL‬ﺃﻭ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﻠﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫‪ ،AA‬ﺃﻭ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﻠﺸﺎﺷﺔ ‪ .A‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ‪ Speedlight‬ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪l‬‬
‫‪130‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﺍﻗﻔﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ )‪ (M‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪.1‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻧﺒﻀﺔ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺃﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺐ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻗﻔﻞ‬
‫ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻭﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺭﻣﻮﺯ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ (e) FV‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫ﺃﻋﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪.FV‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫ﺣﺮﺭ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪.FV‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ 1‬ﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ .FV‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻔﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺭﻣﺰ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ (e) FV‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪l‬‬
‫‪131‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻘﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ FV‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻛﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫)ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻣﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ(‬
‫‪l‬‬
‫‪132‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫‪i-TTL‬‬
‫ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ‪-5‬ﻣﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫‪AA‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺗﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫‪i-TTL‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫‪AA‬‬
‫‪) A‬ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺗﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺰﺭﻳﻦ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﺍﺭ ‪ (M) W‬ﻭ‪ D‬ﻣﻌﺎ ﹰ ﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺘﻴﻦ )ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﺍﺭ ﻣﻤﻴﺰﺓ ﺑﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺧﻀﺮﺍﺀ(‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻭﺟﻴﺰﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪D‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(M) W‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪133‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ‬
‫‪) HDR‬ﻣﺪﻯ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ(‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪134‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﺒﺪﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ < ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫‪0 :G-M ،0 :A-B‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪55‬‬
‫‪58‬‬
‫‪81‬‬
‫‪84‬‬
‫‪112‬‬
‫‪72‬‬
‫‪156‬‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻌﺪﻟﺔ‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪149‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺨﺰﻥ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )‪ .(236 0‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﺘﺄﺛﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺰﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﺘﻢ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻭﻗﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﻭﻓﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﻭﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ(‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ(‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ(‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪FV‬‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻣﺮﻥ‬
‫)‪+ NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﺒﺪﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪AF-S‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫‪59‬‬
‫‪62‬‬
‫‪AF-S‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻋﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻣﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫‪175‬‬
‫‪177‬‬
‫‪64‬‬
‫‪77 ،66‬‬
‫‪136‬‬
‫‪128‬‬
‫‪125‬‬
‫‪256‬‬
‫‪130‬‬
‫‪38‬‬
‫‪264‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺨﺰﻥ‬
‫‪ 2‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺰﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ )‪ .(245 0‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪135‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻳﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺃﻭ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ )‪(ADL‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺑﺴﻴﻄﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻛﻞ ﻟﻘﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺤﻴﺚ "ﻳﺼﺤﺢ" ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺞ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺼﻌﺐ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫)‪ i-TTL‬ﻭﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﺪﻋﻮﻣﺔ؛ ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ‬
‫‪ 119‬ﻭ ‪ (124‬ﺃﻭ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻟﻔﺤﺺ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻭﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻊ ﻛﻞ ﻟﻘﻄﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﻳﺐ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻟﻨﻔﺲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﹸﻣﻌﺪﻝ‬
‫ﺑﻤﻘﺪﺍﺭ‪EV 0 :‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪136‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﹸﻣﻌﺪﻝ‬
‫ﺑﻤﻘﺪﺍﺭ‪EV –1 :‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﹸﻣﻌﺪﻝ‬
‫ﺑﻤﻘﺪﺍﺭ‪EV +1 :‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫‪) e6‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ( ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.G‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ‪) e6‬ﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ( ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .J‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﻓﻼﺵ ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ ،D‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪D‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺧﻼﻑ ‪ ،r‬ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ M‬ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪ .‬ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ‪ D‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻭﺭﻣﺰ ﻳﺒﻴﻦ‬
‫ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪) v :‬ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ( ﺃﻭ ‪) w‬ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ( ﺃﻭ ‪) x‬ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻓﻘﻂ(‪.‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪137‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﺰﺍﻳﺪﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ D‬ﻭﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻳﺪﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ D‬ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻳﺪﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ‪ (1/3) 0.3‬ﻭ ‪(2/3) 0.7‬‬
‫ﻭ ‪ 1‬ﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻭ ‪ .EV 3‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺳﺮﺩ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺑﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﺰﺍﻳﺪﻳﺔ ‪ EV 1/3‬ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪:‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ )‪(EVs‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪+0.7/+0.3/0‬‬
‫‪-0.3/-0.7/0‬‬
‫‪+0.3/0‬‬
‫‪-0.3/0‬‬
‫‪+0.3/-0.3/0‬‬
‫‪+0.7/+0.3/-0.3/-0.7/0‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﻧﻈﺮﹰﺍ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻟﻪ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪e8‬‬
‫)ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ‪.(260 0 ،‬‬
‫‪138‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﻗﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻟﻘﻄﺔ ﺑﻠﻘﻄﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ‪ .‬ﺗﺘﻢ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺅﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ )ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.(79‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺨﺘﻔﻲ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻛﻞ ﻟﻘﻄﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ‪3‬؛ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻳﺪﻳﺔ‪0.7 :‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬
‫❚❚ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ D‬ﻭﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﻋﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺻﻔﺮ )‪ (r‬ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺃﻳﻘﻮﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ )‪ v‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪ w‬ﺃﻭ ‪ .(x‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺰﺭﻳﻦ )‪،(133 0‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﹰ‬
‫ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﻟﻦ ﺗﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪139‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ ﻭﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﺆﻗﺘﺎ ﹰ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺌﻨﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻠﺘﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ 2‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 137‬ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ ،‬ﺑﻐﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c3‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ( < ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‬
‫)‪(252 0‬؛ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c3‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ( < ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻣﺘﻸﺕ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺌﻨﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ‪،‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻜﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺒﺮﻣﺞ(‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )ﻏﺎﻟﻖ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ(‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ )ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ(‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ < ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪ (72 0‬ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ P‬ﻭ ‪ S‬ﻭ ‪ A‬ﻭﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻓﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫‪) e7‬ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ (260 0 ،(M‬ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ‪.‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪140‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻛﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺑﻴﺎﺽ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‪ .‬ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.81‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ WB‬ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪ e6‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ ،D‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪D‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪WB‬‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺧﻼﻑ ‪ ،r‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ‪ M‬ﻭ ‪ D‬ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ؛ ﻭﻳﻈﻬﺮ‬
‫ﺭﻣﺰ ‪ y‬ﻭﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪141‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ D‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﺰﺍﻳﺪﻳﺔ ﺗﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ ‪ 5‬ﻣﻴﺮﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ D‬ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻳﺪﻳﺔ ‪ 5) 1‬ﻣﻴﺮﺩ(‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 10) 2‬ﻣﻴﺮﺩ(‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 15) 3‬ﻣﻴﺮﺩ(‪ .‬ﺗﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻗﻴﻢ ‪B‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﻕ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻗﻴﻢ ‪ A‬ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺒﺮﻱ )‪ .(87 0‬ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﻤﻘﺪﺍﺭ ‪ 1‬ﻣﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ )‪(EVs‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1B‬‬
‫‪1B/0‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1A‬‬
‫‪1A/0‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪1 B ،1 A‬‬
‫‪1B/1A/0‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﻧﻈﺮﹰﺍ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 87‬ﻟﻼﻃﻼﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ "ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺮﺩ‪".‬‬
‫‪142‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﻗﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﻛﻞ ﻟﻘﻄﺔ ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻞ‬
‫ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺑﻴﺎﺽ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‪ .‬ﺗﺘﻢ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻢ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺅﻩ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻮﻣﺾ‬
‫‪ n‬ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻴﻮﻣﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪j‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪143‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ D‬ﻭﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﻋﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺻﻔﺮ )‪ (r‬ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ‪ y‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ .‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﹰ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺰﺭﻳﻦ )‪ ،(133 0‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﻟﻦ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻣﻊ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪ .NEF (RAW‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺃﻭ )‪ JPEG+NEF(RAW‬ﺟﻴﺪ ﺃﻭ )‪ JPEG+NEF(RAW‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ ﺃﻭ‬
‫)‪ JPEG+NEF(RAW‬ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ )ﻣﺤﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺒﺮﻱ‪-‬ﺍﻷﺯﺭﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪ .(84 0 ،‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺤﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ‪-‬ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻮﺍﻧﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ )‪ ،(48 0‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻛﻞ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ ،‬ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c3‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ( < ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ )‪.(252 0‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ‪.‬‬
‫‪144‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ADL‬‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻋﺒﺮ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.110‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺣﺪﺩ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪.ADL‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ ADL‬ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪ e6‬ﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ ،D‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪D‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ADL‬‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺧﻼﻑ ‪ ،r‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ‪ M‬ﻭ ‪ D‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ؛ ﻭﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺭﻣﺰ ‪ z‬ﻭﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻟﻘﻄﺘﻴﻦ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻭﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻣﺤﺪﺩﺓ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺧﻤﺲ ﻟﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻧﺎﺟﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻭ ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫)ﺛﻼﺙ ﻟﻘﻄﺎﺕ(‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻭ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ )ﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﻟﻘﻄﺎﺕ(‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻭ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﺑﺸﺪﺓ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﻭ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﺑﺸﺪﺓ ‪) 2‬ﺧﻤﺲ ﻟﻘﻄﺎﺕ(‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻘﻄﺘﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺗﺎﺑﻊ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪.4‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪145‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ ،D‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ D‬ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪146‬‬
‫‪ADL‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫‪ADL‬‬
‫‪Y‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪P‬‬
‫ﻋﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫‪R‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ‬
‫‪c‬‬
‫ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﺑﺸﺪﺓ ‪1‬‬
‫‪Q‬‬
‫ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫‪d‬‬
‫ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﺑﺸﺪﺓ ‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﻗﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻟﻘﻄﺔ ﺑﻠﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺐ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺨﺘﻔﻲ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﻛﻞ ﻟﻘﻄﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪3 :‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪147‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ D‬ﻭﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﻋﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺻﻔﺮ )‪ (r‬ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ‪ z‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ .‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﹰ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺰﺭﻳﻦ )‪ ،(133 0‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﻟﻦ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ADL‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ ﻭﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﺆﻗﺘﺎ ﹰ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺌﻨﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻠﺘﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ 2‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 145‬ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ ،‬ﺑﻐﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) 3c‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ( < ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‬
‫)‪(252 0‬؛ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c3‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ( < ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻣﺘﻸﺕ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺌﻨﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ‪،‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻜﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪148‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻀﻴﻦ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ‪ RAW‬ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺗﻔﻮﻕ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻠﺤﻮﻅ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻨﺘﺠﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺃﻱ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺧﻼﻝ ‪ 30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻓﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻣﻤﺘﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪ 30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺃﻃﻮﻝ ﻟﺘﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c2‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪ .(251 0 ،‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﻔﺎﺻﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻴﺔ ‪ 30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻃﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪ .c2‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻧﻄﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻌﺪ ‪ 30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ G‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪149‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪.2‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫• ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪ 6‬ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﺩ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫• ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ( ﺃﻭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ(‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺃﻳﻘﻮﻧﺔ ‪ n‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪150‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺩﻣﺠﻬﺎ ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻛﺨﻴﺎﺭ "ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫‪ +‬ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ" ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) f4‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪،Fn‬‬
‫‪ (263 0‬ﺃﻭ ‪) f5‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‪ ،(266 0 ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻭﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﻭﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻙ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ؛‬
‫ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪) n :‬ﻣﻊ ‪ B‬ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ( ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ( ﻭ ‪) n‬ﻣﻊ ‪ o‬ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ( ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪151‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫• ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺣﺴﺐ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻓﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﹰ )ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 1/2‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻤﺮﺗﻴﻦ ‪ 2‬ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪ 1/3‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺜﻼﺙ ‪ 3‬ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ(‪.‬‬
‫• ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪ .‬ﻳﻮﺻﻰ ﺑﻪ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﻛﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ‬
‫)ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻜﺴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﺎﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﻁ(‪.‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪152‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﻗﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ )‪ ،(46 0‬ﺗﺴﺠﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫)ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ(‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ؛ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ(‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻋﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﺴﺠﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺧﻄﻮﺓ ‪ ،3‬ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c3‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ( < ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ )‪(252 0‬؛ ﺇﻻ ﺇﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c3‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ( < ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ‬
‫ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ؛ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻴﺔ )ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻗﺒﻞ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.(154‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﻮﻣﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ n‬ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺇﻻ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ؛ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ(‪،‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻛﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪ .‬ﻳﺨﺘﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ n‬ﻣﻦ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪.‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪153‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻣﻘﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬
‫ﻟﻘﻄﻊ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ‪،‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﻟﻴﻌﻜﺲ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﹰ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺳﻴﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﺇﺫﺍ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺗﻢ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺰﺭﻳﻦ )‪(133 0‬‬
‫• ﺗﻢ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫• ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﻔﺪﺓ‬
‫• ﺗﻢ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪154‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻨﺰﻉ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺴﺘﺒﺪﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺳﺮﺩﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )ﺑﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ( ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺄﻭﻝ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻟﻘﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ؛ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺃﻱ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﺴﺠﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ )ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺠﺎﻫﻞ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ(‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻴﺔ ﻛﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ )ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ( ﻟﻠﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﹰ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻭﺗﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺑﻨﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﻫﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪155‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻓﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻣﻀﺒﻮﻃﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺒﻘﹰ ﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ )‪ (E‬ﺃﻭ ‪ MUP‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ‪ .‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻂ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﺠﺮﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﺎﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﻴﻦ )‪.(276 0‬‬
‫ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻞ‪ .‬ﺭﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻞ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﻘﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻚ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺗﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﻭﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ )ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻞ(‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ G‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪156‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻮﺭﹰﺍ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻵﻥ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ .2‬ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻌﺪ ‪ 3‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ؛ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻞ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪.3‬‬
‫• ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺛﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪4‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﺎﺋﻖ ﺛﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪ 2‬ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻗﺎﺋﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺍﻧﻲ؛ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪3‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻓﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻡ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ .4‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﻗﺼﻴﺮﹰﺍ‬
‫ﺟ ﹰﺪﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﺟﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪) 4‬ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﻣﻀﺮﻭﺑﹰﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻓﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ(‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪157‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﻓﺎﺻﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ؛ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺟﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪ /‬ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺻﻞ‬
‫ﻓﺎﺻﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪158‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪) J‬ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺑﺪﺀ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .(J‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 3‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ .2‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﻓﻘﹰ ﺎ ﻟﻠﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺬ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻧﻈﺮﹰﺍ ﻷﻥ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻡ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ ﻵﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﺃﺣﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﹰ ﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻇﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ )ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ‪) B‬ﻓﺘﺢ( ﺃﻭ ‪) T‬ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ( ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ ﺃﻭ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺃﻗﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ(‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺗﺤﺬﻳﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺍﻣﺘﻼﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻣﺘﻼﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻈﻞ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ ﻧﺸﻂ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻜﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )‪ (161 0‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﺬﻑ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺑﻐﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻖ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪.(23 0) DK-26‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺟﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ‬
‫)‪ (44 0‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ )‪.(172 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺳﺘﻠﺘﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻛﻞ ﻓﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ ADL‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻠﺘﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻛﻞ ﻓﺎﺻﻞ‪ ،‬ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ‬
‫ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻠﺘﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻛﻞ ﻓﺎﺻﻞ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﻟﺠﻬﺎ ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪159‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻮﻣﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪Q‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺻﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﻗﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ‬
‫ﻓﺎﺻﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ‬
‫)ﺑﻤﺠﺮﺩ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﺳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‪ .‬ﺳﺘﻐﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻛﻞ ﻓﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ ﺑﻤﺪﺓ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ‬
‫ﺛﻮﺍﻧﻲ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﹰ‪.‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪160‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﻹﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻹﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ J‬ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫• ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺑﺪﺀ < ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺛﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪J‬‬
‫• ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺗﺸﻐﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ )ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻐﻠﻘﺔ(‬
‫• ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ )‪ (E‬ﺃﻭ ‪MUP‬‬
‫ﻻﺳﺘﻜﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪:‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.157‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺄﻧﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫‪ .J‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻹﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ‪،‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺃﻱ ﻟﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪161‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻣﻘﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻧﻔﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ ﺇﻧﻬﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﺪﺀ < ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ‬
‫• ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺰﺭﻳﻦ )‪(133 0‬‬
‫• ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻟﻤﺨﺰﻥ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﻣﺨﺰﻥ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )‪(236 0‬‬
‫• ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ )‪(136 0‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺘﺨﻄﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺛﻤﺎﻧﻲ‬
‫ﺛﻮﺍﻧﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ‪ :‬ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻣﺘﻼﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻄﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ‪) AF-S‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻛﻞ ﻟﻘﻄﺔ(‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻜﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪162‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪CPU‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ CPU‬ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ A‬ﻭ‬
‫‪ ،M‬ﻣﻊ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ .‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫)ﻃﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻗﺼﻮﻯ(‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ‬
‫‪ CPU‬ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ‪:‬‬
‫• ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ ﺍﻵﻟﻲ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ )‪(119 0‬‬
‫• ﻳﺘﻢ ﺳﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ )ﻣﻊ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﻧﺠﻤﺔ( ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ‪:‬‬
‫• ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫• ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ‪) AA‬ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ(‬
‫• ﻳﺘﻢ ﺳﺮﺩ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )ﻣﻊ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﻧﺠﻤﺔ( ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺑﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺣﺪ ﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪:‬‬
‫• ﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻣﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ )ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺑﻘﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪(Reflex-NIKKOR‬‬
‫• ﻳﺤﺴﻦ ﺩﻗﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻞﺀ ‪ i-TTL‬ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ‪ SLR‬ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪163‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪CPU‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺴﻊ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ .CPU‬ﻹﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪:CPU‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪.CPU‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ G‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪ CPU‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪164‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺭﻗﻢ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺭﻗﻢ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺭﻗﻢ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ 1‬ﻭ ‪.9‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻠﻠﻴﻤﺘﺮ( ﺃﻭ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻗﺼﻮﻯ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻗﻴﻢ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ 6‬ﻭ ‪ 4000‬ﻣﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ f/1.2‬ﻭ ‪.f/22‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﻗﺮﺏ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ ﺑﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ .CPU‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻃﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻛﺄﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻌﻜﺲ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺇﻗﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺇﻗﺮﺍﻥ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ ،2‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ AI‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻠﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ )ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪ AI‬ﻓﻘﻂ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﺂﻟﻴﺔ ‪AI‬؛ ‪.(167 0‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪165‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ .J‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﻳﻦ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﺳﺘﺪﻋﺎﺀ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪CPU‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺪﻋﺎﺀ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪ CPU‬ﺣﺴﺐ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﻋﻴﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺭﻗﻢ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ CPU‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﺯﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﱢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺪﺩ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺭﻗﻢ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪ CPU‬ﻛﺨﻴﺎﺭ "ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ‪ +‬ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ" ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) f4‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪ ،(263 0 ،Fn‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) f5‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‪،‬‬
‫‪ ،(266 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) f6‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻋﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.(267 0 ،‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻭﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻗﺼﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪166‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﺭﻗﻢ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪AI‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪) AI‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﺂﻟﻴﺎﺕ ‪.(AI‬‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺫﺭﺍﻉ ﺇﻗﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ؛ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﻹﺧﻔﺎﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﻁ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻠﻒ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺫﺭﺍﻉ ﺇﻗﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫❚❚ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ AI‬ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪AI‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ "ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪ "CPU‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﺰﻭﺩﺓ ﺑﺂﻟﻴﺔ ‪") AI‬ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ ("AI‬ﻭﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻟﻴﺔ )"ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪.("AI‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪AI‬‬
‫ﻧﺘﻮﺀ ﺇﻗﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪AI‬‬
‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻧﺘﻮﺀ ﺇﻗﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮ‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪ AI‬ﺣﺘﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺫﺭﺍﻉ ﺇﻗﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪320‬‬
‫ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪AI‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺨﻔﻴﺾ ﺫﺭﺍﻉ ﺇﻗﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪.AI‬‬
‫‪167‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪AI‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻧﻌﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺁﻟﻴﺔ ‪ AI‬ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪ .AI‬ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻲ‪ ،‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﹰﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪ AI‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻗﻤﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﺑﺘﻮﻓﻴﺮ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻬﺎ )‪.(164 0‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ )‪.(166 0‬‬
‫ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪ AI‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ‬
‫‪ < CPU‬ﺇﻗﺮﺍﻥ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﻮﻣﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ "‪ "F‬ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ‬
‫‪ f‬ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ A‬ﺃﻭ ‪.M‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ A‬ﺃﻭ ‪.M‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﻤﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪.4‬‬
‫‪168‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ‪ 4‬ﻭ ‪ 5‬ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪169‬‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻊ ‪ GPS‬ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ GP-1‬ﻭ ‪(325 0) GP-1A‬‬
‫ﺑﺘﻀﻤﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‪ :‬ﺧﻂ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﻭﺧﻂ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻻﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺴﻖ )‪ .(UTC‬ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ ﺿﻤﻦ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪.(188 0‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻊ ‪GPS‬‬
‫ﺃﻭﻗﻒ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ‪ GPS‬ﻓﻲ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ )‪ (325 0‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻊ ‪GPS‬‬
‫ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫• ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪ :‬ﻳﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻊ ‪.GPS‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪170‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺃﻱ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c2‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪251 0 ،‬؛ ﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺤﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻤﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺧﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ(‪ .‬ﻳﻘﻠﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻊ ‪.GPS‬‬
‫• ﻣﻮﺿﻊ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻊ ‪ ،GPS‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺧﻂ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﺧﻂ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﺴﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ )‪ (UTC‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺒﻴﻦ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ‪.GPS‬‬
‫• ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻌﻢ ﻟﻤﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬
‫ﺗﺒﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ‪.GPS‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺴﻖ )‪(UTC‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻊ ‪ GPS‬ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺴﻖ ‪UTC‬‬
‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪o‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪:o‬‬
‫• ‪)o‬ﺛﺎﺑﺖ(‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ .GPS‬ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ )‪.(194 0‬‬
‫• ‪)o‬ﻭﻣﻴﺾ(‪ :‬ﺗﺒﺤﺚ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻊ ‪ GPS‬ﻋﻦ ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﻣﻴﺾ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﻻ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺭﻣﺰ‪ :‬ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻼﻡ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻊ ‪ GPS‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺘﻴﻦ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ o‬ﻻ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ‪.‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪171‬‬
‫‪x‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻖ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ DK-26‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫)‪.(23 0‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.a‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺋﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﻟﻦ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪a‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.175‬‬
‫‪x‬‬
‫‪172‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﺘﻮﻣﺾ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﺃﺧﻀﺮ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺯﺭ ‪ A‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪/‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻀﻲﺀ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﺃﺧﻀﺮ؛ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻮﻣﺾ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﺃﺣﻤﺮ )ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﻣﻊ ﻭﻣﻴﺾ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺃﺣﻤﺮ؛ ﺗﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ(‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ A‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪/‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪(77 0‬؛ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪،M‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺑﻤﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ )‪.(43 0‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ a‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪x‬‬
‫‪173‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ )ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ M‬ﻓﻘﻂ(‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ ،M‬ﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪Pv‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻭﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ ISO‬ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪Pv‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺇﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺇﺗﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ؛ ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺩﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﺗﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﻭﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ )ﺑﻘﻊ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻜﺴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺿﺒﺎﺏ( ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺩﺍﻓﺌﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻠﺤﻮﻅ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻄﻞ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ )ﻗﺪ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ(‪:‬‬
‫• ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻄﺔ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ‬
‫• ﺗﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ ،a‬ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺒﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﺛﻢ ﺃﻋﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻭﻟﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪x‬‬
‫‪174‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ AF‬ﻭﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻳﺪﻭﻳﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.183‬‬
‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻓﺮﺩﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ :‬ﻟﻸﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﹸﻐﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫‪AF-S‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﺩﺍﺋﻢ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ :‬ﻟﻸﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪ AF-F‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﻳﹸﻐﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪ AF‬ﺛﻢ ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫‪x‬‬
‫‪175‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ .AF-S‬ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺗﻴﻠﻲ ﻛﻮﻧﻔﻴﺮﺗﺮ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺃﺑﻄﺄ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻭﻗﺪ‬
‫ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻈﻠﻤﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺃﺧﻀﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫• ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ﻣﻮﺍﺯﻳﺔ ﻟﺤﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ‬
‫• ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﻭﻣﺘﺒﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺑﺤﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻣﻮﺿﻌﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻻﻓﺘﺔ ﻧﻴﻮﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺃﺧﺮ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ‬
‫• ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﺿﻄﺮﺍﺑﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻮﺭﻳﺴﻨﺖ‪ ،‬ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺋﺒﻖ‪ ،‬ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺩﻳﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺑﻬﺔ‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﻣﺪ )ﻧﺠﻤﻲ( ﺃﻭ ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺺ ﺃﺧﺮ‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻳﺒﺪﻭ ﺃﺻﻐﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫• ﻳﺘﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺑﺄﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﺘﻈﻤﺔ ﻣﺘﻜﺮﺭﺓ )ﻣﺜﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻒ ﻧﻮﺍﻓﺬ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻧﺎﻃﺤﺔ ﺳﺤﺎﺏ(‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻣﺘﺤﺮﻙ‬
‫‪x‬‬
‫‪176‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻷﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ‪ :‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﻜﺸﻒ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻭﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﻩ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ؛ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺃﺻﻔﺮ ﻣﺰﺩﻭﺝ )ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ 35‬ﻭﺟﻬﺎ ﹰ ﺑﺤﺪ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﺮﻛﺰ‬
‫!‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻗﺮﺏ ﻫﺪﻑ؛ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ(‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ‬
‫ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ )ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ؛ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺑﻌﻴ ﹰﺪﺍ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ(‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﺨﺘﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻭﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻋﺮﻳﻀﺔ‪ :‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺣﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﹰﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺎﻇﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ‬
‫‪$‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻋﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻣﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ‬
‫‪%‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻫﺪﻑ‪ :‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫‪ .J‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺘﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﻋﺒﺮ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻹﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ‬
‫&‬
‫ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺗﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻐﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﺤﺠﻮﺑﺔ ﺑﺄﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺗﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﺟﺪﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ‬
‫ﺟﺪﺍ ﹰ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺎﺗﻤﺔ ﺟﺪﺍ ﹰ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻬﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ‪.‬‬
‫‪x‬‬
‫‪177‬‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪ AF‬ﺛﻢ ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪x‬‬
‫‪178‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪P‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺮﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ P‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ .‬ﻇﻠﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ‪ .‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬
‫‪Picture Control‬‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪P‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪.(55 0‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪.(58 0‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪.(100 0) Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻤﺔ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻈﻼﻝ )‪.(110 0‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪x‬‬
‫‪179‬‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫‪we‬‬
‫‪q‬‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ‬
‫‪x‬‬
‫‪180‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪ q‬ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻲ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ‪ 30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻗﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪184‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪w‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪175‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫‪e‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪177‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ r‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫)‪.(177 0‬‬
‫ﻳﺒﻴﻦ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺳﺘﺼﺒﺢ ﺑﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﺯﺍﺋﺪ ﺃﻭ ﻧﺎﻗﺺ ﻓﻲ ﻇﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ )ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ M‬ﻓﻘﻂ(‪.‬‬
‫‪172‬‬
‫‪43‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻇﻬﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺣﻮﺍﻑ ﻣﺴﻨﻨﺔ ﻭﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﻣﻠﻮﻧﺔ ﻭﺗﻤﻮﺝ‬
‫ﻭﺑﻘﻊ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﻣﻊ ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻣﻀﺔ ﻭﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﺘﻘﻄﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻤﺖ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻟﻮﻫﻠﺔ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺻﺎﻋﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻱ‬
‫ﺃﻓﻘﻴﺎ‬
‫ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺳﺎﻃﻊ ﺧﺎﻃﻒ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ .‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺤﺪﺙ ﺗﺸﻮﻩ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺗﺤﺮﻙ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﻁ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻣﺼﺎﺑﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻮﺭﻳﺴﻨﺖ ﻭﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺋﺒﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺩﻳﻮﻡ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ‬
‫)‪ ،(276 0‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﺗﺠﻨﺐ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻋﺪﻡ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺗﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﺃﻗﺮﺏ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺮﻭﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪x‬‬
‫‪181‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻹﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.R‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﺨﻔﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ 1 : 1‬ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‬
‫‪ 9 : 16‬ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺇﻃﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ 16‬ﺧﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺇﻃﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ 9‬ﺧﻼﻳﺎ‬
‫‪x‬‬
‫‪182‬‬
‫ﺃﻓﻖ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ )‪(282 0‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ )‪ ،(68 0‬ﺃﺩﺭ‬
‫ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‬
‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ × 15‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ .(T) X‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻣﺸﻬﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻈﻬﺮ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻄﻼﻉ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺭﻣﺎﺩﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﻷﻳﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻠﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ )ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻋﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻋﺮﻳﻀﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ(‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ (M) W‬ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(T) X‬‬
‫ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻄﻼﻉ‬
‫‪x‬‬
‫‪183‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺯﻟﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺑﻤﺪﺓ ‪ 30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ )‪180 0‬؛‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺪ ﺗﻨﺎﺯﻟﻲ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻳﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﻤﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺍﺏ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺣﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪—c4‬ﺗﺄﺧﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻧﻄﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ < ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ؛ ‪—253 0‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﻗﺒﻞ ‪ 5‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻻﻧﻄﻔﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ(‪ .‬ﺣﺴﺐ ﺃﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺑﻤﺠﺮﺩ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﻻ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺳﻴﻐﻠﻖ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪HDMI A‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻓﻴﺪﻳﻮ ‪ HDMI‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﺒﻘﻰ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻣﻀﺎﺀﺓ ﻭﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺪﻳﻮ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‬
‫ﻳﺪﻋﻢ ‪ ،HDMI-CEC‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ‪< HDMI‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ )‪ (223 0‬ﻗﺒﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﻧﻈﺮﹰﺍ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ J‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻱ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺯﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) f2‬ﺯﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻖ؛ ‪ .(261 0‬ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻌﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺎﺕ ‪ 276‬ﻭ ‪.93‬‬
‫‪x‬‬
‫‪184‬‬
‫‪I‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫‪ .K‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺃﺣﺪﺙ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪K‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪O‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪K‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(U) L‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(T) X‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(M) W‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪P‬‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪J‬‬
‫‪I‬‬
‫‪185‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ )‪.(188 0‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺬﻑ ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 196‬ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪(M) W‬‬
‫‪ (T) X‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 199‬ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪﻱ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ O‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﺤﺬﻑ‬
‫‪O‬‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ )‪.(203 0‬‬
‫ﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫‪(U) L‬‬
‫‪.(201 0) (U) L‬‬
‫ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﻐﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ K /‬ﻓﻮﺭﹰﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪I‬‬
‫‪186‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬
‫ﺗﻢ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪ 4 ،‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﻋﻜﺴﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪P‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ )‪.(287 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻃﻮﻟﻴﺎ‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ "ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻟﻴﺔ" )ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﻤﻮﺩﻱ( ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻃﻮﻟﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻃﻮﻟﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫)‪.(233 0‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )‪ ،(232 0‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻟﺤﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 4‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ )ﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﹰ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ(‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻳﺒﺪﺃ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﻤﺠﺮﺩ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺑﻌﺮﺽ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﻧﻈﺮﹰﺍ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻈﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻗﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺃﻱ‬
‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c4‬ﺗﺄﺧﺮ ﺍﻧﻄﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.(253 0 ،‬‬
‫‪I‬‬
‫‪187‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻘﻞ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ "ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ" ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﻣﺨﻄﻂ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻲ ‪ RGB‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻼﺕ ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻟـ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )‪ .(232 0‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻊ‬
‫‪ GPS‬ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ GP-1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ GP-1A‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪1/ 12‬‬
‫‪1/ 12‬‬
‫‪NIKON D f‬‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫‪50mm‬‬
‫‪F5. 6‬‬
‫‪1/ 125‬‬
‫‪0, 0‬‬
‫‪N OR‬‬
‫‪ORMAL‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬
‫‪4928x3280‬‬
‫‪100NC_DF‬‬
‫‪DSC_0001. JPG‬‬
‫‪15 / 10 / 2013 10: 02: 28‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‬
‫ﻻ ﺷﻲﺀ )ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ(‬
‫‪N OR‬‬
‫‪ORMAL‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬
‫‪4928x3280‬‬
‫‪100NC_DF‬‬
‫‪DSC_0001. JPG‬‬
‫‪15 / 10 / 2013 10: 02: 28‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ‬
‫‪:N‬‬
‫‘‪: 3 5º 3 5. 9 7 1‬‬
‫‪:E‬‬
‫‘‪: 1 3 9º 4 3. 6 9 6‬‬
‫‪: 3 5m‬‬
‫‪: 15 / 10 / 2013‬‬
‫‪: 01 : 15 : 00‬‬
‫‪100-1‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻼﺕ‬
‫‪I‬‬
‫‪188‬‬
‫ﻣﺨﻄﻂ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻲ ‪RGB‬‬
‫‪L ONG I T U D E‬‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ‬
‫‪: , 1 / 1 25 , F 5 . 6‬‬
‫‪: , 100‬‬
‫‪: 0. 0 , +1 / 6‬‬
‫‪: 5 0 mm‬‬
‫‪: 50‬‬
‫‪/ 1. 8‬‬
‫‪:S‬‬
‫‪:‬‬
‫‪:‬‬
‫‪:‬‬
‫‪100-1‬‬
‫‪L A T I T UD E‬‬
‫‪A L T I T UD E‬‬
‫) ‪T I M E (U T C‬‬
‫‪N I KON D f‬‬
‫‪M T R , S P D, A P .‬‬
‫‪E X P . MO D E , I S O‬‬
‫‪F O C A L L E NG T H‬‬
‫‪L ENS‬‬
‫‪A F / VR‬‬
‫‪F L ASH T YP E‬‬
‫‪S Y N C MO D E‬‬
‫‪,‬‬
‫‪N I KON D f‬‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫❚❚ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪12 3‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪1/ 12‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪N OR‬‬
‫‪ORMAL‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬
‫‪4928x3280‬‬
‫‪8 7‬‬
‫‪100NC_DF‬‬
‫‪DSC_0001. JPG‬‬
‫‪15 / 10 / 2013 10: 02: 28‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ‪201 ............................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪287 ..........................................‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ‪64 ............................. 2 ،1‬‬
‫ﺃﻗﻮﺍﺱ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪28 ..................................................... 1‬‬
‫ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻹﺟﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﻺﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪55 ...............................................‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪58 ..............................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪51 ........................................ 3‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ‪276 ،27 ..................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ‪276 ،27 .................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ‪237 .............................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‪239 ..........................................‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )‪.(232 0‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ‪ ،AF-S‬ﺗﺒﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ‪ AF-C‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 3‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺻﻔﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪.(51 0) DX‬‬
‫‪I‬‬
‫‪189‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻼﺕ‬
‫‪ 1‬ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪ 2‬ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ‪-‬ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ‪237 ........................2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪ 3‬ﺍﻟﻘﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﺗﺸﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻣﻀﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﻴﺌﺔ )ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﻔﺮﻁ( ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (M) W‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻼﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻋﺒﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(M) W‬‬
‫‪RGB‬‬
‫)ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻨﻮﺍﺕ(‬
‫‪R‬‬
‫)ﺃﺣﻤﺮ(‬
‫‪G‬‬
‫)ﺃﺧﻀﺮ(‬
‫‪ 2‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺻﻔﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪.(51 0) DX‬‬
‫‪I‬‬
‫‪190‬‬
‫‪B‬‬
‫)ﺃﺯﺭﻕ(‬
‫❚❚ ﻣﺨﻄﻂ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻲ ‪RGB‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ‪-‬ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ‪237 ........................2‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪81 ................................................‬‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪88 .....................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ‪84 .............‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‪90 .................................‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺨﻄﻂ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻲ )ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ‪ .(RGB‬ﻓﻲ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺒﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﻓﻘﻲ‬
‫ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺒﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻲ ﻋﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺨﻄﻂ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻲ )ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﻤﺮ(‬
‫ﻣﺨﻄﻂ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻲ )ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ(‬
‫ﻣﺨﻄﻂ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻲ )ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﻕ(‬
‫‪ 1‬ﺗﺸﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻣﻀﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﻴﺌﺔ )ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﻔﺮﻁ( ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (M) W‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻼﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻋﺒﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(M) W‬‬
‫‪RGB‬‬
‫)ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻨﻮﺍﺕ(‬
‫‪R‬‬
‫)ﺃﺣﻤﺮ(‬
‫‪G‬‬
‫)ﺃﺧﻀﺮ(‬
‫‪B‬‬
‫)ﺃﺯﺭﻕ(‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﻴﺌﺔ‬
‫‪ 2‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺻﻔﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪.(51 0) DX‬‬
‫‪I‬‬
‫‪191‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺯﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.(T) X‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﺍﺭ ‪ (T) X‬ﻭ‪ (M) W‬ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ ﻭﻣﺮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﻲ ﻟﻴﻌﺮﺽ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺀ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻮﻓﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻫﻲ ﻛﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﺮﺿﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺤﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺑﻤﺪﻯ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ‬
‫ﻋﺮﻳﺾ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺘﺴﺎﻭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻗﺎﺗﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻷﻳﺴﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻷﻳﻤﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻳﺒﺪﻝ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻷﻳﻤﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻳﺒﺪﻝ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻷﻳﺴﺮ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﺨﻄﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﻄﻲ‬
‫ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺐ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻭﺳﻂ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻄﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪I‬‬
‫‪192‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫‪: , 1 / 4 0 0 0 , F 2. 8‬‬
‫‪: , H i 0. 3,‬‬
‫‪: + 1. 3, + 5 / 6‬‬
‫‪: 5 0 mm‬‬
‫‪: 50‬‬
‫‪/ 1. 8‬‬
‫‪: S / VR -O n‬‬
‫‪: Op t i o n a l‬‬
‫‪: S L OW‬‬
‫‪: T T L -B L , + 1. 0‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫‪M T R , S P D, A P .‬‬
‫‪E X P . MO D E , I S O‬‬
‫‪F O C A L L E NG T H‬‬
‫‪L ENS‬‬
‫‪A F / VR‬‬
‫‪F L ASH T YP E‬‬
‫‪S Y N C MO D E‬‬
‫‪,‬‬
‫‪N I KON D f‬‬
‫‪100-1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫‪: AU T O 1 , 0 , 0‬‬
‫‪: s RGB‬‬
‫‪: S T ANDARD‬‬
‫‪:0‬‬
‫‪:3‬‬
‫‪:0‬‬
‫‪:0‬‬
‫‪:0‬‬
‫‪:0‬‬
‫‪100-1‬‬
‫‪W H I T E B A L AN C E‬‬
‫‪CO L OR S P A C E‬‬
‫‪P I C T UR E C T R L‬‬
‫‪Q U I C K AD J U S T‬‬
‫‪S HA R P E N I NG‬‬
‫‪C ON T R A S T‬‬
‫‪B R I GH T N E S S‬‬
‫‪S A T U R A T I ON‬‬
‫‪HU E‬‬
‫‪N I KON D f‬‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫‪17‬‬
‫‪18‬‬
‫‪19‬‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫‪21‬‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫‪17‬‬
‫‪18‬‬
‫‪19‬‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫‪21‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‪75 ...........................................................‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪42 ،39 ........................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪42 ،41 ..................................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪36 ..............................‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪70 .......................................... 1 ISO‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪79 .........................‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﻲ ‪250 ........ 2‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪322 ،163 ...................................‬‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪163 .........................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ‪68 ،59 .............................‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪) VR‬ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ( ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪116 ............................................. 4‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪125 ........................................... 4‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪258 ،121 ،118 .................... 4‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪128 ....................................... 4‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪51 ......................................... 5‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ‪-‬ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫‪237 ...................................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ‪81 ................................................‬‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ‪88 .....................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ‪84 .............‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‪90 ..................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪240 ...........................................‬‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪100 .................................... Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ ‪103 ............................................ 6‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻲ ﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬
‫‪108 .....................................7 Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ‪103 ......................................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺒﺎﻳﻦ‪103 ...........................................................‬‬
‫ﺳﻄﻮﻉ‪103 .......................................................‬‬
‫ﺻﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ‪103 ............................................. 8‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ ‪103 ..................................... 9‬‬
‫ﺗﺪﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ‪103 ............................................... 8‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ‪105 ،103 ............................................9‬‬
‫‪I‬‬
‫‪193‬‬
‫‪: H I I S O, N O R M‬‬
‫‪: N O R MA L‬‬
‫‪: A U T O, H I G H‬‬
‫‪: N O R MA L‬‬
‫‪: D - L I GH T I NG‬‬
‫‪NO I S E R E D U C .‬‬
‫‪A C T . D - L I GH T .‬‬
‫‪HD R‬‬
‫‪V I GN E T T E C T R L‬‬
‫‪R E T OU C H‬‬
‫‪: SPR I NG HAS COME .‬‬
‫‪COMMENT‬‬
‫‪WARM F I L T E R‬‬
‫‪C Y ANO T Y P E‬‬
‫‪TR I M‬‬
‫‪22‬‬
‫‪23‬‬
‫‪24‬‬
‫‪25‬‬
‫‪26‬‬
‫‪27‬‬
‫‪22‬‬
‫‪23‬‬
‫‪24‬‬
‫‪N I KON D f‬‬
‫‪100-1‬‬
‫‪25‬‬
‫‪26‬‬
‫‪27‬‬
‫‪: N I KON TARO‬‬
‫‪AR T I S T‬‬
‫‪: N I K ON‬‬
‫‪CO P Y R I GHT‬‬
‫‪28‬‬
‫‪29‬‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﻋﻨﺪ ‪ ISO‬ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻲ ‪242 ..........‬‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ‪242 .......................................................‬‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ‪110 ..................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ‬
‫‪112 ........................................................... HDR‬‬
‫ﺗﺨﻔﻴﻒ ‪112 ............................................HDR‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ ‪241 ...................‬‬
‫ﺳﺠﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪287 ..........................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪278 ......................................‬‬
‫‪ 28‬ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻮﺭ ‪279 ......................................... 10‬‬
‫‪ 29‬ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ‪279 .......................... 10‬‬
‫‪N I KON D f‬‬
‫‪100-1‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﺗﹸﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﺃﺣﻤﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﺗﹸﻌﺮﺽ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) b2‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ (250 0 ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﺻﻔﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻷﻱ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 3‬ﺗﹸﻌﺮﺽ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪) VR‬ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ 4‬ﻳﹸﻌﺮﺽ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ )‪.(116 0‬‬
‫‪ 5‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺻﻔﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪.(51 0) DX‬‬
‫‪ 6‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺸﺮﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 7‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﺤﺎﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 8‬ﻻ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﻊ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 9‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 10‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.279‬‬
‫‪I‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ‬
‫‪:N‬‬
‫‘‪: 3 5º 3 5. 9 7 1‬‬
‫‪:E‬‬
‫‘‪: 1 3 9º 4 3. 6 9 6‬‬
‫‪: 3 5m‬‬
‫‪: 15 / 10 / 2013‬‬
‫‪: 01 : 15 : 00‬‬
‫‪100-1‬‬
‫‪194‬‬
‫‪L A T I T UD E‬‬
‫‪L ONG I T U D E‬‬
‫‪A L T I T UD E‬‬
‫) ‪T I M E (U T C‬‬
‫‪N I KON D f‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺧﻂ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺧﻂ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺴﻖ )‪(UTC‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻧﻈﺮﺓ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ‬
‫‪18‬‬
‫‪19‬‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪13 14 15 16 17‬‬
‫‪50mm‬‬
‫‪1/ 4000 F2. 8‬‬
‫‪Hi 0. 3‬‬
‫‪+ 1. 0‬‬
‫‪SLOW‬‬
‫‪N‬‬
‫‪0, 0‬‬
‫‪22 21‬‬
‫‪24 23‬‬
‫‪–1. 3‬‬
‫‪23‬‬
‫‪NIKON D f‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪27‬‬
‫‪26‬‬
‫‪25‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪50mm‬‬
‫‪1/ 4000 F2. 8‬‬
‫‪Hi 0. 3‬‬
‫‪+ 1. 0‬‬
‫‪SLOW‬‬
‫‪N‬‬
‫‪0, 0‬‬
‫‪NOR‬‬
‫‪ORMAL‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬
‫‪4928x3280‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻹﺟﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ‪201............................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪287..........................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺗﹸﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪.(192 0‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪55 ................................................‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪58 ..............................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪51 .........................................1‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ ‪239..........................................‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪276 ،27 ...................................‬‬
‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪276 ،27 ..................................‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ‪237.............................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‪75 ...........................................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪36 ..............................‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1/ 12‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫‪17‬‬
‫‪18‬‬
‫‪19‬‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫‪21‬‬
‫‪22‬‬
‫‪23‬‬
‫‪24‬‬
‫‪25‬‬
‫‪26‬‬
‫‪27‬‬
‫‪–1. 3‬‬
‫‪100NC _ DF‬‬
‫‪DSC_0001. JPG‬‬
‫‪15/ 10/ 2013 10: 02: 28‬‬
‫‪10 9 8‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪42 ،39 ........................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪42 ،41 ..................................................‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪70 .......................................... 2 ISO‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪322 ،163 ...................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ ‪170................................‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪278..........................‬‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‪110...................................‬‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪100...................................... Picture Control‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪240............................................‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪125............................................ 3‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪81 ................................................‬‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪88 .....................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ‪84 .............‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ‪90 .................................‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪128....................................... 3‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪79 .........................‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪ DX‬ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺻﻔﺮ )‪.(51 0‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﺗﹸﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﺃﺣﻤﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 3‬ﺗﹸﻌﺮﺽ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ )‪.(116 0‬‬
‫‪I‬‬
‫‪195‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ "ﻋﺮﺽ ﻧﻤﺎﺫﺝ" ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺴﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ‪ 72‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫‪.(M) W‬‬
‫‪(M) W‬‬
‫‪(M) W‬‬
‫‪(T) X‬‬
‫‪(T) X‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫‪(M) W‬‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺃﻗﻞ‬
‫‪(T) X‬‬
‫ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫‪I‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻈﻠﻠﺔ‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫ﺣﺬﻑ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻈﻠﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻈﻠﻠﺔ‬
‫‪O‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (M) W‬ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (T) X‬ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺻﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺯﻭﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )‪ ،(199 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ )‪ ،(203 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ‬
‫)‪.(201 0‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 203‬ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 201‬ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﻐﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫‪K/‬‬
‫ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻮﺭﹰﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪196‬‬
‫‪(U) L‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﻳﻢ‬
‫‪P‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ )‪.(287 0‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﻳﻢ‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻣﺤﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (M) W‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ‪ 72‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪(M) W‬‬
‫‪(M) W‬‬
‫‪(T) X‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫‪ (T) X‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﻳﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ‪/‬ﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻈﻠﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (M) W‬ﺃﻭ ‪ J‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪(M) W‬‬
‫‪J/(M) W‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺮﺽ ‪ 72‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ • (T) X‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (T) X‬ﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪ :‬ﻳﻈﻠﻞ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﻳﻈﻠﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺗﻮﺍﺭﻳﺦ‪/‬ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ‬
‫‪O‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻈﻠﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪ :‬ﺣﺬﻑ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻣﺤﺪﺩ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ‬
‫)‪.(203 0‬‬
‫‪ (U) L‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 201‬ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪I‬‬
‫‪197‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﻐﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫‪K/‬‬
‫ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻮﺭﹰﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪I‬‬
‫‪198‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫‪P‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ )‪.(287 0‬‬
‫ﺇﻟﻘﺎﺀ ﻧﻈﺮﺓ ﻣﻘﺮﺑﺔ‪ :‬ﺯﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺃﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (T) X‬ﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ (T) X‬ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫‪ /(T) X‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺣﺪ ‪ × 30‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫)ﺻﻮﺭ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪× 36‬‬
‫‪(M) W‬‬
‫‪ ،(2 : 3/24‬ﺃﻭ ‪) × 23‬ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ( ﺃﻭ ‪) × 15‬ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ(‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪(M) W‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ‪ .‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻘﻞ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻄﻼﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ؛ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺽ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺑﺈﻃﺎﺭ ﺃﺻﻔﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﻩ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﻩ )ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫‪ (35‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻓﻬﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﺈﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﻴﻀﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻄﻼﻉ‪ .‬ﺃﺩﺭ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﻩ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫‪I‬‬
‫‪199‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ‬
‫‪ (U) L‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 201‬ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪I‬‬
‫‪200‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫‪ K /‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﻐﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻮﺭﹰﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪P‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫)‪.(287 0‬‬
‫ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﻭﻡ ﻭﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻳﻢ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(U) L‬‬
‫ﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺄ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ O‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻤﻴﺔ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺣﺬﻓﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ )‪.(272 ،22 0‬‬
‫ﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪:‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺃﻭ ﻇﻠﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﻳﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﻳﻢ‬
‫‪I‬‬
‫‪201‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.(U) L‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ .P‬ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺣﺬﻓﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻇﻠﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.(U) L‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(U) L‬‬
‫‪I‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﺍﺭ ‪ (U) L‬ﻭ‪ O‬ﻣﻌﺎ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺘﻴﻦ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫‪202‬‬
‫ﺣﺬﻑ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ .O‬ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻣﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻣﺤﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺬﻑ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺣﺬﻓﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻔﻴﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺣﺬﻓﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‪ ،‬ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﻳﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ O‬ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻇﻠﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﻳﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.O‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪O‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﻳﻢ )ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ(‬
‫‪I‬‬
‫‪203‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ O‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ .O‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ‬
‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.K‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪O‬‬
‫‪I‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﻳﻢ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﻳﻢ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻣﺤﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺭﻳﺦ ﺛﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪.(197 0) O‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﻧﻈﺮﹰﺍ ﹰ‬
‫ﻳﺤﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻡ ﻻ )‪.(233 0‬‬
‫‪204‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺬﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻹﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ Q‬ﻣﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫‪ n‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫‪ R‬ﺍﻟﻜﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻳﺤﺬﻑ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻣﺤﺪﺩ )‪.(206 0‬‬
‫ﻳﺤﺬﻑ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻳﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻟﻠﻌﺮﺽ )‪.(230 0‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻣﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪ :‬ﺣﺬﻑ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻣﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺣﺬﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ G‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫ﺣﺬﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ .‬ﻇﻠﻞ‬
‫ﻣﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫‪.(T) X‬‬
‫‪I‬‬
‫‪205‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (M) W‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ .O‬ﻛﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ‪ 2‬ﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ؛ ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.(M) W‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(M) W‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻹﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ؛ ﻇﻠﻞ ﻧﻌﻢ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪ :‬ﺣﺬﻑ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻣﺤﺪﺩ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪I‬‬
‫‪206‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺭﻳﺦ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.(M) W‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﻠﺘﻤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪(T) X‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻞﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪(M) W‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(M) W‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ .M‬ﻛﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ‬
‫‪ 2‬ﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻮﺍﺭﻳﺦ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ؛ ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻠﻪ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻹﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ؛ ﻇﻠﻞ ﻧﻌﻢ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫‪I‬‬
‫‪207‬‬
‫‪Q‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ViewNX 2‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻖ‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﻧﺴﺨﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﻚ‪ .‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ ،ViewNX 2‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﻚ ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺑﻪ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺭﺟﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ .210‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺪﺙ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﻦ ‪ ،ViewNX 2‬ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺡ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﺰﻳﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪،xvii‬‬
‫ﻧﻈﺮﹰﺍ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻹﺻﺪﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ‪ Df‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﺨﻔﻖ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ViewNX 2TM‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺑﺪﺃ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺜﺒﻴﺖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺑﺪﺃ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺹ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻀﻐﻮﻁ ﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ‪ ،ViewNX 2‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﺑﺪﺃ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺜﺒﻴﺖ‪.‬‬
‫‪Q‬‬
‫‪208‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻟﻐﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ q‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ )ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ(‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻘﺮ‬
‫‪ w‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻟﻐﺔ‬
‫‪) Region Selection‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ( ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ‬
‫‪ e‬ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔ )ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪) Next‬ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ(‬
‫ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺻﺪﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺑﻴﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺑﺪﺃ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺜﺒﻴﺖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ‪) Install‬ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ( ﻭﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺜﺒﻴﺖ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ‬
‫‪ ،ViewNX 2‬ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ‪) Installation Guide‬ﺩﻟﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺜﺒﻴﺖ( ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪.3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ‪) Install‬ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ(‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺜﺒﻴﺖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ‪Windows‬‬
‫‪Mac OS‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ‪) Yes‬ﻧﻌﻢ(‬
‫ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ‪) OK‬ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻖ(‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺤﺮﻙ ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‪.‬‬
‫‪Q‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ‪Windows‬‬
‫ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺭﺓ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﻭﻳﺐ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ ،ViewNX 2‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪) All Programs‬ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﻣﺞ( <‬
‫‪) Link to Nikon‬ﺭﺍﺑﻂ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ( ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ‪) Windows‬ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ‬
‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺇﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ(‪.‬‬
‫‪209‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‬
‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ‪Windows‬‬
‫‪Mac OS‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ Intel Core :‬ﺃﻭ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ‬
‫‪Xeon‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ Intel Celeron :‬ﺃﻭ ‪ Pentium 4‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ‪ ،Core‬ﺑﺘﺮﺩﺩ ‪ 1.6‬ﺟﻴﺠﺎﻫﺮﺗﺰ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ • ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ )ﻋﺮﺽ(‪ :‬ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺞ ‪Core Duo‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﺟﻴﺠﺎﻫﺮﺗﺰ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ؛ ﻳﻮﺻﻰ‬
‫• ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ )ﻋﺮﺽ(‪ 3.0 :‬ﺟﻴﺠﺎﻫﺮﺗﺰ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ‬
‫ﺑﻤﻌﺎﻟﺞ ‪ Intel Core i5‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ‬
‫‪Pentium D‬؛ ﻳﻮﺻﻰ ﺑﻤﻌﺎﻟﺞ ‪ Intel Core i5‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺑﺤﺠﻢ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺑﺤﺠﻢ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ‪1280‬‬
‫‪CPU‬‬
‫‪ 720 × 1280‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫× ‪ 720‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ‪ 30‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ‪ 30‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻓﻼﻡ‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻓﻼﻡ ﺑﺤﺠﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺤﺠﻢ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ‪ 1080 × 1920‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬
‫ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ‪ 1080 × 1920‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬
‫• ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ )ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ(‪ :‬ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺞ ‪ Intel Core i5‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫• ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ )ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ(‪ :‬ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺞ ‪Intel‬‬
‫ﺃﻓﻀﻞ‬
‫‪ Core i5‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ‬
‫ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﺜﺒﺘﺔ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﹰ ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ‪Windows 8‬‬
‫ﻭ‪ Windows 7‬ﻭ‪ Windows Vista‬ﻭ‪Windows XP‬؛ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ‪ OS X 10.8‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫‪Mac OS X 10.6 ،10.7‬‬
‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺩﻋﻢ ﺍﻹﺻﺪﺍﺭﺍﺕ ‪ 64‬ﺑﺖ ﻣﻦ‬
‫‪Windows XP‬‬
‫• ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ‪ Windows 8‬ﺃﻭ ‪ Windows 7‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪ Windows Vista‬ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭﺍﺕ ‪ 32‬ﺑﺖ‪ 1 :‬ﺟﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ • ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ‪ OS X 10.8‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫‪ 2 :10.7‬ﺟﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ )ﻳﻮﺻﻲ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ )ﻳﻮﺻﻲ ﺑﺘﻮﻓﻴﺮ ‪ 2‬ﺟﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ(‬
‫)ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ • ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ‪ Windows 8‬ﺃﻭ ‪ Windows 7‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺑﺘﻮﻓﻴﺮ ‪ 4‬ﺟﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺸﻮﺍﺋﻲ‬
‫‪ Windows Vista‬ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭﺍﺕ ‪ 64‬ﺑﺖ‪ 2 :‬ﺟﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ • ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ‪Mac OS X‬‬
‫‪(RAM‬‬
‫‪ 1 :10.6‬ﺟﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ )ﻳﻮﺻﻲ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ )ﻳﻮﺻﻲ ﺑﺘﻮﻓﻴﺮ ‪ 4‬ﺟﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ(‬
‫ﺑﺘﻮﻓﻴﺮ ‪ 4‬ﺟﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ(‬
‫• ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ‪ 512 :Windows XP‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬
‫)ﻳﻮﺻﻲ ﺑﺘﻮﻓﻴﺮ ‪ 2‬ﺟﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ(‬
‫‪Q‬‬
‫‪210‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺹ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺗﻮﻓﻴﺮ ‪ 1‬ﺟﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﻳﻮﺻﻲ ﺑﺘﻮﻓﻴﺮ ‪3‬‬
‫ﺟﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ‬
‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺡ‪768 × 1024 :‬‬
‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺡ‪ 768 × 1024 :‬ﺑﻜﺴﻞ )‪ (XGA‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﻜﺴﻞ )‪ (XGA‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ )ﻳﻮﺻﻰ ﺑـ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫‪ 1024 × 1280‬ﺑﻜﺴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ(‬
‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ )ﻳﻮﺻﻰ ﺑـ ‪ 1024 × 1280‬ﺑﻜﺴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ‪ :‬ﻟﻮﻥ ‪-24‬ﺑﺖ )ﻣﻼﻳﻴﻦ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ(‬
‫ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ‪ :‬ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ‪-24‬ﺑﺖ )ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ( ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻭﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ xvii‬ﻟﻼﻃﻼﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺣﺪﺙ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻋﻮﻣﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ViewNX 2‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻚ ﻗﻤﺖ ﺑﺘﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﻄﻮﺍﻧﺔ ‪ViewNX 2‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻘﺔ )‪.(208 0‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ‪ USB‬ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ :‬ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ‪ USB‬ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻖ ﻭﺷﻐﱢﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬
‫ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﻘﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻚ‪ ،‬ﺍﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺗﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﻭﻣﻮﺻﻞ‬
‫ﻃﺎﻗﺔ )ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻞ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﺤﺎﻭﺭ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ‪USB‬‬
‫ﻭﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ؛ ﻻ ﺗﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﺤﻮﺭ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ‪ USB‬ﺃﻭ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪ :SD‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ ﻣﺰﻭﺩﹰﺍ ﺑﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪ ،SD‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻗﺎﺭﺉ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪ :SD‬ﻭﺻﻞ ﻗﺎﺭﺉ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ )ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﻴﻊ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ(‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ ﻭﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪Q‬‬
‫‪211‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺑﺪﺃ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻣﻜﻮﻥ ‪ Nikon Transfer 2‬ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪.ViewNX 2‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﻨﻚ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪.Nikon Transfer 2‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ‪Windows 7‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪ Nikon Transfer 2‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﺗﺤﺖ ‪Import pictures and videos‬‬
‫)ﺍﺳﺘﻴﺮﺍﺩ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻭﻓﻴﺪﻳﻮ(‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ‬
‫‪) Change program‬ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ؛‬
‫‪Import file using Nikon Transfer 2‬‬
‫)ﺍﺳﺘﻴﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫‪ (Nikon Transfer 2‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ‬
‫‪) OK‬ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻖ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻧﻘﺮﹰﺍ ﻣﺰﺩﻭ ﹰﺟﺎ ﻓﻮﻕ ‪Import file‬‬
‫)ﺍﺳﺘﻴﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ( ‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ‪) Start Transfer‬ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻧﺴﺦ‬
‫ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‪.‬‬
‫‪) Start Transfer‬ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ(‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪Q‬‬
‫‪212‬‬
‫ﺍﻓﺼﻞ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‪ ،‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﻓﺼﻞ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ‪.USB‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺗﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻗﺎﺭﺉ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ ﻹﺧﺮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﻟﻠﻨﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﺃﺯﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺭﺉ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ ViewNX 2‬ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻛﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ ViewNX 2‬ﻳﺪﻭﻳﹰﺎ‬
‫• ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ‪ :Windows‬ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻧﻘﺮﹰﺍ ﻣﺰﺩﻭ ﹰﺟﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ ViewNX 2‬ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺳﻄﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺐ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ‪ :Mac OS‬ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬
‫‪ ViewNX 2‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺐ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻘﺺ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﻣﻬﺎﻡ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪) Edit‬ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ( ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ‬
‫ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ‪.ViewNX 2‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪) Print‬ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ( ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ‪.ViewNX 2‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﻟﻚ ﺑﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻃﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻣﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪.ViewNX 2‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺑﻼﺕ‬
‫ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻐﻠﻘﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻚ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺑﻼﺕ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻒ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺤﺎﻭﻝ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺻﻼﺕ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﻣﻴﻞ‪ .‬ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺻﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪Q‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻐﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻔﺼﻞ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ‪ USB‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪213‬‬
‫ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ JPEG‬ﻣﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻃﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ‪(362 0) PictBridge‬‬
‫ﻣﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ‪ USB‬ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻖ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺻﻞ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ‪.USB‬‬
‫ﺷﻐﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻭﻭﺻﻞ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ‪ USB‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻒ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺤﺎﻭﻝ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺻﻼﺕ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﻣﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻣﺤﺎﻭﺭ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ‪USB‬‬
‫ﻭﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ؛ ﻻ ﺗﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻙ ‪ USB‬ﺃﻭ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﻣﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺷﻐﱢﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺮﺣﻴﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺘﺒﻮﻋﺔ ﺑﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ‪.PictBridge‬‬
‫‪Q‬‬
‫‪214‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ‪ USB‬ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺗﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻟﻴﺘﻢ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ‪ USB‬ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪sRGB‬‬
‫)‪.(240 0‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﺑﺈﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺃﻭ )‪(55 0) TIFF (RGB‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻧﺴﺦ ‪ JPEG‬ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ )‪NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ )‪.(300 0‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﻧﻈﺮﹰﺍ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 351‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﺗﻔﻌﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﺧﻄﺄ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺗﻠﻮ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫‪ (T) X‬ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ )‪199 0‬؛ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪ K‬ﻹﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ(‪ .‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺳﺖ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫‪ .(M) W‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﻠﺘﻤﺮﻳﺮ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪(T) X‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ‪.PictBridge‬‬
‫‪Q‬‬
‫‪215‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﻋ ﹼﺪﻝ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻼﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ )ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺃﺣﺠﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺪﻋﻤﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ( ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻠﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ )ﻟﻠﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﻟﻠﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﺒﺪﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ )ﺣﺪ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ‪ ،(99‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻼﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺪﻋﻤﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﺒﺪﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ )ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ( ﺃﻭ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺑﺤﺪﻭﺩ )ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻭﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ( ﺃﻭ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻼﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺧﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺺ‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪Q‬‬
‫‪216‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﺒﺪﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ )ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ( ﺃﻭ ﺧﺘﻢ ﻭﻗﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ )ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺃﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﻭﺗﻮﺍﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ( ﺃﻭ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺧﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻼﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺪﻋﻤﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺹ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻗﺺ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .J‬ﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﻳﻘﺘﺺ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﺺ؛ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ (T) X‬ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺺ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪(M) W‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ‪ .‬ﺣﺪﺩ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺺ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ .J‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺻﺔ‬
‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺠﻢ ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻺﻟﻐﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ‪.PictBridge‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ G‬ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ‪) PictBridge‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ 3‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.(214‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫• ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻟﻠﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪ :‬ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻣﺤﺪﺩ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ )‪ :(DPOF‬ﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻩ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻣﺮ‬
‫ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ‪ DPOF‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )‪ .(219 0‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪.3‬‬
‫• ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻓﻬﺮﺱ‪ :‬ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻓﻬﺮﺱ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ (55 0) JPEG‬ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ .4‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪ 256‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﺘﻢ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺃﻭﻝ ‪ 256‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫‪Q‬‬
‫‪217‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺧﺘﺮﺕ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫)‪ (DPOF‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ ،2‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﻠﺘﻤﺮﻳﺮ ﻋﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻞﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.(T) X‬‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ :3 1 + (M) W‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (M) W‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫‪ .1‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪Z‬‬
‫ﻭﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺒﻮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ .1‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻮﺍﺻﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ‬
‫‪ ،(M) W‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟ ﹸﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺒﻮﻋﺔ )ﺣﺘﻰ ‪99‬؛ ﻭﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 3‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ :(T) X‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻞﺀ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺒﻮﻋﺔ ‪ .(1‬ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺩ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻙ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ ،2‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺭﻳﺦ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻠﺘﺒﺪﻳﻞ‬
‫ﺑﻴﻦ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ :(T) X‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻠﻪ‪ .‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻣﻞﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.(M) W‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﻠﺘﻤﺮﻳﺮ ﺧﻼﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ (T) X‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻞﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ (M) W‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ‬
‫ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ :(M) W‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‬
‫‪Q‬‬
‫‪218‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ‪.PictBridge‬‬
‫ﻋ ﹼﺪﻝ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪) 216‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺗﺤﺬﻳﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﹰﺍ ﺟ ﹰﺪﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻓﻬﺮﺱ(‪.‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻺﻟﻐﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ‪ :DPOF‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ‪ DPOF‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ "ﺃﻭﺍﻣﺮ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ" ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻄﺎﺑﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ‪ PictBridge‬ﻭﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ‪.DPOF‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺒﻨﺪ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ‪ DPOF‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ G‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﻣﺮ‬
‫ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ‪ DPOF‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪2‬‬
‫)ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻞ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪Q‬‬
‫‪219‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﻠﺘﻤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻞﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.(T) X‬‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ (M) W‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ .1‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ Z‬ﻭﺳﻮﻑ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺒﻮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ .1‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻮﺍﺻﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ ،(M) W‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪ :3 1 + (M) W‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟ ﹸﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺒﻮﻋﺔ )ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫‪99‬؛ ﻭﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 3‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺒﻮﻋﺔ ‪ .(1‬ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺩ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ :(T) X‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻞﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪Q‬‬
‫‪220‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺑﺼﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ )ﻹﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺧﻄﻮﺓ ‪.(5‬‬
‫• ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ :‬ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪ :‬ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻛﻤﻞ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻹﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺃﻣﺮ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ‪DPOF‬‬
‫ﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ ‪ ،PictBridge‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ )‪ (DPOF‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ‪ PictBridge‬ﻭﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ "ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺻﻮﺭ" ﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻭﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫)‪ .(217 0‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺩﻋﻢ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ‪ DPOF‬ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺑﺎﺗﺼﺎﻝ ‪USB‬‬
‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ؛ ﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ‪PictBridge‬‬
‫ﺧﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ‪ DPOF‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ )‪ (55 0‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻧﺴﺦ‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ )‪.(300 0‬‬
‫‪Q‬‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺃﻭﺍﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ‬
‫ﺁﺧﺮ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪221‬‬
‫ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ‪ HDMI‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ C‬ﺑﻄﺮﻑ ﺻﻐﻴﺮ )ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ( ﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺄﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻓﻴﺪﻳﻮ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ﹰ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻓﺼﻞ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ‪.HDMI‬‬
‫ﻭﺻﻞ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ‪ HDMI‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺻﻞ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺡ )ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺮﻑ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫‪(HDMI‬‬
‫ﻭﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ‪.HDMI‬‬
‫ﺷﻐﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.K‬‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪K‬‬
‫‪Q‬‬
‫‪ HDMI A‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺷﺎﺷﺎﺕ ‪ HDMI‬ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ‪ HDMI‬ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ )‪.(172 0‬‬
‫‪222‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ‪HDMI‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ‪ HDMI‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ )‪ (271 0‬ﻓﻲ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻭﺿﻮﺡ ﺍﻟﺨﺮﺝ ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﻟﺘﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ‪-HDMI‬‬
‫‪) CEC‬ﻭﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻂ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺡ‪-‬ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺼﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ‪ HDMI‬ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﻬﺎ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻭﺿﻮﺡ ﺍﻟﺨﺮﺝ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺨﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ‪ .HDMI‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ‪ < HDMI‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺗﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ ﻳﺪﻋﻢ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ‪ HDMI-CEC‬ﻭﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻛﻼ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻋﻨﺪﺋﺬ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺑﺪﻻ ﹰ ﻣﻦ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ J‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﺢ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ‪HDMI-CEC‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺠﻬﺎﺯ ‪ ،HDMI-CEC‬ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ) ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻋﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻴﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻳﻮﺻﻰ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﻭﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ )ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺤﻮ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻞ( ﻟﻠﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺘﺪ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ ﺑﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻣﻞﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺇﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ )‪ .(188 0‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺗﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪Q‬‬
‫‪223‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺑﺎﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺑﺰﺭﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.133‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﺒﺪﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫‪NC_DF‬‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )‪(230 0‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪(232 0‬‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ )‪(233 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻃﻮﻟﻴﺎ )‪(233 0‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﺢ )‪(234 0‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﺻﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺘﺎﻥ‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ )‪(239 0‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪(55 0‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪(58 0‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪(52 0‬‬
‫ﻗﺺ ‪ DX‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪(52 0‬‬
‫ﺿﻐﻂ ‪(57 0) JPEG‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ )‪(57 0) NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‬
‫ﻋﻤﻖ ﺑﺖ )‪NEF (RAW‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪224‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﺒﺪﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫‪DSC‬‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫‪1.0x (36×24) FX‬‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻧﻬﺎ‬
‫‪ 14‬ﺑﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ )‪(81 0‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ )‪(84 0‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ )‪(88 0‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ )‪(90 0‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪(100 0) Picture Control‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ )‪(240 0‬‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ )‪(110 0‬‬
‫‪) HDR‬ﻣﺪﻯ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪(113 0) HDR‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ )‪(114 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ )‪(114 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ )‪(241 0‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ )‪(241 0‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ ‪(242 0) NR‬‬
‫‪ ISO NR‬ﻋﺎﻝ )‪(242 0‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪(72 0‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ )‪(149 0‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ )‪(151 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪(152 0‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ )‪(156 0‬‬
‫ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﺒﺪﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ < ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫‪0 :G-M ،0 :A-B‬‬
‫‪K 5000‬‬
‫‪d-1‬‬
‫ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬
‫‪sRGB‬‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫‪ 1‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺨﺰﻥ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )‪ .(236 0‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻭ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﺘﻢ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺨﺰﻥ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﻳﻨﻄﺒﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﺯﻥ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 3‬ﻳﻨﻄﺒﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﺯﻥ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻵﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﻭﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ ،1‬ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﺪﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‪ .‬ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪225‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫‪a1‬‬
‫‪a2‬‬
‫‪a3‬‬
‫‪a4‬‬
‫‪a5‬‬
‫‪a6‬‬
‫‪a7‬‬
‫‪b1‬‬
‫‪b2‬‬
‫‪c1‬‬
‫‪c2‬‬
‫‪c3‬‬
‫‪c4‬‬
‫‪d1‬‬
‫‪d2‬‬
‫‪d3‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪226‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ‪(246 0) AF-C‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ‪(246 0) AF-S‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻘﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻔﻞ )‪(247 0‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪(247 0‬‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪(248 0‬‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫ﺇﺣﺎﻃﺔ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪(249 0‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪(249 0‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ )‪(250 0‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ )‪(250 0‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺑﻘﻌﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﻟﺰﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ )‪(251 0‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ )‪(251 0‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ )‪(252 0‬‬
‫ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺗﺄﺧﺮ ﺍﻧﻄﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ )‪(253 0‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺕ ﺻﻔﻴﺮ )‪(253 0‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ )‪(253 0‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ‪(254 0) ISO‬‬
‫*‬
‫ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﺒﺪﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪) 3‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ(‬
‫ﻏﺎﻟﻖ‪/‬ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻻ ﺇﺣﺎﻃﺔ‬
‫‪ 39‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫‪ 12 ø‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫‪ 6‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ‬
‫‪ 10‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪ 0.5‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ 10‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ‬
‫‪ 1‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬
‫‪ 10‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ‬
‫‪ 4‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ‬
‫‪ 10‬ﺩﻗﺎﺋﻖ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ d4‬ﺗﻠﻤﻴﺤﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ )‪(254 0‬‬
‫‪ d5‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻮﺿﻊ ‪(254 0) CL‬‬
‫‪ d6‬ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ )‪(254 0‬‬
‫‪ d7‬ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ )‪(255 0‬‬
‫‪ d8‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ )‪(256 0‬‬
‫‪ d9‬ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ‪(256 0) LCD‬‬
‫‪ d10‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ )‪(256 0‬‬
‫‪ e1‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ )‪(257 0‬‬
‫‪ e2‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ )‪(258 0‬‬
‫‪ e3‬ﻓﻼﺵ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ )‪(258 0‬‬
‫‪ e4‬ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻔﻼﺵ )‪(259 0‬‬
‫‪ e5‬ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ )‪(259 0‬‬
‫‪ e6‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪(259 0‬‬
‫‪ e7‬ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪(260 0) (M‬‬
‫‪ e8‬ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ )‪(260 0‬‬
‫‪ f1‬ﺭﺯ ‪(261 0) D‬‬
‫‪ f2‬ﺯﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻖ )‪(261 0‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫‪ f3‬ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ )‪(262 0‬‬
‫‪ f4‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪(263 0) Fn‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ‪ +‬ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫‪ f5‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ )‪(266 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ‪ +‬ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫‪ f6‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻋﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪(267 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ‪ +‬ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﺒﺪﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫‪ 3‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫‪ 1/200‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ 1/60‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫‪TTL‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﻓﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ‪/‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫‪ < MTR‬ﺗﺤﺖ < ﻓﻮﻕ‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ‪(D) LCD‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻱ‬
‫ﺷﻐﻞ‪/‬ﺃﻭﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻱ‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻔﻌﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ‬
‫ﻻ ﺷﻲﺀ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‬
‫ﻻ ﺷﻲﺀ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻻ ﺷﻲﺀ‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪227‬‬
‫‪f7‬‬
‫‪f8‬‬
‫‪f9‬‬
‫‪f10‬‬
‫‪f11‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ )‪(267 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺴﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺹ )‪(269 0‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺗﻔﺮﻳﻎ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )‪(269 0‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻋﻜﺴﻴﺔ )‪(269 0‬‬
‫ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺳﻠﺲ ﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ )‪(270 0‬‬
‫ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﺒﺪﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻻ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﻻ‬
‫ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫* ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺨﺰﻥ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺨﺰﻥ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ )‪.(245 0‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ )‪(273 0‬‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ )‪(273 0‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪(329 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﺪﺀ‪/‬ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ )‪(276 0‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻔﻲ )‪(276 0‬‬
‫ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ )‪(277 0‬‬
‫‪(223 0) HDMI‬‬
‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻭﺿﻮﺡ ﺍﻟﺨﺮﺝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ )‪(170 0‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪ Fn‬ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪ )‪(284 0‬‬
‫ﻣﻬﺎﻳﺊ ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻲ ﻣﺤﻤﻮﻝ )‪(284 0‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ‪(285 0) Eye-Fi‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪228‬‬
‫ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﺒﺪﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﺪﺀ ﻭﻭﻗﻒ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ‬
‫ﻧﻌﻢ‬
‫ﻧﻔﺲ ﺯﺭ ‪ Fn‬ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ‬
‫‪ D‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪:‬‬
‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ G‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻮﻳﺐ ‪) D‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺣﺬﻑ‬
‫ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺇﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪205‬‬
‫‪230‬‬
‫‪230‬‬
‫‪232‬‬
‫‪232‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻃﻮﻟﻴﺎ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﺢ‬
‫ﺃﻣﺮ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ‪DPOF‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪233‬‬
‫‪233‬‬
‫‪234‬‬
‫‪219‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﻧﻈﺮﹰﺍ ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 224‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪229‬‬
‫ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﻟﻠﻌﺮﺽ )‪:(185 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪NC_DF‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻞ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﺍﺯ ‪ Df‬ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪﺍﺕ ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺇﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻔﻴﺔ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺇﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺣﺬﻓﻬﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺇﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﻮﺍﺭﻳﺦ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻹﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻗﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .2‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪L‬؛ ﻹﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻣﺤﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪ .2‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻹﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺨﻔﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺤﻤﻴﺔ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪230‬‬
‫ﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﻹﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﻠﺘﻤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ )ﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻣﻞﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫)‪(M‬‬
‫‪ ((T) X‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪W‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(M) W‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪R‬؛ ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ (M) W‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺩ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻹﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪231‬‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )‪ .(188 0‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪L‬‬
‫ﺑﺠﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ؛ ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .2‬ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ‬
‫ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.K‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪232‬‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺬﻭﻓﺔ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪،‬‬
‫‪ S‬ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺬﻭﻓﺔ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪T‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻳﺘﻨﻘﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪،‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪ U‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻛﺎﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻳﺘﻨﻘﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﻋﻜﺴﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻃﻮﻟﻴﺎ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ "ﻃﻮﻟﻴﺎ" )ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﻤﻮﺩﻱ( ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺃﻧﻪ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻀﺒﻮﻁ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ "ﻃﻮﻟﻴﺎ" )ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﻤﻮﺩﻱ(‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ )‪(277 0‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ "ﻋﺮﺿﻲ" )ﻭﺿﻊ ﺃﻓﻘﻲ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ "ﻃﻮﻟﻴﺎ" )ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﻤﻮﺩﻱ( ﺑﺸﻜﻞ "ﻋﺮﺿﻲ" )ﻭﺿﻊ ﺃﻓﻘﻲ(‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪233‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﺢ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻳﻨﺸﺊ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺷﺮﺍﺋﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ )‪ .(230 0‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻔﻴﺔ )‪.(230 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﺪﺀ‬
‫ﻓﺎﺻﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺪﺓ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻛﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﺢ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ .J‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺣﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﺢ ﻗﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫ﺗﺨﻄﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪/‬ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﻟﻠﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪ 2 ،‬ﻟﻠﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ‪/‬ﺍﺳﺘﻜﻤﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ )‪.(188 0‬‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫ﻟﻺﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﻜﻤﺎﻝ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﺢ‪.‬‬
‫‪G‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫‪K‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﺢ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺧﺮﻭﺝ ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪234‬‬
‫‪ C‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪:‬‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ G‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻮﻳﺐ ‪) C‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻣﺨﺰﻥ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺿﻐﻂ ‪JPEG‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ )‪NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪236‬‬
‫‪237‬‬
‫‪239‬‬
‫‪55‬‬
‫‪58‬‬
‫‪51‬‬
‫‪57‬‬
‫‪57‬‬
‫‪81‬‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫‪106‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬
‫‪) HDR‬ﻣﺪﻯ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ(‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪240‬‬
‫‪110‬‬
‫‪112‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ‬
‫‪241‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ‬
‫‪241‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ ‪NR‬‬
‫‪ ISO NR‬ﻋﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪242‬‬
‫‪242‬‬
‫‪70‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬
‫‪149‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‬
‫‪156‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﻧﻈﺮﹰﺍ ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 224‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪235‬‬
‫ﻣﺨﺰﻥ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ C‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﺯﻥ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ‪ .‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪) Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ(‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﺯﻥ ﻻ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﺯﻥ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﻔﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺷﺎﺋﻌﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﺩ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﺯﻥ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪ .‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺰﻥ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﺩﺗﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺰﻥ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻟﻴﻔﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺳﺮﻳﻌﺎ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﺯﻥ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺪﻳﻞ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻟﻴﻔﺎﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﻔﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺰﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﺯﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﺳﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺨﺎﺯﻥ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻫﻲ ‪ A‬ﻭ‪ B‬ﻭ‪ C‬ﻭ ‪ .D‬ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺻﻔﻴﺔ ﺑﻄﻮﻝ ‪ 20‬ﺣﺮﻓﹰﺎ ﻛﺤﺪ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 107‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﺨﺰﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.2‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﺨﺰﻥ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﺨﺰﻥ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﺯﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﺨﺰﻥ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .O‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺣﻮﺍﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪﻱ؛ ﻇﻠﻞ ﻧﻌﻢ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺨﺰﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 224‬ﻟﻼﻃﻼﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪236‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪O‬‬
‫ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ C‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻗﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻗﻢ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺭﻗﻢ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺭﻗﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺑﻨﻔﺲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ W‬ﺃﻭ ‪ X‬ﺃﻭ ‪ Y‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺴﺎﺭ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ‪:‬‬
‫• ‪ : W‬ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﻓﺎﺭﻍ‪.‬‬
‫• ‪ : X‬ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﻣﻤﺘﻠﺊ ﺟﺰﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ‪.‬‬
‫• ‪ : Y‬ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 999‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺮﻗﻢ ‪ .9999‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺻﺮ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﺧﺮﺝ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻹﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ .(G‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻤﺘﻠﺊ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪237‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ‪ 999‬ﻭﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 999‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺮﻗﻢ ‪ ،9999‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺯﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﻻﺳﺘﻜﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺸﺄ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺑﺮﻗﻢ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ‬
‫‪ ،999‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺑﺮﻗﻢ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪ 999‬ﻭﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪ 999‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﺗﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﻃﻮﻝ ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﺩ‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ ﺟﺪﺍ ﹰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺠﻠﺪﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪238‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ C‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺄﺳﻤﺎﺀ ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺩﺋﺔ "_‪ "DSC‬ﺃﻭ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ‪ ،"DSC_" Adobe RGB‬ﻳﺘﺒﻌﻬﺎ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻣﺘﺪﺍﺩ ﻣﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﺣﺮﻑ‬
‫)ﻣﺜﻞ‪ .("DSC_0001.JPG" ،‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﺣﺮﻑ ﺑﺪﻻ ﹰ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺣﺮﻑ "‪ "DSC‬ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‪ .‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺃﺳﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.107‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻻﻣﺘﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ".NEF" :‬ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ )‪ ،NEF (RAW‬ﻭ"‪ ".TIF‬ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ‬
‫)‪ TIFF (RGB‬ﻭ"‪ ".JPG‬ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ JPEG،‬ﻭ"‪ ".NDF‬ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻌﻜﺲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﺯﻭﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﺈﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪ ،NEF (RAW)+JPEG‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ NEF‬ﻭ ‪ JPEG‬ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻷﺳﻤﺎﺀ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻣﺘﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪239‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ C‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺪﺩ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪ sRGB‬ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺘﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ "ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ‪ "،‬ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ‪ Adobe RGB‬ﺑﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻭﻳﻮﺻﻰ ﺑﻪ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﺘﻌﺎﻟﺞ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺤﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻧﺴﺨﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺪﺩ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻤﺜﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ‪ sRGB‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﻭﺍﺳﻊ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ‪Adobe RGB‬‬
‫ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻧﻤﻮﺫﺟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻮﺻﻰ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ‪ sRGB‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ‪ ،ExifPrint‬ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺰﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻛﺸﺎﻙ ﺃﻭ ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ Adobe RGB‬ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺸﺮﻗﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺨﻀﻊ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ JPEG‬ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ‪ Adobe RGB‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭ ‪DCF‬؛‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺳﺘﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ‪ DCF‬ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻻ ﻳﺪﻋﻢ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ ،DCF‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻀﻤﻴﻦ ﻣﻠﻒ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ‪ ICC‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ‪ TIFF‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺑﻤﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﻟﻮﻥ ‪ ،Adobe RGB‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﻟﻠﺘﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺗﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺗﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻨﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻳﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ‪) ViewNX 2‬ﻣﺮﻓﻖ( ﻭ ‪) Capture NX 2‬ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ( ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪240‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ C‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫"ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺭﻛﺎﻥ" ﻫﻮ ﺍﻧﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﻮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﻘﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺭﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G‬ﻭ‪ E‬ﻭ ‪) D‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ‬
‫‪ DX‬ﻭ ‪ .(PC‬ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍﺗﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻭﺿﻮﺣﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﻭ ﻋﺎﺩﻱ ﻭ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﻭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ TIFF‬ﻭ‪JPEG‬‬
‫ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ )ﺿﺒﺎﺏ( ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻄﻲ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺪﺓ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﻫﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﺤﻘﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻂ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺗﺠﺮﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﺎﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻨﻄﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ )‪ (149 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪.(52 0) DX‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ C‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻣﻴﻠﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﻋﺮﻳﻀﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺩﻱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ )ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻗﺺ ﺣﻮﺍﻑ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻡ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ(‪ .‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺘﺎ ﹰﺣﺎ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G‬ﻭ‪ E‬ﻭ‪) D‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ ،PC‬ﻭﻋﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ(؛ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻀﻤﻮﻧﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ‬
‫‪ ،DX‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﺺ ‪ DX‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻗﺪﺭﻫﺎ‬
‫‪(52 0) 1.5× (24×16) DX‬؛ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺻﺔ ﺑﺸﺪﺓ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺗﺸﻮﻩ ﻣﺤﻴﻄﻲ ﺣﺎﺩ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪ :‬ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻣﻴﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.305‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪241‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ ‪) NR‬ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ(‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ C‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺃﺑﻄﺄ ﻣﻦ ‪1‬‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ )ﺑﻘﻊ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻜﺴﻼﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺿﺒﺎﺏ(‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻡ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﻳﺘﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ؛ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻮﻣﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ "‪ "l m‬ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻭﻻ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ )ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺇﻧﻬﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ(‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺒﻄﺊ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﺳﺘﻘﻞ ﺳﻌﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ ISO NR‬ﻋﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ C‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮﻫﺎ ﺑﺤﺴﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ ‪ ISO‬ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫"ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻋﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻳﻘﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ )ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻜﺴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ﺃﻭ ﺿﺒﺎﺏ(‪،‬‬
‫ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮﻫﺎ ﺑﺤﺴﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ ‪ ISO‬ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪242‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻊ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﺒﺪﺃ ﻣﻦ ‪ ISO 3200‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬﻩ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻨﻔﺬ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ‪ ISO NR‬ﻋﺎﻝ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ G‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻮﻳﺐ ‪) A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻟﺘﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻜﻲ ﺗﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻀﻴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺨﺰﻥ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ )‪(245 0‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪243‬‬
‫ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﻣﺨﺰﻥ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪245‬‬
‫‪ a‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪a1‬‬
‫‪a2‬‬
‫‪a3‬‬
‫‪a4‬‬
‫‪a5‬‬
‫‪a6‬‬
‫‪a7‬‬
‫‪b‬‬
‫‪b1‬‬
‫‪b2‬‬
‫‪c‬‬
‫‪c1‬‬
‫‪c2‬‬
‫‪c3‬‬
‫‪c4‬‬
‫‪d‬‬
‫‪d1‬‬
‫‪d2‬‬
‫‪d3‬‬
‫‪d4‬‬
‫‪d5‬‬
‫‪d6‬‬
‫‪d7‬‬
‫‪d8‬‬
‫‪d9‬‬
‫‪d10‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪244‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ‪AF-C‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ‪AF-S‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻘﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻔﻞ‬
‫ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺇﺣﺎﻃﺔ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪246‬‬
‫‪246‬‬
‫‪247‬‬
‫‪247‬‬
‫‪248‬‬
‫‪249‬‬
‫‪249‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‪/‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫‪250‬‬
‫‪250‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﻗﺘﺎﺕ‪/‬ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﻟﺰﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺄﺧﺮ ﺍﻧﻄﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫‪251‬‬
‫‪251‬‬
‫‪252‬‬
‫‪253‬‬
‫ﺻﻮﺕ ﺻﻔﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻤﻴﺤﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻮﺿﻊ ‪CL‬‬
‫ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬
‫ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ‪LCD‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫‪253‬‬
‫‪253‬‬
‫‪254‬‬
‫‪254‬‬
‫‪254‬‬
‫‪254‬‬
‫‪255‬‬
‫‪256‬‬
‫‪256‬‬
‫‪256‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫‪ e‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫‪e1‬‬
‫‪e2‬‬
‫‪e3‬‬
‫‪e4‬‬
‫‪e5‬‬
‫‪e6‬‬
‫‪e7‬‬
‫‪e8‬‬
‫‪f‬‬
‫‪f1‬‬
‫‪f2‬‬
‫‪f3‬‬
‫‪f4‬‬
‫‪f5‬‬
‫‪f6‬‬
‫‪f7‬‬
‫‪f8‬‬
‫‪f9‬‬
‫‪f10‬‬
‫‪f11‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪(M‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ‬
‫‪257‬‬
‫‪258‬‬
‫‪258‬‬
‫‪259‬‬
‫‪259‬‬
‫‪259‬‬
‫‪260‬‬
‫‪260‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪D‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻖ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪Fn‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻋﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺹ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺗﻔﺮﻳﻎ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻋﻜﺴﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺳﻠﺲ ﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫‪261‬‬
‫‪261‬‬
‫‪262‬‬
‫‪263‬‬
‫‪266‬‬
‫‪267‬‬
‫‪267‬‬
‫‪269‬‬
‫‪269‬‬
‫‪269‬‬
‫‪270‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺨﺰﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ )‪ ،(226 0‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﻧﺠﻤﺔ ﺑﺠﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺨﺰﻥ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﺯﻥ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺣﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﺯﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﻔﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺷﺎﺋﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‪،‬‬
‫ﺣﺪﺩ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﺯﻥ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪ .‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺰﻥ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﺩﺗﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺰﻥ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻟﻴﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺳﺮﻳﻌﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻟﻴﻔﺎﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﻔﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﺯﻥ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺪﻳﻞ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺰﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﺯﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﺳﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺨﺎﺯﻥ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻫﻲ ‪ A‬ﻭ‪ B‬ﻭ‪ C‬ﻭ ‪ .D‬ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺻﻔﻴﺔ ﺑﻄﻮﻝ ‪ 20‬ﺣﺮﻓﹰﺎ ﻛﺤﺪ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 107‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﺨﺰﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.2‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﺯﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﺨﺰﻥ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .O‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ‬
‫ﺣﻮﺍﺭﻱ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪﻱ؛ ﻇﻠﻞ ﻧﻌﻢ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪J‬‬
‫ﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺨﺰﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ )‪.(226 0‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪O‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﺨﺰﻥ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﺨﺰﻥ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪245‬‬
‫‪ :a‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪ :a1‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ‪AF-C‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪ AF-C‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ )‪ ،(59 0‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻳﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫)ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ( ﺃﻡ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻘﻂ )ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ G‬ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫‪ F‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪.(I‬‬
‫ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ‪ ،‬ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪AF-C‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﺳﺘﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫‪ :a2‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ‪AF-S‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪ AF-S‬ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ )‪ ،(59 0‬ﻳﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻀﺒﻮﻃﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ )ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ( ﺃﻡ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ )ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ G‬ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫‪ F‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪.(I‬‬
‫ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪ (I‬ﻣﻌﺮﻭﺽ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪ AF-S‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪246‬‬
‫‪ :a3‬ﺗﻌﻘﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻔﻞ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﻭﻓﻘﹰ ﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﺟﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪ AF-C‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ )‪.(59 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪) 5 C‬ﻃﻮﻳﻞ(‬
‫) ‪4‬‬
‫‪) 3 D‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ(‬
‫( ‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻣﻔﺎﺟﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﻨﺘﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪﻫﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻨﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺣﺠﺒﺖ ﺃﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﺗﻤﺮ ﻋﺒﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻠﻬﺪﻑ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻭﺟﻴﺰﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪) 1 E‬ﻗﺼﻴﺮ(‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺗﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻮﺭ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺑﻤﻌﺪﻝ‬
‫ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻠﻲ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‪.‬‬
‫‪ :a4‬ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ‪/‬ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻛﻼ ﻣﻦ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺯﺭ‬
‫‪ B‬ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪247‬‬
‫‪ :a5‬ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺃﻡ ﻻ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﻤﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﺗﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺣﺴﺐ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺼﻌﺐ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻈﻠﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺺ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﺭﻣﺎﺩﻱ )‪.(52 0‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪248‬‬
‫‪ :a6‬ﺇﺣﺎﻃﺔ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ "ﻳﺤﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺣﺔ" ﻣﻦ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺣﺎﻓﺘﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺇﺣﺎﻃﺔ‬
‫ﻻ ﺇﺣﺎﻃﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ "ﻳﺤﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺣﺔ"‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺔ‪،‬‬
‫‪w‬‬
‫‪q‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺑﺤﻴﺚ‪،‬‬
‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 2‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻳﻤﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﻈﻠﻠﺔ )‪ (q‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺎﺛﻠﺔ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ )‪.(w‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﺓ ﺑﺄﺑﻌﺪ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 2‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻨﻰ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ :a7‬ﻋﺪﺩ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫‪ 39 #‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ 39‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 11 A‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ 11‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﻪ ﻟﻼﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﻊ ﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪249‬‬
‫‪ :b‬ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‪/‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫‪ :b1‬ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺗﺨﺼﺺ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﻗﻄﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ )‪ (‬ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 8‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 12‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 15‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 20‬ﻣﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ‪ 12‬ﻣﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪ ،CPU‬ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪ CPU‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ )‪.(163 0‬‬
‫‪ :b2‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻯ ﻣﻦ ‪ +1‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ EV –1‬ﻋﺒﺮ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺗﺰﺍﻳﺪﻳﺔ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎ ‪.EV 1/6‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻞ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﺨﺰﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺨﺎﺯﻥ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺰﺭﻳﻦ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻃﺎﻟﻤﺎ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺭﻣﺰ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ )‪ ،(E‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪﺓ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﻫﺎ‬
‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻓﺤﺺ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ‪ .‬ﻳﻔﻀﻞ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫)‪ (79 0‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪250‬‬
‫‪ :c‬ﻣﺆﻗﺘﺎﺕ‪/‬ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪ :c1‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﻟﺰﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻘﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪.‬‬
‫‪ :c2‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺃﻱ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺷﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺃﻗﺼﺮ ﻟﺘﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪251‬‬
‫‪ :c3‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫)‪.(48 0‬‬
‫• ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 1‬ﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪.1‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪252‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫‪ :c4‬ﺗﺄﺧﺮ ﺍﻧﻄﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻈﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻗﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺃﻱ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )ﻋﺮﺽ؛ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ‪ 10‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ( ﻭﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ )ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ؛ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫‪ 4‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ(‪ ،‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ )ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ؛ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ‪1‬‬
‫ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ( ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ )ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ؛ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ‪10‬‬
‫ﺛﻮﺍﻥ(‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ )ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ؛ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ‪ 10‬ﺩﻗﺎﺋﻖ(‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺃﻗﺼﺮ ﻟﺘﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﺍﻧﻄﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻋﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ :d‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫‪ :d1‬ﺻﻮﺕ ﺻﻔﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺼﺪﺭ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻓﺮﺩﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫)‪AF-S‬؛ ‪ ،(59 0‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺯﻟﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ )‪ ،(48 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺣﺎﻭﻟﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ )‪.(22 0‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺻﻔﻴﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‪ .‬ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ‪ c‬ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺧﻼﻑ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺼﺪﺭ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺻﻔﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﻫﺎﺩﺉ )ﻭﺿﻊ ‪J‬؛ ‪،(46 0‬‬
‫ﺑﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ‪.‬‬
‫‪ :d2‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﻛﻤﺮﺟﻊ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ )‪.(9 0‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪253‬‬
‫‪ :d3‬ﻋﺮﺽ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺑﺪﻻ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ :d4‬ﺗﻠﻤﻴﺤﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺗﻠﻤﻴﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻟﻠﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ )‪.(14 0‬‬
‫‪ :d5‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻮﺿﻊ ‪CL‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪) CL‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ( )‪46 0‬؛ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﻳﺤﺪﺩ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻺﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ :d6‬ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺑﻀﻐﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﻱ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ 1‬ﻭ ‪.100‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪ ،d6‬ﺳﻴﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺃﺑﻄﺄ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻣﺘﻼﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ )‪ .(tAA‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 364‬ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪254‬‬
‫‪ :d7‬ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺗﺴﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ ﺑﺈﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺭﻗﻢ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‬
‫ﻟﺮﻗﻢ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻣﻠﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻗﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ ﻳﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺭﻗﻢ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ‬
‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻳﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺗﺮﻗﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺭﻗﻢ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﺭﻗﻢ ﻣﻠﻒ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﺃﻳﻬﻤﺎ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺣﺘﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺗﺤﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ ‪ ،9999‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﺳﻴﺒﺪﺃ ﺗﺮﻗﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻱ ﻣﻦ ‪.0001‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﺮﻗﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﺪ ‪ 0001‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺣﺘﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 999‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﺈﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺭﻗﻢ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﺭﻗﻢ ﻣﻠﻒ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﻓﺎﺭﻍ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﺮﻗﻴﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪.0001‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ‪ 999‬ﻭﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 999‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺮﻗﻢ ‪ ،9999‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪d7‬‬
‫)ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ( ﺛﻢ ﻫﻴﺊ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪255‬‬
‫‪ :d8‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪ ،(v‬ﺳﻴﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻂ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ )‪ (11 0‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﺑﻴﺾ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺑﻴﺾ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺩ ﻟﻠﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻧﻔﺲ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻂ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﻌﺘﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ )‪w‬؛ ﺧﻂ ﺃﺳﻮﺩ(‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻣﻀﻲﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻋﺘﺎﻡ )‪x‬؛ ﺧﻂ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ(‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﻣﻊ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺘﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ‬
‫‪ :d9‬ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ‪LCD‬‬
‫ﻣﻀﻲﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻋﺘﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻀﻲﺀ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ )ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ‪ (LCD‬ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺎﺡ ‪ .D‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﻀﻲﺀ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ )‪5 0‬؛ ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺑﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ‪،‬‬
‫ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﻨﻄﻔﺊ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ(‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻤﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ :d10‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻗﻞ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻮﻳﺶ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺘﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ ﻟﺘﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺘﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺛﻮﺍﻧﻲ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪256‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫‪ :e‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫‪ :e1‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ 1/250‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ )‪ FP‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ(‬
‫‪ 1/200‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ )‪ FP‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ(‬
‫‪ 1/200‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ 1/60-‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ‪ FP‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ )‪ .(119 0‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪،‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 1/250‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ‪ 1/250‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ P‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ،A‬ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ‪ FP‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﺳﺮﻉ ﻣﻦ ‪ 1/250‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ‪ FP‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ )‪ .(119 0‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪،‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 1/200‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ‪ 1/200‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ P‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ،A‬ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ‪ FP‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﺳﺮﻉ ﻣﻦ ‪ 1/200‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻣﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﺪ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﺪ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ S‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ،M‬ﻗﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ .X‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ‪X‬‬
‫)ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ( ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ‪ FP‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺗﺪﻋﻤﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺠﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻖ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺎﻝ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺑﺈﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻊ‪ .‬ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ "‪ "FP‬ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ‪ PF‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ )‪.(123 0‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪257‬‬
‫‪ :e2‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺤﺪﺩ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﺑﻄﺄ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺳﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﻣﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ P‬ﺃﻭ ‪) A‬ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ 30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ S‬ﻭ‪ M‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ ﺳﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ(‪ .‬ﺗﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ‪ 1/60‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ )‪ 1/60‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ(‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ 30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ )‪ 30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ :e3‬ﻓﻼﺵ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ SB-400‬ﺃﻭ ‪.SB-300‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪TTL 1‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻃﺒﻘﺎ ﹰ ﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )‪.(124 0‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫)‪.(123 ،11 0‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪258‬‬
‫‪ :e4‬ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺗﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ EY‬ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫‪E‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻛﻼ ﹰ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻭﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫‪ :e5‬ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻋﻲ ‪ Creative Lighting System‬ﻣﻦ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ )‪ ،(118 0‬ﺳﻴﻀﻲﺀ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ Pv‬ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )‪ .(41 0‬ﻟﻦ ﻳﻀﻲﺀ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‪.‬‬
‫‪ :e6‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺤﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪.(136 0‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﻓﻼﺵ )‪ (j‬ﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ )‪ (k‬ﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻘﻂ )‪ (l‬ﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ (m) WB‬ﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ )‪ ،(141 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ (y) ADL‬ﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ )‪ .(145 0‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺃﻭ ‪.NEF (RAW) + JPEG‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪259‬‬
‫‪ :e7‬ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪(M‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺤﺪﺩ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﻓﻼﺵ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪ e6‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ F‬ﻓﻼﺵ‪/‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ )ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪ e6‬ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ( ﺃﻭ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫)ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪ e6‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﻓﻼﺵ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ‪/‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‪/‬‬
‫‪G‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪ e6‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ( ﺃﻭ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ )ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪ e6‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﻓﻼﺵ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ H‬ﻓﻼﺵ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪ e6‬ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ( ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ )ﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪ e6‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﻓﻼﺵ(‪.‬‬
‫‪I‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻘﻂ )ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫‪ e6‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﻓﻼﺵ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ i-TTL‬ﺃﻭ ‪ .AA‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺧﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻭﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺃﻭﻝ‬
‫ﻟﻘﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪.(72 0) ISO‬‬
‫‪ :e8‬ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ‪ < MTR‬ﺗﺤﺖ < ﻓﻮﻕ )‪ ،(H‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻭﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺘﻲ ‪ 137‬ﻭ ‪ .141‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺤﺖ < ‪MTR‬‬
‫< ﻓﻮﻕ )‪ ،(I‬ﺗﺘﻢ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻠﻰ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‪ .‬ﻟﻴﺲ‬
‫ﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺃﻱ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪.ADL‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪260‬‬
‫‪ :f‬ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫‪ :f1‬ﺯﺭ ‪D‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻠﻌﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ :D‬ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ )‪ D‬ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪/‬ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ‪ ((D) LCD‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ )ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪/‬ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ‪ DRD‬ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ :f2‬ﺯﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻖ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺤﺪﺩ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﻟﻠﺰﺭ ‪ J‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻱ‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫‪ K‬ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪J‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺷﻲﺀ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫‪Q‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺷﻐﻞ‪/‬ﺃﻭﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ‬
‫‪R‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺨﻄﻄﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫‪S‬‬
‫‪T‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪J‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﺈﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻣﺨﻄﻂ )‪ (192 0‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ ﻭﺯﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺮ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻓﺎﺋﻖ‪ .‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﺮﺗﻜﺰ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪/‬ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺸﻄﺔ )ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ( ﺃﻭ ﺗﺮﺗﻜﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ )ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪261‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻱ‬
‫‪S‬‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪/‬ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪J‬‬
‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ J‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ J‬ﻟﻠﺘﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺮ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻓﺎﺋﻖ‪ .‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﻄﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ J‬ﺃﻱ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ :f3‬ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻋﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻣﻬﻠﺔ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ )‪ (33 0‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﻨﺸﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻻ ﺗﻔﻌﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪262‬‬
‫‪ :f4‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪Fn‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻪ ﺯﺭ ‪ ،Fn‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻪ )ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ( ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﻔﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ )ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ‪+‬‬
‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ(‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ q‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ Fn‬ﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﻤﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻝ )‪.(41 0‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ Fn‬ﻟﻘﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ )ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻋﻮﻣﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ .(118 0 ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫‪FV‬‬
‫‪.(130 0) FV‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.Fn‬‬
‫‪B‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫‪C‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.Fn‬‬
‫ﻳﻘﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ ،Fn‬ﻭﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﻣﻘﻔﻼ ﹰ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ )ﻉ ﺽ‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ‬
‫‪D‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ(‬
‫ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫‪E‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ(‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪F‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪ s‬ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﻄﻔﺄ‬
‫ﻳﻘﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ ،Fn‬ﻭﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﻣﻘﻔﻼ ﹰ‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.Fn‬‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.Fn‬‬
‫ﻟﻦ ﻳﻀﻲﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.Fn‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪263‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ t‬ﺗﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫‪+ NEF (RAW) e‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ Fn‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ ADL‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺻﺎﻣﺖ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻧﺸﻄﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫)ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ CH‬ﺃﻭ ‪ (CL‬ﺳﺘﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺗﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ JPEG‬ﺟﻴﺪ ﺃﻭ ‪ JPEG‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ "‪ "RAW‬ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﻌﺪﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪) Fn‬ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻧﺴﺦ ‪ NEF/RAW‬ﻣﻊ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﺑﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﹰ ﺎ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ(‪ .‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ )‪ ،NEF (RAW‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪Fn‬‬
‫ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫‪ L‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.Fn‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬
‫‪M‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.Fn‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺑﻘﻌﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻌﻴﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.Fn‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪m‬‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪264‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ Fn‬ﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ )‪.(9 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺃﻓﻖ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ Fn‬ﻹﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺃﻓﻖ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ )‪.(265 0‬‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ ،Fn‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ "ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ" )‪.(313 0‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ Fn‬ﻟﻼﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻓﻲ "ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‪ ".‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺑﻠﻮﻍ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺑﻨﺪ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺑﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺑﻜﺜﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ K‬ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻻ ﺷﻲﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﻳﻨﻔﺬ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ Fn‬ﻧﻔﺲ ﻭﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ .K‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮﻩ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ )ﺗﻴﻠﻴﻔﻮﺗﻮ( ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺼﻌﺐ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ K‬ﺑﻴﺪﻙ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺤﺪﺙ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻌﺬﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﻔﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ‪ +‬ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺃﻱ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻣﺨﺼﺺ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ‪ +‬ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻻ ﺷﻲﺀ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﻓﻖ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﻟﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻓﻖ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﻟﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) f4‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪ < (Fn‬ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ‬
‫ﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ Fn‬ﻳﺤﻮﻝ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻴﺴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﹰ ﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﻣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺣﺎﺩﺓ ﻟﻸﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻠﺨﻠﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻓﻖ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ )‪.(282 0‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪265‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ‪ +‬ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ‪ +‬ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪w‬‬
‫‪y‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪V‬‬
‫‪W‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ ،Fn‬ﻭﺃﺩﺭ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪.(51 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺭﻗﻢ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ Fn‬ﻭﺃﺩﺭ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺭﻗﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪.(163 0) CPU‬‬
‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪CPU‬‬
‫ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ ،Fn‬ﻭﺃﺩﺭ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫‪D-Lighting‬‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ )‪.(110 0‬‬
‫ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻮﺍﺻﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ ،Fn‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫‪) HDR‬ﻣﺪﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ ،HDR‬ﻭﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ(‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ )‪.(112 0‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ ،Fn‬ﻭﺃﺩﺭ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪.(72 0‬‬
‫‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬
‫ﻻ ﺷﻲﺀ‬
‫‪ :f5‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ ،Fn‬ﻭﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ؛ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ Fn‬ﻭﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ )‪.(149 0‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺃﻱ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪.Fn‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻪ ﺯﺭ ‪،Pv‬‬
‫ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻪ )ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ( ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﻔﺔ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ )ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ‪ +‬ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ(‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪.(263 0) Fn‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ‪+‬‬
‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻫﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﻟﻲ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ )‪ (41 0‬ﻭﻻ ﺷﻲﺀ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪266‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫‪ :f6‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻋﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻪ ﺯﺭ ‪ A‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪/‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻪ‬
‫)ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ( ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﻔﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ )ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ‪ +‬ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ(‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻫﻲ‬
‫ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪ ،(263 0) Fn‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺃﻥ‬
‫‪) HDR‬ﻣﺪﻯ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ( ﻭ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻻ‬
‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺘﺎ ﹰﺣﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ‪ +‬ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ‪ +‬ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻫﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﻟﻲ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﻻ ﺷﻲﺀ‪.‬‬
‫‪ :f7‬ﺗﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻭﻗﺮﺹ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺴﻲ‪ :‬ﻋﻜﺲ ﺍﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻗﺮﺹ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻗﺮﺹ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻗﺮﺹ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ ،(A‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﹸﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ A‬ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪267‬‬
‫• ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﻣﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ )ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ(‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﺳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ‪) EV 1‬ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G‬ﻭ‪ E‬ﻻ ﺗﺰﺍﻝ ﺗﹸﻀﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ(‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻳﺠﺐ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫‪.CPU‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ ﻭﻟﺘﺼﻔﺢ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺩﻭﻥ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ(‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻷﺳﻔﻞ‪ .‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻭ ﻷﺳﻔﻞ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﺣﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ )ﺩﻭﻥ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ( ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻟﻠﻌﺮﺽ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺮﺹ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺗﻪ ﻟﻠﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻼﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﺃﻭ ‪.J‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪268‬‬
‫‪ :f8‬ﺯﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺹ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻌﻢ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ (M) W‬ﺃﻭ ‪ (T) X‬ﺃﻭ ‪ (U) L‬ﺃﻭ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪ AF‬ﺃﻭ ﺯﺭ ‪ D‬ﻭﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬﻫﺎ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ )ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻨﻄﺒﻖ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ‪ Fn‬ﻭ‪ Pv‬ﻭ‪ A‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ "ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ‪ +‬ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ" ﺑﺨﻼﻑ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺭﻗﻢ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪ CPU‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪ ،f4‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪ Fn‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ،f5‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ‪ f6‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻋﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ(‪ .‬ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺯﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺄﺛﺮﺓ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪.‬‬
‫‪ :f9‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺗﻔﺮﻳﻎ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺑﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺃﻱ ﺻﻮﺭ )ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺤﻲ(‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ :f10‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻋﻜﺴﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫)‪ (W‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﻘﻴﻢ ﺳﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﻭﻗﻴﻢ ﻣﻮﺟﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫)‪ (V‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ‪ .‬ﺣﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪269‬‬
‫‪ :f11‬ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺳﻠﺲ ﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﻤﻘﺪﺍﺭ ‪ EV ± 2/3‬ﻋﺒﺮ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺗﺰﺍﻳﺪﻳﺔ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎ ‪.EV 1/3‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 4) 4‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﻠﻤﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﻤﺮ(‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ‪ 30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪270‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ :‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ G‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻮﻳﺐ ‪) B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ‬
‫ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ )‪(Language‬‬
‫ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪272‬‬
‫‪273‬‬
‫‪273‬‬
‫‪329‬‬
‫‪331‬‬
‫‪274‬‬
‫‪276‬‬
‫‪276‬‬
‫‪277‬‬
‫‪277‬‬
‫‪278‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‬
‫ﺣﻔﻆ‪/‬ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺃﻓﻖ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪CPU‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ‬
‫‪HDMI‬‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪ Fn‬ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪ‬
‫ﻣﻬﺎﻳﺊ ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻲ ﻣﺤﻤﻮﻝ‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ‪Eye-Fi‬‬
‫ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪279‬‬
‫‪280‬‬
‫‪282‬‬
‫‪163‬‬
‫‪283‬‬
‫‪223‬‬
‫‪170‬‬
‫‪284‬‬
‫‪284‬‬
‫‪285‬‬
‫‪286‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﺗﹸﻌﺮﺽ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ‪.(285 0) Eye-Fi‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﻧﻈﺮﹰﺍ ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 228‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪271‬‬
‫ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻳﺠﺐ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺃﻱ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻳﻬﺎ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻧﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺃﻱ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭ ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻔﺎﻅ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ )‪.(211 0‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪272‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﻧﻌﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﻻ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﺨﺮﺝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻔﺼﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﺰﻉ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺇﻻ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‬
‫ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‪ ،‬ﻗﻴﻢ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺃﻗﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﻧﻈﺮﹰﺍ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.179‬‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﻮﻑ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻲ ﻟﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺿﻐﻄﻪ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪273‬‬
‫ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺠﻞ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪Capture NX 2‬‬
‫)ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ؛ ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ‪.(Capture NX 2‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ CPU‬ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ‪ DX‬ﺑﻄﻮﻝ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻻ ﻳﻘﻞ ﻋﻦ ‪ 50‬ﻣﻢ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺯﻭﻡ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺣﺪ ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﺪﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.G‬‬
‫• ﺑﺪﺀ‪ :‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﻭﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ "‪ "rEF‬ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺛﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﻭﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ "‪ "rEF‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪274‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﻋﺪﻳﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﻣﺢ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺪ ‪ 10‬ﺳﻢ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﹰ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﻋﺪﻳﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﻣﺢ ﻭﺟﻴﺪ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﻤﻠﺊ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻧﺼﻒ‬
‫ﺿﻐﻄﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻼﻧﻬﺎﻳﺔ؛ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﺎ ﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻼﻧﻬﺎﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺳﺠﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻀﺎﺀ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻣﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻲ ﺳﺎﻃﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺩﺍﻛﻦ ﺟﺪﺍﹰ‪،‬‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻫﺪﻑ ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻲ ﺃﺧﺮ ﻭﻛﺮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪.1‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻌﻜﺲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺛﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺈﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻌﻜﺲ ﻣﻊ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ .‬ﻻ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪275‬‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﻭﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻮﺭﻳﺴﻨﺖ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺋﺒﻖ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﺘﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﺮﺩﺩ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺤﻘﻖ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔ ﻭﺃﻧﺖ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺮﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺟﺮﺏ‬
‫ﻛﻼ ﹰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﻳﻦ ‪ 50‬ﻭ ‪ 60‬ﻫﺮﺗﺰ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺤﻘﻖ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺤﻘﻖ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺳﺎﻃﻊ ﺟﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﻣﺤﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺃﺻﻐﺮ )ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ f‬ﺃﻋﻠﻰ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﻭﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻭﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻔﻲ )‪.(27 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﻗﺖ‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬
‫ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻮﻣﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪Y‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺑﻪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻔﻲ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻔﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮﻫﺎ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪276‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ )‪(Language‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﺋﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪،‬‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮﻫﺎ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )‪ (187 0‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ‪ViewNX 2‬‬
‫)ﻣﺮﻓﻖ( ﺃﻭ ‪) Capture NX 2‬ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ؛ ‪ .(325 0‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺃﻓﻘﻲ )ﻋﺮﺿﻲ(‬
‫ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ °90‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﺗﺠﺎﻩ‬
‫ﻋﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ °90‬ﻋﻜﺲ‬
‫ﺍﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﻋﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻭ ﻷﺳﻔﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻃﻮﻟﻴﺎ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ "ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻟﻴﺔ" )ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﻤﻮﺩﻱ( ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻃﻮﻟﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )‪.(233 0‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪277‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻳﻀﻴﻒ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻘﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺿﻤﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪) ViewNX 2‬ﻣﺮﻓﻖ( ﺃﻭ ‪) Capture NX 2‬ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ؛ ‪ .(325 0‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﹰﺍ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪.(193 0‬‬
‫• ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ‪ :‬ﻳﺤﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺩﺧﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻹﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ .107‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻳﺼﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 36‬ﺣﺮﻑ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺇﺭﻓﺎﻕ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻹﺭﻓﺎﻕ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﺑﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺣﻘﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﺭﻓﺎﻕ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻠﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.2‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪278‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻳﻀﻴﻒ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻀﻤﻴﻦ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ )‪(193 0‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻻﻃﻼﻉ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺿﻤﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪) ViewNX 2‬ﻣﺮﻓﻖ( ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪) Capture NX 2‬ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ؛ ‪.(325 0‬‬
‫• ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ‪ :‬ﻳﺤﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻔﻨﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻮﺭ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ .107‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻻﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻮﺭ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻳﺼﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 36‬ﺣﺮﻑ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‪ :‬ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.107‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻻﺳﻢ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 54‬ﺣﺮﻑ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺇﺭﻓﺎﻕ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻖ ﻧﺴﺦ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻹﺭﻓﺎﻕ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻼﺣﻘﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻭﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﺭﻓﺎﻕ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻖ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻠﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.2‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺮﺡ ﺑﻪ ﻻﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‪ ،‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﺭﻓﺎﻕ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻖ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﻓﺎﺭﻏﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﻴﺮ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺗﺒﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺃﺧﺮ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﺘﺤﻤﻞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻱ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻱ ﺃﺿﺮﺍﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻨﺠﻢ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬
‫ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪279‬‬
‫ﺣﻔﻆ‪/‬ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻟﺤﻔﻆ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ )ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺧﻄﺄ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻣﺘﻼﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ(‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ‪.Df‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫)ﻛﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ(‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪280‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻃﻮﻟﻴﺎ‬
‫ﻣﺨﺰﻥ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺿﻐﻂ ‪JPEG‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ )‪NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ )ﻣﻊ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ‪(d-4–d-1‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪Picture Control‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ ‪NR‬‬
‫‪ ISO NR‬ﻋﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ )ﻛﻞ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﺯﻥ(‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ )ﻣﺎﻋﺪﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ )‪(Language‬‬
‫ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪CPU‬‬
‫‪HDMI‬‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪ Fn‬ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪ‬
‫ﻣﻬﺎﻳﺊ ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻲ ﻣﺤﻤﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ‪Eye-Fi‬‬
‫ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‪ /‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺒﻮﻳﺐ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺣﻔﻈﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﺍﺯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﻔﻆ‪/‬ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﺤﻔﻮﻇﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻔﻮﻇﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻠﻒ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﺳﻢ ‪ .NCSETUPD‬ﻟﻦ ﺗﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪281‬‬
‫ﺃﻓﻖ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻴﻞ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﻣﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺇﻣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻀﻲﺀ ﺧﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻲ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺇﻣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻸﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻒ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻀﻲﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ‪ .‬ﻛﻞ ﻗﺴﻢ ﻳﺴﺎﻭﻱ ‪.°5‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻴﺴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﻟﻸﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺨﻠﻒ‬
‫‪ D‬ﺇﻣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﻓﻖ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﻣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺣﺎﺩﺓ ﻟﻸﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻠﺨﻠﻒ‪ .‬ﻟﻦ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻞ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻟﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺃﻧﻈﺮﹰﺍ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) f4‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪Fn‬؛‬
‫‪ .(265 ،263 0‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﻓﻖ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.182‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪282‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ 12‬ﻧﻮﻋﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻱ؛‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺩﻗﺔ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﻳﺸﻐﻞ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﺷﻐﻞ‪/‬‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﻹﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﻒ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻔﻮﻇﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫)ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ CPU‬ﻓﻘﻂ(‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪1‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ +20‬ﻭ‪ .–20‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ 12‬ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻧﻮﻉ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﺒﺪﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺤﻔﻮﻇﺔ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺎ ﹰ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫)ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ CPU‬ﻓﻘﻂ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻔﻮﻇﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺤﺮﻙ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺍ ﹰ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺤﺮﻙ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺮﺩ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻔﻮﻇﺔ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺎ ﹰ‪ .‬ﻟﺤﺬﻑ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .O‬ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻴﺰ‬
‫ﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ )ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻤﻴﺰ ﻳﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺭﻗﻤﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰﻫﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻔﻮﻇﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ‬
‫ﻧﻮﻉ(‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ؛ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﺳﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻤﻴﺰ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﺤﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺮﻭﺝ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪283‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻼﻧﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻔﻮﻇﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ‬
‫)ﺗﻴﻠﻲ ﻛﻮﻧﻔﻴﺮﺗﺮ(‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﻗﻴﻢ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻠﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﻔﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻴﻠﻲ ﻛﻮﻧﻔﻴﺮﺗﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪ Fn‬ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻠﻌﺒﻪ ﺃﺯﺭﺍﺭ ‪ Fn‬ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ‪ WR-1‬ﻭ‪ (325 0) WR-T10‬ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻬﺎﻳﺊ ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻲ ﻣﺤﻤﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺳﺘﺜﺒﺖ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻼﺕ ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻬﺎﻳﺊ ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻲ ﻣﺤﻤﻮﻝ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ WU-1a‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ )‪ (324 0‬ﺑﻤﻮﺻﻞ ‪ USB‬ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ‬
‫ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ‬
‫‪.Wireless Mobile Utility‬‬
‫ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻛﻦ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻳﻘﻠﻞ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺤﻈﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪284‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ‪Eye-Fi‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ‪) Eye-Fi‬ﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﻴﻊ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ( ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ ﻟﺘﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﻣﺤﺪﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺎ ﹰ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺠﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻨﻊ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪ ،Eye-Fi‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺣﺎﻟﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‬
‫ﺭﻣﺰ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪:‬‬
‫• ‪ :d‬ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ‪ Eye-Fi‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻤﻜ ﱠﻦ‪.‬‬
‫• ‪ :e‬ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ‪ Eye-Fi‬ﻣﻤﻜ ﱠﻦ ﻭﻻ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻤﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫• ‪) f‬ﺛﺎﺑﺖ(‪ :‬ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ‪ Eye-Fi‬ﻣﻤﻜ ﱠﻦ؛ ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺎﺭ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻤﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫• ‪) f‬ﻣﺘﺤﺮﻙ(‪ :‬ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ‪ Eye-Fi‬ﻣﻤﻜ ﱠﻦ؛ ﺟﺎﺭﻱ ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫• ‪ :g‬ﺧﻄﺄ — ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪ .Eye-Fi‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺭﻣﺰ ‪W‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻣﺾ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺭﺟﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪349‬؛ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﻣﻴﺾ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﹰﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪.Eye-Fi‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪285‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ‪Eye-Fi‬‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﺗﹸﺼﺪﺭ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ‪ Eye-Fi‬ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻦ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺗﺤﺬﻳﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ )‪ ،(349 0‬ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪ ،Eye-Fi‬ﻭﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﺄﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻨﱢﻊ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ‪ ،Eye-Fi‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﻭﻇﺎﺋﻒ ‪ Eye-Fi‬ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ؛ ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻨﱢﻊ ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ‪ Eye-Fi‬ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺀ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ .‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ‬
‫ﺑﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪ Eye-Fi‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺣﺪﺙ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ‪ Eye-Fi‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺧﺎﺹ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﻠﺰﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ‪ Eye-Fi‬ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺧﺎﺹ )‪.(ad hoc‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c2‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪ (251 0 ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻃﻮﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪286‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ B‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪:‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ G‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻮﻳﺐ ‪) N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺻﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪i‬‬
‫‪j‬‬
‫‪k‬‬
‫‪l‬‬
‫‪m‬‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪o‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫&‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪D-Lighting‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺗﻬﺬﻳﺐ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ )‪NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪291‬‬
‫‪292‬‬
‫‪293‬‬
‫‪294‬‬
‫‪295‬‬
‫‪296‬‬
‫‪297‬‬
‫‪300‬‬
‫‪302‬‬
‫‪304‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪e‬‬
‫(‬
‫)‬
‫‪f‬‬
‫‪g‬‬
‫‪h‬‬
‫‪i‬‬
‫‪u‬‬
‫‪p‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ‬
‫ﻋﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻜﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻣﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻧﻈﺮﻱ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﺗﺼﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺟﻨﺒﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻨﺐ‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪304‬‬
‫‪305‬‬
‫‪305‬‬
‫‪306‬‬
‫‪306‬‬
‫‪307‬‬
‫‪308‬‬
‫‪309‬‬
‫‪311‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ G‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻮﻳﺐ ‪.N‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ P‬ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺻﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪287‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟ ﹸﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ‬
‫ﺃﻧﻪ )ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ( ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻛﻞ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ )ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ(‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﺭﻣﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺋﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﻬﺬﻳﺐ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬
‫)‪ ،NEF (RAW‬ﻭ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ‪ ،‬ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟ ﹸﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ ‪ JPEG‬ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﺣﺠﻢ‬
‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﻟ ﹸﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻓﻴﺘﻢ ﺣﻔﻈﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻛﺼﻮﺭ ‪ JPEG‬ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﺑﺠﻮﺩﺓ ﺟﻴﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ )‪ TIFF (RGB‬ﻓﻴﺘﻢ ﺣﻔﻈﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻛﺼﻮﺭ ‪ JPEG‬ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻮﺩﺓ ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﺑﺄﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪.JPEG‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪288‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻼﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .J‬ﻟﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.(T) X‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻳﻨﻘﺢ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﺈﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ ،(56 0) NEF + JPEG‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻓﻘﻂ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ )‪ .NEF (RAW‬ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪.G‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﺄﺧﺮ ﺍﻧﻄﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻃﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻭﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺃﻱ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﻭﺟﻴﺰﺓ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻥ ﺃﻱ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﻔﻈﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻈﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻗﻴﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺃﻃﻮﻝ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c4‬ﺗﺄﺧﺮ ﺍﻧﻄﻔﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ؛ ‪.(253 0‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪289‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﺤﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪.o‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.P‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪290‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪.J‬‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪D-Lighting‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻣﻦ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻈﻼﻝ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺠﻌﻠﻪ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻤﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪J‬‬
‫ﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪291‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ "ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ" ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﺃﻛﺪ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻮﺓ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺩﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺟﺪﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺄﺛﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ؛ ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺟﻴﺪﺍ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ (T) X‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ (T) X‬ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪ (M) W‬ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ‪ .‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫‪ (M) W‬ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻘﻞ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻄﻼﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺯﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ؛ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺽ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺑﺈﻃﺎﺭ ﺃﺻﻔﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﻔﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻴﻦ ﺣﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺗﻤﺖ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺘﻬﺎ ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍﺗﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪292‬‬
‫ﺗﻬﺬﻳﺐ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻘﺘﺼﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺺ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺻﻔﺮ؛ ﺃﻧﺸﺊ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺻﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻭﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺣﺠﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺺ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫‪(M) W‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ (M) W‬ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺺ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺺ ‪ (T) X‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ (T) X‬ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺺ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺺ‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻘﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻧﺴﺐ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ ‪ 2 : 3‬ﻭ‬
‫‪ 3 : 4‬ﻭ ‪ 4 : 5‬ﻭ ‪ 1 : 1‬ﻭ ‪9 : 16‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺹ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺺ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺺ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺘﺺ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻛﻤﻠﻒ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻬﺬﻳﺐ‪ :‬ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ ﺑﺈﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ )‪NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ‪ NEF (RAW) + JPEG‬ﺃﻭ )‪ TIFF (RGB‬ﻟﻬﺎ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ )‪(55 0‬‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﺟﻴﺪ؛ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺼﻮﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ JPEG‬ﻓﻠﻬﺎ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺣﺠﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺺ ﻭﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﻭﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺺ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺼﻮﺻﺔ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺯﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺼﻮﺻﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪293‬‬
‫ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﺄﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺃﺳﻮﺩ ﻭﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻨﻲ ﺩﺍﻛﻦ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺃﺯﺭﻕ ﻓﺎﺗﺢ )ﺃﺯﺭﻕ ﻭﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺑﻨﻲ ﺩﺍﻛﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺯﺭﻕ ﻓﺎﺗﺢ؛ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺻﻔﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪ 3 ،‬ﻟﻠﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺻﻔﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺻﻔﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪294‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﺃﻗﻞ ﺯﺭﻗﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺑﻤﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﺌﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﺩﺍﻓﺊ ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﻌﻄﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﻇﻼﻝ ﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺣﻤﺮﺍﺀ "ﺩﺍﻓﺌﺔ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻜﺜﻒ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻳﹸﻜﺜﻒ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ )ﻣﻜﺜﻒ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﻤﺮ(‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻀﺮﺍﺀ )ﻣﻜﺜﻒ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ(‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﻗﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺣﻤﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻜﺜﻒ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ )ﻣﻜﺜﻒ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﻕ(‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ‪3 ،‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻜﺜﻒ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺯﺭﻕ‬
‫ﻳﻀﻴﻒ ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﻧﺠﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﻪ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺛﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺄﺛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ • ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻃﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ‪ :‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪ (T) X‬ﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺣﻔﻆ‪ :‬ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻀﻴﻒ ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﻧﺎﻋﻢ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻗﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﺎﻋﻢ‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪295‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﻟﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻀﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﺭﻗﺎﺀ )‪(192 0‬‬
‫ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﺗﻮﺿﺢ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺒﺮﻱ‬
‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﻕ‬
‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻮﺍﻧﻲ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺯﻭﻡ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.(T) X‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﻲ ﻟﻴﻌﺮﺽ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺽ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪ (U) L‬ﻟﻼﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﻡ‪،‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﺍﺭ ‪ (T) X‬ﻭ‪(M) W‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪296‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺗﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻳﺠﻤﻊ ﺗﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻴﻦ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻴﻦ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺗﻴﻦ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﻔﻈﻬﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ؛ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪،‬‬
‫ﻧﻈﺮﹰﺍ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ‪ RAW‬ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺃﻓﻀﻞ‬
‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻠﺤﻮﻅ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﻛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﻔﻆ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺑﺈﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ؛ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺗﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪58 ،55 0‬؛ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ(‪ .‬ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ )‪،NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪.NEF (RAW‬‬
‫‪+‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺗﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪،‬‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪1‬؛ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺑﺼﻮﺭ ‪ NEF‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ‬
‫ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪297‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﻛﺐ‪ .‬ﻟﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫‪ .(T) X‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪298‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﺘﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪ .1‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪ 2‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ ،J‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻢ ﻭﺻﻔﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪ 2‬ﻭﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪3‬‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ‪ 0.1‬ﻭ ‪.2.0‬‬
‫ﻛﺮﺭ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ‪1.0‬؛ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪ 0.5‬ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﻟﻠﻨﺼﻒ ﺃﻭ ‪ 2.0‬ﻟﻤﻀﺎﻋﻔﺘﻪ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺮﺋﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﺩ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺎﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﻛﺐ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﺩ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺗﺮﺍﻛﺐ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﻛﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ )ﻟﺤﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﻛﺐ‬
‫ﺩﻭﻥ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺣﻔﻆ(‪ .‬ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺨﻄﻮﺓ ‪ 4‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.(M) W‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫ﺍﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺍﻛﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻟﺤﻔﻆ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﻛﺐ‪ .‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﻛﺐ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺗﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺩﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻧﻔﺲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﻋﻤﻖ ﺑﺖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺒﺔ ﻧﻔﺲ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻭﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻭﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﺗﺠﺎﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ( ﻭﻗﻴﻢ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻭ ‪ Picture Control‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪.1‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺭﻓﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺒﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﻔﻈﻬﺎ؛ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‪ .‬ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺒﺔ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻭﻟﻬﺎ ﻧﻔﺲ ﻋﻤﻖ ﺑﺖ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ؛ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ JPEG‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﻔﻈﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﺑﺄﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪299‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ )‪NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ‪ JPEG‬ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ )‪.NEF (RAW‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ )‪.NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ )‪NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﻓﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ )ﻟﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫‪ .((T) X‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪300‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ‪.JPEG‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﺮﺍﻛﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻄﻪ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ –2‬ﻭ ‪.EV +2‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ‪ Picture Control‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ‪.Picture Control‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪(55 0‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪(58 0‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ )‪(81 0‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ )‪(79 0‬‬
‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪(100 0) Picture Control‬‬
‫‪ ISO NR‬ﻋﺎﻝ )‪(242 0‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ )‪(240 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ )‪(241 0‬‬
‫‪(291 0) D-Lighting‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ‪ EXE‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ )ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺩﻭﻥ‬
‫ﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.(G‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪301‬‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪ G‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺣﺠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ؛ ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪302‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺢ‬
‫ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪(M) W‬‬
‫ﻟﻼﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ )ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻣﻞﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ .((T) X‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ .8‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟ ﹸﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺣﺠﻤﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ‪ .‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﻧﻌﻢ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪J‬‬
‫ﻟﺤﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺑﺎﻷﺣﺠﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟ ﹸﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺣﺠﻤﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺯﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﺘﺎ ﹰﺣﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺣﺠﻤﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ ﺑﺈﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺃﻭ ‪ NEF (RAW) + JPEG‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫)‪ TIFF (RGB‬ﻟﻬﺎ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ )‪ JPEG (55 0‬ﺟﻴﺪ؛ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﻓﻠﻬﺎ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪303‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺑﺼﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻭﺗﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻤﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴﻦ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻌﺪﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪2‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﻋﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺧﻤﺲ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺑﺤﺠﻢ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 0.25‬ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻋﻜﺲ ﺍﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﻋﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ )ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ؛ ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻬﺬﻳﺐ ﺣﻮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺑﻌﺔ(‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪ K‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪304‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺑﺘﺸﻮﻩ ﻣﺤﻴﻄﻲ ﺃﻗﻞ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﺘﺮﻙ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺗﺼﺤﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺻﻨﻊ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ‬
‫ﻳﺪﻭﻳﺎ )ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ؛ ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬
‫‪ .(241‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻣﻴﻠﻲ‪ 4 ،‬ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺩﻱ )ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ؛ ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﺩ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ ﻧﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﺟﺰﺀ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ(‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ K‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﺘﺺ ﺃﻭ ﻳﺸﻮﻩ ﺣﻮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻄﺖ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ DX‬ﺑﺈﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪.1.0× (36×24) FX‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪ E‬ﺃﻭ ‪) D‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ PC‬ﻭﻋﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻜﺔ ﻭﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ(‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻀﻤﻮﻧﺔ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻜﺔ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺗﺒﺪﻭ ﻭﻛﺄﻧﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻄﺖ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻋﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻜﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ )ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺳﻴﻘﺘﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ(‪ 4 ،‬ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻠﻪ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ K‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪305‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺗﺨﻄﻴﻄﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﻛﺄﺳﺎﺱ ﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬
‫ﻣﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻣﺨﻄﻂ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﺭﺳﻤﻪ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﻗﻼﻡ ﻣﻠﻮﻧﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺷﺮﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺷﺮﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﻟﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺻﻔﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻫﺖ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﺃﺭﻓﻊ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺃﺳﻤﻚ‪ .‬ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﺩﺕ ﺳﻤﺎﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﺩ ﺻﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ K‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪306‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻧﻈﺮﻱ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﻊ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺗﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻮﺭ )ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﺩ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻧﻈﺮﻱ ﺯﺍﺩﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻗﺼﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻑ(‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ K‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪307‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﺗﺼﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫‪ G‬ﺭﺯ‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺗﺒﺪﻭ ﻭﻛﺄﻧﻬﺎ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻟﻤﺠﺴﻢ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ )ﺩﻳﻮﺭﺍﻣﺎ(‪ .‬ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺘﻢ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺆﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺈﻃﺎﺭ ﺃﺻﻔﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ‬
‫‪(M) W‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ (M) W‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺑﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪3‬‬
‫ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬
‫ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺑﻄﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪2‬‬
‫ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬
‫ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺿﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪2‬‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻟﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪3‬‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ‪ (T) X‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺧﺮﻭﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ‬
‫‪K‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ‬
‫‪J‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪308‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺗﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﺎﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻠﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺗﻠﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ )ﻟﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪.((T) X‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻟﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺪﻑ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ A‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻛﺄﺣﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﺘﻈﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ )ﻗﺪ ﺗﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻓﻴﺔ؛‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻓﻴﺔ(‪ .‬ﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .(T) X‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪(M) W‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪ A‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪/‬ﻗﻔﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪309‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻧﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺑﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﻮﻑ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻀﻤﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻗﻴﻢ ‪ 1‬ﻭ ‪7‬؛ ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻀﻢ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﺗﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺃﺧﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺮﺑﻌﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻛﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ‪ 5-3‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺃﺧﺮ‪ .‬ﻛﺮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺛﺎﻟﺚ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ ،O‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ‪ O‬ﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻌﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪310‬‬
‫ﺍﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮﻫﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺟﻨﺒﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻨﺐ‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪ N‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺤﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ P‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﺻﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻨﻘﺤﺔ )ﻣﻤﻴﺰﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ o‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺤﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.(P‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪P‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺟﻨﺒﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻨﺐ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺟﻨﺒﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻨﺐ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪311‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﺭﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪ 2‬ﻟﻼﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﺤﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﺤﺔ‬
‫‪ .(T) X‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻴﻦ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺗﻢ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ ،K‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﻧﺎﺕ ﺟﻨﺒﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻨﺐ‬
‫ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻣﺤﻤﻴﺔ )‪ ،(201 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﺣﺬﻓﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺧﻔﺎﺋﻬﺎ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻦ )‪.(230 0‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪312‬‬
‫‪ O‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‪ m/‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ G‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻮﻳﺐ ‪) O‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻭﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﺑﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﻊ ﻟﻬﺎ )ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ 20‬ﻋﻨﺼﺮ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ ﺑﺪﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ )‪.(317 0‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺬﻑ ﻭﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪313‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﻨﻮﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ )‪ ،(O‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﻨﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻮﺩ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺑﻨﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺑﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪ ﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻭ ﻷﺳﻔﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺿﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺻﻮﺍﺏ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻴﺰﺓ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ .V‬ﻛﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ‪ 4-1‬ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﻨﻮﺩ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪314‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺑﻨﻮﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ )‪ ،(O‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺑﻨﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺑﻨﻮﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 2‬ﻟﻼﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﻌﻼﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺍﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ .J‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ‬
‫ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ J‬ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺣﺬﻑ ﺑﻨﻮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ .O‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪﻱ؛ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ O‬ﻣﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻞ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪315‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺑﻨﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﺗﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ )‪ ،(O‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺑﻨﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺮﻏﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ‬
‫ﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻭ ﻷﺳﻔﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ‪ 3-2‬ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺑﻨﻮﺩ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺮﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ G‬ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺭﺯ ‪G‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪316‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪ m‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ‪ O‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ < ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺒﻮﻳﺐ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺒﻮﻳﺐ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ )‪ ،(O‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺒﻮﻳﺐ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺣﺪﺩ ‪ m‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ‪ m‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ .J‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫"ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ" ﺇﻟﻰ "ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﻨﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﻤﺔ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪ O‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ‪ m‬ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ < ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺒﻮﻳﺐ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺑﻨﻮﺩ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺩ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﻠﻪ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ .O‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ؛ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪ O‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪317‬‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻗﺮﺃ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻭﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻭﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﻣﺎﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺗﻔﻌﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺧﻄﺄ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺍﺟﻬﺖ ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪AF‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪CPU‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪CPU‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ NIKKOR AF‬ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G‬ﺃﻭ ‪ E‬ﺃﻭ ‪D‬‬
‫‪AF-I NIKKOR ،AF-S‬‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪318‬‬
‫ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ‪PC-E NIKKOR‬‬
‫‪ f/2.8D‬ﻣﻢ‪PC Micro 85‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ ‪AF-S / AF-I‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ AF NIKKOR‬ﺃﺧﺮﻯ )ﻣﺎﻋﺪﺍ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪(F3AF‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫‪) M‬ﻣﻊ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﻣﺪﻯ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ(‬
‫‪M‬‬
‫‪P‬‬
‫‪S‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫‪M‬‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫‪5 ،3‬‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫✔‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫✔‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫✔‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫‪AI-P NIKKOR‬‬
‫—‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ NIKKOR AI‬ﺃﻭ ‪-AI‬ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ‪E‬‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫✔‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪M‬‬
‫‪N‬‬
‫‪5 ،3‬‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫✔‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫✔‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫✔‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫✔‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫‪17‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫‪18‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫‪22‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪AI‬‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫‪ f/4‬ﻣﻢ‪Medical-NIKKOR 120‬‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫‪Reflex-NIKKOR‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫✔‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫✔‬
‫—‬
‫ﻣﻠﺤﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻣﻨﻔﺎﺥ‬
‫‪21‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪PB-6‬‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫✔‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫ﺣﻠﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ‪PK-‬‬
‫‪ 11A‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 12‬ﺃﻭ ‪13‬؛ ‪(PN-11‬‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫✔‬
‫—‬
‫✔‬
‫‪PC-NIKKOR‬‬
‫ﺛﻼﺛﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‬
‫ﻟﻮﻥ‬
‫✔‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪AI‬‬
‫‪L‬‬
‫✔‬
‫✔‬
‫‪19‬‬
‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫✔‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪.IX-NIKKOR‬‬
‫ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ VR‬ﺧﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ )‪.(VR‬‬
‫ﺗﺘﻢ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺑﻘﻌﻴﺔ )‪.(75 0‬‬
‫ﻳﺠﺐ ﺗﻮﺧﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺬﺭ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ f/3.5D ED‬ﻣﻢ‪ ،PC-E NIKKOR 24‬ﻧﻈﺮﹰﺍ ﻷﻧﻬﺎ ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﺗﻼﻣﺲ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺗﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻒ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ‪.‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺳﻠﻴﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﻣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ AF-S‬ﻭ ‪ AF-I‬ﻓﻘﻂ )‪ .(321 0‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻯ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.321‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ f/2.8‬ﻣﻢ‪ AF 200–80‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪ f/2.8‬ﻣﻢ‪ AF 70–35‬ﺃﻭ ‪ f/3.5–4.5‬ﻣﻢ‪> AF 85–28‬ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ< ﺃﻭ ‪ f/3.5–4.5‬ﻣﻢ‪ AF 85–28‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﺎ ﹰ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻗﺼﻮﻯ ‪ f/5.6‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﺳﺮﻉ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ )ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪.(320‬‬
‫ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ ‪ f/2.8 ED‬ﻣﻢ‪ AI 200–80‬ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺒﺘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺟﺴﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺤﺎﺕ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ‪ f/4 ED‬ﻣﻢ‪ AI 400–200‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺣﺪ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪ ،(163 0) CPU‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 14‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﹸﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪CPU‬‬
‫)‪ .(163 0‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺑﻘﻌﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 15‬ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻗﺔ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻭﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ‬
‫‪.(163 0) CPU‬‬
‫‪ 16‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪ (163 0) CPU‬ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﻯ ﻭﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺇﻗﺮﺍﻥ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ‪ .(167 0) AI‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﻤﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 17‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ ﻣﻊ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺃﺑﻄﺄ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 18‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺎ ﹰ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺗﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺎ ﹰ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﺣﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 19‬ﻳﺘﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ f/3.5–4.5‬ﻣﻢ‪ AI 85–28‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪ f/3.5–4.5‬ﻣﻢ‪ AI 105–35‬ﺃﻭ ‪ f/3.5–4.5‬ﻣﻢ‪ AI 135–35‬ﺃﻭ ‪ f/2.8D‬ﻣﻢ‪ .AF-S 200–80‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﻛﺘﻴﺐ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﻟﻠﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 20‬ﻣﻊ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻗﺼﻮﻯ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﺔ ‪ f/5.6‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﺳﺮﻉ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 21‬ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺗﻤﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪ PK-12‬ﺃﻭ ‪ .PK-13‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ‪ PB-6D‬ﺣﺴﺐ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 22‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻠﺤﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻳﺘﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ PA-4‬ﻣﻊ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ‪.PF-4 Reprocopy Outfit‬‬
‫• ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪.ISO‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪319‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ CPU‬ﻭﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ ‪ G‬ﻭ‪ E‬ﻭ‪D‬‬
‫ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪) CPU‬ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ ﹰ ﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ ‪ G‬ﻭ‪ E‬ﻭ‪ ،(D‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ .IX-NIKKOR‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ CPU‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﻮﺻﻼﺕ ‪ ،CPU‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G‬ﻭ‪ E‬ﻭ‪ D‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G‬ﻭ ‪ E‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ‬
‫ﺑﺤﻠﻘﺔ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻮﺻﻼﺕ ‪CPU‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪CPU‬‬
‫ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪E/G‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪D‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﻯ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﻛﻤﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ CPU‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ﻣﻊ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪:Df‬‬
‫• ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪TC-16AS AF‬‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪320‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪ f/4.5) AU-1‬ﻣﻢ‪ f/5.6 ،400‬ﻣﻢ‪،600‬‬
‫‪ f/8‬ﻣﻢ‪ f/11 ،800‬ﻣﻢ‪(1200‬‬
‫ﻋﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻜﺔ )‪ f/5.6‬ﻣﻢ‪ f/5.6 ،6‬ﻣﻢ‪،7.5‬‬
‫‪ f/8‬ﻣﻢ‪ f/5.6 ،8‬ﻣﻢ‪(OP 10‬‬
‫‪ f/4‬ﺳﻢ‪2.1‬‬
‫ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺗﻤﺪﻳﺪ ‪K2‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ f/2.8) F3AF‬ﻣﻢ‪،AF 80‬‬
‫‪f/3.5‬ﻣﻢ‪ AF ،ED 200‬ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪(TC-16‬‬
‫‪ f/3.5‬ﻣﻢ‪) PC 35‬ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﻢ(‬
‫‪ f/6.3‬ﻣﻢ‪) Reflex 1000‬ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﻢ(‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪2.8 NIKKOR-H Auto‬ﺳﻢ‪3.5/‬‬
‫)‪28‬ﻣﻢ‪ (3.5/‬ﺑﺄﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﻣﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪362000‬‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪3.5 NIKKOR-S Auto‬ﺳﻢ‪2.8/‬‬
‫)‪35‬ﻣﻢ‪ (2.8/‬ﺑﺄﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﻣﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪928000‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪5 NIKKOR-S Auto‬ﺳﻢ‪50) 2/‬ﻣﻢ‪(2/‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪13.5 NIKKOR-Q Auto‬ﺳﻢ‪3.5/‬‬
‫)‪135‬ﻣﻢ‪ (3.5/‬ﺑﺄﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﻣﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪753000‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪5.5 Micro-NIKKOR‬ﺳﻢ‪3.5/‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪200 Medical-NIKKOR Auto‬ﻣﻢ‪f5.6/‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪Auto NIKKOR Telephoto-Zoom‬‬
‫‪250-85‬ﻣﻢ‪f4-4.5/‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪Auto NIKKOR Telephoto-Zoom‬‬
‫‪600-200‬ﻣﻢ‪f9.5-10.5/‬‬
‫ﺗﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﺤﺎﻟﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﺤﺎﻭﻝ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺒﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺳﻠﺲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ ‪AF-S/AF-I‬‬
‫ﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻯ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ ‪ .AF-S/AF-I‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻠﻤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﻤﻨﺔ ﺃﺑﻄﺄ ﻣﻦ ‪ .f/5.6‬ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺘﺎ ﹰﺣﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺤﻮﻻﺕ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫‪ AF-S VR f/2.8G IF-ED‬ﻣﻢ‪.Micro-Nikkor 105‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫‪،TC-14E‬‬
‫‪TC-14E II‬‬
‫ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫‪ f/4‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﺳﺮﻉ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪f/5.6‬‬
‫‪ f/2.8‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﺳﺮﻉ‬
‫‪TC-17E II‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪f/4‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪-TC-800‬‬
‫‪1.25E ED‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪f/4‬‬
‫‪f/5.6‬‬
‫‪ f/2.8‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﺳﺮﻉ‬
‫‪f/5.6‬‬
‫‪،TC-20E‬‬
‫‪،TC-20E II‬‬
‫‪TC-20E III‬‬
‫ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫—‬
‫‪f/5.6‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺧﻼﻑ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﻂ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻌﻘﺐ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ )‪.(62 0‬‬
‫‪ 3‬ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ‪.‬‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪321‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ Df‬ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪35‬ﻣﻢ )‪ .(135‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻗﺺ ‪ DX‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪ (52 0‬ﻣﻊ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪35‬ﻣﻢ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻔﻴﻠﻢ ‪35‬ﻣﻢ )‪23.9 × 36.0‬ﻣﻢ(؛ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ ،DX‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ‬
‫ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻟﺘﻜﻮﻥ ‪15.5 × 23.4‬ﻣﻢ )ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪.(DX‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪35‬ﻣﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﻤﻘﺪﺍﺭ ‪ × 1.5‬ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ‬
‫ﻗﺺ ‪ DX‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪.(24×16) DX‬‬
‫‪ (36×24) FX‬ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪23.9 × 36.0‬ﻣﻢ‪،‬‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪35‬ﻣﻢ(‬
‫ﻗﻄﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫‪ (24×16) DX‬ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪15.5 × 23.4‬ﻣﻢ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻳﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪(DX‬‬
‫ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪(36×24) FX‬؛ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪35‬ﻣﻢ(‬
‫ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪(24×16) DX‬؛ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪(DX‬‬
‫ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ (24×16) DX‬ﺃﺻﻐﺮ ‪ 1.5‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﹰ ﻣﻦ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪35‬ﻣﻢ‪ .‬ﻟﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪35‬ﻣﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪ (24×16) DX‬ﺍﺿﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻓﻲ ‪1.5‬‬
‫)ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻝ ﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ‪50‬ﻣﻢ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪35‬ﻣﻢ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ‪75‬ﻣﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪.((24×16) DX‬‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪322‬‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ Df‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺑﻞ‬
‫• ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻳﻮﻥ ﻟﻴﺜﻴﻮﻡ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪:(19 ،18 0) EN-EL14a‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ‪ .EN-EL14‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺷﺮﺍﺀ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ‪EN-EL14a‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﹰ‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺋﻌﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺰﺋﺔ ﻭﻣﻤﺜﻠﻲ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻤﺪﻳﻦ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺷﺎﺣﻦ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ :(18 0) MH-24‬ﺃﻋﺪ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ‪ EN-EL14a‬ﻭ‬
‫‪.EN-EL14‬‬
‫• ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ ،EP-5A‬ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ‪ :EH-5b‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻹﻛﺴﺴﻮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻟﺘﺰﻭﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﻤﺘﺪﺓ )ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺤﻮﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ‪ EH-5a‬ﻭ ‪ .(EH-5‬ﻳﺘﻌﻴﻦ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﻣﻮﺻﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪ EP-5A‬ﺑﻤﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ‪ EH-5b‬ﺛﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ؛ ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪326‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺑﻞ ‪ :AR-3‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻘﺒﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﻘﺮﺑﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‪.‬‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫ﻣﺮﺷﺤﺎﺕ‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﺗﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﻣﺮﺷﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ Df‬ﻣﻊ ﻣﺮﺷﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﻄﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺷﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﻄﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮﻱ ‪ C-PL‬ﺃﻭ ‪ C-PL II‬ﺑﺪﻻ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﻟﻮﻥ ﻣﺤﺎﻳﺪ ‪ NC‬ﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺗﺸﻮﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻳﻘﻒ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺳﺎﻃﻊ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺳﺎﻃﻊ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺮﺷﺤﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ )ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ ﻣﺮﺷﺢ( ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ‪،R60 ،O56 ،Y52 ،Y48 ،Y44) × 1‬‬
‫‪،B8 ،B2 ،A12 ،A2 ،ND400 ،ND8S ،ND8 ،ND4S ،ND4 ،ND2S ،C-PL ،X1 ،X0‬‬
‫‪ .(B12‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ ﻟﻠﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻹﺗﺎﺣﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‪ .‬ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﻨﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮﺍﺕ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺣﺪﺙ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪323‬‬
‫• ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺎﻃﻴﺔ ‪ :DK-19‬ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻴﺔ ‪ DK-19‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺳﻬﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﻤﻨﻊ ﺇﺟﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﺑﺘﺮ ‪ :DK-17C‬ﻻﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺩﻳﻮﺑﺘﺮ ﺑﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬
‫‪ –3‬ﻭ ‪ –2‬ﻭ ‪ 0‬ﻭ ‪ +1‬ﻭ ‪ +2‬ﻣﺘﺮ‪ .–1‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﺑﺘﺮ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﺑﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ )‪ -3‬ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ .(–1m +1‬ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺮ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﺑﺘﺮ ﻗﺒﻞ‬
‫ﺷﺮﺍﺋﻬﺎ ﻟﺘﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ‪ :DK-17M‬ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ DK-17M‬ﺑﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﺒﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺑﺤﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ × 1.2‬ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺩﻗﺔ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻣﻜﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ‪ :DG-2‬ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺒﺮ ‪ DG-2‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺽ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻬﺎﻳﺊ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﻟﻤﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫‪) DK-18‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺪﺓ( ﻣﻄﻠﻮﺑﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫• ﻣﻬﺎﻳﺊ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ‪ :DK-18‬ﻳﹸﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ‪ DK-18‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺒﺮ ‪ DG-2‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﻠﺤﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺣﺎﺩﺓ ‪ DR-3‬ﻓﻲ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪.Df‬‬
‫• ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻣﺔ ﺗﻜﺜﻒ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﺎﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ‪/DK-14‬ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻣﺔ ﺗﻜﺜﻒ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﺎﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ‪ :DK-17A‬ﺗﻤﻨﻊ ﺃﻏﻄﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﺎﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﻃﺒﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺩﺓ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻣﻠﺤﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺣﺎﺩﺓ ‪/DR-5‬ﻣﻠﺤﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺣﺎﺩﺓ ‪ :DR-4‬ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻖ ‪ DR-5‬ﻭ‪ DR-4‬ﻓﻲ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺑﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺃﻓﻘﻲ‪ .‬ﻳﺪﻋﻢ ﻣﻠﺤﻖ ‪ DR-5‬ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﺑﺘﺮ ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻨﻪ ﹰ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺮ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺑﻤﻘﺪﺍﺭ ‪ × 2‬ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺩﻗﺔ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ )ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺣﻮﺍﻑ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻟﻦ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺮﺋﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺟﺴﻢ ‪/BF-1B‬ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺟﺴﻢ ‪ :BF-1A‬ﻳﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻭﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺩﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻬﺎﻳﺊ ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻲ ﻣﺤﻤﻮﻝ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ :WU-1a‬ﻳﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺛﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺑﻴﻦ‬
‫ﻣﻬﺎﻳﺌﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ‪.Wireless Mobile Utility‬‬
‫ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻲ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ‪ Wireless Mobile Utility‬ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﺰﻳﻞ‬
‫ﻣﺤﻤﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺫﻛﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪324‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﻣﺞ‬
‫• ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ :Capture NX 2‬ﺑﺎﻗﺔ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻓﺮﺷﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ :Camera Control Pro 2‬ﻳﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺣﻔﻈﻬﺎ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺐ‬
‫ﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ‪ Camera Control Pro 2‬ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻭﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬
‫‪ c‬ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ؛ ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﻳﺐ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ xvii‬ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺣﺪﺙ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻋﻮﻣﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺒﺤﺚ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ‪ Message Center 2‬ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺜﺎﺕ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻚ ﻟﻠﺪﺧﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺑﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺣﺎﺳﺐ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﺎﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺚ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ‪ :WR-T10/WR-R10‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ WR-R10‬ﻓﻲ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪،‬‬
‫ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻴﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪.WR-T10‬‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫• ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ‪ :WR-1‬ﺗﹸﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ‪ WR-1‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺛﻨﻴﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻛﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺇﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﻭﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻛﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺑﺄﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﺄﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻹﺭﺳﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ Df‬ﺑﻄﺮﻑ ﻛﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺴﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ‪،(44 0) MC-DC2‬‬
‫ﻭﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻊ ‪ GPS‬ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪ GP-1‬ﻭ ‪،(170 0) GP-1A‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ ‪ 4‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺻﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻱ ﻣﻊ ‪ 2‬ﺑﺠﻮﺍﺭ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ )ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺏ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻑ(‪.‬‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪325‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ‬
‫ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺟﻬﺰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻓﺘﺢ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺣﺠﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪/‬ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ )‪ (q‬ﻭﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ )‪.(w‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪.EP-5A‬‬
‫ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺻﻞ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺢ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺻﻞ ﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺟﺎﻧ ﹰﺒﺎ‪ .‬ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺒﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺻﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺻﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺣﺠﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪/‬ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺿﻊ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﻤﺮ ﻋﺒﺮ‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺣﺠﻴﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪/‬ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪326‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﻭﺻﻞ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ‪.EH-5b‬‬
‫ﻭﺻﻞ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﻤﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﺑﻤﻘﺒﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ‬
‫ﺑﻤﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ )‪ (q‬ﻭﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪ EP-5A‬ﺑﻤﻘﺒﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ )‪.(w‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺭﻣﺰ ‪ V‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ‬
‫ﻭﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪327‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻣﻤﺘﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺰﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺧﺰﻧﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﺭﺩ ﻭﺟﺎﻑ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻑ‪ .‬ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻔﻦ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻄﺮﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺧﺰﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺟﺎﻑ ﺟﻴﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻮﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﺨﺰﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﺘﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻛﺮﺍﺕ ﻛﺎﻓﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺘﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻛﻦ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻮﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﺿﺔ ﻟﺮﻃﻮﺑﺔ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ‪%60‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻭﺭﺓ ﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﻛﻬﺮﻭﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻗﻮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺍﺩﻳﻮ‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﺿﺔ ﻟﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ‪° 50‬ﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪° -10‬ﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ‬
‫ﺟﺴﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ‬
‫ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺮﻭﺣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺍﻛﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﻣﺴﺤﻬﺎ ﺑﺮﻓﻖ‬
‫ﺑﻘﻄﻌﺔ ﻗﻤﺎﺵ ﻧﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﺟﺎﻓﺔ‪ .‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﺊ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺠﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ‪،‬‬
‫ﺗﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻣﻼﺡ ﺑﻘﻄﻌﺔ ﻗﻤﺎﺵ ﻣﺒﻠﻠﺔ ﻗﻠﻴﻼ ﹰ ﺑﻤﺎﺀ ﻣﻘﻄﺮ ﺛﻢ ﺟﻔﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ .‬ﻫﺎﻡ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺇﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺗﻠﻒ ﻻ ﻳﻐﻄﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﺟﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﻋﺮﺿﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﺴﺮ ﺑﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺮﻭﺣﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺮﻭﺣﺔ ﺿﺒﺎﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﻮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺭﺃﺳﻲ ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﺧﺮﻭﺝ ﺳﺎﺋﻞ‪ .‬ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺼﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺻﺎﺑﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻘﻊ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺃﺿﻒ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ﻗﻤﺎﺵ ﺟﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﻧﻈﻒ ﺑﺤﺮﺹ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﻟﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺮﻭﺣﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺼﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺻﺎﺑﻊ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻘﻊ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﺴﺢ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﺢ ﺑﺮﻓﻖ ﺑﻘﻄﻌﺔ ﻗﻤﺎﺵ ﻧﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺟﻠﺪ ﺷﻤﻮﺍﻩ‪ .‬ﻻ‬
‫ﺗﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻠﻒ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻛﺤﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﻣﺨﻔﻒ ﺩﻫﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﻛﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻃﻴﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪328‬‬
‫ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺩﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻤﺜﻞ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﺗﺮﺩﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﺝ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺗﺸﻚ ﻓﻲ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺃﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻏﺒﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺮﺍﻛﻤﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻵﻥ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ "ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺍﻵﻥ"‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ G‬ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺍﻵﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﺘﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺛﻢ ﺗﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ‪ .‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﻳﻮﻣﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪ P‬ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﻨﺰﻉ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻔﺼﻞ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﻜﺘﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻭﻳﺨﺘﻔﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ‪.P‬‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪329‬‬
‫❚❚ "ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﺪﺀ‪/‬ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ"‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﺪﺀ‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫ﻭﻭﻗﻒ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﺪﺀ ﻭﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﺪﺀ‪/‬ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺮﺽ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺧﻄﻮﺓ ‪ 2‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪ .‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﺪﺀ‪/‬ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.2‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻇﻠﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ‪.J‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺗﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ‪.‬‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪330‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﺯﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻳﻘﺎﻃﻊ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺘﻢ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺩﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺗﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻧﻈﻒ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺸﺮ ﻣﻤﺜﻞ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﻗﺼﻴﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺩﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ )‪ ،(329 0‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﻨﺪﺋﺬ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ‬
‫ﻳﺪﻭﻳﺎ ﹰ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ ﺭﻗﻴﻖ ﺟﺪﺍ ﹰ ﻭﻗﺎﺑﻞ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﻨﺼﺢ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺪ ﻓﻨﻲ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺻﻞ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻌﻴﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻓﺤﺺ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺩﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﻣﺤﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺗﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ‪ .‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ‪.H‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﻓﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﻓﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪331‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﺷﻐﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪ .‬ﻇﻠﻞ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﺿﻐﻂ‬
‫‪.2‬‬
‫ﺯﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.J‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻒ ﺷﺮﻃﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ .‬ﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻓﺤﺺ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺩﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﺍﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻭﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻓﺘﺢ‬
‫ﺳﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ ،‬ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺩﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‪ .‬ﺳﺘﻨﻄﻔﺊ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺑﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﺳﻴﻮﻣﺾ ﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻃﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪332‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫ﺍﻓﺤﺺ ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺩﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻣﺴﻚ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﺴﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺮﺷﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺩﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻓﺤﺺ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ ﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺃﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻧﺴﺎﻟﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺃﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﻏﺮﻳﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺧﻄﻮﺓ ‪.8‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫ﻧﻈﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻱ ﺃﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﻭﻧﺴﺎﻟﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻨﻔﺎﺥ ﻫﻮﺍﺀ‪ .‬ﻻ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﻨﻔﺎﺥ ﺑﻔﺮﺷﺎﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻻ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬
‫ﺷﻌﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺷﺎﺓ‪ .‬ﺍﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺮﻭﺣﺔ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺪ‬
‫ﻓﻨﻲ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ‪ .‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻟﻤﺲ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺴﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ ﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ‪.‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﺘﻌﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻟﻮﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻠﻲ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻭﺳﺘﻐﻠﻖ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﺭﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻢ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺭﻗﻴﻖ ﻭﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻧﻔﺪﺕ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‪ .‬ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﺤﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﻄﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﻄﺎﺀ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻐﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﺰﻉ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻔﺼﻞ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻧﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺻﻔﻴﺮ ﻭﺳﻴﻮﻣﺾ‬
‫ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ ﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻬﻚ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺧﻔﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺘﻴﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﺤﺺ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪333‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺍﻷﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺩﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺘﺨﺬ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜﻨﺔ ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺃﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﻏﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺩﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ Df‬ﻣﺼﻤﻤﺔ ﻟﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﺃﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﻏﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﺑﻤﺠﺮﺩ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺃﻱ‬
‫ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﻏﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻠﺘﺼﻖ ﺑﻤﺮﺷﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺩﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻐﻄﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻱ ﺃﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﻏﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﻣﻠﺘﺼﻘﺔ ﺑﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ‪ .‬ﺍﺣﺮﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺟﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﻏﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺩﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‪ ،‬ﻧﻈﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ‬
‫ﺃﻋﻼﻩ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻓﻨﻲ ﺻﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺄﺛﺮﺓ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻏﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪) Capture NX 2‬ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ؛ ‪ (325 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺻﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺫﻭ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻭﺗﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺻﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺩﻭﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﺗﻨﺼﺢ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﻔﺤﺺ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺪ ﻣﻮﺯﻉ ﺃﺻﻠﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻤﺜﻞ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻛﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺎﻣﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻴﺎﻧﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻛﻞ‬
‫ﺛﻼﺙ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺧﻤﺲ ﺃﻋﻮﺍﻡ )ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺼﻴﻞ ﺭﺳﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺨﺪﻣﺔ(‪ .‬ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺤﺺ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻬﻨﻲ ﻣﺤﺘﺮﻑ‪ .‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﺇﺭﻓﺎﻕ‬
‫ﺃﻱ ﺇﻛﺴﺴﻮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﺘﻈﻢ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫‪ Speedlights‬ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻓﺤﺺ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪334‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﺴﻘﻄﻪ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻟﻘﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻴﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺟﺎﻓﹰﺎ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻡ ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺼﻴﺒﻪ ﻗﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻏﻤﺮﻩ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻃﻮﺑﺔ‪ .‬ﺻﺪﺃ ﺁﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻒ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﺻﻼﺣﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺠﻨﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﺟﺊ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﺟﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺪﺙ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺒﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺗﺪﻓﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺑﺎﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺴﺒﺐ ﺗﻜﺜﻒ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺜﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻘﻴﺒﺔ ﺣﻤﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻛﻴﺲ ﺑﻼﺳﺘﻴﻚ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﺟﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﻌﻴ ﹰﺪﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺨﺰﻧﻪ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺗﻮﻟﺪ ﺇﺷﻌﺎﻉ ﻛﻬﺮﻭﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﻗﻮﻱ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﺷﺤﻨﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﺘﺠﻬﺎ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺇﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺩﻳﻮ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺗﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺰﻧﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺘﺞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﺘﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻮﺟﻬﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺗﺘﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻮﺟﻬﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺿﻮﺀ ﻗﻮﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻓﺴﺎﺩ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺗﺸﻮﻳﺶ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻧﺰﻉ ﺃﻭ ﻓﺼﻞ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺗﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﺰﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻥ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﺤﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﺨﻄﺄ‪ ،‬ﺗﺠﻨﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻵﺧﺮ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺑﻤﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪335‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ‪ :‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺮﻭﺣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺍﻛﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺮﻓﻖ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﻣﺴﺤﻬﺎ ﺑﺮﻓﻖ ﺑﻘﻄﻌﺔ ﻗﻤﺎﺵ ﻧﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﺟﺎﻓﺔ‪ .‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﺊ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺑﺠﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ‪ ،‬ﺗﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻣﻼﺡ ﺑﻘﻄﻌﺔ ﻗﻤﺎﺵ ﻣﺒﻠﻠﺔ ﻗﻠﻴﻼ ﹰ ﺑﻤﺎﺀ ﻧﻈﻴﻒ ﺛﻢ ﺟﻔﻒ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺩﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺎﺕ ‪ .LCD‬ﻻ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺘﻌﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﻭﺟﻴﺰﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻣﻌﺮﺿﺘﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﻟﺔ ﺑﺮﻓﻖ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻣﺮﻭﺣﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺮﻭﺣﺔ ﺿﺒﺎﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﻮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺭﺃﺳﻲ ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﺧﺮﻭﺝ ﺳﺎﺋﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺼﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺻﺎﺑﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻘﻊ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﺿﻒ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ﻗﻤﺎﺵ ﺟﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﻧﻈﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺤﺮﺹ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ "ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺩﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ" )‪ (331 ،329 0‬ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺩﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ :‬ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻈﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻠﻤﺲ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ :‬ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺭﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻳﺔ ﻭﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻟﻠﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﺄﻱ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻟﻤﺴﻪ ﺑﺄﺩﺍﺓ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻀﻪ ﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻫﻮﺍﺀ ﻗﻮﻱ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺮﻭﺣﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﺗﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺧﺪﺵ‪ ،‬ﺗﺸﻮﻳﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻤﺰﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻐﻄﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‪ :‬ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻔﻦ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻄﺮﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺧﺰﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺟﺎﻑ ﺟﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻮﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﻨﺖ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻓﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻮﻝ ﻟﺘﺠﻨﺐ ﻧﺸﻮﺏ ﺣﺮﻳﻖ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺰﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﺘﺠﻨﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺮﻳﺐ ﻭﺧﺰﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻴﺲ ﺑﻼﺳﺘﻴﻚ ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺠﻔﻔﺔ‪ .‬ﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺗﺨﺰﻥ ﻋﺒﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻴﺲ ﺑﻼﺳﺘﻴﻚ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻓﺴﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻨﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻔﻔﺔ ﺗﻔﻘﺪ ﻗﺪﺭﺗﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻣﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﺮﻃﻮﺑﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺞ ﻭﻳﺠﺐ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻟﻬﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﺘﻈﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﺠﻨﺐ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻔﻦ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻄﺮﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻬﺮ‪ .‬ﺷﻐﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺣﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﺧﺰﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﺭﺩ ﻭﺟﺎﻑ‪ .‬ﺭﻛﺐ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻑ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪336‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﺼﻨﻮﻋﺔ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺔ؛ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ﺗﺒﻠﻎ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺑﻜﺴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﺔ ‪ ،%99.99‬ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻦ ‪ %0.01‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﻔﻘﻮﺩ ﺃﻭ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ )ﺑﻴﻀﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺣﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺯﺭﻗﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺧﻀﺮﺍﺀ( ﺃﻭ ﻣﻄﻔﺄﺓ ﹰ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺑﻜﺴﻞ ﻣﻀﻴﺌﺔ ﹰ‬
‫)ﺳﻮﺩﺍﺀ(‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻄﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻱ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺑﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺐ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻠﻒ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺮﻭﺣﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻊ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﺴﺤﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺮﻓﻖ ﺑﻘﻄﻌﺔ ﻗﻤﺎﺵ ﻧﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺟﻠﺪ ﺷﻤﻮﺍﻩ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﺴﺮ‪ ،‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻺﺻﺎﺑﺔ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﺰﺟﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺴﻮﺭ ﻭﺗﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﻟﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﻳﺴﺘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﻟﻠﺒﺸﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﺘﺴﺮﻳﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﻧﻔﺠﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﺑﺄﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪ .‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻬﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﻣﻔﺮﻃﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻈﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﻝ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻑ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﻛﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﺿﺌﻴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﻐﻠﻘﺔ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﺗﻔﺮﻳﻐﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺧﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﻓﺮﻏﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺇﺧﺮﺍﺟﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺧﺰﻧﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ‪°15‬ﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪° 25‬ﻡ؛ )ﺗﺠﻨﺐ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﺩﺓ(‪ .‬ﻛﺮﺭ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻛﻞ ﺳﺘﺔ ﺃﺷﻬﺮ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺘﻜﺮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﺎﺭﻏﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﺗﻤﺎﻣﺎ ﹰ ﺳﻴﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻘﺼﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺗﻤﺎﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﻟﻠﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭﻏﺔ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫• ﻗﺪ ﺗﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‪ .‬ﻣﺤﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺟﺰﺋﻴﺎ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺒﺮﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﺳﻴﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺿﻌﻒ ﺃﺩﺍﺋﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺤﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺷﺤﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪337‬‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪338‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺷﺤﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺿﻌﻒ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺪﻝ ﺍﻻﻧﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻮﻅ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﺣﺘﻔﺎﻅ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺸﺤﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺷﺘﺮﻱ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻟﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺎﺕ ﻫﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﺟﻬﺰ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ .‬ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺐ ﺷﺮﺍﺀ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ ﺣﺠﺰ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ‬
‫ﺃﻧﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﺗﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﺳﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﺎﺥ ﺑﺎﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﺣﺘﻔﻆ ﺑﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﻓﺊ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﻟﻬﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﺰﻭﻡ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﺴﺘﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺩﺓ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺤﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﻤﺠﺮﺩ ﺗﺪﻓﺌﺘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ؛ ﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮﻫﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ )ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪(P‬‬
‫ﻳﺒﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻮﺿﻊ ‪:P‬‬
‫‪ISO 100‬؛ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻗﺼﻮﻯ ‪ f/1.4‬ﻭﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺩﻧﻴﺎ ‪) f/16‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪،‬‬
‫‪ f/1.4G‬ﻣﻢ‪(AF-S NIKKOR 50‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪-1‬‬
‫‪-3‬‬
‫‪-2‬‬
‫‪-4‬‬
‫‪-5‬‬
‫]‬
‫‪V‬‬
‫‪[E‬‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫‪f/1‬‬
‫‪16 16 15‬‬
‫‪/‬‬
‫‪f/1.4‬‬
‫‪f/2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪17‬‬
‫‪18‬‬
‫‪19‬‬
‫‪f/5.6‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫‪f/16 − f/1.4‬‬
‫‪f/2.8‬‬
‫‪f/4‬‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫‪f/8‬‬
‫‪21‬‬
‫‪f/11‬‬
‫‪22‬‬
‫‪f/16‬‬
‫‪23‬‬
‫‪f/22‬‬
‫‪15 30 60 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 8000‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫"‪1‬‬
‫"‪2‬‬
‫"‪30" 15" 8" 4‬‬
‫‪f/32‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ )ﺛﻮﺍﻧﻲ(‬
‫ﺗﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﻗﻴﻢ ‪ EV‬ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﻯ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬؛ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﺃﻋﻼﻩ ﻳﻔﺘﺮﺽ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﻣﺴﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ .ISO 100‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ‪ EV 161/3‬ﺣﺘﻰ ‪.EV 161/3‬‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪339‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻞ ﻭﺇﺻﻼﺣﻪ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻓﺸﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻊ‪ ،‬ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺋﻌﺔ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺯﻉ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻤﺜﻞ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪/‬ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺠﻴﺐ‪ :‬ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺰﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺭﻛﺒﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻓﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻮﻝ ﺛﻢ ﺃﻋﺪ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﻳﺔ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺟﺎﺭﻱ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻟﻦ ﺗﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﺑﻨﺰﻉ ﺃﻭ ﻓﺼﻞ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪ :‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ )‪.(324 ،28 0‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺩﺍﻛﻦ‪ :‬ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ )‪.(29 ،18 0‬‬
‫ﺗﹸﻐﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﺤﺬﻳﺮ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺗﺄﺧﺮ ﺃﻃﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) c2‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ( ﺃﻭ ‪) c4‬ﺗﺄﺧﺮ ﺍﻧﻄﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ( )‪.(253 ،251 0‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺠﻴﺐ ﺷﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﺑﺈﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻓﺘﺮﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ ﻟﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﻄﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﻤﺮ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻈﻠﻴﻞ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻈﻮﺍﻫﺮ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﻻ ﺗﺪﻝ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‪.‬‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪340‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﻐﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻟﻠﺒﺪﺀ‪ :‬ﺍﺣﺬﻑ ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺠﻠﺪﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻢ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻣﻘﻔﻠﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻤﺘﻠﺌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻟﻬﺎ )‪.(29 ،19 0‬‬
‫• ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) f9‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺗﻔﺮﻳﻎ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ؛ ‪.(269 0‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪.(32 0‬‬
‫• ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ‪ CPU‬ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻣﻘﻔﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ )ﻻ ﻳﻨﻄﺒﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G‬ﻭ ‪ .(E‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ‪ B‬ﻓﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪f7‬‬
‫)ﺗﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ( < ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ )‪.(267 0‬‬
‫• ﺗﻢ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ CPU‬ﻣﻊ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺫﺭﺍﻉ ﺇﻗﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ )ﻻ ﻳﻨﻄﺒﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G‬ﻭ‪E‬؛‬
‫‪.(167 0‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﺠﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺒﻂﺀ ﻟﺰﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) d10‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ؛ ‪.(256 0‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪ :‬ﺃﻭﻗﻒ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ‪.(112 0) HDR‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺃﺩﺭ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪.(59 0) AF‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪.(68 ،66 0‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻛﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻟﻺﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) f4‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ‪ ،(263 0 ،Fn‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) f5‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ‪ ،(266 0 ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) f6‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻋﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ .(267 0 ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻗﻴﺪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪) e1‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ(؛ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﻓﻼﺵ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ‪ 1/250‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ )‪ FP‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ( ﺃﻭ ‪ 1/200‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ )‪ FP‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ( ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ )‪.(257 0‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺯﺭ‬
‫‪ A‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪/‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻘﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪AF-C‬‬
‫ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪341‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺣﺮﺭ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ )‪.(64 0‬‬
‫• ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ )‪ (62 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻷﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ )‪ (177 0‬ﻣﻊ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺁﺧﺮ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ )‪ (185 0‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﻗﻴﺪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ )‪.(224 0‬‬
‫• ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ )‪.(33 0‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ :‬ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ )‪.(183 ،68 0‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ :‬ﺗﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ )‪.(55 0) NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ :‬ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ )‪.(242 0‬‬
‫ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ )ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻜﺴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺿﺒﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ( ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺃﻗﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﻋﻨﺪ ‪ ISO‬ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻲ )‪.(242 ،70 0‬‬
‫• ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪ 1‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ )‪.(242 0‬‬
‫• ﺃﻭﻗﻒ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻟﺘﺠﻨﺐ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ )‪.(110 0‬‬
‫ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﻟﻄﺨﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻧﻈﻒ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻧﻈﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪.(329 0‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ )‪.(81 0‬‬
‫• ﻋﺪﻝ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪.(100 0) Picture Control‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪ :‬ﻫﺪﻑ ﺷﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻹﻇﻼﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺳﺎﻃﻊ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻳﺔ )‪.(92 0‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻛﻤﺼﺪﺭ ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‪ :‬ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫‪.(96 0) Df‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺃﻭ ‪ NEF+JPEG‬ﻓﻲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪.(141 ،55 0‬‬
‫• ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻗﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻌﻴﻞ )‪.(155 0‬‬
‫ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ :‬ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪) A‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ(‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﺗﺒﺎﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺻﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺁﺧﺮ )‪.(103 0‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻗﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ )‪.(77 0‬‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪342‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ P‬ﺃﻭ‪ S‬ﺃﻭ ‪،39 ،38 0) A‬‬
‫‪.(41‬‬
‫ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ )ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺣﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺸﻮﻫﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ( ﻓﻲ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ‪ :‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻤﻜﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ )‪.(242 0‬‬
‫ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻌﻴﺔ )‪.(75 0‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪.(174 0) M‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺳﺎﻃﻊ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻈﻠﻢ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻗﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ )‪.(110 0‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻠﺘﻘﻄﺔ ﺑﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ )‪.(44 0‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻗﻴﺪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ )‪.(116 0‬‬
‫ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺗﺮﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ )‪.(276 0‬‬
‫ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻗﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ :‬ﺗﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻣﻀﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻗﺼﻴﺮﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ )‪ :NEF (RAW‬ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺠﻮﺩﺓ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪.(55 0) NEF + JPEG‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺑﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻤﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫)‪.(230 0‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ "ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻟﻴﺔ" )ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻴﺔ( ﺑﺎﺗﺠﺎﻩ "ﻋﺮﺿﻲ" )ﺃﻓﻘﻲ(‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻃﻮﻟﻴﺎ )‪.(233 0‬‬
‫• ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ )‪.(277 0‬‬
‫• ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻮﺟﻬﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺳﻔﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪.(277 0‬‬
‫• ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪.(232 0‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺤﻤﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ )‪.(201 0‬‬
‫• ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻣﻐﻠﻘﺔ )‪.(22 0‬‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪343‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )‪.(289 0‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻔﻴﺪ ﺑﻌﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻟﻠﻌﺮﺽ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫)‪.(230 0‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻣﻤﺘﻠﺌﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ )‪.(203 ،35 0‬‬
‫• ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻣﻐﻠﻘﺔ )‪.(22 0‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺻﻮﺭ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺃﻭ ‪ TIFF‬ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ‪ .USB‬ﺍﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺣﺎﺳﺐ ﻭﺍﻃﺒﻊ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪) ViewNX 2‬ﻣﺮﻓﻖ( ﺃﻭ ‪) Capture NX 2‬ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ؛‬
‫‪ .(325 0‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺻﻮﺭ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ JPEG‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ )‪.(300 0) NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﻓﻴﺪﻳﻮ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ‪) HDMI‬ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺪﺓ(‬
‫)‪.(222 0‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺠﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺪﻋﻢ ‪:HDMI-CEC‬‬
‫• ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ‪ < HDMI‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ )‪.(223 0‬‬
‫• ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ HDMI-CEC‬ﻟﻠﺘﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﺎﺋﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‪ :‬ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻗﺎﺭﺉ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ )‪.(325 0‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ :Capture NX 2‬ﺣﺪﺙ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ )‪.(325 0‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺤﻘﻖ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ Capture NX 2‬ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ‪ :‬ﺗﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺩﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻌﻜﺲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻌﻜﺲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )‪.(275 0‬‬
‫ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ )‪ NEF (RAW‬ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪ :‬ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺃﻭ ‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪) ViewNX 2‬ﻣﺮﻓﻖ( ﺃﻭ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻣﺜﻞ ‪) Capture NX 2‬ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ(‪.‬‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪344‬‬
‫ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﻣﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪ :‬ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )‪.(276 ،27 0‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﻨﺪ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪345‬‬
‫ﺭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺄ‬
‫ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﺭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺄ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫‪B‬‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬
‫• ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻀﺒﻮﻃﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺗﻢ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪CPU AI‬‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺫﺭﺍﻉ ﺇﻗﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )ﻻ ﻳﻨﻄﺒﻖ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ G‬ﻭ‪.(E‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻞ‬
‫• ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺤﻠﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ )ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﻗﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺆﺭﻱ(‪.‬‬
‫• ﻗﻢ ﺑﻔﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺨﻔﻴﺾ‬
‫ﺫﺭﺍﻉ ﺇﻗﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻋﺪ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺟﻬﺰ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻧﺔ‬
‫ﹼ‬
‫‪ d‬ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪H‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺃﻋﺪ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫• ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﻔﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﻟﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ • .‬ﺍﺗﺼﻞ ﺑﻤﻤﺜﻞ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪d‬‬
‫‪H‬‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ( )ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺷﺤﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻮﻥ ﻟﻴﺜﻴﻮﻡ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﻔﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫‪ CPU‬ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ‬
‫‪F‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺷﻜﻞ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻭﻗﻔﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪346‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪25‬‬
‫‪167‬‬
‫‪29‬‬
‫‪،18 ،xvi‬‬
‫‪19‬‬
‫‪163‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫—‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫‪2 4‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻞ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻳﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﺃﻗﻞ‬
‫• ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺳﺎﻃﻊ ﺟﺪﺍﹰ؛ ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﺯﺍﺋﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪ P‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ‪ND‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬
‫‪ S‬ﺍﺭﻓﻊ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺃﺻﻐﺮ )ﺭﻗﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ(‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫ﺃﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫• ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‪:‬‬
‫)ﺗﻮﻣﺾ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ(‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺩﺍﻛﻦ ﺟﺪﺍﹰ؛ ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫‪ P‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻧﺎﻗﺺ‪.‬‬
‫‪ S‬ﺍﺧﻔﺾ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ )ﺭﻗﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺃﻗﻞ(‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﹼ‬
‫ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪) B‬ﻓﺘﺢ( ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪.M‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪.S‬‬
‫‪%‬‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﹼ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪.M‬‬
‫ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪) T‬ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ( ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪.S‬‬
‫‪ k P‬ﺟﺎﺭﻱ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ( )ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﻜﺘﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪68 ،61‬‬
‫‪70‬‬
‫‪323 ،38‬‬
‫‪39‬‬
‫‪41‬‬
‫‪70‬‬
‫‪116، 38‬‬
‫‪39‬‬
‫‪41‬‬
‫‪42 ،39‬‬
‫‪42 ،39‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪347‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﻣﻴﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ‬
‫‪ 3‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ‬
‫‪c‬‬
‫—‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ( ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻧﺎﻗﺺ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻻ ﺗﻜﻔﻲ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫‪ j n‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ( )ﻳﻮﻣﺾ( ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﻔﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪O‬‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪348‬‬
‫ﺧﻠﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻞ‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫ﻋﺎﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ؛ ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺑﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ ﻧﺎﻗﺺ‪،‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﻝ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﺣﺎﻭﻝ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫‪121‬‬
‫• ﻗﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺠﻮﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﺣﺬﻑ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪58 ،55‬‬
‫‪203‬‬
‫‪19‬‬
‫ﺣﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻇﻬﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﻋﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﺗﺼﻞ ﺑﻤﻤﺜﻞ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ‪.‬‬
‫—‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ‬
‫‪19‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ S .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪363‬‬
‫• ﺧﻄﺄ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ • ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫—‬
‫• ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻈﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻠﻒ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺗﺼﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻮﺯﻉ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻫﺬﻩ‪،W .‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻣﻤﺜﻞ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫‪O‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺗﺎﻟﻔﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﻢ‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫‪203 ،19‬‬
‫• ﺍﺣﺬﻑ ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺩﺧﻞ‬
‫• ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺑﺈﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﻣﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺣﺎﺳﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪285‬‬
‫• ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫‪ Eye-Fi‬ﻣﺤ ﹼﺪﺙ‪.‬‬
‫‪ ،W‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫‪19‬‬
‫• ﺍﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬
‫‪ O‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫‪g‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪ Eye-Fi‬ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ( ‪.Eye-Fi‬‬
‫ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺣﺎﺳﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮ ﻭﻗﻢ ﺑﻌﻤﻞ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻣﻘﻔﻠﺔ‪،W .‬‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻣﻘﻔﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﻔﻞ‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫)ﻣﺤﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ(‪ .‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻊ "ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ"‪) .‬ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫‪22‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺎﺡ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬
‫‪ ،W‬ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪ Eye-Fi‬ﻣﻘﻔﻠﺔ ﻭﺿﻊ "ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪ Eye-Fi‬ﻣﻘﻔﻠﺔ‪O .‬‬
‫)ﻣﺤﻤﻴﺔ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪349‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻢ ﺗﺘﻢ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻤﺖ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫ﻓﺸﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺚ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ .‬ﻻ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‪ .‬ﺍﺗﺼﻞ ﺑﻤﻤﺜﻞ‬
‫ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪350‬‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻢ ﺗﺘﻢ ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﻫﻴﺊ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺩﺧﻞ‬
‫]‪[C‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻟﺘﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫)ﻳﻮﻣﺾ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫—‬
‫—‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻞ‬
‫ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻀﺒﻮﻃﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ‬
‫ﺍﺗﺼﻞ ﺑﻤﻤﺜﻞ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺒﺘﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺿﺒﻂ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ .‬ﻳﺮﺟﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻈﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫—‬
‫ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺒﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺌﻨﺎﻑ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺃﻳﺔ ﺻﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫—‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ )ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪﺍﺕ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻌﺮﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻣﺨﻔﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫—‬
‫ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺨﻔﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺣﺘﻰ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺃﺧﺮ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺇﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺴﻤﺎﺡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ﺑﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪19‬‬
‫‪276 ،27‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪174‬‬
‫‪230 ،19‬‬
‫‪230‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‪.‬‬
‫—‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‪.‬‬
‫—‬
‫ﺗﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫—‬
‫ﺗﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻕ‪.‬‬
‫—‬
‫ﺍﻧﺤﺸﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻕ‪.‬‬
‫—‬
‫ﻧﻔﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻕ‪.‬‬
‫—‬
‫ﺗﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻣﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﺒﺮ‪.‬‬
‫—‬
‫ﻧﻔﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺒﺮ‪.‬‬
‫—‬
‫*‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻠﻒ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻩ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻠﻪ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺣﺎﺳﺐ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺔ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻣﻠﻒ ﺗﺎﻟﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻻ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺤﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺧﻄﺄ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻞ‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫—‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﺑﺄﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺌﻨﺎﻑ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‬
‫)ﺇﻥ ﻭﺟﺪ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ‬
‫ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﻭﺭﻕ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺸﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻕ ﻣﺤﺸﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﻭﺭﻕ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻧﻔﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺒﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺧﻄﺄ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺒﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺌﻨﺎﻑ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺤﺒﺮ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬
‫ﻧﻔﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪289‬‬
‫‪214‬‬
‫*‬
‫‪214‬‬
‫*‬
‫‪214‬‬
‫*‬
‫‪214‬‬
‫*‬
‫‪214‬‬
‫*‬
‫‪214‬‬
‫*‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪351‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ‬
‫❚❚ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪Df‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ‪) F‬ﺑﺄﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﻭﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺇﻗﺮﺍﻥ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ(‬
‫ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪ FX‬ﻣﻦ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺑﻜﺴﻞ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺑﻜﺴﻞ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫‪ 16.2‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ‪23.9 × 36.0 CMOS‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺑﻜﺴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪352‬‬
‫ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻋﺎﻛﺲ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫‪ 16.6‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻢ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )ﻳﺘﻌﻴﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ ‪(Capture NX 2‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )ﺑﻜﺴﻞ( • ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪(24×36) FX‬‬
‫‪(%) 1640 × 2464 ($) 2456 × 3696 (#) 3280 × 4928‬‬
‫• ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪(16×24) DX‬‬
‫‪(%) 1064 × 1600 ($) 1592 × 2400 (#) 2128 × 3200‬‬
‫ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ‬
‫• )‪ 12 :NEF (RAW‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 14‬ﺑﺖ‪ ،‬ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻧﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﺔ‬
‫• )‪TIFF (RGB‬‬
‫• ‪ :JPEG‬ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭ ‪ JPEG-Baseline‬ﻣﻊ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺟﻴﺪ )‪،(4 : 1‬‬
‫ﻋﺎﺩﻱ )ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ ‪ ،(8 : 1‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ )ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ ‪ (16 : 1‬ﻣﻊ ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬
‫)ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ(؛ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫• ‪ :NEF (RAW)+JPEG‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ‬
‫)‪ NEF (RAW‬ﻭ ‪JPEG‬‬
‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﺤﺎﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﺸﺮﻕ‪ ،‬ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ؛‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ؛ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ Picture Control‬ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ )‪ SD (Secure Digital‬ﻭ‪ UHS-I‬ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ‪ SDHC‬ﻭ‪SDXC‬‬
‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ‬
‫‪) DCF‬ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ( ‪) DPOF ،2.0‬ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺭﻗﻤﻲ(‪) Exif 2.3 ،‬ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ(‪PictBridge ،‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺪﻯ ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﺑﺘﺮ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺁﺓ ﻋﺎﻛﺴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﻤﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﺑﻤﻨﺸﻮﺭ ﺧﻤﺎﺳﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺑﻌﺎﻛﺲ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫• ‪ :(24×36) FX‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ ‪ %100‬ﺃﻓﻘﻲ ﻭ ‪ %100‬ﺭﺃﺳﻲ‬
‫• ‪ :(16×24) DX‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ ‪ %97‬ﺃﻓﻘﻲ ﻭ ‪ %97‬ﺭﺃﺳﻲ‬
‫‪ × 0.7‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ )ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ 50‬ﻣﻢ ‪ f/1.4‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻼﻧﻬﺎﻳﺔ‪ –1.0 ،‬ﻡ‪(–1‬‬
‫‪–1‬‬
‫‪ 15‬ﻣﻢ )‪ –1.0‬ﻡ ؛ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻄﺢ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮ(‬
‫‪–1‬‬
‫‪ +1 – -3‬ﻡ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ‪ BriteView‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ B‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻻﻣﻌﺔ ‪ Mark VIII‬ﺑﺄﻗﻮﺍﺱ ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﻳﺔ(‬
‫ﺍﺭﺗﺪﺍﺩ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‬
‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ Pv‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﻗﻒ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﺻﻮﻻ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ )ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ A‬ﻭ ‪ (M‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ )ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ P‬ﻭ ‪(S‬‬
‫ﺍﺭﺗﺪﺍﺩ ﻓﻮﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ ،AF NIKKOR‬ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪G‬‬
‫ﻭ‪ E‬ﻭ‪) D‬ﺗﻄﺒﻖ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ (PC‬ﻭﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪) DX‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ ،(×1.5 16 × 24 DX‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ AI-P NIKKOR‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ .CPU‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪IX NIKKOR‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ .F3AF‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻯ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺣﺪ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ ‪ f/5.6‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﺳﺮﻉ )ﻳﺪﻋﻢ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ ‪ 7‬ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺣﺪ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ ‪ f/8‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﺳﺮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪ 33‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻟﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺣﺪ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺤﺔ ‪ f/7.1‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﺳﺮﻉ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻏﺎﻟﻖ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﺆﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﺭﺃﺳﻲ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ‬
‫‪ 4–1/4000‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺘﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ‪ 30–1/4000) EV 1‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﺘﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ‪ EV 1/3‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ(‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ‪) X200‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻓﻘﻂ(‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻓﺘﺢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬
‫‪ 1/200 = X‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ؛ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻋﻨﺪ ‪ 1/250‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺑﻄﺄ )ﺍﻧﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﻣﺪﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ 1/200‬ﻭ‪ 1/250‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ(‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪353‬‬
‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫‪) S‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ(‪) CL ،‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ(‪) CH ،‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ(‪،‬‬
‫‪) J‬ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺻﺎﻣﺖ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻟﻖ( ‪) E ،‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ(‪) MUP ،‬ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺁﺓ ﻟﻸﻋﻠﻰ(‬
‫‪ 5–1‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ )‪ (CL‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 5.5‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‪/‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ )‪(CH‬‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺘﺎﻥ‪ 5 ،‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ‪ 10 ،‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ‪ 20 ،‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ؛ ‪ 9–1‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﺑﻔﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺔ ‪ 0.5‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪ 2‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﺛﻮﺍﻥ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ TTL‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ‪ RGB 2016‬ﺑﻜﺴﻞ‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ )‪ ،ISO 100‬ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫‪° 20 ،f/1.4‬ﻡ(‬
‫ﺇﻗﺮﺍﻥ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫ﻣﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻣﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺛﻼﺛﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ ‪) II‬ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪G‬‬
‫ﻭ‪ E‬ﻭ ‪(D‬؛ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻣﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ‪) II‬ﻋﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ CPU‬ﺃﺧﺮﻯ(؛ ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻣﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ CPU‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪ :‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %75‬ﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺑﻘﻄﺮ ‪ 12‬ﻣﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻗﻄﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 8‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 15‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 20‬ﻣﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ )ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﺰﺓ‬
‫ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ CPU‬ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ‪ 12‬ﻣﻢ(‬
‫ﺑﻘﻌﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺑﻘﻄﺮ ‪ 4‬ﻣﻢ )ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ %1.5‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ( ﻣﺘﻤﺮﻛﺰﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ )ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﻬﺰﺓ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪(CPU‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪EV 20 – 0 :‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺑﻘﻌﻴﺔ‪EV 20 – 2 :‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ‪ CPU‬ﻭ‪ AI‬ﻣﺪﻣﺠﺔ )ﺫﺭﺍﻉ ﺇﻗﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻟﻠﻄﻲ(‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺒﺮﻣﺞ ﻣﻊ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻣﺮﻥ )‪(P‬؛ ﻏﺎﻟﻖ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ )‪(S‬؛ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‪-‬‬
‫ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ )‪(A‬؛ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ )‪(M‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ‪ EV +3 – –3‬ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ‪EV 1/3‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫‪ 5 – 2‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ‪ ،1/3‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ،2/3‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ،1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ،2‬ﺃﻭ ‪EV 3‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫‪ 5 – 2‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ‪ ،1/3‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ،2/3‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ،1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ،2‬ﺃﻭ ‪EV 3‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫‪ 3 – 2‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﺃﻭ ‪3‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ADL‬‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪354‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺃﻭ ‪ 5-3‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻗﻴﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﻜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﻉ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻓﻬﺎ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‬
‫‪ A‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫)ﻣﻌﺪﻝ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫‪ 12800 – ISO 100‬ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ‪ .EV /3‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﹰ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪0.3‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺻﻰ ﺃﻭ ‪ 0.7‬ﺃﻭ ‪ EV 1‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﹰ )ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﺎﻓﺊ ‪ (ISO 50‬ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪ ISO 100‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 0.3‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺑﻪ(‬
‫‪ 0.7‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 1‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 2‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 3‬ﺃﻭ ‪) EV 4‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﺎﻓﺊ ‪ (ISO 204800‬ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ‪ISO 12800‬؛‬
‫ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺤﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ISO‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪ D-Lighting‬ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﺑﺸﺪﺓ ‪ ،+1/+2‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ‪ Nikon Multi-CAM 4800‬ﻣﺰﻭﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﻃﻮﺭ ‪ ،TTL‬ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻭ‪ 39‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ )ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ‪9‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﺴﺘﻌﺮﺽ؛ ﻭﺗﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ‪ 33‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻓﺘﺤﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪ f/5.6‬ﻭﺃﺳﺮﻉ ﻣﻦ ‪ ،f/8‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ‪ 7‬ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ‪(f/8‬‬
‫‪° 20 ،ISO 100) EV +19 – –1‬ﻡ(‬
‫• ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪ :(AF‬ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻓﺮﺩﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪(AF-S‬؛‬
‫ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪(AF-C‬؛ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺒﻊ‬
‫ﺗﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫• ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ )‪ :(M‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ 39‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 11‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ؛ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ ‪ 9‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 21‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 39‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﻘﺐ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻖ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺿﻐﻄﺔ )ﻣﻌﺰﺯ‬
‫ﻓﺮﺩﻱ ﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ( ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ‪ A‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ‪/‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫‪ :TTL‬ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ i-TTL‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ‪RGB 2016‬‬
‫ﺑﻴﻜﺴﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻭﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ SB-910‬ﺃﻭ ‪ SB-900‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪ SB-800‬ﺃﻭ ‪ SB-700‬ﺃﻭ ‪ SB-600‬ﺃﻭ ‪ SB-400‬ﺃﻭ ‪SB-300‬؛ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻣﻞﺀ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ‪ i-TTL‬ﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ SLR‬ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﻭﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻼﺵ ‪ i-TTL‬ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ SLR‬ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻌﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺩﻋﻢ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺳﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﻣﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺳﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﺳﺘﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ‪ FP‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪355‬‬
‫ﻓﻼﺵ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪ EV +1 – –3‬ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ‪EV /3‬‬
‫ﻳﻀﻲﺀ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻛﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺷﺤﻦ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ؛ ﻳﻮﻣﺾ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺑﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻃﺎﻗﺘﻪ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ‪ ISO 518‬ﻣﻊ ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﻗﻔﻞ ﺃﻣﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻋﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺩﻋﻢ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ SB-910‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪ SB-900 Creative Lighting System‬ﺃﻭ ‪ SB-800‬ﺃﻭ ‪ SB-700‬ﻛﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﻓﻼﺵ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ‬
‫)‪ (CLS‬ﻣﻦ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫‪ SB-600‬ﺃﻭ ‪ SB-R200‬ﻛﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺗﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ SU-800‬ﻛﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ؛‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺩﻋﻢ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ‪ FP‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻭﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ‪ CLS‬ﻣﺎﻋﺪﺍ ‪ SB-400‬ﻭ‪SB-300‬؛‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺩﻋﻢ ﺇﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﻭﻗﻔﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ‪ FV‬ﻣﻊ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ‪CLS‬‬
‫ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ‬
‫ﻃﺮﻑ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ‪ ISO 519‬ﻣﻊ ﺗﺴﻨﻴﻦ ﻟﻠﻘﻔﻞ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪356‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪ 2‬ﻧﻮﻉ(‪ ،‬ﺳﺎﻃﻊ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻮﺭﻱ )‪ 7‬ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ(‪ ،‬ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼﺵ‪،‬‬
‫ﻏﺎﺋﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻈﻞ‪ ،‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ )ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ 4‬ﻗﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺗﺎﺣﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻌﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ(‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫)‪ ،(K 10000–K 2500‬ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻊ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ‬
‫• ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪ :(AF‬ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﻓﺮﺩﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪(AF-S‬؛‬
‫ﻣﻌﺰﺯ ﺩﺍﺋﻢ ﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ )‪(AF-F‬‬
‫• ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻱ )‪(M‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻷﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻋﺮﻳﻀﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻋﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻫﺪﻑ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻻﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ )ﺗﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻷﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ(‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ‪- 8‬ﺳﻢ‪- 3.2/‬ﺑﻮﺻﺔ ‪ TFT LCD‬ﺑﺠﻮﺩﺓ ‪ 921‬ﺃﻟﻒ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ )‪ (VGA‬ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻮﻟﻲ ﺳﻴﻠﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺑﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ‪ ،°170‬ﻣﺪﻯ ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ %100‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻄﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ‬
‫‪USB‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ )‪ 4‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 9‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 72‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﻳﻢ( ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺯﻭﻡ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺷﺮﺍﺋﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻈﻠﻴﻼﺕ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‬
‫ﻭﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ ﻭ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﹰ‬
‫‪ USB‬ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺧﺮﺝ ‪HDMI‬‬
‫ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ‪ HDMI‬ﺑﻄﺮﻑ ﺻﻐﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪C‬‬
‫ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ‪ WR-R10‬ﻭ‪) WR-1‬ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺪﺓ(‬
‫ﺳﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‪) MC-DC2 :‬ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ(‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ‪) GP-1A/GP-1 :GPS‬ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻋﻮﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻋﻮﻣﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺒﺲ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺒﺲ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻨﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺴﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ(‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻴﻜﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻤﺮﻛﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﻮﻟﻨﺪﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻠﻨﺪﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﻧﺪﻭﻧﻴﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﻳﻄﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻜﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻨﺮﻭﻳﺠﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻮﻟﻨﺪﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺗﻐﺎﻟﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺗﻐﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﺯﻳﻞ(‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺮﻭﻣﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺳﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻳﻼﻧﺪﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻭﻛﺮﺍﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺃﻳﻮﻥ ﻟﻴﺜﻴﻮﻡ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪EN-EL14a‬‬
‫ﻣﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪EH-5b‬؛ ﻳﺘﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ‬
‫‪) EP-5A‬ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ(‬
‫‪ 1/4‬ﺑﻮﺻﺔ‪(ISO 1222) .‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻮﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 66.5 × 110 × 143.5‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫)ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ × ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ × ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻖ(‬
‫‪ 765‬ﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻭﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻢ؛‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺯﻥ‬
‫‪ 710‬ﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ )ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻘﻂ(‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪357‬‬
‫ﺑﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻃﻮﺑﺔ‬
‫‪° 0‬ﻡ ‪° –40‬ﻡ‬
‫‪ %85‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻗﻞ )ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﻜﺜﻴﻒ(‬
‫• ﻣﺎ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺮﺩ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﻣﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ )‪° 3± 23 :(CIPA‬ﻡ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺗﺤﺘﻔﻆ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺖ ﻭﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺇﺧﻄﺎﺭ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ‪ .‬ﻟﻦ ﺗﺘﺤﻤﻞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺿﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻨﺠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻱ ﺃﺧﻄﺎﺀ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺮﺩ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺷﺎﺣﻦ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪MH-24‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺗﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﺮﺩﺩ ‪ 240–100‬ﻓﻮﻟﺖ‪ 60/50 ،‬ﻫﺮﺗﺰ‪ 0.2 ،‬ﺃﻣﺒﻴﺮ ﺣﺪ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺗﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ‪ 8.4‬ﻓﻮﻟﺖ‪ 0.9/‬ﺃﻣﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻤﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻳﻮﻥ ﻟﻴﺜﻴﻮﻡ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪EN-EL14a‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﻭ‪ 50‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﺤﻴﻄﺔ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ‪° 25‬ﻡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻧﻔﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ‬
‫‪° 0‬ﻡ ‪° –40‬ﻡ‬
‫ﻣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‬
‫)ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ × ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ × ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻖ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺯﻥ‬
‫‪ 96‬ﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻣﻬﺎﻳﺊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﺲ‬
‫‪ 97 × 26 × 70‬ﻣﻢ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻣﻬﺎﻳﺊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﺲ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻳﻮﻥ ﻟﻴﺜﻴﻮﻡ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪EN-EL14a‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﻳﻮﻥ ﻟﻴﺜﻴﻮﻡ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ‬
‫‪ 7.2‬ﻓﻮﻟﺖ‪ 1230/‬ﻣﻠﻠﻲ ﺃﻣﺒﻴﺮ‪/‬ﺳﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫‪° 0‬ﻡ ‪° –40‬ﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‬
‫)ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ × ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ × ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻖ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺯﻥ‬
‫‪ 49‬ﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻑ‬
‫ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 14 × 53 × 38‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪358‬‬
‫‪ f/1.8G‬ﻣﻢ‪(Special Edition) AF-S NIKKOR 50‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ‪ AF-S G‬ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ CPU‬ﻣﻀﻤﻨﺔ ﻭﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ‪F‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫‪ 50‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻗﺼﻮﻯ‬
‫‪f/1.8‬‬
‫ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫‪ 7‬ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﻓﻲ ‪ 6‬ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ )ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ 1‬ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺷﺒﻪ ﻛﺮﻭﻳﺔ(‬
‫ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫• ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ‪ D-SLR‬ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ‪ SLR‬ﻭ‪ FX‬ﻣﻦ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‪°47 :‬‬
‫• ﻛﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ‪ D-SLR‬ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ DX‬ﻣﻦ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ‪3́0 °31 :‬‬
‫ﺇﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻣﺤﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻣﺖ ﻭ‬
‫ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺆﺭﻱ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻱ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ‬
‫ﺷﻔﺮﺍﺕ ﺣﺎﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫‪) 7‬ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻏﺸﺎﺀ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ(‬
‫ﺣﺎﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬
‫‪16 – f/1.8‬‬
‫‪ 0.45‬ﻣﺘﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻻ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺔ )‪(‬‬
‫‪ 0.45‬ﻣﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺜﺒﻴﺖ‬
‫‪ 58‬ﻣﻢ )‪ 0.75 = P‬ﻣﻢ(‬
‫ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ ﻗﻄﺮ ‪ 73‬ﻣﻢ × ‪ 52.5‬ﻣﻢ )ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻔﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ(‬
‫‪ 190‬ﺟﻢ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺯﻥ‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪359‬‬
‫‪ f/1.8G‬ﻣﻢ‪(Special Edition) AF-S NIKKOR 50‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﻊ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ‪ f/1.8G‬ﻣﻢ‪ (Special Edition) AF-S NIKKOR 50‬ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺸﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺎﻃﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺻﻼﺕ ‪CPU‬‬
‫)‪(320 0‬‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪360‬‬
‫ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫)‪(183 ،68 0‬‬
‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ‬
‫)‪(68 ،25 0‬‬
‫‪ D‬ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫• ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺗﻠﺘﻘﻂ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻤﺴﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻈﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﻮﺻﻼﺕ ‪.CPU‬‬
‫• ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺤﺸﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺎﻃﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻓﻮﺭﹰﺍ ﻭﺧﺬ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻹﺻﻼﺣﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺮﻭﺣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻊ‬
‫ﻭﺑﺼﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺻﺎﺑﻊ‪ ،‬ﺃﺿﻒ ﻣﻘﺪﺭﺍ ﹰ ﻗﻠﻴﻼ ﹰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻳﺜﺎﻧﻮﻝ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻨﻈﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ﻗﻤﺎﺵ ﻗﻄﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻧﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﻭﻧﻈﻴﻔﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻨﺪﻳﻞ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﻧﻈﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺒﺎﻩ ﻟﻌﺪﻡ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺗﻠﻄﺦ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﺰﺟﺎﺝ ﺑﺄﺻﺎﺑﻌﻚ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺃﺑ ﹰﺪﺍ ﻣﺬﻳ ﹰﺒﺎ ﻋﻀﻮﻳﹰﺎ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﺨﻔﻒ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺰﻳﻦ ﺑﻐﺮﺽ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺮﺷﺤﺎﺕ ‪ NC‬ﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻣﻲ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺭﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﻐﻄﺎﺀﻳﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻣﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻲ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻘﻴﺒﺔ ﻣﺮﻧﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻣﻤﺘﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺣﺘﻔﻆ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﺭﺩ ﻭﺟﺎﻑ ﻟﺘﺠﻨﺐ‬
‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻔﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺻﺪﺃ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﺨﺰﻧﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻊ ﻧﺎﻓﺘﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻛﺮﺍﺕ ﻛﺎﻓﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺘﻪ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺟﺎﻓﺔ‪ .‬ﺻﺪﺃ ﺁﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺗﻠﻒ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺇﺻﻼﺣﻪ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺷﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻠﻒ ﺃﻭ ﻳﺸﻮﻩ ﺍﻷﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻨﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺳﺘﻴﻚ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﻮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻹﻛﺴﺴﻮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻘﺔ‬
‫• ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻣﻲ ‪ 58‬ﻣﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﺸﻴﻖ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪LC-58‬‬
‫• ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺧﻠﻔﻲ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪LF-4‬‬
‫• ﺣﻘﻴﺒﺔ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﺮﻧﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺯ ‪CL-1013‬‬
‫• ﻭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ ‪) HB-47‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﻬﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ(‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻹﻛﺴﺴﻮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫• ﻣﺮﺷﺤﺎﺕ ﻟﻮﻟﺒﻴﺔ ‪ 58‬ﻣﻢ‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪361‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻋﻮﻣﺔ‬
‫• ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪ DCF‬ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ‪ :2.0‬ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫)‪ (DCF‬ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺑﻜﺜﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ‪ :DPOF‬ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺭﻗﻤﻲ )‪ (DPOF‬ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﺷﺎﺋﻊ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﺍﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺰﻧﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫• ‪ Exif‬ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ‪ :2.3‬ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ‪) Exif‬ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ( ﺍﻹﺻﺪﺍﺭ ‪ ،2.3‬ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﻄﺎﺑﻌﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ‪.Exif‬‬
‫• ‪ :PictBridge‬ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺎﺕ‪،‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻧﺴﺨﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ ﺃﻭﻻ ﹰ‪.‬‬
‫• ‪ :HDMI‬ﻭﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻂ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﻟﻮﺍﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﻼﻛﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﺚ‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺻﻮﺕ ﻭﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺇﺷﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻟﻸﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ‪ HDMI‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﻜﺎﺑﻞ ﻓﺮﺩﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A‬ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ ‪ Mac OS‬ﻭ‪ OS X‬ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ‪ Apple Inc.‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻭ‪/‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،Windows ،Microsoft .‬ﻭﺷﻌﺎﺭ ‪ Windows Vista‬ﻫﻲ ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺸﺮﻛﺔ ‪ Microsoft‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪PictBridge .‬‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺎﺭﺍﺕ ‪ SD‬ﻭ ‪ SDHC‬ﻭ ‪ SDXC‬ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺸﺮﻛﺔ ‪.LLC ،SD-3C‬‬
‫‪ ،HDMI‬ﻭﺷﻌﺎﺭ ‪ HDMI‬ﻭ ‪ High-Definition Multimedia Interface‬ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ‪.HDMI Licensing LLC‬‬
‫ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻨﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺘﺞ ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﻚ ﻫﻲ ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻤﺎﻟﻜﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪362‬‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻤﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ‪ SD‬ﻭ‪ SDHC‬ﻭ‪ ،SDXC‬ﺑﻤﺎ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ‬
‫‪ SDHC‬ﻭ‪ SDXC‬ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ‪ .UHS-I‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‪ .‬ﺍﺗﺼﻞ ﺑﺠﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻊ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﻗﻴﻮﺩ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫‪363‬‬
‫ﺳﻌﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺒﻲ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫‪ SanDisk Extreme Pro SDHC UHS-I‬ﺳﻌﺔ ‪ 8‬ﺟﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ ﺑﺈﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ )‪،(55 0‬‬
‫ﻭﺣﺠﻢ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ )‪ ،(58 0‬ﻭﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ )‪.(51 0‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪(24×36) FX‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‬
‫)‪ ،NEF (RAW‬ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﺔ ﻻ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻧﻬﺎ‪ 12 ،‬ﺑﺖ‬
‫)‪ ،NEF (RAW‬ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﺔ ﻻ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻧﻬﺎ‪ 14 ،‬ﺑﺖ‬
‫)‪ ،NEF (RAW‬ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﺔ‪،‬‬
‫‪ 12‬ﺑﺖ‬
‫)‪ ،NEF (RAW‬ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﺔ‪،‬‬
‫‪ 14‬ﺑﺖ‬
‫—‬
‫‪ 15.4‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪279‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪ 19.4‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪216‬‬
‫‪29‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪ 13.9‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪377‬‬
‫‪47‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪ 17.0‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪315‬‬
‫‪38‬‬
‫)‪ ،NEF (RAW‬ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﺔ‪ 12 ،‬ﺑﺖ‬
‫—‬
‫‪ 26.5‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪279‬‬
‫‪30‬‬
‫)‪ ،NEF (RAW‬ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﺔ‪ 14 ،‬ﺑﺖ‬
‫—‬
‫‪ 34.3‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪216‬‬
‫‪25‬‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬
‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬
‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬
‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬
‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫‪ 49.1‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪ 28.3‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪ 13.2‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪ 7.9‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪ 5.4‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪ 3.0‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪ 4.5‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪ 2.8‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪ 1.6‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪ 2.2‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪ 1.5‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪ 0.9‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪151‬‬
‫‪265‬‬
‫‪566‬‬
‫‪729‬‬
‫‪1100‬‬
‫‪2200‬‬
‫‪1400‬‬
‫‪2300‬‬
‫‪4300‬‬
‫‪2800‬‬
‫‪4600‬‬
‫‪8000‬‬
‫‪21‬‬
‫‪25‬‬
‫‪36‬‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﺟﻴﺪ‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬
‫‪364‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺳﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ‬
‫‪37‬‬
‫)‪TIFF (RGB‬‬
‫‪n‬‬
‫*‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫* ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ‪ DX‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﺺ ‪DX‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫❚❚ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪(16×24) DX‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫*‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ‬
‫)‪ ،NEF (RAW‬ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﺔ ﻻ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻧﻬﺎ‪ 12 ،‬ﺑﺖ‬
‫)‪ ،NEF (RAW‬ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﺔ ﻻ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻧﻬﺎ‪ 14،‬ﺑﺖ‬
‫)‪ ،NEF (RAW‬ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﺔ‪،‬‬
‫‪ 12‬ﺑﺖ‬
‫)‪ ،NEF (RAW‬ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﺔ‪،‬‬
‫‪ 14‬ﺑﺖ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺳﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ‬
‫—‬
‫‪ 7.2‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪618‬‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪ 8.9‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪484‬‬
‫‪96‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪ 6.6‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪818‬‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫—‬
‫‪ 7.9‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪692‬‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫)‪ ،NEF (RAW‬ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﺔ‪ 12 ،‬ﺑﺖ‬
‫—‬
‫‪ 12.0‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪618‬‬
‫‪72‬‬
‫)‪ ،NEF (RAW‬ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﺔ‪ 14 ،‬ﺑﺖ‬
‫—‬
‫‪ 15.3‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪484‬‬
‫‪53‬‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬
‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬
‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬
‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬
‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫‪ 21.5‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪ 12.6‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪ 6.2‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪ 3.7‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪ 2.8‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪ 1.9‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪ 2.3‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪ 1.6‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪ 1.1‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪ 1.2‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪ 0.9‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪ 0.7‬ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬
‫‪349‬‬
‫‪593‬‬
‫‪1100‬‬
‫‪1500‬‬
‫‪2200‬‬
‫‪3600‬‬
‫‪2900‬‬
‫‪4400‬‬
‫‪7100‬‬
‫‪5700‬‬
‫‪8600‬‬
‫‪12100‬‬
‫‪29‬‬
‫‪39‬‬
‫‪69‬‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫)‪TIFF (RGB‬‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﺟﻴﺪ‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪ JPEG‬ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫* ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ‪ DX‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﺺ ‪DX‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮﻩ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻴﺔ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪.ISO 100‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻘﻞ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺿﻐﻂ ‪ (57 0) JPEG‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﺻﻮﺭ )‪NEF (RAW‬‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ISO‬ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ Hi 0.3‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻩ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 3‬ﺗﻔﺘﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺗﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺿﻐﻂ ‪ JPEG‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ‪ .‬ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺼﻮﺭ ‪ JPEG‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻴﺔ؛ ﻳﻘﻞ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﺗﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﺳﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ