NOMENCLATURE
NOMENCLATURE
1. PERFORMANCES
a
CO2
MM
CO2
dM/dtauCO2,in
Vin
va
C
PMV
PPD
,
,
dd
ta
W
w
Fw,in
pw
pw,s
RH
COP
Air mass flow rate
CO2 mass flow rate
Molar mass
Air CO2 concentration
Variation of room indoor CO2 mass
Room indoor volume
Moist air specific volume
Thermal imbalance of the human body
Metabolism not converted in work and dissipated as heat
Heat flow dissipated to ambiance through breathing and skin
Metabolism
Mechanical efficiency
Enthalpy taken away by the breathing air
Perspiration i.e. steam diffusion through skin
Sweating steam diffusion
Heat flow through clothing
Radiation heat exchange with ambiance
Convection heat exchange with ambiance
Human body skin area
Occupant susceptibility
Predicted Mean Vote
Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied
Factor equal to 1 when comfort is required, 0 when it isn’t
Temperature set point during occupancy period
Indoor temperature
Time
Degree-days
Moist air dry temperature
Moist air humidity ratio
kgdryair
Water mass flow rate
Fictitious surcharge of indoor moisture capacity
Water vapor partial pressure of moist air total pressure
Water vapor partial pressure of saturated moist air
Relative humidity of moist air
System efficiency
System coefficient of performance
kg/s
kg/s
kg/kmol
kg/s
m3
m3/kgdryair
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
m²
%
°C
°C
s
K.day
°C
kgwater /
kg/s
Pa
Pa
-
‘Definition and Validation of a Simplified Multizone Dynamic Building Model Connected to
Heating System and HVAC Unit’
G. Masy
2. SOLAR HEAT GAINS AND SKY RADIATION
!,
SF
g
"!
"!#
$
$%
&,
p
+
+
,
.
/
.#
/#
UTC
ET
0
0
0
,
"
"#
"!#
"#
1
"
",#
",#,
",#,
2
2
2
",#
",#,
Heat gains from direct solar intensity through windows
Window solar factor
Glazing solar factor
Ratio of frame area in the whole window area
Direct solar intensity on a plane of a given slope and azimuth
Window area including glazing and frame
Direct solar intensity measured on a horizontal plane
Angle between sum beams and normal direction to a given wall
Angle between sum beams and vertical direction
Window equivalent solar area including glazing and frame
Wall slope (0 for horizontal position; '⁄2 for vertical)
Sun azimuth (0 for sun on south, >0 for sun on west)
Wall azimuth (0 for south facing wall, >0 for west facing wall)
W
W/m2
m2
W/m2
rad
rad
m2
rad
rad
rad
Sun declination
rad
Latitude
rad
Longitude
rad
True solar time
rad
Longitude expressed in h
h
True solar time expressed in h
h
Coordinated Universal Time in h
h
Equation of Time in h
h
Clock time in winter
h
Clock time in summer
h
Solar time of the place under consideration
h
Heat gains from diffuse and reflected solar intensities through windows W
Diffuse and reflected solar intensities on a plane of a given slope W/m2
Diffuse solar intensity measured on a horizontal plane
W/m2
Direct solar intensity measured on a horizontal plane
W/m2
Total solar intensity measured on a horizontal plane
W/m2
Surrounding ground albedo
Infrared radiation emitted by an area of a given slope
W/m2
Infrared radiation emitted by an horizontal plane
W/m2
Infrared radiation of a horizontal plane for clear sky conditions W/m2
Infrared radiation of a horizontal plane for covered sky conditions W/m2
Relative solar intensity at a given time
Relative solar intensity for covered sky conditions 2 3 0,354 Relative solar intensity for clear sky conditions 2 3 1
Total solar intensity on a horizontal plane at a given time
W/m2
Total solar intensity on a horizontal plane for clear sky conditions W/m2
‘Definition and Validation of a Simplified Multizone Dynamic Building Model Connected to
Heating System and HVAC Unit’
G. Masy
3. WALL MODEL DEFINITION
~ ~
t1 , t2
q~1 , q~2
/
9
:
.
1
;
=>
<
?>
@
A
B
C
$
D
Temperature variations expressed as complex quantities
Heat flow variations expressed as complex quantities
Pulsation
Thickness
Thermal diffusivity
Thermal conductivity
Mass density
Specific heat
Wall transmittance
Wall admittance
Frequency of a sinusoidal signal
Dampening factor of a sinusoidal signal
Wall heat transfer resistance
Wall heat capacity
Useful proportion of wall overall heat capacity
Accessibility of wall overall heat capacity
Wall overall heat transfer coefficient
°C
W/m2
rad/s
m
m²/s
W/m.K
kg/m3
J/kg.K
W/m2.K
W/m2.K
s-1
m2.K/W
J/m2.K
W/m2.K
4. BUILDING SIMPLIFIED MODEL DEFINITION
AE
AFE , AFF
BF
AG
BG
BH
A
AH
AI,%E , AI,%F
BI
E
F
G
H
#J
DKH
Heat transfer resistance of a zone light external walls
Heat transfer resistances of a zone massive external walls
Heat capacity of a zone massive external walls
Heat transfer resistance of a zone massive internal walls
Heat capacity of a zone massive internal walls
Heat capacity associated to a zone indoor node
Heat transfer resistance modeling zone ventilation heat losses
Heat transfer resistance of light walls separating zones
Heat transfer resistances of massive walls separating zones
Heat capacity of massive walls separating zones
Outdoor node temperature
Node temperature associated to BF capacity
Node temperature associated to BG capacity
Indoor node temperature
Ventilation heat exchange between zone and outdoor
Transmission heat exchange between zone and outdoor
Emission from zone heating system
Heat gains from direct solar intensity through windows
Heat gains from occupants, lighting and appliances
Energy stored in BH capacity
K/W
K/W
J/K
K/W
J/K
J/K
K/W
K/W
K/W
J/K
°C
°C
°C
°C
W
W
W
W
W
J
‘Definition and Validation of a Simplified Multizone Dynamic Building Model Connected to
Heating System and HVAC Unit’
G. Masy
5. BUILDING SIMPLIFIED MODEL VALIDATION
L
M
Δ
O
P
OQ
R
S
T
0
U
UV
Outdoor heat flow response factor for indoor temperature impulse W/m2
Indoor heat flow response factor for indoor temperature impulse W/m2
Time step for the computation of walls response factors
s
Finite elements temperature interpolation matrix
Finite elements temperature-gradient interpolation matrix
m-1
Finite elements surface temperature interpolation matrix
Finite elements capacity matrix
J/K
Finite elements conductivity matrix
W/K
Finite elements convection and radiation matrix
W/K
Heat transfer coefficient, including convection and radiation
W/m2.K
Finite elements nodal temperatures vector
°C
Finite elements surface nodes temperatures vector
°C
Indoor heat flow from convolution on zone response factors
W,# Indoor heat flow response to outdoor temperature
,# Indoor heat flow response to indoor temperature
for isothermal boundary conditions walls
,! Indoor heat flow response to indoor temperature
for adiabatic boundary conditions walls
.W,# Convolution correction factor for W,#
.,# Convolution correction factor for ,#
.,! Convolution correction factor for ,!
W
W
#J
#J,X
B
,
Y
Δ
AZ
9[\
Y
,
Δ,
&,W
,W
:
]
0W
^,
W
W
°C
°C
K-1
°C
°C
°C
°C
°C
°C
°C
°C
W/m2.K
W/m²
W/m²
Emission from zone heating system
Maximum emission from zone heating system
Control factor
Indoor temperature
Temperature set point
Control factor
Invert of the differential of zone indoor temperature controller
Reference indoor temperature
Daily mean indoor temperature
Daily indoor temperature amplitude
Root mean square of the error on indoor temperature
Indoor temperature dampening ratio
Daily mean indoor temperature for a static computation
Daily indoor temperature amplitude for a static computation
Equivalent outdoor temperature
Outdoor air temperature
Shortwave absorption factor
Emissivity
Outdoor heat transfer coefficient (convection and radiation)
Solar radiation reaching outdoor wall surface
Sky radiation related to outdoor wall surface
W
W
-
‘Definition and Validation of a Simplified Multizone Dynamic Building Model Connected to
Heating System and HVAC Unit’
G. Masy
6. VENTILATION MODELS
∆\
`
Pressure drop through ventilation aperture
Pa
Air mass flow rate through ventilation aperture
kg/s
Air mass flow rate exponent (0 for laminar, 1 for turbulent flow) -
<
∆\
\
a
bW
∆\!W^^
c
d
b
CSO
CEO
TO
∆\W
∆\W
∆\efg
Constant of ventilation aperture resistance
Wind pressure
Wind pressure factor
Wind speed
Outdoor air specific volume
Buoyancy pressure
Acceleration of gravity
Level
Air specific volume
Controlled Supply Orifice
Controlled Exhaust Orifice
Transfer Orifice
Mechanical supply air mass flow rate
Mechanical exhaust air mass flow rate
Duct pressure drop
Supply unit pressure drop including pressure balance device
Pressure drop through Air Handling Unit
Pa.(s/kg)1+n
Pa
m/s
m³/kg
Pa
m/s²
m
m³/kg
kg/s
kg/s
Pa
Pa
Pa
7. AIR QUALITY ANALYSIS
CO2
CO2,set
B
h\[
h\[,
Bij#
,W,
Air CO2 concentration
Air CO2 concentration set point
Invert of the differential of indoor CO2 concentration controller
Fan rotation speed
Nominal fan rotation speed
Chiller coefficient of performance
Chiller condenser air supply temperature
ppm
ppm
ppm-1
rev/min
rev/min
°C
8. SUMMER COMFORT ANALYSIS
W
PPD
Outdoor temperature
Indoor temperature
Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied
°C
°C
%
‘Definition and Validation of a Simplified Multizone Dynamic Building Model Connected to
Heating System and HVAC Unit’
G. Masy
9. CONNECTION WITH HEATING OR HVAC SYSTEM
,
Heating floor surface temperature
Indoor temperature
Water temperature
,W Temperature of the room under heating floor
A,
Heat transfer resistance between floor surface and indoor node
A,
Heat transfer resistance between water pipes and floor surface
A Heat transfer resistance between water pipes and room under
B
Floor heat capacity
X,
Heat flow supplied by the heating floor to the zone
W,
Heat flow supplied by the water to the heating floor
,J Heat flow stored in the floor heat capacity
]
Heating floor heat exchange efficiency
B,
Heating floor water heat capacity rate
,W,
Heating floor water supply temperature
,X,
Heating floor water exhaust temperature
,W,, Heating floor water supply set point temperature
,W,, Heating floor water supply temperature for nominal conditions
°C
°C
°C
°C
K/W
K/W
K/W
J/K
W
W
W
W/K
°C
°C
°C
°C
W
W,
B
B!
B
B
°C
°C
°C
K-1
K-1
Outdoor temperature
Outdoor nominal temperature
Indoor set point temperature
Feed-forward proportional action factor
Feed-back proportional action factor
Invert of the differential of water supply temperature controller
Invert of the differential of zone indoor temperature controller
,JW
Ground capacity node temperature
JW
Ground temperature
J,W,
Brine-water heat pump evaporator brine supply temperature
AJW,W Heat transfer resistance between ground capacity node and brine
AJW
Ground heat transfer resistance
BJW
Ground heat capacity
Heat flow supplied to the brine-water heat pump evaporator
W,JW
Heat flow supplied by the ground heat exchanger
JW,J Heat flow stored in the ground heat capacity
°C
°C
°C
K/W
K/W
J/K
W
W
W
NTU
AU
B
B
]
W/K
W/K
W/K
-
Heat exchanger number of transfer units
Heat exchanger overall heat transfer coefficient
Heat exchanger air heat capacity rate
Heat exchanger water heat capacity rate
Heat exchanger efficiency
‘Definition and Validation of a Simplified Multizone Dynamic Building Model Connected to
Heating System and HVAC Unit’
G. Masy
k
a
steam
0
0
0Jl
;J
;
0
0
k
0,
!
A
A
A
A
D
]
Moist air humidity ratio
/kgdryair
Air mass flow rate
Steam mass flow rate
Moist air enthalpy
Steam enthalpy
Latent heat of vaporization
Vapor specific heat at constant pressure
Air specific heat at constant pressure
Convection heat transfer coefficient
Mass transfer conductance
Moist air humidity ratio for saturated air
/kgdryair
Enthalpy of saturated air at temperature Moist air wet bulb temperature
Water side cooling coil thermal resistance
Metal cooling coil thermal resistance
Air side dry air cooling coil thermal resistance
Air side saturated air cooling coil thermal resistance
Wet cooling coil contact heat transfer coefficient
Wet cooling coil contact effectiveness
Wet cooling coil contact temperature
kgwater
kgdryair/s
kgwater/s
J/kgdryair
J/kgwater
J/kgwater
J/kg.K
J/kg.K
W/m2.K
kg/m2.s
kgwater
J/kgdryair
°C
m2.K/W
m2.K/W
m2.K/W
m2.K/W
W/K
°C
‘Definition and Validation of a Simplified Multizone Dynamic Building Model Connected to
Heating System and HVAC Unit’
G. Masy
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‘Definition and Validation of a Simplified Multizone Dynamic Building Model Connected to
Heating System and HVAC Unit’
G. Masy
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‘Definition and Validation of a Simplified Multizone Dynamic Building Model Connected to
Heating System and HVAC Unit’
G. Masy
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Heating System and HVAC Unit’
G. Masy
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‘Definition and Validation of a Simplified Multizone Dynamic Building Model Connected to
Heating System and HVAC Unit’
G. Masy
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