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Novatel MiLLennium SW 4.501 User Manual
OM-20000048 Rev 1
OM-20000048 REV 1
MiLLennium GPSCard
Software Version 4.501
Command Descriptions Manual
GPSCard Products
NovAtel Inc.
GPSCard
MiLLennium Command Descriptions Manual
Publication Number:
Revision Level:
OM-20000048
1
5/27/99
This manual reflects Software Version 4.501
Proprietary Notice
Information in this document is subject to change without notice and does not represent a commitment on the part
of NovAtel Inc.. The software described in this document is furnished under a licence agreement or non-disclosure
agreement. The software may be used or copied only in accordance with the terms of the agreement. It is against
the law to copy the software on any medium except as specifically allowed in the license or non-disclosure
agreement.
No part of this manual may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical,
including photocopying and recording, for any purpose without the express written permission of a duly authorized
representative of NovAtel Inc.
The information contained within this manual is believed to be true and correct at the time of publication.
MiLLennium, NovAtel, Narrow Correlator and RT-2 are registered trademarks of NovAtel Inc.
GPSCard, GPSAntenna, GPSolution, and RT-20 are trademarks of NovAtel Inc.
All other brand names are trademarks of their respective holders.
© Copyright 1999 Novatel Inc. All rights reserved.
Unpublished rights reserved under International copyright laws.
Printed in Canada on recycled paper. Recyclable.
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MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
Software License
SOFTWARE LICENSE
SOFTWARE LICENSE
BY OPENING THE SEALED DISK PACKAGE YOU ARE AGREEING TO BE BOUND BY THE TERMS OF THIS
AGREEMENT. IF YOU DO NOT AGREE TO THE TERMS OF THIS AGREEMENT PROMPTLY RETURN THE
UNOPENED DISK PACKAGE AND THE ACCOMPANYING ITEMS TO NOVATEL INC.
1. License: NovAtel Inc. (“NovAtel”) grants you a non-exclusive license (not a sale) to use one copy of the enclosed NovAtel
software on a single computer, and only with the product whose model number and serial number appear on the envelope.
2. Copyright: NovAtel owns, or has the right to sublicense, all copyright, trade secret, patent and other proprietary rights in the
software and the software is protected by national copyright laws, international treaty provisions and all other applicable
national laws. You must treat the software like any other copyrighted material except that you may either (a) make one copy
of the software solely for backup or archival purposes, or (b) transfer the software to a single hard disk provided you keep the
original solely for backup or archival purposes. You may not copy the product manual or written materials accompanying the
software.
3. Restrictions: You may not: (1) copy (other than as provided for in paragraph 2), distribute, rent, lease or sublicense all or
any portion of the software; (2) modify or prepare derivative works of the software; (3) use the software in connection with
computer-based services business or publicly display visual output of the software; (4) transmit the software over a network, by
telephone or electronically using any means; or (5) reverse engineer, decompile or disassemble the software. You agree to keep
confidential and use your best efforts to prevent and protect the contents of the software from unauthorized disclosure or use.
4. Term and Termination: This Agreement is effective until terminated. You may terminate it at any time by destroying the
software, including all computer programs and documentation, and erasing any copies residing on computer equipment. If you
do so, you should inform NovAtel in writing immediately. This Agreement also will terminate if you do not comply with any
of its terms or conditions. Upon such termination you are obligated to destroy the software and erase all copies residing on
computer equipment. NovAtel reserves the right to terminate this Agreement for reason of misuse or abuse of this software.
5. Warranty: For 90 days from the date of shipment, NovAtel warrants that the media (for example, diskette) on which the
software is contained will be free from defects in materials and workmanship. This warranty does not cover damage caused by
improper use or neglect. NovAtel does not warrant the contents of the software or that it will be error free. The software is
furnished "AS IS" and without warranty as to the performance or results you may obtain by using the software. The entire risk
as to the results and performance of the software is assumed by you.
6. For software UPDATES and UPGRADES, and regular customer support, contact the NovAtel GPS Hotline at
1-800-NOVATEL (Canada and the U.S.A. only), or directly for International Customers 1-403-295-4900, Fax 1-403-2954901, e-mail to support@novatel.ca, visit out world wide web site at http://www.novatel.ca, or write to:
NovAtel Inc.
Customer Service Dept.
1120 - 68th Avenue NE
Calgary, Alberta,
Canada
T2E 8S5
7. Disclaimer of Warranty and Limitation of Liability:
a.
THE WARRANTIES IN THIS AGREEMENT REPLACE ALL OTHER WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED, INCLUDING ANY WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
NOVATEL DISCLAIMS AND EXCLUDES ALL OTHER WARRANTIES. IN NO EVENT WILL NOVATEL'S
LIABILITY OF ANY KIND INCLUDE ANY SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, INCLUDING
LOST PROFITS, EVEN IF NOVATEL HAS KNOWLEDGE OF THE POTENTIAL LOSS OR DAMAGE.
b.
NovAtel will not be liable for any loss or damage caused by delay in furnishing the software or any other performance
under this Agreement.
c.
NovAtel's entire liability and your exclusive remedies for our liability of any kind (including liability for negligence)
for the software covered by this Agreement and all other performance or nonperformance by NovAtel under or related to this
Agreement are limited to the remedies specified by this Agreement.
This Agreement is governed by the laws of the Province of Alberta, Canada. Each of the parties hereto irrevocably
attorns to the jurisdiction of the courts of the Province of Alberta.
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
9
Software Support
SOFTWARE SUPPORT
SOFTWARE SUPPORT
Software updates are software revisions to an existing model which improves (but does not increase) basic
functionality of the GPS receiver. During the one year warranty coverage following initial purchase, software
updates are supplied free of charge. After the warranty has expired, software updates and updated manuals may be
subject to a nominal charge.
Software upgrades are software releases which increase basic functionality of the receiver from one model to a
higher level model type. When available, upgrades can be purchased at a price which is the difference between the
two model types on the current NovAtel GPS Price List plus a nominal service charge.
Software updates and upgrades are obtained through NovAtel authorized dealers or NovAtel Customer Support.
Contact your local NovAtel dealer for more information.
To locate a dealer in your area, contact NovAtel in any of the following ways:
•
GPS Hotline at 1-800-NOVATEL (1-800-668-2835)
(U.S.A. and Canada only; 8 a.m. - 4:30 p.m. Mountain Standard Time)
•
telephone: 1-403-295-4900 (8 a.m. - 4:30 p.m. Mountain Standard Time)
•
fax: 1-403-295-4901
•
e-mail: support@novatel.ca
•
web site: http://www.novatel.ca
•
postal address:
NovAtel Inc.
Customer Service Dept.
1120 - 68th Avenue NE
Calgary, Alberta
Canada
T2E 8S5
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MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
Foreword
FOREWORD
Congratulations!
Thank you for purchasing a NovAtel GPSCard product.
Whether you have bought a stand alone GPSCard or a packaged receiver you will have also received companion
documents to this manual. They will help you get the hardware operational. Afterwards, this text will be your
primary MiLLennium GPSCard command and logging reference source.
Scope
The MiLLennium Command Descriptions Manual describes each command and log that the MiLLennium
GPSCard is capable of accepting or outputting. Sufficient detail is provided so that you can understand the
purpose, syntax, and structure of each command or log and be able to effectively communicate with the GPSCard,
thus enabling the developer to effectively use and write custom interfacing software for specific needs and
applications. The manual is organized into chapters which allow easy access to appropriate information about the
GPSCard.
This manual does not address in detail any of the GPSCard hardware attributes or installation information. Please
consult the appropriate companion manual for hardware or system technical specifications information.
Furthermore, should you encounter any functional, operational, or interfacing difficulties with the GPSCard,
consult the appropriate hardware manual for NovAtel warranty and customer support information.
Prerequisites
As this reference manual is focused on the GPSCard commands and logging protocol, it is necessary to ensure that
the GPSCard has been properly installed and powered up according to the instructions outlined in the companion
hardware manual before proceeding.
To use your NovAtel GPS receiver effectively, you should be familiar with the Global Positioning System (GPS)
as it applies to positioning, navigation, and surveying applications. For your reference Appendix A of this manual
provides an overview of the Global Positioning System.
This manual covers the full performance capabilities of all MiLLennium GPSCards. Every MiLLennium can be
upgraded through a family of firmware models, each having unique features. Therefore, depending on the software
configuration of your MiLLennium, certain commands and logs may not be accessible. Feature-tagging symbols
have been created to help clarify which commands and logs are only available with a certain option:
RTK
Features available only with MiLLennium GPSCards equipped with the RT-20 or RT-2 option
WAAS
Features available only on MiLLennium GPSCards equipped with the WAAS option
What’s New In Version 4.501?
1.
Fully documented two RTCM1819 commands: USE and IGNORE
2.
Two new status numbers, 11 (Narrow lane solution - high standard deviation) and 12 (Widelane solution
- high standard deviation), were added for position type 4 (RT-2).
3.
The field descriptions for the CLMA/B logs were corrected. Four missing fields were documented.
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
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1 Quick Start
1 QUICK START
1 QUICK START
This chapter will help you get started quickly regardless of whether you wish to carry out real-time kinematic
(RTK) positioning, operate in differential modes or simply log data. Each section references additional sources of
information.
1.1 INSTALLATION
For more detailed instructions on the installation and set up of your GPSCard please refer to the accompanying
MiLLennium GPSCard Guide to Installation and Operation.
The MiLLennium receiver is designed for flexibility of integration and configuration. You are free to select an
appropriate data and signal interface, power supply system and mounting structure. This concept allows OEM
purchasers to custom-design their own GPS-based positioning system around the MiLLennium GPSCard.
Installing the MiLLennium GPSCard typically consists of the following:
•
Mount the GPSCard in a secure enclosure to reduce environmental exposure, RF
interference and vibration effects
•
Pre-wire the I/O harness and the 64-pin DIN female connector for power and
communications, then connecting them to the OEM series GPSCard
•
Install the GPSAntenna, then connect to the GPSCard
•
(Optional) Install an external oscillator if additional precision and stability is required
OPERATION
Once the hardware and software installations have been completed, you are now ready to begin initial operation of
the GPSCard receiver.
Communication with the MiLLennium GPSCard consists of issuing commands through the COM1 or COM2 port
from an external serial communications device. This could be either a terminal or an IBM-compatible PC that is
directly connected to a MiLLennium GPSCard COM port using a null modem cable.
TURNING ON
The initial operating software and firmware of the MiLLennium GPSCard resides in its read-only memory. As
such, the unit “self-boots” upon power-up. The green LED indicator should blink about once per second if the unit
is operating normally. The red one lights up if an error is detected during a self-test. The self-test status word can
be viewed in the RGEA/B/D and RVSA/B data output logs.
If a persistent error develops please contact the NovAtel GPS Customer Service Department for further assistance
COMMUNICATION DEFAULT SETTINGS
COM1 and COM2 for the MiLLennium GPSCards are defaulted to the following RS232 protocol:
•
9600 bps, no parity, 8 data bits, 1stop bit, no handshake, echo off
Graphical Interface
Your GPSCard comes with a disk containing NovAtel’s graphical interface software GPSolution, a Microsoft
Windows-based program, enabling you to use your GPSCard without struggling with communications protocol or
writing make-do software.
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MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
1 Quick Start
The View menu options allow you to select or de-select various visual aids and display screens. Take a look at all
of the options and keep open those you wish to display. To send commands and log data the Command Console
screen should be visible. ASCII format logs can be monitored on the ASCII Record screen.
e.g. On the command line of the Command Console screen type:log com1 posa once
After you hit the <Enter> key the ASCII Record screen will display the output for your current position. The POSA/
B log is described on Page 178.
1.2 DATA LOGGING
The GPSCard has four major logging formats:
• NovAtel Format Data Logs (ASCII/Binary)
• NMEA Standard Format Data Logs (ASCII)
• RTCM Standard Format Data Logs (Binary)
• RTCA Standard Format Data Logs (Binary)
All data types can be logged using several methods of triggering each log event. Each log is initiated using the LOG
command. The LOG command and syntax are listed following.
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
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1 Quick Start
Syntax:
Syntax
LOG
port
datatype
trigger
period
offset
hold
log [port],datatype,[trigger],[period],[offset],{hold}
Description
COM1 or COM2
Defaults to the port that the command was entered on.
Enter one of the valid ASCII or Binary Data Logs (see Chapter 4, Page 34 and Appendix D, Page 136)
Enter one of the following triggers.
ONCE
Immediately logs the selected data to the selected port once. Default if trigger field is left
blank.
ONMARK
Logs the selected data when a MARKIN electrical event is detected. Outputs internal buffers
Range Value
at time of mark - does not extrapolate to mark time. Use MKPA/B for extrapolated position
at time of mark.
ONNEW
Logs the selected data each time the data is new even if the data is unchanged.
ONCHANGED
Logs the selected data only when the data has changed.
ONTIME
Immediately logs the selected data and then periodically logs the selected data at a
[period], [offset]
frequency determined by the period and offset parameters. The logging will continue until
an UNLOG command pertaining to the selected data item is received (see UNLOG
Command, Page 132).
CONTINUOUSLY Will log the data all the time. The GPSCard will generate a new log when the output buffer
associated with the chosen port becomes empty. The continuously option was designed for
use with differential corrections over low bit rate data links. This will provide optimal record
generation rates. The next record will not be generated until the last byte of the previous
record is loaded into the output buffer of the UART.
Use only with the ONTIME trigger. Units for this parameter are seconds. The selected period may be any of the
following values: 0.05, 0.10, 0.20, 0.25, 0.50, 1, 2, 3, ... , 3600 seconds but may be limited by the GPSCard model
and previously requested logs. Selected data is logged immediately and then periodic logging of the data will start
at the next even multiple of the period. If a period of 0.20 sec is chosen, then data will be logged when the receiver
time is at the 0.20, 0.40, 0.60 and the next (0.80) second marks. If the period is 15 seconds, then the logger will
log the data when the receiver time is at even 1/4 minute marks. The same rule applies even if the chosen period
is not divisible into its next second or minute marks. If a period of 7 seconds is chosen, then the logger will log at
the multiples of 7 seconds less than 60, that is, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56 and every 7 seconds thereafter.
Use only with the ONTIME trigger. Units for this parameter are seconds. It provides the ability to offset the
logging events from the above startup rule. If you wished to log data at 1 second after every minute you would set
the period to 60 seconds and the offset to 1 second (Default is 0).
Will prevent a log from being removed when the UNLOGALL command is issued
Example
LOG
COM1
POSA
ONTIME
Default
60
1
HOLD
The syntax for a command can contain optional parameters (OPT1, OPT2, ...). OPT2 may only be used if it
is preceded by OPT1. OPT3 may only be used if it is preceded by OPT2 and so on. Parameters after and
including OPT1 will be surrounded by square brackets.
An optional parameter such as {hold} surrounded by braces may be used with the log command without any
preceding optional parameters. Example:log com1 posa 60 1 hold
log com1 posa hold
Example:
log com1,posa,ontime,60,1
If the LOG syntax does not include a trigger type, it will be output only once following execution of the LOG
command. If trigger type is specified in the LOG syntax, the log will continue to be output based on the trigger
specification. Specific logs can be disabled using the UNLOG command, whereas all enabled logs will be disabled
by using the UNLOGALL command (see Chapter 2, Page 23 and Appendix C, Page 79). All activated logs will be
listed in the receiver configuration status log (RCCA), Page 190.
The [port] parameter is optional. If [port] is not specified, [port] is defaulted to the port that the command was
received on.
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MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
1 Quick Start
COMMONLY USED LOGS
Type
Logs
Trigger
Positioning
PRTKA/B
POSA/B
ontime or onmark
Post Processing
RGEA/B/D
REPA/B, ALMA/B
ontime
onchanged
NMEA Position
GPGLL
GPGGA
ontime or onmark
Other useful logs are
•
•
•
•
•
RCCA to list the default command settings
ETSA to monitor the channel tracking status
SATA to observe the satellite specific data
DOPA to monitor the dilution of precision of the current satellite constellation
RVSA to monitor the receiver status
For further information on output logging see Chapter 4, Page 34 and the individual logs listed alphabetically in
Appendix D, Page 136.
Use the HELP command to list all available commands. For more information on sending commands see Chapter
2, Page 23 and the individual commands listed alphabetically in Appendix C, Page 79.
1.3 DIFFERENTIAL OPERATION
The MiLLennium GPSCard is ideal for design into DGPS systems because it is capable of operating as either a
reference station or a rover station. .
The GPSCard is capable of utilizing various formats of differential corrections. These formats are divided into two
primary groups RTCM and RTCA.
For detailed data structure concerning these logs, please see:
Chapter 3, Page 34
Chapter 4, Page 45
Appendix D, Page 136
Establish a Data Link
Operating the GPSCard with a DGPS system requires that the reference station broadcast differential correction
data messages to one or more rover receivers. As there are many methods by which this can be achieved, it is up
to you to establish an appropriate data link that best suits your user requirements.
Whatever data link is chosen, the operator of the reference station will want to ensure that the bit rate of data
transmission is suitable for the anticipated data link and remote users. Use the GPSCard COMn command to the
COM port default bit rate (default is 9600 bps, no parity, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit, no handshake, echo off).
Note that the GPSCard COMn_DTR and COMn_RTS commands are available for remote device keying (such as
a radio transmitter). These commands allow for flexible control of the DTR and RTS lines to be precisely timed
with log transmissions.
Further information may be found in Appendix A.
Table 1-1, following, is a GPSCard pseudorange differential initialization summary.
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
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1 Quick Start
Table 1-1 GPSCard Pseudorange Differential Initialization Summary
Reference Station
Remote Station
Required:
Required:
FIX POSITION lat lon hgt id (health)
LOG port DATATYPE ontime 5
ACCEPT port DATATYPE
Recommended Options:
Recommended Options:
LOG DATATYPES (binary):
ACCEPT DATATYPES (binary):
RTCMB
RTCAB
RTCM
RTCA
RTCM
RTCA
LOG DATATYPES (acii):
ACCEPT COMMANDS (ascii):
RTCMA
RTCAA
RTCMA
RTCAA
Related Commands/Logs:
Related Commands/Logs:
RTCMRULE
DATUM
POSA/B
VLHA/B
CDSA/B
GPGGA
RTCMRULE
DATUM
Example 1:
fix position 51.3455323 -114.2895345 1201.123 555 0
log com 1 RTCM ontime 2
Example 1:
accept com2 rtcm
log com1 posa ontime 1
Example 2:
fix position 51.3455323 -114.2895345 1201.123 555 0
log com2 rtcaa ontime 2
Example 2:
accept com2 commands
log com1 posa ontime 0.2
log com1 vlha ontime 0.2
Note: Italicized entries indicate user definable.
Initialization - Reference Station
Differential mode of operation is established at the reference station through a two step process: fix position and
logging observation and correction data.
FIX POSITION
The reference station must initialize the precise position of its reference antenna phase centre (lat/lon/hgt). This is
accomplished by utilizing the GPSCard FIX POSITION command. The syntax is as follows:
Syntax:
FIX POSITION
lat
lon
height
station id
health
Example:
fix position 51.3455323,-114.2895345,1201.123,555,0
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MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
1 Quick Start
NOTE 1: Entry of the station ID and health are optional. For a CMR correction type the station ID must be < 31.
NOTE 2: The accuracy of the reference station’s FIX POSITION setting will directly affect the accuracy of its
computed differential corrections. Good results at the rover station are dependent on the reference
station’s combined position errors being kept to a minimum (e.g., fix position error + multipath errors).
NOTE 3: The GPSCard performs all computations based on WGS84 and is defaulted as such, regardless of
DATUM command setting. The datum in which you choose to operate is converted from WGS84;
therefore, all differential corrections are based on WGS84. Ensure that any change in your operating
datum is set prior to FIX POSITION.
NOTE 4: When transmitting RTCM type data, the GPSCard has various options for assigning the number of data
bits per byte. Please see the GPSCard command RTCMRULE, Page 114 for further information
concerning RTCM data bit rule settings.
NOTE 5: The FIX POSITION “health” field entered will be reported in word 2 of the RTCM message frame header.
Once the GPSCard has its position data fixed and is tracking three or more satellites, it is now ready to transmit
differential correction and observation data to the rover stations.
LOG BROADCAST DATA
Assuming that a data link has been established, use the GPSCard log command to send observation and differential
corrections data for broadcast to the rover stations.
Syntax:
LOG
port
data
ontime
seconds
Example:
log com1 rtcm ontime 5
REMINDER:
Ensure that the bit rate of the data link is suitable for the differential type, logging rate and
maximum message length of the data type being logged.
1.4 RTK MODE
NovAtel’s RTK system utilizes proprietary messaging as well as RTCM Types 18 and 19, and can also receive
CMR messages from a non-NovAtel base station. For more information on specific message formats please see
Chapter 4, Page 45.
NOTE:
No guarantee is made that the MiLLennium will meet its performance specifications if non-NovAtel
accessories (e.g. antenns, RF cable) are used.
Data Communications Link
It is the user’s responsibility to provide a data communications link between the reference station and remote
station. The data transfer rate must be high enough to ensure that sufficient reference station messages reach the
remote station to keep extrapolation errors from growing too large; see Table 1-2.
Table 1-2 Latency-Induced Extrapolation Error
Time since last reference station observation
Typical extrapolation error (CEP)
0-2 seconds
2-7 seconds
7-30 seconds
1 cm/sec
2 cm/sec
5 cm/sec
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
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1 Quick Start
Generally, a communications link capable of data throughput at a rate of 4800 bits per second or higher is
sufficient. However, it is possible to satisfactorily use a lower rate (e.g. 2400 bps) with the RTCA, RTCM59 and
CMR formats. RTCM Types 18 and 19 may require a higher rate; see Chapter 4, Message Formats, Page 45 for
additional information. The minimum data transfer rate is based on the following:
1.
RT-2 requires that the reference station periodically transmit two RTCA Standard Type 7 messages:
•
An RTCAOBS message contains reference station satellite observation information, and
should be sent once every 1 or 2 seconds.
•
An RTCAREF message contains reference station position information, and should be
sent once every 10 seconds.
OR periodically transmit an RTCM Type 18 and RTCM Type 19 (RTCM1819) message together with an
RTCM Type 3 message:
Note:
•
A Type 3 message contains reference station position information, and should be sent
once every 10 seconds (although it is possible to send it as infrequently as once every 30
seconds).
•
RTCM1819 gives raw measurement information (Type 18 provides carrier phase
measurements, while Type 19 provides pseudorange measurements) and should be sent
once every 1 or 2 seconds.
This message can be sent in RTCM Version 2.1 or Version 2.2 format, controlled with the RTKMODE
command.
and, optionally, also periodically transmit an RTCM Type 22 message together with an RTCM Type 3
message:
•
A Type 3 message contains reference station position information, and should be sent
once every 10 seconds (although it is possible to send it as infrequently as once every 30
seconds).
•
A Type 22 message gives extended reference station parameters and should be sent once
every 10 seconds.
OR periodically transmit two CMR messages where the station ID, see Page 98, must be
transmitting CMR corrections:
2.
≤ 31 when
•
A CMROBS message contains reference station satellite observation information, and
should be sent once every 1 or 2 seconds.
•
A CMRREF message contains reference station position information, and should be sent
once every 10 seconds.
RT-20 requires that the reference station periodically transmit either the RTCA messages listed above (the
recommended option), or RTCM 1819 or CMR messages or the RTCM SC-104 Type 3 & 59N messages:
•
A Type 3 message contains reference station position information, and should be sent
once every 10 seconds (although it is possible to send it as infrequently as once every 30
seconds).
•
A Type 59N message contains reference station satellite observation information, and
should be sent once every 2 seconds.
Further information on RTCA, RTCM and CMR message formats is contained in Chapter 6.
System Initialization
The RTK system is designed for ease of use: you set up the remote station, enter a command so that it accepts RT2 or RT-20 messages from the reference station, and are ready to go. There are options, however, which can be
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MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
1 Quick Start
used to adapt the system to a specific application. Some options apply only to the reference station, while others
apply only to the remote station. Detailed descriptions can be found in Appendix C, Commands Summary.
In the following sections, keep the following in mind:
•
Dynamics modes. For reliable performance the antenna should not move more than 1-2
cm when in static mode. See the RTKMODE commands in Chapter 2, Page 23 and
Appendix C, Page 115 for more information.
•
When using the FIX POSITION command, the height entered must be in metres above mean
sea level; it will be converted to ellipsoidal height inside the receiver. You can enter an
undulation value, if desired, using the UNDULATION command; if none is entered, the
receiver estimates an undulation with its internal table. The format of the optional station
ID field depends on whether RTCM or RTCA messages are being used: if RTCM, any
number from 0 - 1023 is valid, while if RTCA, any 4-character string of numbers and
upper-case letters, enclosed in quotation marks, is valid. See Appendix C, Page 98 for
additional information on the station id field.
•
The COMn field refers to the serial port (either COM1 or COM2) to which data
communications equipment is connected. The serial port assignment at the reference and
remote stations need not be the same; e.g. a radio transmitter might be connected to
COM1 at the reference station, and a radio receiver to COM2 at the remote station.
INITIALIZATION FOR RTCA-FORMAT MESSAGING (RT-2 OR RT-20)
The following commands will enable RTCA-format messaging and allow RT-2 or RT-20 to operate with the
remote station either at rest or in motion. Note that the optional station health field in the existing FIX POSITION
command is not currently implemented in NovAtel’s RTCA messages, though it will be in the future.
1. At the reference station:
fix position lat,lon,height,station id
log comn,rtcaref,ontime,interval
log comn,rtcaobs,ontime,interval
Example:
fix position 51.11358042,-114.04358013,1059.4105,”RW34”
log com1,rtcaref,ontime,10
log com1,rtcaobs,ontime,2
2. At the remote station:
accept comn,rtca
Example:
accept com2,rtca
Congratulations! Your RTK system is now in operation!
INITIALIZATION FOR RTCM59-FORMAT MESSAGING (RT-20 ONLY)
Although RT-20 can operate with either RTCA or RTCM-format messaging, the use of RTCA-format messages is
recommended (see Chapter 4, Page 45 for further information on this topic). Nevertheless, the following
commands will enable RTCM59-format messaging and allow RT-20 to operate with the remote station either at
rest or in motion:
1. At the reference station:
fix position lat,lon,height,station id,station health
log comn,rtcm3,ontime,interval
log comn,rtcm59,ontime,interval
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
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1 Quick Start
Example:
fix position 51.11358042,-114.04358013,1059.4105,119,0
log com1,rtcm3,ontime,10
log com1,rtcm59,ontime,2
2. At the remote station:
accept comn,rtcm
Example:
accept com2,rtcm
Congratulations! Your RT-20 system is now in operation!
Monitoring Your RTK Output Data
At the remote station, you could now select any or all of these output logs for positioning information:
•
•
•
•
•
•
BSLA/B Baseline Measurement
NMEA-format logs
POSA/B Computed Position
PRTKA/B Best Position
RPSA/B Reference Station Position & Health
RTKA/B RTK Output - Time Matched Positions
The POSA/B, PRTKA/B and NMEA-format logs contain the low-latency position; the RTKA/B logs contain the
matched position. The low-latency solution is the recommended one for kinematic users, while the matched
solution is the one recommended for stationary users. For a discussion on low-latency and matched positions, see
the Differential Positioning section of Appendix A, Page 66.
Options for Logging Differential Corrections
SET DGPSTIMEOUT
The DGPSTIMEOUT command allows the reference station to set the delay by which it will inhibit utilization of new
ephemeris data in its differential corrections. This delay ensures that the remote receivers have had sufficient time
to collect updated ephemeris data as well.
A delay of 120 to 130 seconds will typically ensure that the rover stations have collected updated ephemeris. After
the delay period is passed, the reference station will begin using new ephemeris data. To enter an ephemeris delay
value, you must first enter a numeric placeholder in the DGPS delay field (e.g., 2). When operating as a reference
station, DGPS delay will be ignored (see the DGPSTIMEOUT command found in Chapter 2, Page 23 and Appendix
C, Page 90 for further information on using this command at rover stations.)
Syntax:
DGPSTIMEOUT
dgps delay
Command
ephem delay
Option
DGPSTIMEOUT
Description
Default
Command
dgps delay
min.
max.
2
1000
ephem delay
min.
max.
0
600
Maximum age in seconds
60
Minimum time delay in seconds
120
Example:
dgpstimeout 2,300
USING RTCM SC-104 LOG TYPES
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MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
1 Quick Start
RTCM SC-104 is a standard for transmitting differential corrections between equipment from different
manufacturers. The NovAtel GPSCard is capable of transmitting or receiving RTCM data.
To facilitate transmitting the RTCM data over shared data links, the GPSCard is also capable of sending the RTCM
log in NovAtel ASCII format (RTCMA) or with the NovAtel binary header (RTCMB) added to allow synchronous
transmission and reception along with other data types.
REMEMBER: When sending or receiving RTCM log types, it is important to ensure that all connected
equipment are using the same RTCMRULE for compatibility.
The easiest method to send RTCM standard logs is from the COM1 or COM2 ports of the reference GPSCard. The
easiest method to receive the RTCM data is through the COM1 or COM2 port of the rover GPSCard. The rover
GPSCard must issue the “ACCEPT port RTCM” command to dedicate a port before it will accept the RTCM data
into that port.
The RTCMA log can be intermixed with other NovAtel ASCII data over a common communication port. It will be
directly interpreted by a rover GPSCard as a special data input command ($RTCM). “ACCEPT port
COMMANDS” must be used with this input command. A non-NovAtel rover station will need to strip off the
header ($RTCM) and terminator (*xx), then convert the hexadecimal data to binary before the RTCM standard data
can be retrieved.
The RTCMB log can be intermixed with other NovAtel binary data over a common communication port.
REMEMBER: Use the CDSA/B logs to monitor the COM port activity, success, and decoding errors.
USING RTCA LOG TYPES
The RTCA (Radio Technical Commission for Aviation Services) Standard is being designed to support
Differential Global Navigation Satellite System (DGNSS) aviation applications. The perceived advantage to using
RTCA type messages for transmitting and receiving differential corrections versus using RTCM type messages is that
RTCM transmits 30-bit words, and the data is difficult to decode and process because of the parity algorithm and
irregular word sizes used. RTCA is transmitted in 8-bit words, which are easier to generate, process and decode. The
RTCA messages are therefore smaller, they have a 24 bit CRC that is much more robust than RTCM messages, and
they permit the use of a four-alpha-character station ID.
RTCA standard logs can be received through the COM1 or COM2 port of the rover GPSCard. The remote
GPSCard must issue the “ACCEPT port RTCA” command to dedicate a port before it will accept the RTCA data
input to that port. The RTCA logs cannot be intermixed with other logs.
The RTCAA log can be intermixed with other NovAtel ASCII data over a common communications port. It will
be directly interpreted by a rover GPSCard as a special data input command ($RTCA). “ACCEPT port commands”
must be used with this input command. A non-NovAtel rover station will need to strip off the header ($RTCA) and
terminator (*xx), then convert the hexadecimal data to binary before the RTCA standard can be retrieved.
The RTCAB log can be intermixed with other NovAtel binary data. The remote GPSCard identifies the RTCAB log
by the message block identifier contained in the message, and will interpret only the RTCA data portion of the log.
NOTE:
The CDSA/B logs may be used to monitor the COM port activity and differential data decode success.
Initialization - Rover Station
It is necessary to initialize the rover receiver to accept observation data from the reference station. If the receiver
is not correctly initialized, it will proceed to compute solutions in single point positioning mode.
Before initializing, ensure that the data link with the reference station has been properly set up. As well, ensure that
the COM port which is to receive the differential data is set up to match the bit rate and protocol settings of the
reference station broadcast data.
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
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1 Quick Start
Establishing differential mode of operation at the rover receiver is primarily a one-step process whereby the accept
command is used to enable reception of observation data from the reference station.
ACCEPT COMMAND
The accept command is primarily used to set the GPSCard’s COM port command interpreter for acceptance of
various data formats (see the ACCEPT command in Chapter 2, Page 23 and Appendix C, Page 79).
Syntax
ACCEPT
port
mode
Example:
accept com2 rtcm
Once intitialized, the rover GPSCard receiver will operate in single point mode until the differential messages are
received. If the data messages are lost, the GPSCard will revert to single point positioning until the pseudorange
correction messages are restored.
NOTE:
Ensure that the GPSCard RTCMRULE settings agree with the bit rule being transmitted by the RTCM
reference station. Unless otherwise set, all GPSCards default to 6CR.
LOG POSITION DATA AND OTHER USEFUL DATA
The GPSCard remote receiver has many options for information data logging. To monitor position status, the user
may find the PRTKA/B logs to be the most informative. Other options exist, such as POSA/B and GPGGA. As well,
velocity data can be found in the VLHA/B, SPHA/B and GPVTG logs. It is really up to your specific applications as to
the full range of logs you require.
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2 Command Descriptions
2 COMMAND DESCRIPTIONS
2 COMMAND DESCRIPTIONS
2.1 GENERAL
This section describes all commands accepted by the GPSCard with the exception of the "Special Data Input
Commands". They are listed in alphabetical order. For descriptions of output logs using the LOG command, see
Chapter 3.
The GPSCard is capable of responding to over 50 different input commands. You will find that once you become
familiar with these commands, the GPSCard offers a wide range in operational flexibility. All commands are
accepted through the COM1 and COM2 serial ports. See Table 2-1, Page 25 for a complete command listing.
NOTE:
You will find the HELP command a useful tool for inquiring about the various commands available.
The following rules apply when entering commands from a terminal keyboard:
•
The commands are not case sensitive (COMMAND or command).
e.g.
HELP
e.g.
FIX POSITION
•
or help
or fix position
All commands and required entries can be separated by a space or a comma
(command,variable OR command variable).
e.g.
datum,tokyo
e.g.
datum tokyo
e.g.
fix,position,51.3455323,-117.289534,1002
e.g.
fix position 51.3455323 -117.289534 1002
e.g.
com1,9600,n,8,1,n,off
e.g.
com1 9600 n 8 1 n off
e.g.
log,com1,posa,onchanged
e.g.
log com1 posa unchanged
•
At the end of a command or command string, press the <CR> key. A carriage return is what
the card is looking for and is usually the same as pressing the <Enter> key.
•
Most command entries do not provide a response to the entered command. Exceptions to
this statement are the VERSION and HELP commands. Otherwise, successful entry of a
command is verified by receipt of the COM port prompt (i.e. COM1> or COM2>).
The syntax for a command can contain optional parameters (OPT1, OPT2, ...). OPT2 may only be used if it
is preceded by OPT1. OPT3 may only be used if it is preceded by OPT2 and so on. Parameters after and
including OPT1 will be surrounded by square brackets.
An optional parameter such as {hold} surrounded by braces may be used with the log without any preceding
optional parameters
Example:
log com1 posa 60 1 hold
log com1 posa hold
When the GPSCard is first powered up, or after a FRESET command, all commands will revert to the factory default
settings. An example is shown below. The SAVECONFIG command can be used to modify the power-on defaults.
Use the RCCA log to reference station command and log settings.
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
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2 Command Descriptions
NOTE:
All previously stored configurations that were saved to non-volatile memory are erased (including
Saved Config, Saved Almanac, and Channel Config).
Example:
Optional Calculation Of The Checksum
When an input command is followed by an optional checksum, the checksum will be verified before the command
is executed. The checksum is the result of the logical exclusive-OR operation on all the bits in the message. So,
the checksum of a command with parameters will change if the parameters are modified.
NOTE:
The command must be typed in uppercase for the proper checksum to be calculated.
As an example, it may be essential to ensure that a receiver has received and executed the correct command from
a host computer. If the checksum were calculated by the sender and attached to the command, the receiver would
be able to recognize if errors had been introduced and if so, alert the sender to this with an “Invalid Command
CRC” message.
Example:
FIX HEIGHT 4.567[CR][LF]
FIX HEIGHT 4.567*66[CR][LF]
Both are acceptable, but only the second one would trigger the verification function.
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MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
2 Command Descriptions
2.2 STANDARD COMMAND TABLES
Table 2-1 lists the commands by function while Table 2-2 is an alphabetical listing of commands. Please see
Appendix C, Page 79 for a more detailed description of individual commands which are listed alphabetically.
Table 2-1 Commands By Function Table
COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND STATUS
Commands
Descriptions
ANTENNAPOWER
COMn
Power to the low-noise amplifier of an active antenna
COMn port configuration control
COMn_DTR
DTR handshaking control
COMn_RTS
RTS handshaking control
1
DIFF_PROTOCOL
Differential Protocol Control
FREQUENCY_OUT
LOG
Variable frequency output (programmable)
Logging control
MESSAGES
RINEX
Disable error reporting from command interpreter
Configure the user defined fields in the file header
RTCMRULE
Sets up RTCM bit rule
RTCM16T
SEND
Enters an ASCII message
Sends ASCII message to COM port
SENDHEX
Sends non-printable characters
Add an offset to the L1 pseudorange to compensate for
signal delays
1
SETL1OFFSET
1
Intended for advanced users of GPS only
GENERAL RECEIVER CONTROL AND STATUS
Commands
Descriptions
$ALMA
Download almanac data file
CRESET
DYNAMICS
Reset receiver to factory default
Set correlator tracking bandwidth
HELP
On-line command help
RESET
Performs a hardware reset (OEM only)
SAVEALMA
Saves the latest almanac in NVM
SAVECONFIG
$TM1A
Saves current configuration (OEM only)
Injects receiver time of 1PPS
VERSION
Software/hardware information
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
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2 Command Descriptions
Table 2-1 Commands By Function Table (continued)
POSITION, PARAMETERS, AND SOLUTION FILTERING CONTROL
Commands
Descriptions
1
CSMOOTH
DATUM
Sets amount of carrier smoothing
Choose a DATUM name type
ECUTOFF
FIX HEIGHT
Satellite elevation cut-off for solutions
Constrains to fixed height (2D mode)
FIX POSITION
Constrains to fixed lat, lon, height
FRESET
Clears all data which is stored in NVM
$IONA
Download ionospheric correction data
What ionospheric correction to use (MiLLennium with the
WAAS option)
Deweights a satellite in solutions
IONOMODEL
LOCKOUT
1
$PVAA
Position, velocity and acceleration in ECEF coordinates
RTKMODE
Setup the RTK mode
UNDULATION
USERDATUM
Ellipsoid-geoid separation
User-customized datum
WAASCORRECTION
Controls handling of WAAS corrections.
1
Intended for advanced users of GPS only.
SATELLITE TRACKING AND CHANNEL CONTROL
Commands
Descriptions
$ALMA
Download almanac data file
ASSIGN
CONFIG
Satellite channel assignment
Switches the channel configuration of the GPSCard
DYNAMICS
FIX VELOCITY
Sets correlator tracking bandwidth
Aids high velocity reacquisition
RESETHEALTH
Reset PRN health
SETHEALTH
Overrides broadcast satellite health
WAYPOINT NAVIGATION
Commands
Descriptions
MAGVAR
Magnetic variation correction
SETNAV
Waypoint input
DIFFERENTIAL REFERENCE STATION
Commands
Descriptions
DGPSTIMEOUT
Sets ephemeris delay
FIX POSITION
LOG
Constrain to fixed (reference)
Selects required differential-output log
POSAVE
Implements position averaging for reference station
RTCMRULE
SETDGPSID
Selects RTCM bit rule
Set reference station ID
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MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
2 Command Descriptions
Table 2-1 Commands By Function Table (continued)
DIFFERENTIAL REMOTE STATION
Commands
Descriptions
ACCEPT
$ALMA
Accepts RTCM1, RTCA or RTCAB differential inputs
Input almanac data
DGPSTIMEOUT
Set maximum age of differential data accepted
RESET
$RTCA
Performs a hardware reset
RTCA differential correction input (ASCII)
$RTCM
RTCMRULE
RTCM differential correction input (ASCII)
Selects RTCM bit rule
SETDGPSID
Select differential reference station ID to receive
CLOCK INFORMATION, STATUS, AND TIME
Commands
Descriptions
CLOCKADJUST
DIFF_PROTOCOL
EXTERNALCLOCK
Enable clock modelling & 1PPS adjust
1
Sets default parameters of an optional external oscillator
EXTERNALCLOCK FREQUENCY
SETTIMESYNC
$UTCA
1
Differential protocol control
1
Sets clock rate
Enable or disable time synchronization
Download UTC data
Intended for advanced users of GPS only
Table 2-2 GPSCard Command Summary
Command
Description
Syntax
$ALMA
Injects almanac
(follows NovAtel ASCII log format)
$IONA
Injects ionospheric refraction corrections
(follows NovAtel ASCII log format)
$PVAA
Injects latest computed position, velocity and acceleration
(follows NovAtel ASCII log format)
$REPA
Injects raw GPS ephemeris data
(follows NovAtel ASCII log format)
$RTCA
Injects RTCA format DGPS corrections in ASCII (Type 1)
(follows NovAtel ASCII log format)
$RTCM
Injects RTCM format differential corrections in ASCII (Type 1)
(follows NovAtel ASCII log format)
$TM1A
Injects receiver time of 1 PPS
(follows NovAtel ASCII log format)
$UTCA
Injects UTC information
(follows NovAtel ASCII log format)
ACCEPT
Port input control (set command interpreter)
accept port,option
ANTENNAPOWER
Power to the low-noise amplifier of an active antenna
antennapower flag
ASSIGN
Assign a prn to a channel #
assign channel,prn,doppler, search window
UNASSIGN
Un-assign a channel
unassign channel
UNASSIGNALL
Un-assign all channels
unassignall
CLOCKADJUST
Disable clock steering mechanism
clockadjust switch
COMn
Initialize Serial Port (1 or 2)
comn bps,parity,databits,stopbits, handshake,echo
COMn_DTR
Programmable DTR lead/tail time
comn_dtr control,active,lead,tail
COMn_RTS
Programmable RTS lead/tail time
comn_rts control,active,lead,tail
CONFIG
Switches the channel configuration of the GPSCard
config cfgtype
CRESET
Configuration reset to factory default
creset
CSMOOTH
Sets carrier smoothing
csmooth value
DATUM
Choose a DATUM name type
datum option
USERDATUM
User defined DATUM
userdatum semi-major,flattening,dx,dy,dz, rx,ry,rz,
scale
DGPSTIMEOUT
Sets maximum age of differential data to be accepted and ephemeris
delay
dgpstimeout value value
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
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2 Command Descriptions
DIFF_PROTOCOL
Differential correction message encoding and decoding for
implementation in the GPS card firmware
diff_protocol type key
or diff_protocol disable
or diff_protocol
DYNAMICS
Set receiver dynamics
dynamics option [user_dynamics]
ECUTOFF
Set elevation cutoff angle
ecutoff angle
EXTERNALCLOCK
Sets default parameters of an optional external oscillator
externalclock option
EXTERNALCLOCK
FREQUENCY
Sets clock rate
external frequency clock rate
FIX HEIGHT
Sets height for 2D navigation
fix height height [auto]
FIX POSITION
Set antenna coordinates for reference station
fix position lat,lon,height [station id] [health]
FIX VELOCITY
Accepts INS xyz (ECEF) input to aid in high velocity reacquisition of
SVs
fix velocity vx,vy,vz
UNFIX
Remove all receiver FIX constraints
unfix
FREQUENCY_OUT
Variable frequency output (programmable)
frequency_out n,k
FRESET
Clears all data which is stored in non-volatile memory
freset
HELP or ?
On-line command help
help option
LOCKOUT
Lock out satellite
lockout prn
UNLOCKOUT
Restore satellite
unlockout prn
UNLOCKOUTALL
Restore all satellites
unlockoutall
LOG
Choose data logging type
log [port],datatype,[trigger],[period],[offset],{hold}
UNLOG
Disable a data log
unlog [port],data type
UNLOGALL
Disable all data logs
unlogall [port]
MAGVAR
Set magnetic variation correction
magvar value
MESSAGES
Disable error reporting from command interpreter
messages port,option
POSAVE
Implements position averaging for reference station
posave maxtime, maxhorstd, maxverstd
RESET
Performs a hardware reset (OEM only)
reset
RINEX
Configure the user defined fields in the file headers
rinex cfgtype
RTCM16T
Enter an ASCII text message to be sent out in the RTCM data stream
rtcm16t ascii message
RTCMRULE
Set variations of the RTCM bit rule
rtcmrule rule
RTKMODE
Set up the RTK mode
rrtkmode argument, data range
SAVEALMA
Save the latest almanac in non-volatile memory
savealma option
SAVECONFIG
Save current configuration in non-volatile memory (OEM only)
saveconfig
SEND
Send an ASCII message to any of the communications ports
send port ascii-message
SENDHEX
Sends non-printable characters in hexadecimal pairs
sendhex port data
SETDGPSID
Enter in a reference station ID
setdgpsid option
SETHEALTH
Override PRN health
sethealth prn,health
RESETHEALTH
Reset PRN health
resethealth prn
RESETHEALTHALL
Reset all PRN health
resethealthall
SETL1OFFSET
Add an offset to the L1 pseudorange to compensate for signal delays
setL1offset distance
SETNAV
Set a destination waypoint
setnav from lat,from lon,to lat, to lon,track offset, from
port,to port
SETTIMESYNC
Enable or disable time synchronization
settimesync flag
UNDULATION
Choose undulation
undulation separation
VERSION
Current software and hardware information
version
28
or
? option
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
2 Command Descriptions
2.3 WAAS
The Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) is a safety-critical system that provides a quality of positioning
information previously unavailable. The WAAS improves the accuracy, integrity, and availability of the basic GPS
signals. In the future, the wide area of coverage for this system will include the entire United States and some
outlying areas. At the time of publication, there is one test satellite over the Pacific Ocean and therefore there is
only coverage for the western half of the United States.
The primary functions of WAAS include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
data collection
determining ionospheric corrections
determining satellite orbits
determining satellite clock corrections
determining satellite integrity
independent data verification
WAAS message broadcast and ranging
system operations & maintenance
As shown in Figure 2-2, the WAAS is made up of a series of Wide Area Reference Stations, Wide Area Master
Stations, Ground Uplink Stations and Geostationary Satellites (GEOs). The Wide Area Reference Stations, which
are geographically distributed, pick up GPS satellite data and route it to the Wide Area Master Stations where wide
area corrections are generated. These corrections are sent to the Ground Uplink Stations which up-link them to the
GEOs for re-transmission on the GPS L1 frequency. These GEOs transmit signals which carry accuracy and
integrity messages, and which also provide additional ranging signals for added availability, continuity and
accuracy. These GEO signals are available over a wide area and can be received and processed by ordinary GPS
receivers. GPS user receivers are thus able to receive WAAS data in-band and use not only differential corrections,
but also integrity, residual errors and ionospheric information for each monitored satellite.
Figure 2-2 The WAAS Concept
Geostationary
Satellite (GEO)
L1
GPS Satellite
Constellation
L1 & L2
L1 & C-band
Integrity data,
differential corrections,
and ranging control
GPS User
C-band
Wide-area
Reference Station
(WRS)
Wide-area
Reference Station
(WRS)
Wide-area
Master Station
(WMS)
Wide-area
Reference Station
(WRS)
Ground Uplink
Station
(GUS)
Integrity data,
differential corrections,
time control, and status
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
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2 Command Descriptions
The signal broadcast via the WAAS GEOs to the WAAS users is designed to minimize modifications to standard
GPS receivers. As such, the GPS L1 frequency (1575.42 MHz) is used, together with GPS-type modulation - e.g.
a Coarse/Acquisition (C/A) pseudorandom (PRN) code. In addition, the code phase timing is maintained close to
GPS time to provide a ranging capability.
2.3.1 WAAS GPSCard
NovAtel has developed several models of WAAS-capable MiLLennium GPSCards that process WAAS signals.
These models can output the WAAS data in log format (FRMA/B, WALA/B), and can incorporate these
corrections to generate differential-quality position solutions. It permits two user-configurable options: 12 GPS (10
Hz position and raw data output rate) or 10 GPS and 1 WAAS L1 channels (2 Hz output). The first configuration
is the default. The second is invoked with the CONFIG command (see Page 86) and resets the card. Standard
WAAS data messages are analysed based on RTCA standard DO-229 Change 1 Minimum Operational
Performance Standards for GPS/WAAS airborne equipment.
A WAAS-capable MiLLennium GPSCard will permit anyone within the area of coverage to take advantage of its
benefits. In addition, it has all the features of a MiLLennium GPSCard.
WAAS COMMANDS
Two commands, WAASCORRECTION and IONOMODEL (see their descriptions on Page 135 and Page 103
respectively), enable the use of the WAAS corrections in the position filter. By default they are disabled. In order
to use these commands, first issue the following command to put the GPSCard in WAAS mode:
config waascorr
2.4 SPECIAL DATA INPUT COMMANDS
These entries are data messages that are generated by one GPSCard and sent to another. For example, consider a
special configuration in which a GPSCard #1 is able to send these data messages to a GPSCard #2 via a serial port.
For GPSCard #1, this is no different than sending these data messages to a file or a screen. Each of these data
messages has a special header which is interpreted by GPSCard #2 to mean that the data in that message is to be
used as an update of its own GPS parameters such as time, position, velocity, acceleration or knowledge of satellite
ephemeris.
In this general category also belong the RTCM data messages ($RTCM1A, $RTCM3A, $RTCM9A, $RTCM16A,
and $RTCM59A). These are described in further detail in Chapter 4, Message Formats.
The injection of special command data can take place via COM1 or COM2. Remember, the source of these special
data commands are valid NovAtel ASCII data logs.
The special data commands fall into two categories: Almanac Data and Differential Corrections.
2.4.1 Almanac Data
The GPSCard’s standard features include almanac data collection. Following a cold-start boot-up or system reset,
the GPSCard will begin a sky search. Once a valid satellite is acquired, the GPSCard will begin almanac
downloading and decoding. This process will take at least 12.5 minutes following the cold-start (assuming there
are no problems with satellite visibility or the antenna system). It is noted that Ionospheric Correction Data and
UTC data are also collected at the same time as almanac data and will also be available following the 12.5 minutes
collection period mentioned above.
12 channel OEM cards with the SAVECONFIG option will automatically save almanacs in their non-volatile
memory. They will also automatically load the last saved almanac following a cold start or a reset. The card will
save an almanac and ionospheric and UTC data received from a satellite if there is no current data in non-volatile
memory (NVM), or if the GPS week number of the received data is newer than the week number of the data in
NVM. The save will not occur until between 12.5 and 25 minutes have elapsed since the last reset. To check if
almanac data is saved in the NVM of the OEM card, check the "almanac data saved" bit in the receiver status word.
See the description of the RCSA/B logs, Appendix D, Page 191 for details.
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The GPSCard is capable of logging almanac data utilizing the NovAtel-format ASCII log command option ALMA.
Once logged, the data records will precede the header with the $ character (e.g., $ALMA).
There are no specific NovAtel log option commands to independently specify output of ionospheric or UTC
parameters. These parameters will always output following the $ALMA log (identifiable by the headers $IONA and
$UTCA respectively). See Chapter 3 and Appendix D, Page 136 for more information on the ALMA output log
command option.
The GPSCard has the capability to accept injection of previously logged NovAtel-format ASCII almanac data
($ALMA, $IONA, and $UTCA). The GPSCard will interpret this log data as special data input commands. This
provides the user with the advantage of being able to inject recent almanac data following a cold-start or RESET
without having to wait the 12.5 minutes described in above paragraphs.
There are various ways by which this can be accomplished.
•
By connecting the COM1 or COM2 port from one GPSCard (reference) directly to the COM1 or
port of another GPSCard (remote). The reference card is assumed to be tracking
satellites for some time and can be commanded by the ALMA log command option to output
almanac records to the remote card. The remote card can be assumed to be just powered-up
or RESET and will recognize the $ALMA, $IONA, and $UTCA data as special input commands
and update its almanac tables with this new data.
COM2
REMEMBER: When connecting two GPSCard COM ports together, the MESSAGES command option should be
set to "OFF" to prevent inter-card "chatter".
•
The MiLLennium GPSCard can log current almanac data to a PC connected to its COM1 or
port. Assuming the PC is correctly configured using terminal emulator
communications software, then the PC can redirect the GPSCard almanac log to its disk
storage device. At a later time following a system restart, the GPSCard can have this
almanac.dat file (containing $ALMA, $IONA, and $UTCA records) immediately downloaded
as a special input command for immediate use. Refer to the MiLLEnnium GPSCard Guide
to Installation and Operating manual for more information about interfacing with the OEM
card with a PC. [Note: this procedure will generally not be required with OEM cards as all
12 channel cards now have an almanac save feature built in using non-volatile memory.]
COM2
$ALMA...
Use this special data input command to quickly update the GPSCard almanac tables following a system restart. It
is generated from a GPSCard ALMA log and is accepted as the following format:
$ALMA,1,3.55148E-003,552960,744,-7.8174E-009,6.10457691E-002,-1.1820041E+000,
1.90436112E+000,-1.8119E-005,-3.6379E-012,1.45854758E-004,2.65602532E+007,
9.55600E-001,1,0,0*0C
...
(one record for each valid satellite)
...
$ALMA,31,4.90379E-003,552960,744,-7.9660E-009,-3.1044479E+000,6.13853346E-001,
1.92552900E+000,6.67572E-006,3.63797E-012,1.45861764E-004,2.65594027E+007,
9.61670E-001,1,0,0*3F
$IONA...
Use this special data input command to quickly update the GPSCard ionospheric corrections tables following a
system restart (always appended to $ALMA records unless intentionally stripped). This data will ensure that the
initial position solutions computed by the GPSCard are as accurate as possible. It is generated from a GPSCard
ALMA log and is accepted by any GPSCard as the following format:
$IONA,1.0244548320770265E-008,1.4901161193847656E-008,-5.960464477539061E-008,
-1.192092895507812E-007,8.8064000000000017E+004,3.2768000000000010E+004, 1.966080000000001E+005,-1.966080000000001E+005*02
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2 Command Descriptions
$UTCA...
Use this special data input command to quickly update the GPSCard Universal Time Coordinated (UTC) parameters
following a system restart (always appended to $ALMA records unless intentionally stripped). The UTC data is
required before the GPSCard can accurately compute UTC time. If not input with $UTCA, it may take up to 12.5
minutes after a reset for the GPSCard to receive current UTCA data. In order to comply with NMEA standards, the
GPSCard will null NMEA log data fields until valid UTC parameters are collected or injected by the $UTCA input
command. This command is generated from a GPSCard ALMA log and is accepted as the following format:
$UTCA,-1.769512891769409E-008,-1.776356839400250E-015,552960,744,755,9,10,5*03
2.4.2 Differential Corrections Data
NovAtel MiLLennium cards can utilize the special data input commands $RTCA and $RTCM. These special data
input commands are utilized by a GPSCard operating as a remote station to accept NovAtel ASCII format
differential corrections. The data is generated by a GPSCard operating as a reference station with intent to be
received by remote stations. To correctly interpret these commands, the remote GPSCard must have its ACCEPT
command option set to "COMMANDS" (default). See Appendix A, Page 66 for further information on differential
positioning.
$PVAA/B XYZ POSITION, VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION
The $PVAA and PVAB data messages contain the receiver’s latest computed position, velocity and acceleration.
These quantities are in rectangular ECEF coordinates based on the centre of the WGS 84 ellipsoid.
When a GPSCard receives this data message, it uses the information to update its own position, velocity and
acceleration parameters. This would only be needed if the GPSCard could not compute its own position, velocity
and acceleration due to signal blockage. This data message helps the receiver reacquire satellites after loss of lock.
The data would aid the receiver channels in the re-acquisition process; thus, the receiver would “follow” the
blocked satellites and re-acquire them much more quickly when they become visible again.
The position, velocity and acceleration status fields indicate whether or not the corresponding data are valid. Only
those messages containing valid data are used by the GPSCard.
NOTE 1: This command is intended for applications involving very high dynamics - where significant position,
velocity and acceleration changes can occur during a signal blockage. This data message helps the
receiver reacquire satellites after loss of lock.
NOTE 2:
This is a highly complex function, to be used only by advanced users.
The ASCII $PVAA data message is generated from a PVAA log, and the binary PVAB data message is generated from
a PVAB log. For descriptions of these data messages, please see the description of the PVAA/B logs in Chapter 4,
Page 34 and Appendix D, Page 181. An example of a $PVAA data message is as follows:
$PVAA,845,344559.00,-1634953.141,-3664681.855,4942249.361,-0.025,0.140,
0.078,0.000,-0.000,0.000,1,1,1*02
$REPA/B RAW GPS EPHEMERIS DATA
In cases where the receiver does not have an ephemeris for a newly-viewed satellite, these data messages can be
used to reduce the time required to incorporate this satellite into the position solution
The $REPA and REPB data messages contain the raw binary information for subframes one, two and three from the
satellite with the parity information removed. Each subframe is 240 bits long (10 words - 25 bits each) and the log
contains a total 720 bits (90 bytes) of information (240 bits x 3 subframes). This information is preceded by the
PRN number of the satellite from which it originated. This message will not be generated unless all 10 words from
all 3 frames have passed parity.
The ASCII $REPA data message is generated from a REPA log, and the binary REPB data message is generated from
a REPB log. For descriptions of these data messages, please see the description of the REPA/B logs in Chapter 3 and
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Appendix D, Page 192. An example of a $REPA data message is as follows:
$REPA,14,8B09DC17B9079DD7007D5DE404A9B2D04CF671C6036612560000021804FD,
8B09DC17B98A66FF713092F12B359DFF7A0254088E1656A10BE2FF125655,
8B09DC17B78F0027192056EAFFDF2724C9FE159675A8B468FFA8D066F743*57[CR][LF]
$RTCA... (RTCAA)
Use this special data input command to directly input NovAtel RTCAA differential corrections data, ASCII format.
The data can be accepted using COM1 or COM2. The differential corrections will be accepted and applied upon
receipt of this special data input command.
The data is generated from a GPSCard RTCAA log and is accepted by a GPSCard remote station as in the following
format:
$RTCA,990000000447520607BE7C92FA0B82423E9FE507DF5F3FC9FD071AFC7FA0D207D090808C0E
045BACC055E9075271FFB0200413F43FF810049C9DFF8FFD074FCF3C940504052DFB*20
$RTCM...(RTCMA,$RTCM1A,$RTCM3A,$RTCM9A,$RTCM16A,$RTCM59A)
Use this special data input command to directly input RTCMA differential correction data, ASCII format (RTCM data
converted to ASCII hexadecimal, with NovAtel header added). The data can be accepted using COM1 or COM2.
The differential corrections will be accepted and applied upon receipt of this special data input command. See
“RTCA Standard Logs” on page 46 for further information on RTCM related topics.
The data is generated from a GPSCard RTCMA log and is accepted by a GPSCard remote station as in the following
format
$RTCM,664142404E7257585C6E7F424E757D7A467C47414F6378635552427F73577261624278777F
5B5A525C7354527C4060777B4843637C7F555F6A784155597D7F6763507B77496E7F7A6A426F555C
4C604F4E7F467F5A787F6B5F69506C6D6A4C*2B
NOTE :
The $RTCAA and $RTCMA commands allow the user to intermix differential corrections along with other
ASCII commands or logs over a single port. (You must, however, ensure that the ACCEPT command
option is set to “COMMANDS”.)
TIP :
The decoding success and status of $RTCA and $RTCM records can be monitored using the CDSA/B data
log. These commands will not generate any reply response from the command interpreter. They will
simply be processed for valid format and checksum and used internally. If there is any problem with
the data, characters missing or checksum fail, the data will be discarded with no warning message.
$TM1A/B RECEIVER TIME OF 1PPS
The $TM1A and TM1B data messages can be used to time-synchronize multiple receivers which are all referencing
the same external oscillator. First, ensure that SETTIMESYNC is enabled. Next, the primary unit must be sending
its 1PPS signal to the MARKIN input of the secondary unit. Third, the two units must be communicating via a COM
port. In this configuration, the user can send the $TM1A log from a primary to a secondary unit, in a manner similar
to that for $ALMA or $UTCA. The secondary unit is then able to compare the time information contained in the log
with that of the 1PPS signal, and set its clock even though it may not be tracking any satellites.
The ASCII $TM1A data message is generated from a TM1A log, and the binary TM1B data message is generated from
a TM1B log. For descriptions of these data messages, please see the description of the TM1A/B logs in Chapter 4,
Page 34 and Appendix D, Page 218. An example of a $TM1A data message is as follows:
$TM1A,794,414634.999999966,-0.000000078,0.000000021,-.999999998,0*57[CR][LF]
The $TM1A/B message refers to the 1PPS pulse which has just occurred. In other words TM1A comes after a 1PPS
pulse. The length of the pulse for the 24 channel L1/L2 MiLLennium GPSCard is a normally high, active low pulse
(1 millisecond), where falling edge is reference.
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3 Data Logs
3
DATA LOGS
3 DATA LOGS
3.1 OUTPUT LOGGING
The GPSCard provides versatility in your logging requirements. You can direct your logs to either COM1 or COM2,
or both ports, as well as combine data types. The GPSCard has four major logging formats:
•
NovAtel Format Data Logs (ASCII/Binary)
•
NMEA
Standard Format Data Logs (ASCII)
•
RTCM
Standard Format Data Logs (Binary)
•
RTCA
Standard Format Data Logs (Binary)
All data types can be logged using several methods of triggering each log event. Each log is initiated using the LOG
command. The LOG command and syntax are listed below.
Syntax:
log [port],datatype,[trigger],[period],[offset],{hold}
Syntax
LOG
port
datatype
trigger
period
offset
hold
Description
COM1 or COM2
Enter one of the valid ASCII or Binary Data Logs (see later in this chapter and Appendix D, Page 136)
Enter one of the following triggers.
ONCE
Immediately logs the selected data to the selected port once. Default if trigger field is left blank.
ONMARK
Logs the selected data when a MARKIN electrical event is detected. Outputs internal buffers
at time of mark - does not extrapolate to mark time. Use MKBA/B for extrapolated position at
time of mark.
ONNEW
Logs the selected data each time the data is new even if the data is unchanged.
ONCHANGED
Logs the selected data only when the data has changed.
ONTIME
Immediately logs the selected data and then periodically logs the selected data at a frequency
[period], [offset]
determined by the period and offset parameters. The logging will continue until an UNLOG
command pertaining to the selected data item is received (see UNLOG Command, Page 132).
CONTINUOUSLY
Will log the data all the time. The GPSCard will generate a new log when the output buffer
associated with the chosen port becomes empty. The continuously option was designed for
use with differential corrections over low bit rate data links. This will provide optimal record
generation rates. The next record will not be generated until the last byte of the previous record
is loaded into the output buffer of the UART.
Use only with theONTIME trigger. Units for this parameter are seconds. The selected period may be any of the
following values: 0.05, 0.10, 0.20, 0.25, 0.50, 1, 2, 3, ... , 3600 seconds but may be limited by the GPSCard model
and previously requested logs. Selected data is logged immediately and then periodic logging of the data will start at
the next even multiple of the period. If a period of 0.20 sec is chosen, then data will be logged when the receiver time
is at the 0.20, 0.40, 0.60 and the next (0.80) second marks. If the period is 15 seconds, then the logger will log the
data when the receiver time is at even 1/4 minute marks. The same rule applies even if the chosen period is not
divisible into its next second or minute marks. If a period of 7 seconds is chosen, then the logger will log at the
multiples of 7 seconds less than 60, that is, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56 and every 7 seconds thereafter.
Use only with the ONTIME trigger. Units for this parameter are seconds. It provides the ability to offset the logging
events from the above startup rule. If you wished to log data at 1 second after every minute you would set the period
to 60 seconds and the offset to 1 second (Default is 0).
Will prevent a log from being removed when the UNLOGALL command is issued
Example
LOG
COM1
POSA
ONTIME
60
1
HOLD
Example:
log com1,posa,ontime,60,1
If the
34
LOG
syntax does not include a trigger type, it will be output only once following execution of the
LOG
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command. If trigger type is specified in the LOG syntax, the log will continue to be output based on the trigger
specification. Specific logs can be disabled using the UNLOG command, whereas all enabled logs will be disabled
by using the UNLOGALL command (see Chapter 2, Page 23 and Appendix C, Page 132). All activated logs will be
listed in the receiver configuration status log (RCCA).
3.2 NOVATEL FORMAT DATA LOGS
General
The GPSCard is capable of executing more than 40 NovAtel format log commands. Each log is selectable in ASCII
and Binary formats. The one exception to this rule is the RGE log, which can be logged as RGED. The “D” indicates
a compressed binary format to allow higher speed logging. Any format can be selected individually or
simultaneously over the same COMn ports.
All of the log descriptions are listed in alphabetical order in Appendix D. Each log first lists the ASCII format,
followed by the Binary format description.
ASCII Log Structure
Log types ending with the letter A (or a) will be output in ASCII format (e.g., POSA). The structures of all ASCII
logs follow the general conventions as noted here:
1.
2.
3.
The lead code identifier for each record is '$'.
Each log is of variable length depending on amount of data and formats.
All data fields are delimited by a comma ',' with the exception of the last data field, which is followed by
a * to indicate end of message data.
4.
Each log ends with a hexadecimal number preceded by an asterisk and followed by a line termination using the carriage return and line feed characters, e.g., *xx[CR][LF]. This 8-bit value is an exclusive OR
(XOR) of all bytes in the log, excluding the '$' identifier and the asterisk preceding the two checksum digits.
Structure:
$xxxx,
data field...,
data field...,
data field...
*xx
[CR][LF]
Binary Log Structure
Log types ending with the letter B (or b) will be output in Binary format (e.g., POSB). The structures of all Binary
logs follow the general conventions as noted here:
1.
Basic format of:
Sync
Checksum
Message ID
Message byte count
Data
The Sync bytes will always be:
2.
Byte
First
Second
Third
3.
4.
5.
NOTE:
Hex
AA
44
11
3 bytes
1 byte
4 bytes unsigned integer
4 bytes unsigned integer
x
Decimal
170
68
17
The Checksum is an XOR of all the bytes (including the 12 header bytes) and is initially set to 00.
The Message ID identifies the type of log to follow.
The Message byte count equals the total length of the data block including the header.
Maximum flexibility for logging data is provided to the user by these logs. The user is cautioned,
however, to recognize that each log requested requires additional CPU time and memory buffer space.
Too many logs may result in lost data and degraded CPU performance. CPU overload can be monitored
using the idle-time and buffer overload bits from the RCSA/B log. See Table D-5, Page 196 (GPSCard
Receiver Self-test Status Codes).
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3 Data Logs
The following table describes the format types used in the description of binary logs.
Type
Size (bytes)
Size (bits)
char
1
8
int
4
32
double
8
64
float
4
32
Description
The char type is used to store the integer value of a member of the representable character
set. That integer value is the ASCII code corresponding to the specified character.
The size of a signed or unsigned int item is the standard size of an integer on a particular
machine. On a 32-bit processor (such as the NovAtel GPSCard), the int type is 32 bits, or 4
bytes. The int types all represent signed values unless specified otherwise. Signed integers
are represented in two’s-complement form. The most-significant bit holds the sign: 1 for
negative, 0 for positive and zero.
The double type contains 64 bits: 1 for sign, 11 for the exponent, and 52 for the mantissa.
Its range is ±1.7E308 with at least 15 digits of precision.
The float type contains 32 bits: 1 for the sign, 8 for the exponent, and 23 for the mantissa.
Its range is ±3.4E38 with at least 7 digits of precision.
Each byte within an int has its own address, and the smallest of the addresses is the address of the int. The byte at
this lowest address contains the eight least significant bits of the doubleword, while the byte at the highest address
contains the eight most significant bits. The following illustration shows the arrangement of bytes within words
and doublewords. Similarly the bits of a "double" type are stored least significant byte first. This is the same data
format used by IBM PC computers.
7
0
char
address n
31
23
15
7
0
int
n+3
62
double
55
n+1
51
47
address n
39
31
23
15
52-bits mantissa
Biased
S Exponent
63
float
n+2
n+7
30
52
n+6
31
n+3
n+5
n+4
22
15
7
23-bits mantissa
23 n+2
n+1
Biased
S Exponent
two’s
complement
n+3
n+2
7
n+1
address n
0
0
0
address n
3.3 RTK
After setting up your system and initializing the positioning algorithms, as described in the RTK section of Chapter
1. You can use the logs listed in this section to record the data collected. The low-latency-solution logs (e.g.
PRTKA/B) are recommended for kinematic users, while the matched-solution logs (e.g. RTKA/B) are
recommended for stationary users. For a discussion on low-latency and matched solutions, see the Differential
Positioning section in Appendix A, Page 66.
A matched solution is always a carrier-phase differential solution, and consequently offers the greatest possible
accuracy. A low-latency solution, on the other hand, is the best one that is currently available; the possibilities are
categorized as follows, starting with the one offering the greatest accuracy and precision:
1.
Carrier-phase differential solution
2.
Pseudorange differential solution
3.
Single-point solution
Therefore, if an RTK solution is not available, then a low-latency-solution log will contain a pseudorange
differential solution if it exists. If neither an RTK nor a pseudorange differential solution is available, then a lowlatency-solution log will contain a single-point solution.
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3.4 NMEA FORMAT DATA LOGS
General
The NMEA log structures follow format standards as adopted by the National Marine Electronics Association. The
reference document used is "Standard For Interfacing Marine Electronic Devices NMEA 0183 Version 2.00". For
further information, see Appendix F, Standards and References, Page 233. The following table contains excerpts
from Table 6 of the NMEA Standard which defines the variables for the NMEA logs. The actual format for each
parameter is indicated after its description.
Field Type
Symbol
Definition
Special Format Fields
Status
A
Latitude
llll.ll
Longitude
yyyyy.yy
Time
hhmmss.ss
Defined field
Single character field:
A = Yes, Data Valid, Warning Flag Clear
V = No, Data Invalid, Warning Flag Set
Fixed/Variable length field:
degrees|minutes.decimal - 2 fixed digits of degrees, 2 fixed digits of minutes and a variable number of
digits for decimal-fraction of minutes. Leading zeros always included for degrees and minutes to
maintain fixed length. The decimal point and associated decimal-fraction are optional if full resolution
is not required.
Fixed/Variable length field:
degrees|minutes.decimal - 3 fixed digits of degrees, 2 fixed digits of minutes and a variable number of
digits for decimal-fraction of minutes. Leading zeros always included for degrees and minutes to
maintain fixed length. The decimal point and associated decimal-fraction are optional if full resolution
is not required
Fixed/Variable length field:
hours|minutes|seconds.decimal - 2 fixed digits of hours, 2 fixed digits of minutes, 2 fixed digits of
seconds and variable number of digits for decimal-fraction of seconds. Leading zeros always included
for hours, minutes and seconds to maintain fixed length. The decimal point and associated decimalfraction are optional if full resolution is not required.
Some fields are specified to contain pre-defined constants, most often alpha characters. Such a field is
indicated in this standard by the presence of one or more valid characters. Excluded from the list of
allowable characters are the following which are used to indicate field types within this standard:
"A", "a", "c", "hh", "hhmmss.ss", "llll.ll", "x", "yyyyy.yy"
Numeric Value Fields
Variable
numbers
x.x
Fixed HEX field
hh___
Variable length integer or floating numeric field. Optional leading and trailing zeros. The decimal point
and associated decimal-fraction are optional if full resolution is not required (example: 73.10 = 73.1 =
073.1 = 73)
Fixed length HEX numbers only, MSB on the left
Information Fields
Variable text
c--c
Variable length valid character field.
Fixed alpha field
aa___
Fixed length field of uppercase or lowercase alpha characters
Fixed number
xx___
Fixed length field of numeric characters
Fixed text field
cc___
Fixed length field of valid characters
NOTES:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Spaces may only be used in variable text fields.
A negative sign "-" (HEX 2D) is the first character in a Field if the value is negative. The sign is omitted if value is positive.
All data fields are delimited by a comma (,).
Null fields are indicated by no data between two commas (,,). Null fields indicate invalid or no data available.
The NMEA Standard requires that message lengths be limited to 82 characters.
3.5 GPS TIME VS. LOCAL RECEIVER TIME
All logs report GPS time expressed in GPS weeks and seconds into the week. The time reported is not corrected for
local receiver clock error. To derive the closest GPS time, one must subtract the clock offset shown in the CLKA log
(field 4) from GPS time reported.
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3 Data Logs
GPS time is based
on an atomic time scale. Universal Time Coordinated (UTC) time (reported in NMEA logs) is also
based on an atomic time scale, with an offset of seconds applied to coordinate Universal Time to GPS time. GPS
time is designated as being coincident with UTC at the start date of January 6, 1980 (00 hours). GPS time does not
count leap seconds, and therefore an offset exists between UTC and GPS time. The GPS week consists of 604800
seconds, where 000000 seconds is at Saturday midnight. Each week at this time, the week number increments by
one, and the seconds into the week resets to 0. (See Appendix H, Some Common Unit Conversions, Page 236 for
an example)
3.6 STANDARD LOG TABLES
Table 3-1 lists the logs by function while Table 3-2 is an alphabetical listing of logs. Please see Appendix D, Page
136 for a more detailed description of individual NovAtel and NMEA format logs which are listed alphabetically.
RTCM and RTCA format data logs and receiver-independent RINEX logs will be found in Chapter 4. Special
Pass-Through logs are found in Section 3.8.
Table 3-1 Logs By Function Table
Logs
COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND STATUS
Descriptions
CDSA/B
COM1A/B
COM port communications status
Log data from COM1
COM2A/B
COMnA/B
Log data from COM2
Pass-through data logs
RCSA/B
Receiver self-test status
RTCM16T
RTCM16
NovAtel ASCII format special message
RTCM format special message
Logs
GENERAL RECEIVER CONTROL AND STATUS
Descriptions
PVAA/B
Receiver’s latest computed position, velocity and acceleration in ECEF coordinates
RCCA
Receiver configuration status
RCSA/B
RVSA/B
Version and self-test status
Receiver status
VERA/B
Receiver hardware and software version numbers
POSITION, PARAMETERS, AND SOLUTION FILTERING CONTROL
Logs
Descriptions
DOPA/B
DOP of SVs currently tracking
GGAB
GPGGA
GPS fix data
NMEA, position data
GPGLL
NMEA, position data
GPGRS
GPGSA
NMEA, range residuals
NMEA, DOP information
GPGST
MKPA/B
NMEA, measurement noise statistics
Position at time of mark
POSA/B
Position data
PRTKA/B
PVAA/B
Computed position
Computed position, velocity and acceleration in ECEF coordinates
PXYA/B
RTKA/B
Position (Cartesian x,y,z coordinates)
Computed position
SPHA/B
Speed and direction over ground
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Table 3-1 Logs By Function Table (continued)
Logs
SATELLITE TRACKING AND CHANNEL CONTROL
Descriptions
ALMA/B
DOPA/B
Current decoded almanac data
DOP of SVs currently tracking
ETSA/B
Provides channel tracking status information for each of the GPSCard parallel channels
GPALM
NMEA, almanac data
GPGSA
GPGSV
NMEA, SV DOP information
NMEA, satellite-in-view information
RALA/B
Raw almanac
RASA/B
RGEA/B/D
Raw GPS almanac set
Satellite range measurements
SATA/B
SBTA/B
Satellite specific information
Satellite broadcast data (raw symbols)
SVDA/B
SV position (ECEF xyz)
WRCA/B
Wide band range correction data (grouped format)
Logs
WAYPOINT NAVIGATION
Descriptions
GPRMB
NMEA, waypoint status
GPRMC
NMEA, navigation information
GPVTG
NMEA, track made good and speed
GPZTG
NMEA, time to destination
MKPA/B
NAVA/B
Position at time of mark input
Navigation waypoint status
POSA/B
SPHA/B
Position data
Speed and course over ground
VLHA/B
Velocity, latency & direction over ground
Logs
DIFFERENTIAL REFERENCE STATION
Descriptions
ALMA/B
Current almanac information
CDSA/B
COM port data transmission status
CMR
PAVA/B
Pseudorange and carrier phase data
Parameters being used in the position averaging process
RGEA/B/D
RPSA/B
Channel range measurements
Reference station position and health
RTCAA/B
Transmits RTCA differential corrections in NovAtel ASCII or Binary
RTCM1
RTCM3
Transmits RTCM SC104 standard corrections
Reference position
RTCM1819
RTCM22
Uncorrected carrier phase and pseudorange measurements
Extended reference station parameters
RTCM59
RTCMA/B
NovAtel format RT-20 observation data
Transmits RTCM information in NovAtel ASCII/binary
SATA/B
Satellite specific information
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Table 3-1 Logs By Function Table (continued)
DIFFERENTIAL REMOTE STATION
Descriptions
Logs
CDSA/B
Communication and differential decode status
GPGGA
GGAB
NMEA, position fix data
NovAtel binary version of GPGGA
POSA/B
Position information
PRTKA/B
Computed Position – best available
RTKA/B
Computed Position – Time Matched
RTKOA/B
SATA/B
RTK Output
Satellite specific information
SVDA/B
VLHA/B
SV position in ECEF XYZ with corrections
Velocity, latency & direction over ground
POST PROCESSING DATA
Descriptions
Logs
BSLA/B
Most recent matched baseline expressed in ECEF coords.
CLKA/B
Receiver clock offset information
REPA/B
Raw ephemeris information
RGEA/B/D
SATA/B
Satellite and ranging information
Satellite specific information
SVDA/B
SV position in ECEF XYZ with corrections
CLOCK INFORMATION, STATUS, AND TIME
Descriptions
Logs
CLKA/B
Receiver clock offset information
1
CLMA/B
Current clock-model matrices of the GPSCard
GPZDA
NMEA, UTC time and date
GPZTG
NMEA, UTC and time to waypoint
MKTA/B
TM1A/B
Time of mark input
Time of 1PPS
1
Intended for advanced users of GPS only.
Logs
NAVIGATION DATA
Descriptions
FRMA/B
RALA/B
Framed raw navigation data
Raw almanac and health data
RASA/B
RBTA/B
Raw almanac set
Satellite broadcast data in raw bits
REPA/B
Raw ephemeris data
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Table 3-2 GPSCard Log Summary
Syntax: log port,datatype,[trigger],[period],[offset],{hold}
NovAtel Format Logs
Datatype
Description
Datatype
Description
ALMA/B
Decoded Almanac
RASA/B
Raw GPS Almanac Set
BSLA/B
Baseline Measurement
RCCA
Receiver Configuration
CDSA/B
Communication and Differential Decode Status
REPA/B
Raw Ephemeris
CLKA/B
Receiver Clock Offset Data
RGEA/B/D
Channel Range Measurements
CLMA/B
Receiver Clock Model
RPSA/B
Reference Station Position and Health
COM1A/B
Log data from COM1
RTCAA/B
RTCA format Differential Corrections with NovAtel
headers
COM2A/B
Log data from COM2
RTKA/B
Computed Position - Time Matched
DOPA/B
Dilution of Precision
RTKOA/B
RTK Solution Parameters
ETSA/B
Extended Tracking Status
RTCMA/B
RTCM Type 1 Differential Corrections with NovAtel
headers
GGAB
Global Position System Fix Data - Binary Format
RTCM16T
Special Message
MKPA/B
Mark Position
RVSA/B
Receiver Status
MKTA/B
Time of Mark Input
SATA/B
Satellite Specific Data
NAVA/B
Navigation Data
SBTA/B
Satellite Broadcast Data (Raw Symbols)
PAVA/B
Positioning Averaging Status
SPHA/B
Speed and Direction Over Ground
POSA/B
Computed Position
SVDA/B
SV Position in ECEF XYZ Coordinates with
Corrections
PRTKA/B
Computed Position
TM1A/B
Time of 1PPS
PVAA/B
XYZ Position, Velocity and Acceleration
VERA/B
Receiver Hardware and Software Version Numbers
PXYA/B
Computed Cartesian Coordinate Position
VLHA/B
Velocity, Latency, and Direction over Ground
RALA/B
Raw Almanac
WRCA/B
Wide Band Range Correcion (Grouped)
NMEA Format Logs
GPALM
Almanac Data
GPGSV
GPS Satellites in View
GPGGA
Global Position System Fix Data
GPRMB
Generic Navigation Information
GPGLL
Geographic Position - lat/lon
GPRMC
GPS Specific Information
GPGRS
GPS Range Residuals for Each Satellite
GPVTG
Track Made Good and Ground Speed
GPGSA
GPS DOP and Active Satellites
GPZDA
UTC Time and Date
GPGST
Pseudorange Measurement Noise Statistics
GPZTG
UTC & Time to Destination Waypoint
RTCA Format
RTCA
RTCA Differential Corrections: Type 1 and Type 7
RTCM Format
RTCM1
Type 1 Differential GPS Corrections
RTCM3
Type 3 Reference Station Parameters
RTCM9
Type 9 Partial Satellite Set Differential Corrections
RTCM16
Type 16 Special Message
RTCM1819
Type 18 and Type 19 Uncorrected Carrier Phase and Pseudorange Corrections
RTCM22
Type 22 Extended Reference Station Parameters
RTCM59
Type 59N-0 NovAtel Proprietary Message: RT20 Differential Observations
Note:
A/B/D:
A refers to GPSCard output logs in ASCII format.
B refers to GPSCard output logs in Binary format.
D refers to GPSCard output logs in compressed binary format.
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3 Data Logs
3.7 WAAS
The Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) is a safety-critical system that provides a quality of positioning
information previously unavailable. The WAAS improves the accuracy, integrity, and availability of the basic GPS
signals.
3.7.1 WAAS GPSCard Logs
The log WALA/B (see its descriptions on Page 222), provide WAAS satellite-specific data. For more information
on MiLLennium GPSCards with the WAAS option, see Page 29.
3.8 PASS-THROUGH LOGS
The pass-through logging feature enables the GPSCard to redirect any ASCII or binary data that is input at a
specified port (COM1 or COM2) to any specified GPSCard port (COM1 or COM2). This capability, in conjunction with
the SEND command, can allow the GPSCard to perform bi-directional communications with other devices such as
a modem, terminal, or another GPSCard.
There are two pass-through logs COM1A/B and COM2A/B, available on MiLLennium GPSCards.
Pass-through is initiated the same as any other log, i.e., LOG [to-port] [data-type-A/B] [trigger]. However, passthrough can be more clearly specified as: LOG [to-port] [from-port-A/B] [onchanged]. Now, the [from-port-A/B]
field designates the port which accepts data (i.e., COM1or COM2) as well as the format in which the data will be
logged by the [to-port] — (A for ASCII or B for Binary).
When the [from-port-A/B] field is designated with an [A], all data received by that port will be redirected to the
[to-port] in ASCII format and will log according to standard NovAtel ASCII format. Therefore, all incoming
ASCII data will be redirected and output as ASCII data. However, any binary data received will be converted to a
form of ASCII hexadecimal before it is logged.
When the [from-port-A/B] field is designated with a [B], all data received by that port will be redirected to the [toport] exactly as it is received. The log header and time-tag adhere to standard NovAtel Binary Format followed by
the pass-through data as it was received (ASCII or binary).
Pass-through logs are best utilized by setting the [trigger] field as onchanged or onnew. Either of these two
triggers will cause the incoming data to log when any one of the following conditions is met:
•
Upon receipt of a <CR> character
•
Upon receipt of a <LF> character
•
Upon receipt of 80 characters
•
1/2 second timeout following receipt of last character
Each pass-through record transmitted by the GPSCard is time tagged by the GPSCard clock in
seconds.
GPS
weeks and
For illustration purposes, you could connect two GPSCards together via their COM1 ports such as in a reference
station, labelled as reference station in Figure 5-1, to remote station scenario. If the reference station were logging
PVAA data to the remote station, it would be possible to use the pass-through logs to pass through the received PVAA
differential correction data to a disk file (let's call it DISKFILE.log) at the remote station host PC hard disk.
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Figure 3-1 Pass-Through Log Data
$PVAA data log
Data Link
To COM1
To COM1
To COM2
To COM2
fix position (lat,lon,ht,id)
accept com1 none
log com1 pvaa ontime 5
messages com1 off
log console com1a onchanged
Serial Cable
Serial Cable
Host PC
(Rover Station)
Host PC
(Reference Station)
When pass-through logs are being used, the GPSCard’s command interpreter continues to monitor the port for valid
input commands and replies with error messages when the data is not recognized as such. If you do not want the
pass-through input port to respond with error messages during unrecognized data input, see the MESSAGES
command, Appendix C, Page 108 for details on how to inhibit the port’s error message responses. As well, if you
do not want the reference station to accept any input from the remote device, use the ACCEPT NONE command to
disable the port’s command interpreter.
3.8.1 Command Syntax
Syntax:
log
to-port
from-port-A/B
trigger
Syntax
Range Value
Description
log
to-port
from-port-[A/B]
—
COM1, COM2
COM1A/B, COM2A/B
trigger
onchanged or onnew
Log command
Port that will output the pass-through log data
Port that will accept input data;
[A] option logs data as ASCII,
[B] option logs data with binary header
log will output upon receipt of:
<CR>, <LF>, 80 characters, or 1/2 sec. timeout
Default
unlogall
—
—
—
Example 1:
log com2 com1a onchanged
3.8.2 ASCII Log Structure
$port ID
Field #
week
Field type
1
$port ID
2
3
4
week
seconds
pass-through data
5
6
*xx
[CR][LF]
seconds
pass-through data
Data Description
Log header:
Identifies port accepting input data
GPS week number
GPS seconds into the week at time of log
Data accepted into COM1
(up to 80 characters)
Checksum
Sentence terminator
*xx
[CR][LF]
Example
$COM1
747
347131.23
$TM1A,747,347131.000000000,
0.000000058,0.000000024,
-9.000000009,0*78<CR>
*2E
[CR][LF]
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3 Data Logs
Example 1:
$COM1,747,347131.23,$TM1A,747,347131.000000000,0.000000058,0.00000
0024, -9.000000009,0*78<CR>*2E[CR][LF]
$COM1,747,347131.31,<LF>*4F[CR][LF]
$COM1,747,347131.40,Invalid Command Option<LF>*7C[CR][LF]
$COM1,747,347131.42,Com1>Invalid Command Option<LF>*30[CR][LF]
$COM1,747,347131.45,Com1>*0A[CR][LF]
Example 1, above, shows what would result if a GPSCard logged TM1A data into the COM1 port of another
GPSCard, where the accepting card is redirecting this input data as a pass-through log to its COM2 port (log com2
com1a onchanged). Under default conditions the two cards will "chatter" back and forth with the Invalid
Command Option message (due to the command interpreter in each card not recognizing the command prompts
of the other card). This chattering will in turn cause the accepting card to transmit new pass-through logs with the
response data from the other card. To avoid this chattering problem, use the GPSCard MESSAGES command on the
accepting port to disable error reporting from the receiving port command interpreter or if the incoming data is of
no use to the GPSCard, then disable the command interpreter with the ACCEPT NONE command.
If the accepting port’s error reporting is disabled by
creating two records as follows:
MESSAGES OFF,
the $TM1A data record would pass through
Example 1a:
$COM1,747,347204.80,$TM1A,747,347203.999999957,0.000000015,0.000000024,
-9.000000009,0*55<CR>*00[CR][LF]
$COM1,747,347204.88,<LF>*48[CR][LF]
The reason that two records are logged from the accepting card is because the first record was initiated by receipt
of the $TM1A log’s first terminator <CR>. Then the second record followed in response to the $TM1A log’s second
terminator <LF>.
Note that the time interval between the first character received ($) and the terminating <LF> can be calculated by
differencing the two GPS time tags (0.08 seconds). This pass-through feature is useful for time tagging the arrival
of external messages. These messages could be any user-related data. If the user is using this feature for tagging
external events then it is recommended that the command interpreter be disabled so that the GPSCard does not
respond to the messages. See the ACCEPT command in Chapter 2, Page 23 and Appendix C, Page 79.
Example 1b illustrates what would result if $TM1B binary log data were input to the accepting port
(i.e., log com2 com1a onchanged).
Example 1b:
$COM1,747,349005.18,<AA>D<DC1>k<ETX><NUL><NUL><NUL>4<NUL><NUL><NUL>
<EB><STX><NUL><NUL><FE>3M<NAK>A<VT><83><D6>o<82><C3>Z<BE><FC><97>I
<91><C5>iV><7F><8F>O<NUL><NUL><NUL>"<C0><NUL><NUL><NUL><NUL>*6A
As can be seen, the $TM1B binary data at the accepting port was converted to a variation of ASCII hexadecimal
before it was passed through to COM2 port for logging (MESSAGES command set to OFF).
3.8.3 Binary Log Structure
Format:
Field #
1
(header)
2
3
4
44
Message ID =
30 for COM1B; 31 for COM2B
Message byte count = 24 + (length of pass-through data string received (80 maximum))
Data
Sync
Checksum
Message ID
Message byte count
Week number
Seconds of week
Pass-through data as
received
Bytes
3
1
4
4
4
8
variable
Format
char
char
integer
integer
integer
double
char
Units
weeks
seconds
Offset
0
3
4
8
12
16
24 + (variable data)
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4
MESSAGE FORMATS
4 MESSAGE FORMATS
In a NovAtel RTK positioning system, the observations transmitted by a NovAtel reference station to a NovAtel
remote station can be in either a proprietary RTCA Type 7 or a proprietary RTCM Type 59N message format. A
NovAtel Rover station is also able to receive CMR-format messages, Section 4.3, from a non-NovAtel base station.
Table 4-1 illustrates the various combinations of hardware and message formats, together with the positioning
mode (RT-20 or RT-2) which will result when using all-NovAtel devices:
Table 4-1 Positioning Modes
Reference station:
L1
RTCM Type 59N
Reference station:
L1
RTCA Type 7
Reference station:
L1 & L2
RTCM Type 59N
Reference station:
L1 & L2
RTCA Type 7
Remote station: L1
RT-20
RT-20
RT-20
RT-20
Remote station: L1 & L2
RT-20
RT-20
RT-20
RT-2
The following information can be used to calculate the minimum data throughput required of the communications
data link. Keep in mind that manufacturers of communication equipment add extra bits to each message (e.g. for
error detection), forming an “overhead” that must be taken into account; also, radio transmitting equipment may
have a duty cycle which must also be factored into the calculations. Thus, a “4800 bits per second” radio modem
might actually sustain only 2000 bits per second. Consult the documentation supplied by the manufacturer of your
communications equipment.
4.1 RTCA-FORMAT MESSAGES
NovAtel has defined two proprietary RTCA Standard Type 71 binary-format messages RTCAOBS and
RTCAREF, for reference station transmissions. These can be used with either single or dual-frequency NovAtel
receivers; existing users of RT-20 wishing to switch from RTCM to RTCA message formats will require a software
upgrade. The RTCA message format outperforms the RTCM format in the following ways, among others:
•
a more efficient data structure (lower overhead)
•
better error detection
•
allowance for a longer message, if necessary
RTCAREF and RTCAOBS, respectively, correspond to the RTCM Type 3 and Type 59 logs used in singlefrequency-only measurements. Both are NovAtel-proprietary RTCA Standard Type 7 messages with an ‘N’
primary sub-label.
RTCAOBS
TYPE 7
An RTCAOBS (RTCA Reference-Station Satellite Observations) message contains reference station satellite
observation information. It is used to provide range observations to the remote receiver, and should be sent every
1 or 2 seconds. This log is made up of variable-length messages up to 255 bytes long. The maximum number of
bits in this message is [140 + (92 x N)], where N is the maximum number of satellite record entries transmitted.
Using the RTKMODE command, you can define N to be anywhere from 4 to 20; the default value is 12.
1. For further information on RTCA Standard Type 7 messages, you may wish to refer to:
Minnimum Aviation System Performance Standards - DGNSS Instrument Approach System: Special
Category I (SCAT-I), Document No. RTCA/DO-217 (April 19,1995); Appendix A, Page 21.
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4 Message Formats
RTCAREF
TYPE 7
An RTCAREF (RTCA Reference Station Position Information) message contains reference station position
information, and should be sent once every 10 seconds. Each message is 24 bytes (192 bits) long.
If RTCA-format messaging is being used, the optional station id field that is entered using the FIX POSITION
command can be any 4-character string combining numbers and upper-case letters, and enclosed in quotation
marks (e.g. “RW34”). Note that the representation of this string in the log message would be a number within the
range of 266,305 to 15,179,385 as per RTCA notation. The lower bound of 266,305 represents “AAAA” and the
upper bound of 15,179,385 represents “9999”.
RTCA Standard Logs
The RTCA (Radio Technical Commission for Aviation Services) Standard is being designed to support Differential
Global Navigation Satellite System (DGNSS) Special Category I (SCAT-I) precision instrument approaches. The
RTCA Standard is in a preliminary state. Described below is NovAtel’s current support for this Standard. It is based
on "Minimum Aviation System Performance Standards DGNSS Instrument Approach System: Special Category I
(SCAT-I)" dated August 27, 1993 (RTCA/DO-217).
RTCA
This log enables transmission of RTCA Standard format Type 1 messages from the GPSCard when operating as a
reference station. Before this message can be transmitted, the GPSCard FIX POSITION command must be set. The
RTCA log will be accepted by a GPSCard operating as a remote station over a COM port after an ACCEPT port RTCA
command is issued.
The RTCA Standard for SCAT-I stipulates that the maximum age of differential correction (Type 1) messages
accepted by the remote station cannot be greater than 22 seconds. See the DGPSTIMEOUT command in Chapter 2,
Page 23 and Appendix C, Page 90 for information regarding DGPS delay settings.
The RTCA Standard also stipulates that a reference station shall wait five minutes after receiving a new ephemeris
before transmitting differential corrections. See the DGPSTIMEOUT command for information regarding ephemeris
delay settings.
The basic SCAT-I Type 1 differential correction message is as follows:
Format:
Message length = 11 + (6*obs): (83 bytes maximum)
Field Type
SCAT-I header
Data
–
–
–
Bits
Message block identifier
Reference station ID
Message type
Bytes
8
24
8
6
8
13
3
2
(this field will always report 00000001)
Type 1 header
–
–
–
Message length
Modified z-count
Acceleration error bound
(In the GPSCard, this field will report
000)
Type 1 data
CRC
1
–
Satellite ID
–
Pseudorange correction
–
Issue of data
–
Range rate correction
–
UDRE
Cyclic redundancy check
1
1
6
16
8
12
6
6 *obs
3
The pseudorange correction and range rate correction fields have a range of ±655.34 meters and ±4.049 m/s respectively. Any satellite which exceeds these limits will not be included.
RTCAA
This log contains the same data available in the RTCA SCAT-I message, but has been modified to allow flexibility
in using the RTCA data. The RTCA data has been reformatted to be available in ASCII hexadecimal, utilizing a
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NovAtel header and terminates with a checksum.
This message was designed so that RTCA data can be intermixed with other NovAtel ASCII data over a common
communications port. The log is not in pure RTCA format. The header ($RTCA) and terminator (*xx) must be
stripped off at the receiving end, then the data will need to be converted from hexadecimal to binary before the
RTCA information is retrieved.
The RTCAA log can be directly decoded by other NovAtel GPSCard receivers operating as remote stations. They
will recognize the $RTCA header as a special data input command and the differential corrections data will be
directly applied. The GPSCard remote station receiving this log must have the ACCEPT command set to "ACCEPT
port COMMANDS".
Structure:
$RTCA
data
*xx
[CR][LF]
Field #
Field Type
Data Description
Example
1
2
$RTCA
data
Log header
SCAT-I type 1 differential
corrections
3
4
*x x
[CR][LF]
Checksum
$RTCA
990000000447520607BE7C92FA0B82423E9FE507DF5F3FC9
FD071AFC7FA0D207D090808C0E045BACC055E9075271FFB
0200413F43FF810049C9DFF8FFD074FCF3C940504052DFB
*20
[CR][LF]
Example:
$RTCA,990000000447520607BE7C92FA0B82423E9FE507DF5F3FC9FD071AFC7FA0
D207D090808C0E045BACC055E9075271FFB0200413F43FF810049C9DFF8FFD074F
CF3C940504052DFB*20[CR][LF]
RTCAB
The RTCAB log contains the SCAT-I differential corrections message with the standard NovAtel binary log preamble
(header) added. The RTCAB log will be accepted by the GPSCard over a COM port after an "ACCEPT port RTCA"
command is issued.
Format:
Field #
1
(header)
2
3
4
5
6
Message ID = 38
Data
Message byte count = 12 + (11+(6*obs)): 95 bytes maximum
Bytes
Format
Sync
3
char
Checksum
1
char
Message ID
4
integer
Message byte count
4
integer
–
Message block identifier
6
–
Reference station ID
–
Message type
–
Message length
–
Modified z-count
2
–
Acceleration error bound
–
Satellite ID
–
Pseudorange correction
6
–
Issue of data
–
Range rate correction
–
UDRE
Next PRN offset = 26 + (6*obs) where obs varies from 0 to (obs-1)
CRC
3
Offset
0
3
4
8
12
18
20
4.2 RTCM-FORMAT MESSAGES
The Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services (RTCM) was established to facilitate the establishment of
various radio navigation standards, which includes recommended GPS differential standard formats.
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4 Message Formats
The standards recommended by the Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services Special Committee 104,
Differential GPS Service (RTCM SC-104,Washington, D.C.), have been adopted by NovAtel for implementation
into the GPSCard. Because the GPSCard is capable of utilizing RTCM formats, it can easily be integrated into
positioning systems around the globe.
As it is beyond the scope of this manual to provide in-depth descriptions of the RTCM data formats, it is
recommended that anyone requiring explicit descriptions of such, should obtain a copy of the published RTCM
specifications. See Appendix F, Page 233 for reference information.
RTCM SC-1042 Type 3 & 59 messages can be used for reference station transmissions in differential systems.
However, since these messages do not include information on the L2 component of the GPS signal, they cannot be
used with RT-2 positioning. Regardless of whether single or dual-frequency receivers are used, the RT-20
positioning algorithm would be used. This is for a system in which both the reference and remote stations utilize
NovAtel receivers.
Note that the error-detection capability of an RTCM-format message is less than that of an RTCA-format message.
The communications equipment that you use may have an error-detection capability of its own to supplement that
of the RTCM message, although at a penalty of a higher overhead (see the discussion at the beginning of this
chapter, Page 45). Consult the vendor’s documentation for further information.
•
RTCM Type 3
Reference Station Position
A Type 3 message contains reference station position information. This message must be sent at least once every
30 seconds, although it is recommended that it be sent once every 10 seconds. It uses four RTCM data words
following the two-word header, for a total frame length of six 30-bit words (180 bits).
•
RTCM Type 59
NovAtel Proprietary (RT-20)
A Type 59N message contains reference station satellite observation information, and should be sent once every 2
seconds. It is variable in size, and can be up to thirty three 30-bit words (990 bits) long.
If RTCM-format messaging is being used, the optional station id field that is entered using the FIX POSITION
command can be any number within the range of 0 - 1023 (e.g. 119). The representation in the log message would
be identical to what was entered.
RTCM General Message Format
All GPSCard RTCM standard format logs adhere to the structure recommended by RTCM SC-104. Thus, all RTCM
message are composed of 30 bit words. Each word contains 24 data bits and 6 parity bits. All RTCM messages
contain a 2-word header followed by 0 to 31 data words for a maximum of 33 words (990 bits) per message
Message Frame Header
Data
Bits
Word 1
–
–
–
–
Message frame preamble for synchronization
Frame/message type ID
reference station ID
Parity
8
6
10
6
Word 2
–
–
–
–
–
Modified z-count (time tag)
Sequence number
Length of message frame
reference station health
Parity
13
3
5
3
6
The remainder of this section will provide further information concerning GPSCard commands and logs that utilize
the RTCM data formats.
2. For further information on RTCM SC-104 messages, you may wish to refer to:
RTCM Recommended Standards for Differential Navstar GPS Service, Version 2.1, RTCM Paper 19493/SC104-STD (January 3, 1994)
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RTCM Standard Commands
RTCMRULE
The RTCM standard states that all equipment shall support the use of the "6 of 8" format (data bits a1 through a6
where bits a1 through a6 are valid data bits and bit a7 is set to mark and bit a8 is set to space).
The GPSCard RTCMRULE command allows for flexibility in the use of the bit rule to accommodate compatibility
with equipment that does not strictly adhere to the RTCM stated rule.
Syntax:
RTCMRULE
rule
Syntax
Range Value
RTCMRULE
rule
6CR
6SP
Description
Command
6CR is for 6 bits of valid data per byte. Each frame is followed by a <CR> character.
6SP (6 bit special); the RTCM decoder of the remote receiver will ignore the two MSB of the
data and hence all 6 bit data will be accepted. This allows users with non-conforming 6 bit rule
data to use the NovAtel receiver to accept their RTCM data. The user will not be allowed to
enter extra control data such as CR/LF, as this will be treated as RTCM data and cause the
parity to fail. This option does not affect RTCM generation. The output will be exactly the same
as if the RTCMRULE 6 option was chosen. The upper two bits are always encoded as per
RTCM specification.
6 is for 6 bits of valid data per byte
8 is for 8 bits of valid data per byte
6
8
Default
6CR
Example:
rtcmrule 6cr
RTCM16T
This is a NovAtel GPSCard command which relates to the RTCM Type 16
This command allows the GPSCard user to set an ASCII text string. Once set, the text string can be transmitted as
standard format RTCM Type 16 data (see the RTCM16 log, Page 53). The text string entered is limited to a maximum
of 90 ASCII characters. This message is useful for a reference station wanting to transmit special messages to
remote users.
The text string set here can be verified by observing the RCCA command configuration log. As well, the message
text can be transmitted as a NovAtel Format ASCII log by utilizing the "LOG port RTCM16T" command.
Syntax:
RTCM16T
message
Syntax
RTCM16T
message
Range Value
up to 90 characters
Description
Command
ASCII text message
Example:
rtcm16t This is a test of the RTCM16T Special Message.
RTCM Standard Logs
The NovAtel logs which implement the RTCM Standard Format for Type 1, 3, 9, and 16, 18, 19 and 22 messages
are known as the RTCM1 (or RTCM), RTCM3, RTCM9, RTCM16, RTCM1819 and RTCM22 logs, respectively,
while Type 59N-0 messages are listed in the RTCM59 log.
NovAtel has created ASCII and binary versions of each of these logs so that RTCM data can be sent or received
along with other NovAtel ASCII and binary data over a common communications port. As per the usual
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4 Message Formats
convention, an “A” at the end of the log name denotes the NovAtel ASCII version (e.g. RTCM1A), and a “B”
denotes the NovAtel binary version (e.g. RTCM1B). These logs contain the same data that is available in the
corresponding RTCM Standard Format messages; however, the data has been “packaged” into NovAtel-format
messages.
These NovAtel-format logs are not in pure RTCM SC-104 format and are not directly usable as such. There are
two scenarios which affect how these logs are processed:
Case 1: ASCII messages (RTCMxA)
• The NovAtel header ($RTCMx) and checksum terminator (*yz) must be stripped off at the
receiving end; then, the data will need to be converted from hexadecimal to binary before
the RTCM information can be retrieved.
•
Provided that the GPSCard that is acting as a remote station has its ACCEPT command set
to “ACCEPT port COMMANDS” (which is the default setting), the receiving GPSCard will
recognize the NovAtel header ($RTCMxA) as a special data input command, and apply the
differential corrections data directly. No extra processing is required.
Case 2: Binary messages (RTCMxB)
• The 12-byte NovAtel header must be stripped off before the RTCM information can be
retrieved.
•
These binary messages are not presently decoded directly by GPSCards, unlike the ASCII
messages.
ASCII
The format of the NovAtel ASCII version of an RTCM log is as follows:
Structure:
header
Field #
rtcm data
*xx
Field Type
1
2
header
rtcm data
3
4
*xx
[CR][LF]
[CR][LF]
Data Description
NovAtel format ASCII header
hexadecimal representation of binaryformat RTCM SC104 data
Checksum
Sentence terminator
Example
$RTCM3
597E7C7F7B76537A66406F49487F79
7B627A7A5978634E6E7C5155444946
*68
[CR][LF]
Example:
$RTCM3,597E7C7F7B76537A66406F49487F797B627A7A5978634E6E7C515544494
6*68[CR][LF]
BINARY
The format of the NovAtel binary version of an RTCM log is as follows:
Field #
1
(header)
2
Data
Sync
Checksum
Message ID
Message byte count
RTCM SC104 data
Bytes
3
1
4
4
variable
Format
char
char
integer
integer
Offset
0
3
4
8
12
RTCM OR RTCM1
This is the primary RTCM log used for pseudorange differential corrections. This log follows RTCM Standard Format
for Type 1 messages. It contains the pseudorange differential correction data computed by the reference station
50
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
4 Message Formats
generating this Type 1 log. The log is of variable length, depending on the number of satellites visible and
pseudoranges corrected by the reference station. Satellite specific data begins at word 3 of the message.
Structure:
(Follows RTCM Standard for Type 1 message)
Type 1 messages contain the following information for each satellite in view at the reference station:
•
•
•
•
Satellite ID
Pseudorange correction
Range-rate correction
Issue of Data (IOD)
When operating as a reference station, the GPSCard must be in FIX POSITION mode before the data can be correctly
logged.
When operating as a remote station, the GPSCard
command set to "ACCEPT port RTCM".
COM
port receiving the
RTCM
data must have its
ACCEPT
REMEMBER: Upon a change in ephemeris, GPSCard reference stations will transmit Type 1 messages based
on the old ephemeris for a period of time defined by the DGPSTIMEOUT command. After the
timeout, the reference station will begin to transmit the Type 1 messages based on new
ephemeris.
RTCMA or RTCM1A
This log contains the same data available in the RTCM Standard Format Type 1 messages, but has been modified to
allow flexibility in using the RTCM data. The RTCM data has been reformatted to be available in ASCII hexadecimal,
utilizing a NovAtel header and terminates with a checksum.
This message was designed so that RTCM data can be intermixed with other NovAtel ASCII data over a common
communications port. The log is not in pure RTCM SC104 format. The header ($RTCM) and terminator (*xx) must
be stripped off at the receiving end, then the data will need to be converted from hexadecimal to binary before the
RTCM information is retrieved. The RTCM data is further defined by the RTCM rule (see the RTCMRULE command,
Page 114).
The RTCMA log can be directly decoded by other NovAtel GPSCard receivers operating as remote stations. They
will recognize the $RTCM header as a special data input command and the differential corrections data will be
directly applied. The GPSCard remote station receiving this log must have the ACCEPT command set to "ACCEPT
port COMMANDS".
Structure:
$RTCM
Field #
rtcm data
Field Type
*xx
[CR][LF]
Data Description
Example
$RTCM
664142406B61455F565F7140607E5D526A5366C7
C7F6F5A5B766D587D7F535C4B697F54594060685
652625842707F77555B766558767F715B7746656B
*54
[CR][LF]
1
2
$RTCM
rtcm data
NovAtel format ASCII header
hexadecimal representation of binary
format RTCM SC104 data
3
4
*xx
[CR][LF]
Checksum
Sentence terminator
Example:
$RTCM,664142406B61455F565F7140607E5D526A5366C7C7F6F5A5B766D587D7F535C4B697F54594
060685652625842707F77555B766558767F715B7746656B*54[CR][LF]
RTCMB or RTCM1B
This log contains the same data available in the RTCM Standard Format Type 1 messages, but has been modified to
allow flexibility in using the RTCM data. The RTCM data has been reformatted to be available in NovAtel Binary
Format, utilizing a NovAtel binary header.
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
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4 Message Formats
This message was designed so that RTCM data can be transmitted intermixed with other NovAtel binary data over
a common communications port. The log is not in pure RTCM SC104 format and is not directly usable as such.
GPSCard remote receivers cannot decode or interpret the RTCMB data (however, the GPSCard can directly interpret
RTCM and RTCMA). The 12 byte NovAtel binary header must be stripped off before the RTCM information can be
retrieved. The RTCM data is further defined by the RTCM rule (see the RTCMRULE command).
REMEMBER:
Ensure that the RTCM rule is the same between all equipment.
Format:
Message ID = 10
Field #
1
(header)
2
Data
Sync
Checksum
Message ID
Message byte count
RTCM SC104 data
Message byte count = variable
Bytes
3
1
4
4
variable
Format
char
char
integer
integer
Offset
0
3
4
8
12
RTCM1A
Example:
$RTCM,597E7D7F716F745A647D7E42405273505276777C7F736C514E7D477A7F7F
5A7E6E62675F406C567F6753725B675F7B436A646A7D787F675D4A505056687C6B
567C7F5B69796F40547F73595557555546*51[CR][LF]
RTCM1B
Message ID = 10
RTCM3
Message byte count = variable
REFERENCE STATION PARAMETERS
RTK
This log contains the GPS position of the reference station expressed in rectangular ECEF coordinates based on
the center of the WGS84 ellipsoid. This log uses four RTCM data words following the two-word header, for a total
frame length of six 30 bit words (180 bits maximum).
Structure:
(Follows the RTCM SC-104 Standard for a Type 3 message)
Type 3 messages contain the following information:
•
•
•
•
Scale factor
ECEF X-coordinate
ECEF Y-coordinate
ECEF Z-coordinate
The GPSCard only transmits the RTCM Type 3 message (RTCM3) when operating as a reference station paired
with GPSCard remote receivers operating in RT-20 Carrier Phase Mode (see Appendix A, Page 62 for more
information) or for RT-2, periodically transmitting an RTCM Type 18 and RTCM Type 19 (RTCM1819), or
RTCM Type 22 message, together with an RTCM Type 3 (see Page 18).
NOTE:
This log is intended for use when operating in RT-20 mode.
Example:
$RTCM3,597E7C7F7B76537A66406F49487F797B627A7A5978634E6E7C5155444946*68[CR][LF]
RTCM3B
Message ID = 41
52
Message byte count
= 35 if RTCMRULE = 8 (12 bytes header, 23 bytes data)
= 42 if RTCMRULE = 6 (12 bytes header, 30 bytes data)
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4 Message Formats
RTCM9
PARTIAL SATELLITE SET DIFFERENTIAL CORRECTIONS
RTCM Type 9 messages follow the same format as Type 1 messages. However, unlike Type 1 messages, Type
9’s do not require a complete satellite set. This allows for much faster differential correction data updates to the
remote stations, thus improving performance and reducing latency.
Type 9 messages should give better performance when SA rate correction variations are high, or with slow or noisy
data links.
NOTE: The reference station transmitting the Type 9 corrections must be operating with a high-stability
clock to prevent degradation of navigation accuracy due to the unmodeled clock drift that can occur
between Type 9 messages.
NovAtel recommends a high-stability clock such as the PIEZO Model 2900082 whose 2-sample (Allan)
variance meets the following stability requirements:
3.24 x 10-24 s2/s2 between 0.5 - 2.0 seconds, and
1.69 x 10-22 T s2/s2 between 2.0 - 100.0 seconds
An external clock such as an OCXO requires approximately 10 minutes to warm up and become fully
stabilized after power is applied; do not broadcast RTCM Type 9 corrections during this warm-up period.
Structure: (Follows
the RTCM Standard SC-104 for a Type 1 message)
Type 9 messages contain the following information for a group of three satellites in view at the reference station:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Scale factor
User Differential Range Error
Satellite ID
Pseudorange correction
Range-rate correction
Issue of Data (IOD)
RTCM9A
Example:
$RTCM9,66516277547C71435D797760704260596876655F7743585D547562716D7
57E686C5258*6D[CR][LF]
RTCM9B
Message ID = 42
RTCM16
Message byte count = variable
SPECIAL MESSAGE
This log contains a special ASCII message that can be displayed on a printer or cathode ray tube. The GPSCard
reference station wishing to log this message out to remote stations must use the RTCM16T command to set the
required ASCII text message. Once set, the message can then be issued at the required intervals with the “LOG
port RTCM16 interval” command. If it is desired that only updated text messages be transmitted, then the GPSCard
log interval must be either “onnew” or “onchanged”. The Special Message setting can be verified in the RCCA
configuration log.
The RTCM16 data log follows the RTCM Standard Format. Words 1 and 2 contain RTCM header information
followed by words 3 to n (where n is variable from 3 to 32) which contain the special message ASCII text. Up to
90 ASCII characters can be sent with each RTCM Type 16 message frame.
Structure: (Follows
the RTCM Standard SC-104 for a Type 16 message)
RTCM16A
This message is the hexadecimal code equivalent of the special message entered using the RTCM16T command.
Example:
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4 Message Formats
$RTCM16,6649404045495E5A5C406A58696D76596D5F665F765869694D4E53604D
70696552567E7B675762747B67576C574E596F59697146555A75516F5F667D4967
5656574E53604D55565A6D69647B67777E454659685D56465A67616E4B7E7F7F7D
*52[CR][LF]
RTCM16B
This message is the binary code equivalent of the special message entered using the RTCM16T command.
Message ID = 43
Message byte count = variable
RTCM16T
This message is used at the remote station to report the contents of a Type 16 message that was received from the
reference station.
Structure:
$RTCM16T
ASCII Special Message of up to 90 characters
*xx
[CR][LF]
Example:
$RTCM16T,Time flies like an arrow; fruit flies like a banana.*1F[CR][LF]
RTCM1819 UNCORRECTED CARRIER PHASE AND PSEUDORANGE
MEASUREMENTS
RTK
This log contains the raw carrier phase and raw pseudorange measurement information. The measurements are not
corrected by the ephemerides contained in the satellite message. Word 3, the first data word after the header,
contains a GPS TIME OF MEASUREMENT field which is used to increase the resolution of the MODIFIED ZCOUNT in the header. Word 3 is followed by pairs of words containing the data for each satellite observed.
Appropriate flags are provided to indicate L1, L2, ionospheric free pseudorange or ionospheric difference carrier
phase data, C/A or P-code, and half or full-wave L2 carrier phase measuurements. The carrier smoothing interval
for pseudoranges and pseudorange corrections is also furnished, for a total frame length of six 30 bit words (180
bits maximum).
Structure:
(Follows the RTCM SC-104 Standard for a Type 18 and Type 19 message)
For RT-2, you may periodically transmit an RTCM Type 18 and RTCM Type 19 (RTCM1819) together with an
RTCM Type 3 message (see Page 18).
In some instances you may want to disable the RTCM1819 message from being received. An example of this may
be when you want pseudorange differential, but your base station receiver is a non-NovAtel receiver that transmits
a non-standard version of the RTCM1819 message which the NovAtel receiver cannot interpret correctly. The
RTCM1819 message is received by default, but the following commands can be used to force the receiver to use
or ignore the message:
RTKMODE USE_RTCM1819
RTKMODE IGNORE_RTCM1819
RTCM22 RTCM EXTENDED REFERENCE STATION PARAMETERS
RTK
Message Type 22 provides firstly, a means of achieving sub-millimeter precision for base station coordinates in a
kinematic application, and secondly, base station antenna height above a base, which enables mobile units to
reference measured position to the base directly in real time.
The first data word of message Type 22 provides the corrections to be added to each ECEF coordinate. Note that
the corrections may be positive or negative.
The second data word, which may not be transmitted, provides the antenna L1 phase center height expressed in
integer and fractional centimeters, and is always positive. It has the same resolutions as the corrections. The range
is about 10 meters. The spare bits can be used if more height range is required.
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RTCM59 TYPE 59N-0 NOVATEL PROPRIETARY MESSAGE
RTK
RTCM Type 59 messages are reserved for proprietary use by RTCM reference station operators.
Each message is variable in length, limited only by the RTCM maximum of 990 data bits (33 words maximum).
The first eight bits in the third word (the word immediately following the header) serve as the message
identification code, in the event that the reference station operator wishes to have multiple Type 59 messages.
NovAtel has defined only a Type 59N-0 message to date; it is to be used for operation in GPSCard receivers
capable of operating in RT-20 Carrier Phase Differential Positioning Mode. This log is primarily used by a
GPSCard reference station to broadcast its RT-20 observation data (delta pseudorange and accumulated doppler
range) to remote RT-20 – capable GPSCard receivers.
NOTE 1: The CDSA/B log is very useful for monitoring the serial data link, as well as differential data decode
success.
NOTE 2: This log is intended for use when operating in RT-20 mode.
RTCM59A
Example:
$RTCM59,665D43406E76576561674D7E7748775843757D4E646B545365647B7F48
657F504D4D6D425B657D5858606B617A737F7F7F464440727D7156577C65494F4D
4A60497F414D7E4272786D55534362406144705D764D596A7340654B6D5B464375
5848597C52705779466C*57[CR][LF]
RTCM59B
Message ID = 44
Message byte count = variable
RTCM RECEIVE ONLY DATA
The following RTCM data types can be received and decoded by the GPSCard, however these log types are no
longer transmitted.
RTCM TYPE 2
Quite often a reference station may have new ephemeris data before remote stations have collected the newer
ephemeris. The purpose of Type 2 messages is to act as a bridge between old and new ephemeris data. A reference
station will transmit this Type 2 bridge data concurrently with Type 1’s for a few minutes following receipt of a
new ephemeris. The remote station adds the Type 2 data (delta of old ephemeris minus new ephemeris) to the Type
1 message data (new ephemeris) to calculate the correct pseudorange corrections (based on the old ephemeris).
Once the remote receiver has collected its own updated ephemeris, it will no longer utilize the Type 2 messages.
The GPSCard will accept and decode RTCM Standard Type 2 messages, when available and if required. However,
the GPSCard no longer transmits Type 2 messages.
Type 2 messages are variable in length, depending on the number of satellites being tracked by the reference
station.
4.3 CMR FORMAT MESSAGING
The Compact Measurement Record (CMR) message format was developed by Trimble Navigation Ltd. as a
proprietary data transmission standard for use in real-time kinematic applications. In 1996 Trimble publicly
disclosed this standard and allowed its use by all manufacturers in the GPS industry3.
The NovAtel implementation allows a NovAtel rover receiver to operate in either RT-2 or RT-20 mode while
receiving pseudorange and carrier phase data via CMR messages (version 3.0) from a non-NovAtel base-station
3. Talbot, N.C. (1996), “Compact Data Transmission Standard for High-Precision GPS”. Proceeding of
the ION GPS-96 Conference, Kansas City, MO, September 1996, Vol. I, pp. 861-871
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4 Message Formats
receiver. The MiLLennium can also transmit CMR messages (versions 1.0, 2.0 or 3.0). The station ID, see Page
98, must be ≤ 31 when transmitting CMR corrections
NOTE:
No guarantee is made that the MiLLennium will meet its performance specifications if non-NovAtel
equipment is used.
Using RT-2 or RT-20 with CMR Format Messages
To enable receiving CMR messages, follow these steps:
1. Issue the COMn command to the rover receiver to set its serial port parameters to the proper bit rate, parity,
etc. This command is described in detail on Page 84.
2. Issue the “ACCEPT COMn CMR” command to the rover receiver, where “COMn” refers to either the COM1 or
COM2 serial port that is connected to the data link.
Assuming that the base station is transmitting valid data, your rover receiver will now begin to operate in RT-2 or
RT-20 mode. To send CMR messages, do the following:
Periodically transmit two CMR messages at the reference station (the station ID, see Page 98, must be ≤ 31):•
•
A CMROBS message contains reference station satellite observation information, and
should be sent once every 1 or 2 seconds.
A CMRREF message contains reference station position information, and should be sent
once every 10 seconds.
In addition to the logs which you can use to output the rover’s position (e.g. POSA/B, PRTKA/B, RTKA/B), the
baseline (BSLA/B), and the reference station’s position and health (RPSA/B), you can also monitor the status of
the incoming CMR messages using the CDSA/B (Communication and Differential Decode Status) log. See Page
144 for a complete description of the CDSA/B log and its arguments.
4.4 RINEX FORMAT
The Receiver-Independent Exchange (RINEX) format is a broadly-accepted, receiver-independent format for
storing GPS data. It features a non-proprietary ASCII file format that can be used to combine or process data
generated by receivers made by different manufacturers. RINEX was originally developed at the Astronomical
Institute of the University of Berne. Version 2, containing the latest major changes, appeared in 1990;
subsequently, minor refinements were added in 1993. To date, there are three different RINEX file types. Each
of the file types consists of a header section and a data section, and includes the following information4:
•
•
•
NOTE:
observation files (carrier-phase measurements; pseudorange / code measurements; times
of observations)
broadcast navigation message files (orbit data for the satellites tracked; satellite clock
parameters; satellite health condition; expected accuracy of pseudorange measurements;
parameters of single-frequency ionospheric delay model; correction terms relating GPS
time to UTC)
meteorological data files (barometric pressure; dry air temperature; relative humidity;
zenith wet tropospheric path delay; time tags)
Although RINEX is intended to be a receiver-independent format, there are many optional records and
fields. Please keep this in mind when combining NovAtel and non-NovAtel RINEX data.
4. For further information on RINEX Version 2 file descriptions, you may wish to consult relevant articles
in scientific journal such as:
Gurtner, W.G. Mader (1990): “Receiver Independent Exchange Format Version 2.” CSTG GPS
Bulletin Vol. 3 No. 3, Sept/Oct 1990, National Geodetic Survey, Rockville.
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In support of the first two file types, NovAtel has created six ASCII log types that contain data records in RINEX
format (XOBS, XOHD, XNAV, XNHD, XKIN, and XSTA). A seventh pseudo-log type (RINEX) can be used
instead to simplify data collection. These logs produce multiple lines of output; each line ends with a NovAtel
checksum. Once collected these logs should be processed into the 2 standard RINEX files using NovAtel’s Convert
utility.
A sample session, illustrating the use of the commands and logs, would be as follows:
COM1> log com2 rinex ontime 30
(some time later - move to a new site)
COM1> log com2 xkin
COM1> rinex markernum 980.1.35
COM1> rinex antdh 3.1
(at new site)
COM1> log com2 xsta
(some time later - logging complete)
COM1> unlogall
It should be noted that the first line of this example is equivalent to these two lines:
COM1> log com2 xobs ontime 30
COM1> log com2 xnav onchanged
The use of the pseudo-log RINEX is for convenience only.
After the UNLOGALL command, the XNHD and XOHD logs are automatically generated if XNAV and XOBS,
respectively, were active.
4.4.1 Commands
RINEX
This command is used to configure the user-defined fields in the file headers.
The settings of all these fields are visible in the RCCA log. All settings can be saved to non-volatile memory on a
MiLLennium card by the SAVECONFIG command. A CRESET command will empty all text fields and reduce to
zero the antenna offsets.
Syntax:
RINEX
Command
RINEX
cfgtype
cfgtype
Range Values
AGENCY
ANTDE
ANTDH
ANTDN
ANTNUM
ANTTYPE
COMMENT
MARKNAME
MARKERNUM
OBSERVER
RECNUM
Description
Command
Define agency name in observation log header
Define antenna delta east (offset to marker) in observation log and static event log
Define antenna delta height (offset to marker) in observation log and static event log
Define antenna delta north (offset to marker) in observation log and static event log
Define antenna number in observation log header
Define antenna type in observation log header
Add comment to navigation and observation log headers (optional)
Define marker name in observation log and static event log
Define marker number in observation log (optional) and static event log
Define observer name in observation log header
Define receiver number in observation log header
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4 Message Formats
Command example:
COM1> rinex agency NovAtel Surveying Service Ltd.
COM1> rinex antde -0.05
COM1> rinex antdh 2.7
COM1> rinex antdn 0.1
COM1> rinex antnum Field #1
COM1> rinex anttype NovAtel 501
COM1> rinex comment Field trial of new receiver
COM1> rinex markname A980
COM1> rinex markernum 980.1.34
COM1> rinex observer S.C. Lewis
COM1> rinex recnum LGN94100019
COM1> log com1 rcca
Log example:
$RCCA,COM1,9600,N,8,1,N,OFF,OFF*65
... etc....
$RCCA,RINEX,COMMENT,Field trial of new receiver*68
$RCCA,RINEX,AGENCY,NovAtel Surveying Service Ltd.*5A
$RCCA,RINEX,MARKNAME,A980*15
$RCCA,RINEX,MARKERNUM,980.1.34*24
$RCCA,RINEX,OBSERVER,S.C. Lewis*0B
$RCCA,RINEX,RECNUM,LGN94100019*34
$RCCA,RINEX,ANTNUM,Field #1*0A
$RCCA,RINEX,ANTTYPE,NovAtel 501*4B
$RCCA,RINEX,ANTDN,0.100*09
$RCCA,RINEX,ANTDE,-0.050*2B
$RCCA,RINEX,ANTDH,2.700*0B
Note that the RCCA log shows any non-default RINEX settings.
4.4.2 Logs
RINEX OBSERVATION AND NAVIGATION LOGS AND HEADERS
This pseudo - log type exists to simplify the commands for the user. For example, at the command
COM1> log com2 rinex ontime 30
the XOBS and XNAV logs are both started. When it is time to cease data collection, the command
COM1> unlog com2 rinex
or
COM1> unlogall
will stop the XOBS and XNAV logs, and the XNHD and XOHD logs will be generated once.
XKIN OBSERVATION KINEMATIC EVENT
This log generates a time tag and flag to indicate when antenna motion begins.
Command example:
COM1> log com2 xkin
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Log example:
$XOBS, 96 04 10 17 25 19.5000000
2*00
$XOBS,
$XOBS,
4
*** KINEMATIC DATA FOLLOWS ***
1*2F
COMMENT*50
XNAV NAVIGATION DATA RECORD
This log type contains broadcast navigation message records for each satellite being used. Each set of records
consists of:
•
•
•
•
•
•
orbit data for the satellites tracked
satellite clock parameters
satellite health condition
expected accuracy of pseudorange measurements
parameters of single-frequency ionospheric delay model
correction terms relating GPS time to UTC
Command example:
COM1> log com2 xnav onchanged
Log example:
$XNAV,22 96 04 10 18 00
0.0 .2988767810166D-03 .2842170943040D-11 .0000000000000D+00*77
$XNAV,.1570000000000D+03 .5162500000000D+02 .4851987819054D-08
-.307153354042D+01*10
$XNAV,.2656131982803D-05.8917320519686D-02.9054318070412D-05 .5153725172043D+04*01
$XNAV, .3240000000000D+06
-.149011611938D-06
.1649994199967D+01
.1117587089539D-07*1E
$XNAV,.9465553285374D+00
.1992812500000D+03
.4627841719040D-01
-.806355016494D-08*17
$XNAV,-.175721605224D-09
.1000000000000D+01
.8480000000000D+03
.0000000000000D+00*18
$XNAV,.7000000000000D+01 .0000000000000D+00 .1396983861923D-08
.4130000000000D+03*08
$XNAV,.3170760000000D+06*5E
XNHD NAVIGATION HEADER
This log consists of a RINEX-format header for broadcast navigation message files. It can be generated at any
point, using a command such as
COM1> log com2 xnhd
or it will be generated automatically when logging is complete, using a command such as
COM1> unlogall
Log example:
$XNHD,
2
$XNHD, NovAtel GPSCard
NAVIGATION DATA
NATIVE
96-04-10 16:13
$XNHD,Field trial of new receiver
$XNHD,.10245D-07
.14901D-07
$XNHD,.88064D+05
.32768D+05
$XNHD,
.9313225746155D-09
$XNHD,
RINEX VERSION / TYPE*3B
PGM / RUN BY / DATE*05
COMMENT*29
-.5960D-07
-.1192D-06
ION ALPHA*05
-.1966D+06
-.1966D+06
ION BETA*46
-.799360577730D-14
503808
11
848
DELTA-UTC: A0,A1,T,W*3C
LEAP SECONDS*4D
$XNHD,
END OF HEADER*6F
XOBS OBSERVATION DATA RECORD
This log contains observation records, which include the following information:
•
•
•
•
Times of observations
Carrier-phase measurements
Pseudorange (code) measurements
Doppler measurements
A set of observation records is generated at the end of every time interval specified.
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
59
4 Message Formats
Command example:
COM1> log com2 xobs ontime 5
Log example:
$XOBS, 96 04 10 16 12 45.0000000
0 10G22G29G 3G28G16G27G 2G18G31G19*2B
$XOBS,
25589487.514
1
134473357.195 11
3689.020 1*20
$XOBS,
24031521.036
7
126285967.262
7
3673.582 7*3E
$XOBS,
22439789.377
9
117921029.600
9
270.081 9*2A
$XOBS,
22766999.777
9
119640447.360
9
924.831 9*28
$XOBS,
23387648.507
6
122901958.756
6
-640.482 6*2F
$XOBS,
21889019.606
8
115027300.270
8
-2682.420 8*3D
$XOBS,
24678340.269
7
129684455.444
7
-3295.920 7*3D
$XOBS,
21218703.216
9
111503905.438
9
2528.269 9*30
$XOBS,
21855014.913
9
114847991.342
9
-1951.670 9*33
$XOBS,
20157467.672
9
105927196.398
9
-688.169 9*2B
XOHD OBSERVATION HEADER
This log consists of a RINEX-format header for observation message files. It can be generated at any point, using
a command such as
COM1> log com2 xohd
or it will be generated automatically when logging is complete, using a command such as
COM1> unlogall
Log example:
$XOHD,
2
OBSERVATION DATA
G (GPS)
$XOHD,NovAtel GPSCard
NATIVE
96-04-10 16:04
$XOHD,Field trial of new receiver
$XOHD,A980
$XOHD,980.1.34
$XOHD,S.C. Lewis
NovAtel Surveying Service Ltd.
$XOHD,LGN94100019
GPSCard-2 FRASER
3.41RC12
$XOHD,Field #1
NovAtel 501
$XOHD, -1634937.3828 -3664677.1214 4942285.1723
$XOHD,
2.7000
0.0500 0.1000
$XOHD,
1
0 7
G 2
G 3
G16
G18
G19
G22
G27
$XOHD,
1
0 3
G28
G29
G31
$XOHD,
3 C1 L1
D1
$XOHD,
5
$XOHD, 1996
4 10
16
4
43.150000
$XOHD, 1996
4
10
16
13
0.000000
$XOHD,
10
$XOHD, G 2
101 101
101
$XOHD, G 3
101 101
101
$XOHD, G16
101 101
101
$XOHD, G18
101 101
101
$XOHD, G19
101 101
101
$XOHD, G22
101 101
101
$XOHD, G27
101 101
101
$XOHD, G28
101 101
101
$XOHD, G29
101 101
101
$XOHD, G31
101 101
101
$XOHD,
60
RINEX VERSION / TYPE*50
PGM / RUN BY / DATE*02
COMMENT*08
MARKER NAME*62
MARKER number*11
OBSERVER / AGENCY*49
REC # / TYPE / VERS*5F
ANT # / TYPE*77
APPROX POSITION XYZ*67
ANTENNA: DELTA H/E/N*56
WAVELENGTH FACT L1/2*2D
WAVELENGTH FACT L1/2*28
# / TYPES OF OBSERV*0F
INTERVAL*3D
TIME OF FIRST OBS*03
TIME OF LAST OBS*56
# OF SATELLITES*14
PRN / # OF OBS*45
PRN / # OF OBS*44
PRN / # OF OBS*50
PRN / # OF OBS*5E
PRN / # OF OBS*5F
PRN / # OF OBS*57
PRN / # OF OBS*52
PRN / # OF OBS*5D
PRN / # OF OBS*5C
PRN / # OF OBS*55
END OF HEADER*6E
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
4 Message Formats
XSTA OBSERVATION STATIC EVENT
This log generates a time tag and flag when a new site occupation begins.
Command example:
COM1> log com2 xsta
Log example:
$XOBS, 96 04 10 17 25 45.0000000 3
$XOBS,A980
$XOBS,980.1.35
$XOBS,
3.1000
$XOBS, *** NEW SITE OCCUPATION ***
4*39
0.0500
0.1000
MARKER NAME*7F
MARKER number*0D
ANTENNA: DELTA H/E/N*4C
COMMENT*19
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
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A GPS Overview
A
GPS OVERVIEW
A GPS OVERVIEW
The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite navigation system capable of providing a highly accurate,
continuous global navigation service independent of other positioning aids. GPS provides 24-hour, all-weather,
worldwide coverage with position, velocity and timing information.
The system uses the NAVSTAR (NAVigation Satellite Timing And Ranging) satellites which consists of 24
operational satellites to provide a GPS receiver with a six to twelve-satellite coverage at all times depending on the
model. A minimum of four satellites in view allows the GPSCard to compute its current latitude, longitude, altitude
with reference to mean sea level and the GPS system time.
Figure A-1 NAVSTAR Satellite Orbit Arrangement
A.1 GPS SYSTEM DESIGN
The GPS system design consists of three parts:
•
The Space segment
•
The Control segment
•
The User segment
All these parts operate together to provide accurate three dimensional positioning, timing and velocity data to users
worldwide.
The Space Segment
The space segment is composed of the NAVSTAR GPS satellites. The final constellation of the system consists of 24
satellites in six 55° orbital planes, with four satellites in each plane. The orbit period of each satellite is
approximately 12 hours at an altitude of 10,898 nautical miles. This provides a GPS receiver with six to twelve
satellites in view from any point on earth, at any particular time.
The GPS satellite signal identifies the satellite and provides the positioning, timing, ranging data, satellite status and
the corrected ephemerides (orbit parameters) of the satellite to the users. The satellites can be identified either by
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MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
A GPS Overview
the Space Vehicle Number (SVN) or the Pseudorandom Code Number (PRN). The
GPSCard.
PRN
is used by the NovAtel
The GPS satellites transmit on two L-band frequencies; one centered at 1575.42 MHz (L1) and the other at 1227.60
MHz (L2). The L1 carrier is modulated by the C/A code (Coarse/Acquisition) and the P code (Precision) which
is encrypted for military and other authorized users. The L2 carrier is modulated only with the P code.
The Control Segment
The control segment consists of a master control station, five reference stations and three data up-loading stations
in locations all around the globe.
The reference stations track and monitor the satellites via their broadcast signals. The broadcast signals contain the
ephemeris data of the satellites, the ranging signals, the clock data and the almanac data. These signals are passed
to the master control station where the ephemerides are re-computed. The resulting ephemerides corrections and
timing corrections are transmitted back to the satellites via the data up-loading stations.
The User Segment
The user segment, such as the NovAtel GPSCard receiver, consists of equipment which tracks and receives the
satellite signals. The user equipment must be capable of simultaneously processing the signals from a minimum of
four satellites to obtain accurate position, velocity and timing measurements. A user can also use the data provided
by the satellite signals to accomplish specific application requirements.
A.2 HEIGHT RELATIONSHIPS
What is a geoid?
The equipotential surface which best represents mean sea-level where an equipotential surface is any surface where
gravity is constant. This surface not only covers the water but is projected throughout the continents. Most surfaces
in North America use this surface as its zero value, i.e. all heights are referenced to this surface.
What is an ellipsoid?
An ellipsoid, also known as a spheroid, is a mathematical surface which is sometimes used to represent the earth.
Whenever you see latitudes and longitudes describing the location, this coordinate is being referenced to a specific
ellipsoid. GPS positions are referred to an ellipsoid known as WGS84 (World Geodetic System of 1984).
What is the relationship between a geoid and an ellipsoid?
The relationship between a geoid and an ellipsoid is shown in Figure A-2.
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A GPS Overview
Figure A-2 Illustration of GPSCard Height Measurements
Notes:
References:
h=H+N
N=h-H
1 Topography
2 Geoid (mean sea level)
3 Spheroid (ellipsoid)
H = GPSCard computed height above/below geoid
N = Geoidal Height (undulation)
h = GPS system computed height above the spheroid
From the above diagram, and the formula h = H + N, to convert heights between the ellipsoid and geoid we require
the geoid-ellipsoid separation value. This value is not easy to determine. A world-wide model is generally used to
provide these values. NovAtel GPS receivers store this value internally. This model can also be augmented with
local height and gravity information. A more precise geoid model is available from government survey agencies
e.g. U.S. National Geodetic Survey or Geodetic Survey of Canada (refer to Appendix F, Standards and References).
Why is this important for GPS users?
The above formula is critical for GPS users as they typically obtain ellipsoid heights and need to convert these into
mean sea-level heights. Once this conversion is complete, users can relate their GPS derived heights to more
“usable” mean sea-level heights.
A.3 GPS POSITIONING
GPS positioning can be categorized as follows:
1.
single-point or relative
2.
static or kinematic
3.
real-time or post-mission data processing
A distinction should be made between accuracy and precision. Accuracy refers to how close an estimate or
measurement is to the true but unknown value; precision refers to how close an estimate is to the mean (average)
estimate. Figure A-3 illustrates various relationships between these two parameters: the true value is "located" at
the intersection of the cross-hairs, the centre of the shaded area is the "location" of the mean estimate, and the radius
of the shaded area is a measure of the uncertainty contained in the estimate.
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A GPS Overview
Figure A-3 Accuracy versus Precision5
High accuracy,
high precision
Low accuracy,
high precision
High accuracy,
low precision
Low accuracy,
low precision
Single-point vs. Relative Positioning
In single-point positioning, coordinates of a GPS receiver at an unknown location are sought with respect to the
earth’s reference frame by using the known positions of GPS satellites being tracked. The position solution
generated by the receiver is initially developed in earth-centered coordinates which can subsequently be converted
to any other coordinate system. With as few as four GPS satellites in view, the absolute position of the receiver in
three-dimensional space can be determined. Only one receiver is needed. With Selective Availability (SA) active,
the typical horizontal accuracy obtainable using single-point positioning is of the order of 100 m (95% of the time).
In relative positioning, also known as differential positioning, the coordinates of a GPS receiver at an unknown
point (the “remote” station) are sought with respect to a GPS receiver at a known point (the “reference” station).
The concept is illustrated in Figure A-4. The relative-position accuracy of two receivers locked on the same
satellites and not far removed from each other - up to tens of kilometers - is extremely high. The largest error
contributors in single-point positioning are those associated with SA and atmospheric-induced effects. These
errors, however, are highly correlated for adjacent receivers and hence cancel out in relative measurements. Since
the position of the reference station can be determined to a high degree of accuracy using conventional surveying
techniques, any differences between its known position and the position computed using GPS techniques can be
attributed to various components of error as well as the receiver’s clock bias. Once the estimated clock bias is
removed, the remaining error on each pseudorange can be determined. The reference station sends information
about each satellite to the remote station, which in turn can determine its position much more exactly than would
be possible otherwise.
The advantage of relative positioning is that much greater precision (presently as low as 2 mm, depending on the
method and environment) can be achieved than by single-point positioning. In order for the observations of the
reference station to be integrated with those of the remote station, relative positioning requires either a data link
between the two stations (if the positioning is to be achieved in real-time) or else post-processing of the data
collected by the remote station. At least four GPS satellites in view are still required. The absolute accuracy of the
remote station’s computed position will depend on the accuracy of the reference station’s position.
5. Environment Canada, 1993, Guideline for the Application of GPS Positioning, p. 22.
 Minister of Supply and Services Canada
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A GPS Overview
Figure A-4 Example of Differential Positioning
GPS satellites
GPS antenna
Differential
data
User with hand-held
computer
Radio
RX
GPS
RX
Remote station
GPS antenna
(shown with
choke-ring ground plane)
Radio
TX
GPS
RX
Reference station
Static vs. Kinematic Positioning
Static and kinematic positioning refer to whether a GPS receiver is stationary or in motion while collecting GPS
data.
Real-time vs. Post-mission Data Processing
Real-time or post-mission data processing refer to whether the GPS data collected by the receiver is processed as
it is received or after the entire data-collection session is complete.
Differential Positioning
There are two types of differential positioning algorithms: pseudorange and carrier phase. In both of these
approaches, the “quality” of the positioning solution generally increases with the number of satellites which can be
simultaneously viewed by both the reference and remote station receivers. As well, the quality of the positioning
solution increases if the distribution of satellites in the sky is favorable; this distribution is quantified by a figure
of merit, the Position Dilution of Precision (PDOP), which is defined in such a way that the lower the PDOP, the
better the solution.
Due to the many different applications for differential positioning systems, two types of position solutions are
possible. NovAtel’s carrier-phase algorithms can generate both matched and low-latency position solutions, while
NovAtel’s pseudorange algorithms generate only low-latency solutions. These are described below:
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1.
The matched position solution is computed at the remote station when the observation information for
a given epoch has arrived from the reference station via the data link. Matched observation set pairs are
observations by both the reference and remote stations which are matched by time epoch, and contain
the same satellites. The matched position solution is the most accurate one available to the operator of
the remote station, but it has an inherent latency – the sum of time delays between the moment that the
reference station makes an observation and the moment that the differential information is processed at
the remote station. This latency depends on the computing speed of the reference station receiver, the
rates at which data is transmitted through the various links, and the computing speed of the remote station; the overall delay is of the order of one second. Furthermore, this position cannot be computed any
more often than the observations are sent from the reference station. Typically, the update rate is one
solution every two seconds.
2.
The low latency (or extrapolated) position solution is based on a prediction. Instead of waiting for the
observations to arrive from the reference station, a model (based on previous reference station observations) is used to estimate what the observations will be at a given time epoch. These estimated reference
station observations are combined with actual measurements taken at the remote station to provide the
position solution. Because only the reference station observations are predicted, the remote station’s dynamics will be accurately reflected. The latency in this case (the time delay between the moment that a
measurement is made by the remote station and the moment that a position is made available) is determined only by the remote processor’s computational capacity; the overall delay is of the order of 100
ms. Low-latency position solutions can be computed more often than matched position solutions; the
update rate can reach 10 solutions per second. The low-latency positions will be provided for data gaps
between matched positions of up to 30 seconds (for a carrier-phase solution) or 60 seconds (for a pseudorange solution, unless adjusted using the DGPSTIMEOUT command). A general guideline for the
additional error incurred due to the extrapolation process is shown in Table 1-2.
Pseudorange Algorithms
Pseudorange algorithms correlate the pseudorandom code on the GPS signal received from a particular satellite,
with a version generated within the reference station receiver itself. The time delay between the two versions,
multiplied by the speed of light, yields the pseudorange (so called because it contains several errors) between the
reference station and that particular satellite. The availability of four pseudoranges allows the reference station
receiver to compute its position (in three dimensions) and the offset required to synchronize its clock with GPS
system time. The discrepancy between the reference station receiver’s computed position and its known position
is due to errors and biases on each pseudorange. The reference station receiver sums these errors and biases for
each pseudorange, and then broadcasts these corrections to the remote station. The remote receiver applies the
corrections to its own measurements; its corrected pseudoranges are then processed in a least-squares algorithm to
obtain a position solution.
The “wide correlator” receiver design that predominates in the GPS industry yields accuracies of 3-5 m (SEP).
NovAtel’s patented Narrow Correlator tracking technology reduces noise and multipath interference errors,
yielding accuracies of 1 m (SEP).
Pseudorange Differential Positioning
GPS SYSTEM ERRORS
In general, GPS SPS C/A code single point pseudorange positioning systems are capable of absolute position
accuracies of about 100 meters or less. This level of accuracy is really only an estimation, and may vary widely
depending on numerous GPS system biases, environmental conditions, as well as the GPS receiver design and
engineering quality.
There are numerous factors which influence the single point position accuracies of any GPS C/A code receiving
system. As the following list will show, a receiver’s performance can vary widely when under the influences of
these combined system and environmental biases.
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A GPS Overview
•
Ionospheric Group Delays – The earth’s ionospheric layers cause varying degrees of GPS
signal propagation delay. Ionization levels tend to be highest during daylight hours causing
propagation delay errors of up to 30 meters, whereas night time levels are much lower and
may be up to 6 meters.
•
Tropospheric Refraction Delays – The earth’s tropospheric layer causes GPS signal
propagation delays which bias the range measurements. The amount of delay is at the
minimum (about three metres) for satellite signals arriving from 90 degrees above the
horizon (overhead), and progressively increases as the angle above the horizon is reduced to
zero where delay errors may be as much as 50 metres at the horizon.
•
Ephemeris Errors – Some degree of error always exists between the broadcast ephemeris’
predicted satellite position and the actual orbit position of the satellites. These errors will
directly affect the accuracy of the range measurement.
•
Satellite Clock Errors – Some degree of error also exists between the actual satellite clock
time and the clock time predicted by the broadcast data. This broadcast time error will cause
some bias to the pseudorange measurements.
•
Receiver Clock Errors – Receiver clock error is the time difference between GPS receiver
time and true GPS time. All GPS receivers have differing clock offsets from GPS time that
vary from receiver to receiver by an unknown amount depending on the oscillator type and
quality (TCXO vs. OCXO, etc.). However, because a receiver makes all of its single point
pseudorange measurements using the same common clock oscillator, all measurements will
be equally offset, and this offset can generally be modeled or quite accurately estimated to
effectively cancel the receiver clock offset bias. Thus, in single point positioning, receiver
clock offset is not a significant problem. However, in pseudorange differential operation,
between-receiver clock offset is a source of uncorrelated bias.
•
Selective Availability (SA) – Selective availability is when the GPS Control Segment
intentionally corrupts satellite clock timing and broadcast orbit data to cause reduced
positioning accuracy for general purpose GPS SPS users (non-military). When SA is active,
range measurements may be biased by as much as 30 metres.
•
Multipath Signal Reception – Multipath signal reception can potentially cause large
pseudorange and carrier phase measurement biases. Multipath conditions are very much a
function of specific antenna site location versus local geography and man-made structural
influences. Severe multipath conditions could skew range measurements by as much as 100
meters or more. See Appendix B, Multipath Elimination Technology, Page 73 for more
information.
The NovAtel GPSCard receivers are capable of absolute single point positioning accuracies of 15 meters CEP
(GDOP < 2; no multipath) when SA is off and 40 meters CEP while AS is on. (As the status of selective availability
is generally unknown by the real-time GPS user, the positioning accuracy should be considered to be that of when
AS is on).
The general level of accuracy available from single point operation may be suitable for many types of positioning
such as ocean going vessels, general aviation, and recreational vessels that do not require position accuracies of
better than 100 meters CEP. However, increasingly more and more applications desire and require a much higher
degree of accuracy and position confidence than is possible with single point pseudorange positioning. This is
where differential GPS (DGPS) plays a dominant role in higher accuracy real-time positioning systems.
SINGLE POINT AVERAGING WITH THE GPSCARD
By averaging many GPS measurement epochs over several hours, it is possible to achieve an absolute position
based on the WGS 84 datum to better than five meters. This section attempts to explain how the position averaging
function operates and to provide an indication of the level of accuracy that can be expected versus total averaging
time.
The POSAVE command implements position averaging for reference stations. Position averaging will continue for
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a specified number of hours or until the averaged position is within specified accuracy limits. Averaging will stop
when the time limit or the horizontal standard deviation limit or the vertical standard deviation limit is achieved.
When averaging is complete, the FIX POSITION command will automatically be invoked.
If the maximum time is set to 1 hour or larger, positions will be averaged every 10 minutes and the standard
deviations reported in the PAVA/B log should be correct. If the maximum time is set to less than 1 hour, positions
will be averaged once per minute and the standard deviations reported in the log will likely not be accurate; also,
the optional horizontal and vertical standard deviation limits cannot be used.
If the maximum time that positions are to be measured is set to 24, for example, you can then log PAVA with the
trigger ‘onchanged’ to see the averaging status. i.e.,
posave 24
log com1 pava onchanged
You could initiate differential logging, then issue the POSAVE command followed by the SAVECONFIG command.
This will cause the GPSCard to average positions after every power-on or reset, then invoke the FIX POSITION
command to enable it to send differential corrections.
The position accuracy that may be achieved by these methods will be dependent on many factors: average satellite
geometry, sky visibility at antenna location, satellite health, time of day, etc. The following graph summarizes the
results of several examples of position averaging over different time periods. The intent is to provide an idea of the
relationship between averaging time and position accuracy. All experiments were performed using a single
frequency receiver with an ideal antenna location, see Figure A-5.
Figure A-5 Single Point Averaging
NOTE: This graph represents typical results using position averaging.
35
30
Standard Deviation (meters)
25
20
15
10
5
0
0
4
8
12
16
20
24
28
32
36
40
44
48
Time (hours)
Latitude
Longtitude
Height
This function is useful for obtaining the WGS84 position of a point to a reasonable accuracy without having to
implement differential GPS. It is interesting to note that even a six hour occupation can improve single point GPS
accuracy from over fifty meters to better than five meters. This improved accuracy is primarily due to the
reductions of the multipath and selective availability errors in the GPS signal.
Again, it is necessary to keep in mind that the resulting standard deviations of the position averaging can vary quite
a bit, especially over relatively short averaging times. To illustrate, the position averaging function was run for a
period of one hour at three different times during the day. The resulting standard deviation in latitude varied from
4.7 to 7.0 meters. Similarly, the variation in longitude and height were 4.9 to 6.7 meters and 10.9 to 12.5 meters
respectively. This degree of variation is common for averaging periods of less than 12 hours due to changes in the
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A GPS Overview
satellite constellation. The graph, however, should at least provide some indication of the accuracy one may expect
from single point position averaging.
Dual Station Differential Positioning
It is the objective of operating in differential mode to either eliminate or greatly reduce most of the errors
introduced by the above types of system biases. Pseudorange differential positioning is quite effective in largely
removing most of the biases caused by satellite clock error, ionospheric and tropospheric delays (for baselines less
than 50 km), ephemeris prediction errors, and SA. However, the biases caused by multipath reception and receiver
clock offset are uncorrelated between receivers and thus cannot be cancelled by "between receiver single
differencing" operation.
Differential operation requires that stations operate in pairs. Each pair consists of a reference station (or control
station) and a remote station. A differential network could also be established when there is more than one remote
station linked to a single reference station.
In order for the differential pair to be effective, differential positioning requires that both reference and remote
station receivers track and collect satellite data simultaneously from common satellites. When the two stations are
in relatively close proximity (< 50 km), the pseudorange bias errors are considered to be nearly the same and can
be effectively cancelled by the differential corrections. However, if the baseline becomes excessively long, the
bias errors begin to decorrelate, thus reducing the accuracy or effectiveness of the differential corrections.
Figure A-6 Typical Differential Configuration
Radio Data Link
GPSAntenna
With Chokering
Differential
Corrections
Output
Modem
GPS Receiver
Reference Station
70
Differential
Corrections
Input
Remote Station
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
A GPS Overview
THE REFERENCE STATION
The nucleus of the differential network is the reference station. To function as a base station, the GPS receiver
antenna must be positioned at a control point whose position is precisely known in the GPS reference frame.
Typically, the fixed position will be that of a geodetic marker or a pre-surveyed point of known accuracy.
The reference receiver must then be initialized to fix its position to agree with the latitude, longitude, and height
of the phase centre of the reference station GPS receiver antenna. Of course, the antenna offset position from the
marker must be accurately accounted for.
Because the reference station’s position is fixed at a known location, it can now compute the range of its known
position to the satellite. The reference station now has two range measurements with which to work: computed
pseudoranges based on its known position relative to the satellite, and measured pseudoranges which assumes the
receiver position is unknown. Now, the reference station’s measured pseudorange (unknown position) is
differenced against the computed range (based on known position) to derive the differential correction which
represents the difference between known and unknown solutions for the same antenna. This difference between the
two ranges represents the combined pseudorange measurement errors resulting from receiver clock errors,
atmospheric delays, satellite clock error, orbital errors, and SA.
The reference station will derive pseudorange corrections for each satellite being tracked. These corrections can
now be transmitted over a data link to one or more remote stations. It is important to ensure that the reference
station’s FIX POSITION setting be as accurate as possible, as any errors here will directly bias the pseudorange
corrections computed, and can cause unpredictable results depending on the application and the size of the base
station position errors. As well, the reference station’s pseudorange measurements may be biased by multipath
reception.
THE REMOTE STATION
A remote station is generally any receiver whose position is of unknown accuracy, but has ties to a reference station
through an established data link. If the remote station is not receiving differential corrections from the reference
station, it is essentially utilizing single point positioning measurements for its position solutions, thus is subject to
the various GPS system biases. However, when the remote GPS receiver is receiving a pseudorange correction from
the reference station, this correction is algebraically summed against the local receiver’s measured pseudorange,
thus effectively cancelling the effects of orbital and atmospheric errors (assuming baselines < 50 km), as well as
eliminating satellite clock error.
The remote must be tracking the same satellites as the reference in order for the corrections to take effect. Thus,
only common satellites will utilize the differential corrections. When the remote is able to compute its positions
based on pseudorange corrections from the reference station, its position accuracies will approach that of the
reference station. Remember, the computed position solutions are always that of the GPS receiving antenna phase
centre.
A.4 CARRIER-PHASE ALGORITHMS
Carrier-phase algorithms monitor the actual carrier wave itself. These algorithms are the ones used in real-time
kinematic (RTK) positioning solutions - differential systems in which the remote station, possibly in motion,
requires reference-station observation data in real-time. Compared to pseudorange algorithms, much more
accurate position solutions can be achieved: carrier-based algorithms can achieve accuracies of 1-2 cm (CEP).
A carrier-phase measurement is also referred to as an accumulated delta range (ADR). At the L1 frequency, the
wavelength is 19 cm; at L2, it is 24 cm. The instantaneous distance between a GPS satellite and a receiver can be
thought of in terms of a number of wavelengths through which the signal has propagated. In general, this number
has a fractional component and an integer component (such as 124 567 967.330 cycles), and can be viewed as a
pseudorange measurement (in cycles) with an initially unknown constant integer offset. Tracking loops can
compute the fractional component and the change in the integer component with relative ease; however, the
determination of the initial integer portion is less straight-forward and, in fact, is termed the ambiguity.
In contrast to pseudorange algorithms where only corrections are broadcast by the reference station, carrier-phase
algorithms typically “double difference” the actual observations of the reference and remote station receivers.
Double-differenced observations are those formed by subtracting measurements between identical satellite pairs
on two receivers:
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A GPS Overview
ADRdouble difference = (ADRrx A,sat i - ADRrx A,sat j) - (ADRrx B,sat i - ADRrx B,sat j)
An ambiguity value is estimated for each double-difference observation. One satellite is common to every satellite
pair; it is called the reference satellite, and it is generally the one with the highest elevation. In this way, if there
are n satellites in view by both receivers, then there will be n-1 satellite pairs. The difference between receivers A
and B removes the correlated noise effects, and the difference between the different satellites removes each
receiver’s clock bias from the solution.
In the NovAtel RTK system, a floating (or “continuous-valued”) ambiguity solution is continuously generated
from a Kalman filter. When possible, fixed-integer ambiguity solutions are also computed because they are more
accurate, and produce more robust standard-deviation estimates. Each possible discrete ambiguity value for an
observation defines one lane; that is, each lane corresponds to a possible pseudorange value. There are a large
number of possible lane combinations, and a receiver has to analyze each possibility in order to select the correct
one. For single-frequency receivers, there is no alternative to this brute-force approach. However, one advantage
of being able to make both L1 and L2 measurements is that linear combinations of the measurements made at both
frequencies lead to additional values with either “wider” or “narrower” lanes. Fewer and wider lanes make it easier
for the software to choose the correct lane, having used the floating solution for initialization. Once the correct
wide lane has been selected, the software searches for the correct narrow lane. Thus, the searching process can
more rapidly and accurately home in on the correct lane when dual-frequency measurements are available.
Changes in the geometry of the satellites aids in ambiguity resolution; this is especially noticeable in L1-only
solutions. In summary, NovAtel’s RTK system permits L1/L2 receivers to choose integer lanes while forcing L1only receivers to rely exclusively on the floating ambiguity solution.
Once the ambiguities are known, it is possible to solve for the vector from the reference station to the remote
station. This baseline vector, when added to the position of the reference station, yields the position of the remote
station.
In the NovAtel RTK system, the floating ambiguity and the integer position solutions (when both are available) are
continuously compared for integrity purposes. The better one is chosen and output in the receiver’s matchedposition logs. The “best” ambiguities determined are used with the remote station’s local observations and a
reference station observation model to generate the remote station’s low-latency observations.
NovAtel’s RTK product line consists of RT-2 and RT-20 software. Performance characteristics of each are
described in Appendix E.
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B Multipath Elimination Technology
B
Multipath Elimination Technology
B MULTIPATH ELIMINATION TECHNOLOGY
Multipath signal reception is one of the most plaguing problems that detracts from the accuracy potential of GPS
pseudorange differential positioning systems. This section will provide a brief look at the problems of multipath
reception and some solutions developed by NovAtel.
B.1 MULTIPATH
Multipath occurs when an RF signal arrives at the receiving antenna from more than one propagation route
(multiple propagation paths).
Figure B-1
Illustration of GPS Signal Multipath
Why Does Multipath Occur?
When the GPS signal is emitted from the satellite antenna, the RF signal propagates away from the antenna in many
directions. Because the RF signal is emitted in many directions simultaneously and is traveling different paths,
these signals encounter various and differing natural and man-made objects along the various propagation routes.
Whenever a change in medium is encountered, the signal is either absorbed, attenuated, refracted, or reflected.
Refraction and reflection cause the signals to change direction of propagation. This change in path directions often
results in a convergence of the direct path signal with one or more of the reflected signals. When the receiving
antenna is the point of convergence for these multipath signals, the consequences are generally not favorable.
Whenever the signal is refracted, some signal polarity shifting takes place; and when full reflection occurs, full
polarity reversal results in the propagating wave. The consequences of signal polarity shifting and reversal at the
receiving antenna vary from minor to significant. As well, refracted and reflected signals generally sustain some
degree of signal amplitude attenuation.
It is generally understood that, in multipath conditions, both the direct and reflected signals are present at the
antenna and the multipath signals are lower in amplitude than the direct signal. However, in some situations, the
direct signal may be obstructed or greatly attenuated to a level well below that of the received multipath signal.
Obstruction of direct path signals is very common in city environments where many tall buildings block the line
of sight to the satellites. As buildings generally contain an abundance of metallic materials, GPS signal reflections
are abundant (if not overwhelming) in these settings. Obstructions of direct path signals can occur in wilderness
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B Multipath Elimination Technology
settings as well. If the GPS receiver is in a valley with nearby hills, mountains and heavy vegetation, signal
obstruction and attenuation are also very common.
Consequences of Multipath Reception
Because GPS is a radio ranging and positioning system, it is imperative that ground station signal reception from
each satellite be of direct line of sight. This is critical to the accuracy of the ranging measurements. Obviously,
anything other than direct line of sight reception will skew and bias the range measurements and thus the
positioning triangulation (or more correctly, trilateration). Unfortunately, multipath is almost always present to
some degree, due to real world conditions.
When a GPS multipath signal converges at the GPS antenna, there are two primary problems that occur:
1.
2.
a multiple signal with amplitude and phase shifting, and
a multiple signal with differing ranges.
When a direct signal and multipath signal are intercepted by the GPS antenna, the two signals will sum according
to the phase and amplitude of each. This summation of signals causes the composite to vary greatly in amplitude,
depending on the degree of phase shift between the direct signal versus the multipath signal. If the multipath signal
lags the direct path signal by less than 90° the composite signal will increase in amplitude (relative to the direct
signal, depending on the degree of phase shift between 0° and 90°). As well, if the multipath signal lags the direct
path signal by greater than 90° but less than 270° the composite signal will decrease in amplitude. Depending on
the relative amplitude of the multipath signal (or signals), the composite signal being processed by the receiver
correlator may experience substantial amplitude variations, which can play havoc with the receiver’s automatic
gain control circuitry (AGC) as it struggles to maintain constant signal levels for the receiver correlator. A worst
case scenario is when the multipath signal experiences a lag of 180° and is near the same strength as the direct path
signal – this will cause the multipath signal to almost completely cancel out the direct path signal, resulting in loss
of satellite phase lock or even code lock.
Because a multipath signal travels a greater distance to arrive at the GPS antenna, the two C/A code correlations are,
by varying degrees, displaced in time, which in turn causes distortion in the correlation peak and thus ambiguity
errors in the pseudorange (and carrier phase, if applicable) measurements.
As mentioned in previous paragraphs, it is possible that the received multipath signal has greater amplitude than
the direct path signal. In such a situation the multipath signal becomes the dominant signal and receiver
pseudorange errors become significant due to dominant multipath biases and may exceed 150 meters. For single
point pseudorange positioning, these occasional levels of error may be tolerable, as the accuracy expectations are
at the 40 meter CEP level (using standard correlator). However, for pseudorange single differencing DGPS users,
the accuracy expectations are at the one to five mere CEP level (with no multipath). Obviously, multipath biases
now become a major consideration in trying to achieve the best possible pseudorange measurements and position
accuracy.
If a differential reference station is subject to significant multipath conditions, this in turn will bias the range
corrections transmitted to the differential remote receiver. And in turn, if the remote receiver also experiences a
high level of multipath, the remote receiver position solutions will be significantly biased by multipath from both
stations. Thus, when the best possible position solutions are required, multipath is certainly a phenomenon that
requires serious consideration.
B.2 HARDWARE SOLUTIONS FOR MULTIPATH REDUCTION
A few options exist by which GPS users may reduce the level of multipath reception. Among these include: antenna
site selection, special antenna design, and ground plane options.
Antenna Site Selection
Multipath reception is basically a condition caused by environmental circumstances. Some of these conditions you
may have a choice about and some you may not.
Many GPS reception problems can be reduced, to some degree, by careful antenna site selection. Of primary
importance is to place the antenna so that unobstructed line-of-sight reception is possible from horizon to horizon
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B Multipath Elimination Technology
and at all bearings and elevation angles from the antenna. This is, of course, the ideal situation, which may not be
possible under actual operating conditions.
Try to place the antenna as far as possible from obvious reflective objects, especially reflective objects that are
above the antenna’s radiation pattern horizon. Another solution would be to install an RF fence pointing toward
the reflector which is causing the multipath. When installed close to the antenna, it effectively attenuates the
unwanted multipath signal. Close-in reflections will be stronger, and typically have a shorter propagation delay
allowing for autocorrelation of signals with a propagation delay of less than one C/A code chip (300 meters).
Figure B-2
Illustration of GPS Signal Multipath vs. Increased Antenna Height
When the antenna is in an environment with obstructions and reflective surfaces in the vicinity, it is advantageous
to mount the antenna as high as possible to reduce the obstructions, as well as reception from reflective surfaces,
as much as possible.
Water bodies are extremely good reflectors of GPS signals. Because of the short wavelengths at GPS frequencies,
even small ponds and water puddles can be a strong source of multipath reception, especially for low angle
satellites. Thus, it can be concluded that water bodies such as lakes and oceans are among the most troublesome
multipath environments for low angle signal reception. Obviously, water body reflections are a constant problem
for ocean going vessels.
Antenna Designs
Low angle reflections, such as from water bodies, can be reduced by careful selection of antenna design. For
example, flat plate microstrip patch antennas have relatively poor reception properties at low elevation angles near
their radiation pattern horizon.
Quadrifilar helix antennas and other similar vertically high profile antennas tend to have high radiation gain
patterns at the horizon. These antennas, in general, are more susceptible to the problems resulting from low angle
multipath reception. So, for marine vessels, this type of antenna encourages multipath reception. However, the
advantages of good low angle reception also means that satellites can be acquired more easily while rising in the
horizon. As well, vessels subject to pitch and roll conditions will experience fewer occurrences of satellite loss of
lock.
A good antenna design will also incorporate some form of left hand circular polarization (LHCP) rejection.
Multipath signals change polarization during the refraction and reflection process. This means that generally,
multipath signals may be LHCP oriented. This property can be used to advantage by GPS antenna designers. If a
GPS antenna is well designed for RHCP polarization, then LHCP multipath signals will automatically be attenuated
somewhat during the induction into the antenna. To further enhance performance, antennas can be designed to
increase the rejection of LHCP signals. NovAtel’s GPSAntenna model 501 is an example of an antenna optimized
to further reject LHCP signals by more than 10 dB.
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B Multipath Elimination Technology
Figure B-3
Illustration of Quadrifilar vs. Microstrip Patch Antennae
Quadrifilar Elements
Radome
Antenna Patch
Dielectric
Patch Ground Plane
Quadrifilar Helix Antenna
Microstrip Patch Antenna
Antenna Ground Planes
Nearby objects can influence the radiation pattern of an antenna. Thus, one of the roles of the antenna ground plane
is to create a stabilizing artificial environment on which the antenna rests and which becomes a part of the antenna
structure and its resultant radiation pattern.
A small ground plane (relative to one wavelength at the operating frequency) may have minimal stabilizing effect,
whereas a large ground plane (multiple wavelengths in size) will have a highly stabilizing effect.
Large ground planes also exhibit a shielding effect against RF signal reflections originating below the antenna’s
radiation pattern horizon. This can be a very effective low angle shield when the antenna is elevated on a hill or
other structure above other reflecting surfaces such as vehicles, railway tracks, soil with high moisture content,
water bodies, etc.
One of the drawbacks of a "flat plate" ground plane is that it gives a “hard boundary condition”, ie. allowing
electromagnetic waves to propagate along the ground plane and diffract strongly from its edge. The “soft
boundary” condition, on the other hand, will prevent the wave from propagating along the surface of the ground
plane and thereby reducing the edge diffraction effects. As a result the antenna will exhibit a completely different
radiation pattern. The “soft boundary” condition is typically achieved by a quarter wavelength deep, transversely
corrugated ground plane surface (denoted as “choke ring ground plane”). When the depth of the corrugation (choke
rings) is equal to a quarter wavelength, the surface wave vanishes, and the surface impedance becomes infinite and
hence provides the “soft boundary” condition for the electromagnetic field. This results in modifications to the
antenna radiation pattern that is characterized by low back lobe levels, no ripples in the main lobe, sharper
amplitude, roll-off near the horizon and better phase center stability (there are smaller variations in 2 axes). This is
what makes NovAtel's GPS antennas so successful when used with the NovAtel GPSAntenna choke ring ground
plane.
NovAtel’s Internal Receiver Solutions for Multipath Reduction
The multipath antenna hardware solutions described in the previous paragraphs are capable of achieving varying
degrees of multipath reception reduction. These options, however, require specific conscious efforts on the part of
the GPS user. In many situations, especially kinematic, few (if any) of the above solutions may be effective or even
possible to incorporate. By far, the best solutions are those which require little or no special efforts in the field on
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B Multipath Elimination Technology
the part of the GPS user. This is what makes NovAtel’s internal receiver solutions so desirable and practical.
NovAtel has placed long term concerted effort into the development of internal receiver solutions and techniques
that achieve multipath reduction, all of which are transparent to the GPSCard user. These achievements have led
to Narrow Correlator tracking technology.
It utilizes innovative patented correlator delay lock loop (DLL) techniques. As it is beyond the scope of this manual
to describe in detail how the correlator techniques achieve the various levels of performance, the following
paragraphs will provide highlights of the advantages of this technology.
NARROW CORRELATOR TRACKING TECHNOLOGY
NovAtel’s MiLLennium GPSCard receivers achieve a higher level of pseudorange positioning "performance" vs.
standard (wide) correlator, by virtue of its celebrated Narrow Correlator tracking technology. By utilizing Narrow
Correlator tracking techniques, the MiLLennium GPSCard is capable of pseudorange measurement improvements
better than 2:1 when compared to standard correlation techniques. As well, the Narrow Correlator tracking
technology inherently reduces multipath reception (approaching a factor of eight compared to standard correlator)
by virtue of its narrower autocorrelation function.
Figure B-4, Page 78 illustrates relative multipath-induced tracking errors encountered by standard correlators vs.
NovAtel’s Narrow Correlator tracking technology. As can be seen, standard correlators are susceptible to
substantial multipath biases for C/A code chip delays of up to 1.5 chip, with the most significant C/A code multipath
bias errors occurring at about 0.25 and 0.75 chip (approaching 80 m error). On the other hand, the Narrow
Correlator tracking technology multipath susceptibility peaks at about 0.2 chip (about 10 m error) and remains
relatively constant out to 0.95 chip, where it rapidly declines to negligible errors after 1.1 chip.
While positioning in single point mode, the multipath and ranging improvement benefits of a Narrow Correlator
tracking technology receiver vs. standard correlator are overridden by a multitude of GPS system biases and errors
(with or without an antenna choke ring ground plane). In either case, positioning accuracy will be in the order of
40 meters CEP (SA on, no multipath). However, the benefits of the Narrow Correlator tracking technology become
most significant during pseudorange DGPS operation, where the GPS systematic biases are largely cancelled.
Receivers operating DGPS with standard correlator technology typically achieve positioning accuracies in the two
to five meter CEP range (low multipath environment and using choke ring ground plane), while NovAtel’s Narrow
Correlator tracking technology receivers are able to achieve positioning accuracies in the order of 0.75 meter CEP
(low multipath environment and using choke ring ground plane). The Narrow Correlator tracking technology
achieves this higher accuracy through a combination of lower noise ranging measurements combined with its
improved multipath resistance when compared to the standard correlator.
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B Multipath Elimination Technology
Figure B-4 Comparison of Multipath Envelopes
SUMMARY
Any localized propagation delays or multipath signal reception cause biases to the GPS ranging measurements that
cannot be differenced by traditional DGPS single or double differencing techniques. Generally speaking, single
point positioning systems are not too concerned with multipath reception, as the system errors are quite large to
begin with. However, multipath is recognized as the greatest source of errors encountered by a system operating
in differential mode. It has been discussed that careful site selection and good antenna design combined with a
choke ring ground plane are fairly effective means of reducing multipath reception.
Internal receiver solutions for multipath elimination are achieved through various types of correlation techniques,
where the "standard correlator" is the reference by which all other techniques can be compared.
The Narrow Correlator tracking technology has a two fold advantage over standard correlators: improved ranging
measurements due to a sharper, less noisy correlation peak, and reduced susceptibility to multipath due to rejection
of C/A code delays of greater than 1.0 chip. When used with a choke ring ground plane, the Narrow Correlator
tracking technology provides substantial performance gains over standard correlator receivers operating in
differential mode.
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C Commands Summary
C
COMMANDS SUMMARY
C COMMANDS SUMMARY
ACCEPT
The ACCEPT command controls the processing of input data and is primarily used to set the GPSCard’s COM port
command interpreter for acceptance of various data formats. Each port can be controlled to allow ASCII command
processing (default), binary differential data processing, or the command interpreter can be turned off.
The command interpreter automatically distinguishes between ASCII commands and certain NovAtel-format
ASCII and binary logs without receiving an ACCEPT command.
MiLLennium GPSCards will by default interpret $RTCM59A corrections, and will interpret RTCM59 if ACCEPT
RTCM has been entered.
On certain GPSCards the ACCEPT port COMMANDS mode will by default accept, interpret, and process these
data messages: $PVAA, PVAB, $REPA, REPB, $RTCM1A, $RTCAA, $RTCM3A, $RTCM9A, $RTCM16A,
$TM1A and TM1B, without any other initialization required.
The command interpreter can process some NovAtel-format binary logs (which have a proprietary header) or
ASCII logs without receiving an ACCEPT command. Therefore, the ACCEPT command is needed only for the
RTCA, RTCM and CMR logs. When using ACCEPT RTCM, the interpretation of the RTCM data will follow the
rules defined by the RTCMRULE command (see Chapter 4, Message Formats, Page 45). In the default processing
mode (ACCEPT port COMMANDS), input ASCII data received by the specified port will be interpreted and
processed as a valid GPSCard command. If the input data cannot be interpreted as a valid GPSCard command, an
error message will be echoed from that port (if the command MESSAGES is “ON”). When valid data is accepted
and interpreted by the port, it will be processed and acknowledged by echoing the port prompt (with the exception
of VERSION and HELP commands, which reply with data before the prompt).
In the binary differential data processing modes, (ACCEPT port RTCA/RTCM/CMR), only the applicable data
types specified will be interpreted and processed by the specified COM port; no other data will be interpreted. It
is important to note that only one out of two COM ports can be specified to accept binary differential correction
data. Both ports cannot be set to accept differential data at the same time.
When ACCEPT port NONE is set, the specified port will be disabled from interpreting any input data. Therefore,
no commands or differential corrections will be decoded by the specified port. However, data can still be logged
out from the port, and data can be input to the port for formatting into Pass-Through logs (see Chapter 5, Page
45). If the GPSCard operator wants to time-tag non-GPS messages as a Pass-Through log, it is recommended that
the port accepting the Pass-Through data be set to “NONE”. This will prevent the accepting GPSCard COM port
from echoing error messages in response to receipt of unrecognized data. If you do not wish to disable the
command interpreter, and do want to disable message error reporting, see the MESSAGES command, Appendix C,
Page 108.
The GPSCard user can monitor the differential data link as well as the data decoding process by utilizing the
CDSA/B logs. See the CDSA/B log, Appendix D, Page 144 for more information on data link monitoring.
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C Commands Summary
Syntax:
ACCEPT
Syntax
ACCEPT
port
option
(GPSCard
model
dependent)
port
option
Range Value
COM1 or COM2
NONE
COMMANDS
RTCA
RTCM
CMR
Description
Command
Specifies the COM port to be controlled
Turn off Command Interpreter
Command Interpreter attempts to interpret all incoming data. Will also interpret certain
ASCII and NovAtel format binary logs.
Interprets RTCAB or raw binary RTCA data only (Types 1,7)
Interprets raw binary RTCM data only (Types 1,2,3,9,16,18,19 and 59N)
Receives CMR messages
Example:
accept com1 rtcm
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Default
commands
C Commands Summary
ANTENNAPOWER
On MiLLennium GPSCards this command enables or disables the supply of electrical power from the internal
power source of the card to the low-noise amplifier (LNA) of an active antenna. Jumper P301 allows the user to
power the LNA either by an internal power source (plug connects pins 1&2) or an optional external power source
(plug connects pins 2&3); or, the user can cut off all power to the antenna (plug removed). For more information
on these jumper settings, please refer to Chapter 3 of the MiLLennium Guide to Installation and Operation. The
ANTENNAPOWER command, which is only relevant when Jumper P301 is set to connect pins 1&2, determines
whether or not internal power is applied to pin 1 of Jumper P301. Table C-1 summarizes the combinations:
Table C-1 Antenna LNA Power Configuration
P301: plug connects
pins 1&2
P301: plug connects
pins 2&3
P301: no plug
internal power connected
to LNA
no external effect
no external effect
ANTENNAPOWER = ON
internal power cut off from
LNA
no external effect
no external effect
ANTENNAPOWER = OFF
The setting of this command will affect the way the MiLLennium’s self-test diagnostics (see Table D-5, Page 196)
report the antenna’s status.
Syntax:
ANTENNAPOWER
Command
ANTENNAPOWER
flag
flag
Range Value
(none)
ON
OFF
Description
Command
Displays status of the internal antenna-power supply.
If plug on P301 joins pins 1&2, connects internal power to the LNA. Antenna status
will be reported as “GOOD” unless a fault is detected, in which case the status will
change to “BAD” and the internal power cut off from pin 1.
If plug on P301 joins pins 1&2, cuts off internal power from the LNA. Antenna status
will always be reported as “GOOD”.
Default
on
Example:
antennapower off
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C Commands Summary
ASSIGN
This command may be used to aid in the initial acquisition of a satellite by allowing you to override the automatic
satellite/channel assignment and reacquisition processes with manual instructions. The command specifies that the
indicated tracking channel search for a specified satellite at a specified Doppler frequency within a specified
Doppler window. The instruction will remain in effect for the specified channel and PRN, even if the assigned
satellite subsequently sets. If the satellite Doppler offset of the assigned channel exceeds that specified by the
Search-Window parameter of the ASSIGN command, the satellite may never be acquired or re-acquired. To cancel
the effects of ASSIGN, you must issue the UNASSIGN or UNASSIGNALL command, or reboot the GPSCard.
When using this command, NovAtel recommends that you monitor the channel tracking status (ETSA/B) of the
assigned channel and then use the UNASSIGN or UNASSIGNALL commands to cancel the command once the channel
has reached channel state 4, the Phase Lock Loop (PLL) state. See Appendix D, Page 155, the ETSA/B ASCII log
structure and Table D-7, Page 201 for an explanation of the various channel tracking states.
NOTE:
Assigning a PRN to a channel does not remove the PRN from the search space of the automatic
searcher; only the channel is removed. By default, the automatic searcher only searches for the GPS
satellites (PRNs 1-32).
The [doppler] and [search-window] parameters are optional. If [doppler] is not specified, its range value will
default to 0, and if [search-window] is not specified, its range value will default to 10,000.
There are two syntactical forms of this command, as shown below.
Syntax #1:
ASSIGN channel
Syntax
[doppler]
Range Value
ASSIGN
channel
0 - 11
prn
doppler
1 - 32
-100,000 to
100,000 Hz
search-window
0 - 10,000
Example 1:
prn
[search-window]
Description
Default
Command
Desired channel number from 0 to 11 inclusive (channel 0
represents first channel, channel 11 represents twelfth channel)
A satellite PRN integer number from 1 to 32 inclusive
Current Doppler offset of the satellite
Note:
Satellite motion, receiver antenna motion and receiver
clock frequency error must be included in the calculation for
Doppler frequency.
Error or uncertainty in the Doppler estimate above in Hz
Note:
Any positive value from 0 to 10000 will be accepted.
Example: 500 implies ± 500 Hz.
unassignall
Example
assign
0
29
0
2000
assign 0,29,0,2000
In example 1, the first channel will try to acquire satellite PRN 29 in a range from -2000 Hz to 2000 Hz until the
satellite signal has been detected.
assign 11,28,-250,0
Example 2:
The twelfth channel will try to acquire satellite PRN 28 at -250 Hz only.
Syntax #2:
ASSIGN
Syntax
ASSIGN
channel
keyword
Example 3:
channel
keyword
Range Value
0 - highest channel
number
IDLE
Description
Command
Desired channel number from maximum channel number
inclusive
Idles channel (not case sensitive)
Default
unassignall
Example
assign
0
idle
assign 11,idle
In Example 3, Channel 11 will be idled and will not attempt to search for satellites.
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MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
C Commands Summary
CLOCKADJUST
All oscillators have some inherent drift. On the MiLLennium GPSCard, the clock and the PPS strobe have a 50 ns
jitter due to the receiver’s attempts to keep the clock as close as possible to GPS time. This option is disabled by
entering CLOCKADJUST DISABLE. The jitter will vanish, but the unsteered and free-running clock will drift
relative to GPS time. CLOCKADJUST must also be disabled if the user wishes to measure the drift rate of the
oscillator using the CLKA/B data logs.
NOTE 1: Please note that, when disabled, the range measurement bias errors will continue to accumulate with
clock drift.
NOTE 2: This feature is to be used by advanced users only.
NOTE 3: Pseudorange, carrier phase and Doppler measurements may jump if CLOCKADJUST DISABLE is
issued while the receiver is tracking.
Syntax:
CLOCKADJUST
Syntax
CLOCKADJUST
switch
switch
Range Value
enable or disable
Description
Command
Allows or disallows adjustment to the internal clock
Default
enable
Example:
clockadjust disable
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C Commands Summary
COMn
This command permits you to configure the GPSCard COM port’s asynchronous drivers.
Syntax:
COMn
bps
parity
Syntax
databits
stopbits
Value
COMn
bps
echo
Description
n = 1 or 2
300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19200,
38400, 57600 or 115,200
N (none), O (odd) or E (even)
7 or 8
1 or 2
N (none), XON (Xon/Xoff) or CTS (CTS/RTS)
ON or OFF
ON or OFF
parity
databits
stopbits
handshake
echo
FIFO
handshake
Specify COM port
Specify bit rate
Specify parity
Specify number of data bits
Specify number of stop bits
Specify handshaking
Specify echo
Transmit the First In First Out queue of the
GPSCard’s serial port UART.
FIFO
Default
Example
9600
com2
19200
N
8
1
N
OFF
ON
E
7
1
N
ON
OFF
Examples:
com2 19200,e,7,1,n,on,off
com1 1200,e,8,1,n,on,off
NOTE:
Your GPSCard comes configured this way. If you have different parameters you should reconfigure the
communication protocol as per requirements.
COMn_DTR
This command enables versatile control of the DTR handshake line for use with output data logging in conjunction
with external devices such as a radio transmitter. The default state for the COM1 or COM2 DTR line is always high.
Syntax:
COMn_DTR
Syntax
control
Option
COMn_DTR
control
n = 1 or 2
high
low
toggle
active
high
low
variable
variable
lead
tail
active
[lead]
[tail]
Description
Selects COM1 or COM2 port
control is always high
control is always low
control toggles between high and low
(active, lead, and tail fields are TOGGLE options only)
data available during high
data available during low
lead time before data transmission (milliseconds)
tail time after data transmission (milliseconds)
Default
Example
high
com1_dtr
toggle
n/a
high
n/a
n/a
300
150
Examples:
com1_dtr toggle,high,300,150
com2_dtr toggle,low,200,110
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OUTPUT DATA
DTR
Data
150 ms
300 ms
tail
lead
control
COMn_RTS
This command enables versatile control of the RTS handshake line for use with output data logging in conjunction
with external devices such as a radio transmitter. The default state for the COM1 or COM2 RTS line is always high.
COMn_RTS will not influence the COMn command handshake control of incoming commands.
Syntax:
COMn_RTS
control
Syntax
[lead]
Option
COMn_RTS
control
n = 1 or 2
high
low
toggle
active
high
low
variable
variable
lead
tail
active
[tail]
Description
Default
Selects COM1 or COM2 port
control is always high
control is always low
control toggles between high and low
(active, lead, and tail fields are TOGGLE options only)
data available during high
data available during low
lead time before data transmission (milliseconds)
tail time after data transmission (milliseconds)
Example
high
com1_rts
toggle
n/a
high
n/a
n/a
200
100
Example:
com1_rts toggle,high,200,100
com2_rts toggle,low,250,125
OUTPUT DATA
RTS
Data
100 ms
200 ms
tail
lead
control
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CONFIG
This command switches the channel configuration of the GPSCard between pre-defined configurations. When
invoked, this command loads a new satellite channel-configuration and forces the GPSCard to reset. The types of
configurations possible are listed by entering this command:
HELP CONFIG
In some applications, only the standard (default) configuration will be listed in response.
configuration of a MiLLennium GPSCard consists of 12 L1/L2 channel pairs.
The standard
Syntax:
CONFIG cfgtype
Command
CONFIG
cfgtype
86
Option
(none)
configuration name
Description
Command
Displays present channel configuration
Loads new configuration, resets GPSCard
Default
standard
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C Commands Summary
CRESET
Configuration Reset. Resets user configuration to the factory default. After a reset, non volatile memory (NVM) is
read for user configuration. This command does not reset the hardware. See the Factory Default Settings .
Syntax:
CRESET
See also the FRESET and RESET commands. These three commands differ in the following way:
RESET
- Resets the hardware. Similar to powering the card off and on again.
CRESET - Resets user configuration to the factory default. This command does not reset the hardware.
FRESET - Completely resets the receiver to a factory state. Anything that was saved to NVM is erased
(including Saved Config, Saved Almanac and Channel Config). The hardware is also reset.
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C Commands Summary
CSMOOTH
This command sets the amount of carrier smoothing to be performed on the pseudorange measurements carrier.
An input value of 100 corresponds to approximately 100 seconds of smoothing. Upon issuing the command, the
locktime for all tracking satellites is reset to zero. From this point each pseudorange smoothing filter is restarted.
The user must wait for at least the length of smoothing time for the new smoothing constant to take full effect. 20
seconds is the default smoothing constant used in the GPSCard. The optimum setting for this command is
dependent on the user’s application and thus cannot be specified.
Syntax:
CSMOOTH
Syntax
L1 time
Range Value
CSMOOTH
L1 time
2 to 1000
[L2 time]
2 to 1000
[L2 time]
Description
Command
L1 carrier smoothing time constant.
Value in seconds
L2 carrier smoothing time constant.
Value in seconds
Default
20
Example:
csmooth 500
NOTE:
The CSMOOTH command should only be used by advanced users of GPS.
It may not be suitable for every GPS application. When using CSMOOTH in a differential mode, the same
setting should be used at both the reference and remote station. The shorter the carrier smoothing the
more noise there will be. If you are at all unsure please call NovAtel Customer Service Department, see
Software Support at the start of this manual.
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DATUM
This command permits you to select the geodetic datum for operation of the receiver. If not set, the value is
defaulted to WGS84. See Table G-2 in Appendix G for a complete listing of all available predefined datums. See
the USERDATUM command for user definable datums. The datum you select will cause all position solutions to be
based on that datum (except PXYA/B which is always based on WGS84).
Syntax:
DATUM
Syntax
DATUM
option
Datum Option
Description
any one of 62 predefined
datums
USER
For a complete list of all 62 predefined datums, see Table G-2 in Appendix G.
datum tokyo
Sets the system datum to Tokyo
Default
WGS84
User defined datum with parameters specified by the USERDATUM
command (Default WGS84)
Example:
NOTE:
The actual datum name must be entered in this command as listed in the NAME column of Table G-2.
Also note that references to datum in the following logs use the GPSCard Datum ID #: MKPA/B, PRTKA/
B, POSA/B and RTKA/B.
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DGPSTIMEOUT
This command has a two-fold function:
(1)
to set the maximum age of differential data that will be accepted when operating as a remote station. Differential data received that is older than the specified time will be ignored. When entering DGPS delay,
you can ignore the ephemeris delay field.
(2)
to set the ephemeris delay when operating as a reference station. The ephemeris delay sets a time value
by which the reference station will continue to use the old ephemeris data. A delay of 120 to 300 seconds
will typically ensure that the remote stations have collected updated ephemeris. After the delay period is
passed, the reference station will begin using new ephemeris data. To enter an ephemeris delay value,
you must first enter a numeric placeholder in the DGPS delay field (e.g., 2). When operating as a reference
station, DGPS delay will be ignored.
Syntax:
DGPSTIMEOUT
dgps delay
Command
DGPSTIMEOUT
dgps delay
ephem delay
ephem delay
Option
min.
max.
min.
max.
2
1000
0
600
Description
Default
Command
Maximum age in seconds
60
Minimum time delay in seconds
120
Example 1 (remote):
dgpstimeout 15
Example 2 (reference):
dgpstimeout 2,300
NOTE 1: The RTCA Standard for SCAT-I stipulates that the maximum age of differential correction messages
cannot be greater than 22 seconds. Therefore, for RTCA logs, the recommended DGPS delay setting is 22.
NOTE 2: The RTCA Standard also stipulates that a reference station shall wait five minutes after receiving a new
ephemeris before transmitting differential corrections. This time interval ensures that the remote
stations will have received the new ephemeris, and will compute differential positioning based upon the
same ephemeris. Therefore, for RTCA logs, the recommended ephemeris delay is 300 seconds.
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DIFF_PROTOCOL Differential Protocol Control
NOTE:
The DIFF_PROTOCOL command should only be used by advanced users of GPS.
Features:
1.
A user definable key such that many different types of encoding may be used in the same area without cross
talk between the various “channels”.
2.
Encodes all correction data following any header specific to the message type.
3.
Non-volatile. When the base station card is restarted, the previously selected encoding key is used for all subsequent differential data.
4.
The encoding key is not visible by any method of interrogation.
Syntax:
Syntax
DIFF_PROTOCOL
Type
or
DIFF_PROTOCOL
DISABLE
or
DIFF_PROTOCOL
Range Value
DIFF_PROTOCOL
-
Description
Default
Command
type
1, DISABLE
Encoding Algorithm
key
0 - FFFFFFFF
32 Bit Encoding key
NOTE:
Key
If no parameters are given to the command, the encoding type value will be reported. The key value is
not visible at anytime.
The only supported type of encoding is “Type 1”, which will only encode RTCM data with the algorithm described
below.
The non-volatility of the command is acquired via the SAVECONFIG command. This command stores the current
settings in non-volatile memory.
All header information necessary for parsing the incoming data stream remains unencoded.
RTCM/A/B LOGS
The NovAtel log format wrapping of the RTCMA and RTCMB logs remains unencoded and only the raw RTCM
data is encoded beginning after the second word of the message. This will leave the entire header unencoded:
WORD 1
WORD 2
REMAINING...
Preamble
Modified Z-Count
Encoded data...
Message Type (Frame ID)
Sequence No.
Station ID
Length of Frame
Parity
Parity
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DYNAMICS
This command informs the receiver of user dynamics. It is used to optimally tune receiver parameters.
Syntax:
DYNAMICS
user_dynamics
Command
DYNAMICS
user_dynamics
Description
Command
air
land
foot
receiver is an aircraft
receiver is in a land vehicle with velocity less than
110 km/h (30m/s)
receiver is being carried by a person with velocity less than
11 km/h (3m/s)
Default
dynamics
air
Example:
dynamics foot
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ECUTOFF
This command sets the elevation cut-off angle for usable satellites. The GPSCard will not start tracking a satellite
until it rises above the cutoff angle. If there are six or less satellites being tracked and one drops below this angle,
it will continue to be tracked until the signal is lost. However, if there are more than six satellites being tracked,
any that are below the cutoff angle will be dropped completely.
In either case, satellites below the ECUTOFF angle will be eliminated from the internal position and clock offset
solution computations only.
This command permits a negative cut-off angle; it could be used in these situations:
•
the antenna is at a high altitude, and thus can look below the local horizon
•
satellites are visible below the horizon due to atmospheric refraction
Syntax:
ECUTOFF
Syntax
ECUTOFF
angle
angle
Range Value
-90° to +90°
Description
Command
Value in degrees (relative to the horizon).
Default
0
Example:
ecutoff 5
NOTE 1: When ECUTOFF is set to zero (0), the receiver will track all
degrees below the horizon.
SVs
in view including some within a few
NOTE 2: Care must be taken when using ECUTOFF because the information you are tracking from lower elevation
satellite signals are going through more atmosphere, for example ionospheric and tropospheric, and
therefore being degraded.
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EXTERNALCLOCK
Overview
The EXTERNALCLOCK and EXTERNALCLOCK FREQUENCY commands allows the MiLLennium GPSCard to operate
with an optional external oscillator. The user is able to optimally adjust the clock model parameters of the GPSCard
for various types of external clocks. The three-state clock model on GPSCards having access to this command is
different from that used on the other GPSCards.
NOTE:
The EXTERNALCLOCK command will affect the interpretation of the CLKA/B log.
There are three steps involved in using an external oscillator:
1. Follow the procedure outlined in your GPSCard’s installation/operation manual for connecting an
external oscillator to your GPSCard.
2. For the chosen oscillator type, use the EXTERNALCLOCK FREQUENCY command to select the operating
frequency – either 5 MHz or 10 MHz.
3. Using the EXTERNALCLOCK command, select a standard oscillator or define a new one; the effect is to
define h0, h-1, and h-2 in the expression for Sy(f) given below.
Steps #2 and #3 define certain parameters used in the clock model for the external oscillator
Theory
An unsteered oscillator can be approximated by a three-state clock model, with two states representing the range
bias and range bias rate, and a third state assumed to be a Gauss-Markov (GM) process representing the range bias
error generated from satellite clock dither. The third state is included because the Kalman filter assumes an
(unmodeled) white input error. The significant correlated errors produced by SA clock dither are obviously not
white and the Markov process is an attempt to handle this kind of short-term variation.
The internal units of the new clock model’s three states (offset, drift and GM state) are meters, meters per second,
and meters. When scaled to time units for the output log, these become seconds, seconds per second, and seconds,
respectively. Note that the old units of the third clock state (drift rate) were meters per second per second.
The user has control over 3 process noise elements of the linear portion of the clock model. These are the h0, h-1,
and h-2 elements of the power law spectral density model used to describe the frequency noise characteristics of
oscillators:
h –2 h –1
S y ( f ) = -------2 + ------- + h 0 + h 1 f + h 2 f
f
f
2
where f is the sampling frequency and Sy(f) is the clock’s power spectrum. Typically only h0, h-1, and h-2 affect the
clock’s Allan variance and the clock model’s process noise elements.
Usage
Before using an optional external oscillator, several clock model parameters must be set. There are default settings
for a voltage-controlled temperature-compensated crystal oscillator (VCTCXO), ovenized crystal oscillator
(OCXO), Rubidium and Cesium standard; or, the user may choose to supply customized settings.
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Syntax:
EXTERNALCLOCK
Command
EXTERNALCLOCK
option
Option
disable
ocxo
rubidium
cesium
user h0 h-1 h-2
Description
Default
Revert to the on-board oscillator
MiLLennium = VCTCXO
Set defaults for ovenized crystal oscillator
Set defaults for rubidium oscillator
Set defaults for cesium oscillator
Define custom values for process noise elements
see Table C-2
Example:
externalclock user 1.0e-20 1.0e-24 1.0e-28
Table C-2 Default Values of Process Noise Elements
Timing Standard
VCTCXO
OCXO
rubidium
cesium
user (min / max)
h0
1.0 e-21
2.51 e-26
1.0 e-23
2.0 e-20
1.0 e-31 ≤ h0 ≤ 1.0 e-18
h-1
1.0 e-20
2.51 e-23
1.0 e-22
7.0 e-23
1.0 e-31 ≤ h-1 ≤ 1.0 e-18
h-2
2.0 e-20
2.51 e-22
1.3 e-26
4.0 e-29
1.0 e-31 ≤ h-2 ≤ 1.0 e-18
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EXTERNALCLOCK FREQUENCY
Please see the Overview and Theory sub-sections under the EXTERNALCLOCK command to understand the steps
involved in using an optional external oscillator with a MiLLennium GPSCard.
For the chosen oscillator, one must select the clock rate using the EXTERNALCLOCK FREQUENCY command. The
MiLLennium GPSCard only accepts a 5 MHz or 10 MHz external input. An internal frequency synthesizer
converts this input to 20 MHz, the actual clock rate required by the MiLLennium GPSCard (and that which is
generated by its on-board VCTCXO).
Syntax:
EXTERNALCLOCK FREQUENCY
Command
EXTERNALCLOCK FREQUENCY
clock rate
clock rate
Range
5 or 10
Description
Set clock rate to 5 MHz or 10 MHz (Will
not allow values other than 5 or 10)
Default
10
Example:
externalclock frequency 5
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FIX HEIGHT
This command configures the GPSCard in 2D mode with its height constrained to a given value. The command
would be used mainly in marine applications where height in relation to mean sea level may be considered to be
approximately constant. The height entered using this command is always referenced to the geoid (mean sea level,
see the PRTKA/B log in Chapter 4 and Appendix D) and uses units of meters. The FIX HEIGHT command will override
any previous FIX HEIGHT or FIX POSITION command and disables the output of differential corrections. The receiver
is capable of receiving and applying differential corrections from a reference station while FIX HEIGHT is in effect.
Use the UNFIX command to disable the current FIX command. No special solution status is reported in the POSA/B
or PRTKA/B logs for a 2 dimensional solution. This mode is detected by the standard deviation of the height being
0.001m.
Syntax:
FIX HEIGHT
Syntax
value
Range Value
FIX HEIGHT
value
Description
height
Command
-1,000.0 to 20,000,000.0
Height in metres above mean sea level
auto
The receiver will automatically fix the height at the last calculated value if the
number of satellites available is insufficient for a 3-D solution, to provide a 2-D
solution. Height calculation will resume when the number of satellites available
returns to 4 or more. The use of the UNFIX command, or a different FIX
command will disable the automatic fix height mode. It is disabled by default.
Default
unfix
Example:
fix height 4.567
or
fix height auto
REMEMBER: Any error in the height estimate will cause an error in the position computed of the same order
of magnitude or higher. For example, if the user fixed height to zero and the antenna was installed
on a 20 meter mast, the position can be expected to be in error by 10 to 60 meters, depending on
the geometry of the satellites. This command should only be used when absolutely necessary, i.e.,
when only three satellites are visible.
NOTE:
This command only affects pseudorange corrections and solutions, and so has no meaning within the
context of RT-2 and RT-20.
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FIX POSITION
Invoking this command will result in the GPSCard position being held fixed. A computation will be done to solve
local clock offset, pseudorange, and pseudorange differential corrections. This mode of operation can be used for
time transfer applications where the position is fixed and accurate GPS time output is required (see the CLKA/B and
TM1A/B logs, Appendix D for time data).
As well, this command must be properly initialized before the GPSCard can operate as a GPS pseudorange reference
station. Once initialized, the receiver will compute pseudorange differential corrections for each satellite being
tracked. The computed differential corrections can then be output to remote stations by utilizing any of the
following GPSCard differential corrections data log formats: RTCM, RTCMA, RTCMB, CMR, RTCA, RTCAA or RTCAB.
The reference station servicing RT-20 remote receivers must log RTCM3 and RTCM59(N) pseudorange and carrier
phase observation data in order for the RT-20 remote receiver to compute double difference carrier phase solutions.
The values entered into the FIX POSITION command should reflect the precise position of the reference station
antenna phase centre. Any errors in the FIX POSITION coordinates will directly bias the pseudorange corrections
calculated by the reference receiver.
The GPSCard performs all internal computations based on WGS84 and the datum command is defaulted as such.
The datum in which you choose to operate (by changing the DATUM command) will internally be converted to and
from WGS84. Therefore, all differential corrections are based on WGS84, regardless of your operating datum.
The GPSCard will begin logging differential data while tracking as few as three healthy satellites. See Appendix A
for further discussions on differential positioning.
The FIX POSITION command will override any previous FIX HEIGHT
UNFIX command to disable the FIX POSITION setting.
or
FIX POSITION
command settings. Use the
Syntax:
FIX POSITION
lat
lon
height
station id
[RTCM stn health]
Syntax
Range Value
Description
Default
Example
FIX POSITION
lat
0 to ± 90.0
(Up to 8 decimal places are shown in the RCCA
log but more precision is determined internally)
unfix
fix position
51.3455323
lon
0 to ± 360.0
(Up to 8 decimal places are shown in the RCCA
log but more precision is determined internally)
height
-1,000 to 20,000,000
station id
0 to 1023 (10 bits) for RTCM output
“xxxx” for RTCA output
where ”xxxx” are four alphanumeric characters,
entered between double quotes. For CMR, the
station ID should be < 31.
0-7
where 0-5 Specified by user
6 Reference station
transmission not monitored
7 Reference station not working
Command
Latitude (in degrees/decimal degrees)
of fixed reference station antenna in
current datum. A negative sign implies
South latitude.
Longitude (in degrees) of fixed
reference station antenna in current
datum. A negative sign implies West
longitude.
Height (in metres) above the geoid of
reference station in current datum.
Specify a reference Station
identification number (optional entry)
(see SETDGPSID)
Specify RTCM reference station health
(optional)
(This field will only be reported in
RTCM message header - word 2.)
6
RTCM
reference
station health
-114.289534
1201.123
1002
0
Example:
fix position 51.3455323,-114.289534,1201.123,1002,0
The above example configures the receiver as a reference station with fixed coordinates of:
Latitude N 51º 20' 43.9163" (WGS84 or local datum)
Longitude
W 114º 17' 22.3224"
Height above sea level
1201.123 meters
Station ID
1002
RTCM health
0
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C Commands Summary
FIX VELOCITY
This command supports INS (Inertial Navigation System) integration. It accepts ECEF XYZ velocity values in units
of meters per second (m/s). This information is only used by the tracking loops of the receiver to aid in reacquisition
of satellites after loss of lock, otherwise it is ignored. It is not used in the position solution and velocity calculations.
This command is only useful for very high dynamics where expected velocity changes during the signal blockage
of more than 100 meters per second can occur. See Figure D-2 for ECEF definitions. The UNFIX command is used
to clear the effects of the FIX VELOCITY command. The FIX VELOCITY command will override any previous FIX
HEIGHT or FIX POSITION command. Use the UNFIX command to disable the current FIX command.
Syntax:
FIX VELOCITY
Syntax
vx
vy
vz
Range Value
FIX VELOCITY
vx
vy
vz
±999.99
±999.99
±999.99
Description
Command
X = Antenna Velocity (ECEF) in the X direction [m/s].
Y = Antenna Velocity (ECEF) in the Y direction [m/s].
Z = Antenna Velocity (ECEF) in the Z direction [m/s].
Default
unfix
Example
fix velocity
315
212
150
Example:
fix velocity 315,212,150
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FREQUENCY_OUT
This command allows the user to specify the frequency of the output pulse train available at the variable frequency
(VARF) pin of the I/O strobe connector. This command has no effect on the operation of the GPSCard; it is only
provided for user-determined applications.
The frequency (in Hertz) is calculated according to formulas which require two input parameters (k and p), such
that:
if k =1 or p =1:
VARF = 0
if k ≠ 1, p ≠ 1:
Fs × 19, 999
-----------------------------------20, 000 × k × p
VARF =
Where:
Fs is the TCXO frequency = 20.000 MHz
k is an integer from 2 to 65536
p is an integer from 2 to 1024
The possible range of output frequencies is 0 - 5 MHz.
The resultant waveform is composed of active-high pulses with a repetition rate as defined above, and a jitter of 50
ns unless k equals 19 999, see the table below for Syntax 1.
The pulse width (seconds) =
1 ⁄ [ ( Fs × 19999 ) ⁄ ( 20000 × k ) ]
The command has two syntactical forms. One is to define a frequency, and the other is to disable this function.
Syntax 1:
FREQUENCY_OUT
K
P
Command
Range Values
For Jitter Free
Operation
Description
FREQUENCY_OUT
K
P
1 - 65 536
1 - 1 024
19 999
2 - 1 024
Command
Variable integer
Variable integer
Example:
frequency_out 4,8
Syntax 2:
FREQUENCY_OUT
Command
Range Values
FREQUENCY_OUT
keyword
100
keyword
disable
Description
Command
The keyword “DISABLE” is the only one defined at this time.
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C Commands Summary
FRESET
This command clears all data which is stored in non-volatile memory. Such data includes the almanac, satellite
channel configuration, and any user-specific configurations. The GPSCard is forced to reset and will start up with
factory defaults.
See also the CRESET, where the differences between these three commands are explained, and RESET commands.
Syntax:
FRESET
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HELP
This command provides you with on-line help. The command, with no options, gives a complete list of the valid
system commands. For detailed help on any command, append the optional command name to the HELP command.
Syntax:
HELP
OR:
option
?
option
Syntax
HELP (or ?)
option
Range Value
See Figure C-1
Description
Entering HELP without an option will list all valid command options.
Can be any valid system command. Information about the command entered will be displayed.
Example:
help dynamics
Figure C-1 shows the screen display of the HELP command as it would be seen if you were using NovAtel’s
graphical interface program GPSolution. Figure C-2 shows a specific example of the ASSIGN command appended
to the HELP command.
Figure C-1 HELP Command Screen Display
Com1> help
?-Online Command Help
ANTENNAPOWER -Antenna Power Control
CLOCKADJUST -Adjust 1pps
COM2
-Initialize Port 2
COM2_DTR -DTR Control on Port 2
C0M2_RTS -RTS Control on Port 2
CRESET -Factory Config Reset
DATUM -Choose a DATUM Type
DIFF_PROTOCOL -Diff.. protocol control
ECUTOFF -Elevation Cutoff Angle
FIX
-Set Antenna Coord..
FREQUENCY OUT -Variable Freq. Output
LOCKOUT -Lock Out Satellite
MAGVAR -Set Magnetic Variation.on
POSAVE -Position Averaging
RESETHEALTH -Reset PRN Health
RESETRT20 -Reset RT20 algorithm
RINEX -RINEX( Configuration
RTCMRULE -RTCM Bit Rule
SAVECONFIG -Save User Config.
SENDHEX-Send hex to a port
SETHEALTH -Overr.ide PRN Health
SETNAV -Set a Destination
UNASSIGN -Un-Assign a Channel
UNDULATION-Choose Undulation
UNLOCKOUT -Restore Satellite
UNLOG -Kill a Data Log
USERDATUM -User Defined DATUM
Com1>
ACCEPT -Accept Datatypes
ASSIGN -Assign PRN To a Chan.
COM1
-Initialize Port 1
COM1_DTR -DTR Control on Port 1
COM1_RTS -RTS Control on Port 1
CONFIG -Configure Satellites
CSMOOTH -Carrier Smoothing
DGPSTIMEOUT -Max. aye of DGPS data
DYNAMICS -Set Dynamics
EXTERNALCLOCK -Specify Clock type
RESET -Factory Card Reset
HELP
-Online Command Help
LOG
-Choose Date Logging
MESSAGES -Error Messages On/Off
RESET -Hardware Reset
RESETHEALTHALL -Reset All PRE Health
RTKMODE -Set RTK parameters
RTCM16T -Input Type l6 Message
SAVEALMA -Save Almanac & ION/UTC
SEND
-Send string to a port
SETDGPSID -Set the Station ID
SETL10FFSET -Set Ll PSR Offset
SETTIMESYNC -Enable/Disable Timesync
UNASSIGNALL -Un-Assign All Channels
UNFIX
-Remove Recvr. FIX(ed)
UNLOCKOUTALL -Select All Satellites
UNLOGALL -Kill all Data Logs
VERSION -Current Software Vet.
Figure C-2 Appended Command Screen Display
COM2> help assign
ASSIGN Channel_no, PRN, Doppler, Dop_window
Assign a prn to a channel
where:
Channel_no
= A channel number from 0-23
PRN
= A satellite PRN number from 1-32
Doppler
= Current satellite doppler offset (-100000 to +100000 Hz)
Dop_window
= Uncertainty in doppler estimate (0 to 10000 Hz)
COM2>
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C Commands Summary
IONOMODEL
WAAS
This command allows the user to decide what ionospheric corrections the card uses. This command currently does
not effect the ionospheric model that is used when the card is operating in RTK mode. Additional range values are
reserved for future use.
The MiLLennium by default computes ionospheric corrections using L1 & L2 signals; to use the ionospheric
corrections issued by the WAAS GEO satellite, you need to issue the IONOMODEL WAAS command.
Syntax:
IONOMODEL
Syntax
IONOMODEL
keyword
keyword
Range Value
WAAS
Description
Command
- Card will use Ionospheric corrections from WAAS broadcast messages.
You must first issue the following commands for this command to work:.
config waascorr
waascorrection enable
CALCULATED
Note:
- Card will calculate its own Ionospheric corrections.
You cannot change GPSCard modes on the fly as the once a CONFIG command is issued the card resets
itself and start the new mode requested.
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LOCKOUT
This command will prevent the GPSCard from using a satellite by de-weighting its range in the solution
computations. Note that the LOCKOUT command does not prevent the GPSCard from tracking an undesirable
satellite. This command must be repeated for each satellite to be locked out.
See also the UNLOCKOUT and UNLOCKOUTALL commands.
Syntax:
LOCKOUT
Syntax
LOCKOUT
prn
prn
Range Value
1 - 32
Description
Default
Command
A single satellite PRN integer number to be locked out
unlockoutall
Example:
lockout 8
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LOG
Many different types of data can be logged using several different methods of triggering the log events. Every log
element can be directed to either the COM1 or COM2 ports. If a selected log element is to be directed to all the ports,
then separate LOG commands are required to control them. The ONTIME trigger option requires the addition of the
period parameter and optionally allows input of the offset parameter. See Chapter 3 and Appendix D for further
information and a complete list of ASCII and Binary data log structures.
The optional parameter {hold} will prevent a log from being removed when the UNLOGALL command is issued. To
remove a log which was invoked using the {hold} parameter requires the specific use of the UNLOG command.
The [port] parameter is optional. If [port] is not specified, [port] is defaulted to the port that the command was
received on.
Syntax:
LOG [port]
datatype
[trigger]
[period]
[offset]
{hold}
Example:
log com1,posa,ontime,60,1,hold
The above example will cause the POSA log to be logged to COM port 1, recurring every 60 seconds, offset by one
second, and with the {hold} parameter set so that logging would not be disrupted by the UNLOGALL command.
To send a log only one time, the trigger option can be ignored.
Example:
log com1 posa
log posa
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MAGVAR
The GPSCard computes directions referenced to True North. Use this command (magnetic variation correction) if
you intend to navigate in agreement with magnetic compass bearings. The correction value entered here will cause
the "bearing" field of the NAVA/B and GPVTG logs to report bearing in degrees Magnetic. The magnetic variation
correction is also reported in the GPRMC log. The GPSCard will compute the magnetic variation correction if you
use the auto option.
Syntax:
MAGVAR correction
[std_dev]
OR
MAGVAR auto
Syntax
Range Value
MAGVAR
correction
± 0 - 180
std_dev
± 0 - 180
auto
Description
Command
The magnetic variation correction for the area of navigation in units of degrees.
Magnetic bearing = True bearing + Magnetic Variation Correction
See Figure C-3.
Option: the estimated accuracy of the magnetic correction entered(in degrees).
This option is currently not applicable to this product.
The GPSCard calculates values of magnetic variation for given values of latitude,
longitude and time using the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF)
95 spherical harmonic coefficients, and IGRF time corrections to the harmonic
coefficients.
Default
0.0
Example:
magvar +15.0
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Figure C-3 Illustration of Magnetic Variation & Correction
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MESSAGES
The MESSAGES command is used to disable the port prompt and error message reporting from a specified port. This
feature can be useful if the port is connected to a modem or other device that responds with data the GPSCard does
not recognize. See Chapter 3 for further information on using this command with Special Pass-Through Logs.
Syntax:
MESSAGES
port
option
Syntax
Range Value
MESSAGES
port
option
COM1, COM2 or all
ON or OFF
Description
Command
Specifies the port being controlled
Enable or disable port prompt and error message reporting
Default
MESSAGES
ON
Example:
messages com1,off
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POSAVE
This command implements position averaging for reference stations. Position averaging will continue for a
specified number of hours or until the averaged position is within specified accuracy limits. Averaging will stop
when the time limit or the horizontal standard deviation limit or the vertical standard deviation limit is achieved.
When averaging is complete, the FIX POSITION command will automatically be invoked.
If the maximum time is set to 1 hour or larger, positions will be averaged every 10 minutes and the standard
deviations reported in the PAVA/B log should be correct. If the maximum time is set to less than 1 hour, positions
will be averaged once per minute and the standard deviations reported in the log will likely not be accurate; also,
the optional horizontal and vertical standard deviation limits cannot be used.
One could initiate differential logging, then issue the POSAVE command followed by the SAVECONFIG command.
This will cause the GPSCard to average positions after every power-on or reset, then invoke the FIX POSITION
command to enable it to send differential corrections.
Syntax:
POSAVE maxtime
maxhorstd
Command
maxverstd
Range Values
POSAVE
maxtime
0.025 - 100
mashorstd
maxverstd
0.1 - 100
0.1 - 100
Description
Command
Maximum amount of time that positions are to be
averaged (hours). 1.5 to 60 minutes
Option: desired horizontal standard deviation (m)
Option: desired vertical standard deviation (m)
Example:
posave 2,3,4
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RESET
This command performs a hardware reset. Following a RESET command, the GPSCard will initiate a cold-start
bootup. Therefore, the receiver configuration will revert to the factory default if no user configuration was saved
or the last SAVECONFIG settings.
Syntax:
RESET
See also the CRESET, where the differences between these three commands are explained, and FRESET commands.
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RESETHEALTH
This command cancels the SETHEALTH command and restores the health of a satellite to the broadcast value
contained in the almanac and ephemeris data.
Syntax:
RESETHEALTH
Syntax
prn
Range Value
RESETHEALTH
prn
1 - 32
Description
Command
The PRN integer number of the satellite to be restored.
Example:
resethealth 4
RESETHEALTHALL
This command resets the health of all satellites to the broadcast values contained in the almanac and ephemeris
data.
Syntax:
RESETHEALTHALL
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RINEX
Receiver-Independent Exchange Format
The RINEX format is a broadly-accepted, receiver-independent format for storing GPS data. It features a nonproprietary ASCII file format that can be used to combine or process data generated by receivers made by different
manufacturers. RINEX was originally developed at the Astronomical Institute of the University of Berne. Version
2, containing the latest major changes, appeared in 1990; subsequently, minor refinements were added in 1993. To
date, there are three different RINEX file types observation files, broadcast navigation message files and
meteorological data files.
Please see Chapter 4 for further details.
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RTCM16T
This is a NovAtel command relating to the RTCM Standard ASCII message that can be sent out in RTCM Type 16
format. Once created, the RTCM16T message can be viewed in the RCCA command settings list. The text message
can also be logged using the RTCM16 or RTCM16T log option. This command will limit the input message length to
a maximum of 90 ASCII characters.
See Chapter 4, for related topics.
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RTCMRULE
This command allows the user flexibility in the usage of the RTCM Standard "bit rule".
See Chapter 4, for further information.
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RTKMODE
This command sets up the RTK (RT-2 or RT-20) mode. Invoking this command allows you to set different
parameters and control the operation of the RTK system. The RTKMODE command is actually a family of
commands; a description of the various arguments and options is as follows. Some arguments require data input,
while others do not.
Certain arguments can be used only at the reference station, and others only at the remote station. The structure of
the syntax is shown below, followed by a detailed description of each argument.
Syntax - Reference Station
For RTCA-format messaging only:
RTKMODE
sv_entries
RTKMODE
elev_mask
Command
4to 20
0to 90
Argument
Data Range
Default
RTKMODE
sv_entries
elev_mask
4 to 20
0 to 90
12
2
For RTCM-format messaging only:
RTKMODE rtcmver
2.1 or 2.2
Command
Argument
Data Range
Default
RTKMODE
rtcmver
2.1 or 2.2
2.2
Syntax - Remote Station (for RTCA, RTCM or CMR-format messaging):
RTKMODE
default
RTKMODE
enable
RTKMODE
disable
RTKMODE
reset
RTKMODE
auto
RTKMODE
static
RTKMODE
kinematic
RTKMODE
fixed
RTKMODE
float
RTKMODE
unknown_baselines
RTKMODE
known_llh_position
RTKMODE
know_ecef_baseline
RTKMODE
elev_mask
lat
∆x
lon
∆y
hgt
∆z
[2σ]
[m/e]
[2σ]
0 to 90
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Command
Argument
Default Argument
Data Range
RTKMODE
default
enable or disable
reset
auto, static or kinematic
fixed or float
unknown_baseline,
default
enable
auto
fixed
unknown_baseline
known_llh_position lat,lon,hgt,[2σ],[m/e] or
lat: 0 to ± 90
lon: 0 to ± 360
hgt: -1000 to +20 000 000
2σ: 0 to 0.03
m/e: m or e (m = default)
known_ecef_baseline ∆x, ∆y,∆z,[2σ]
(∆x)2 + (∆y)2 +(∆z)2
≤ (1 000 000)2
2σ: 0 to 0.03
Below is additional information for each argument:
Station
Reference
Command
rtkmode
Argument
elev_mask
Data
elevation (range 0 to 90, default = 2)
RTKMODE ELEV_MASK ELEVATION causes transmission of observations for satellites above this elevation
angle only. The elevation angle has units of degrees, and can be a decimal fraction value. At this time, this command affects RTCAOBS (RTCA Type 7) messages but not RTCM or CMR messages; if RTCM-format messaging is being used, then observations for a certain satellite are transmitted as soon as it becomes visible.
Example:
rtkmode elev_mask 10.5
Remote
rtkmode
elev_mask
elevation (range 0 to 90)
When RTKMODE ELEV_MASK ELEVATION is issued at the remote, it controls the elevation angle above which satellites
will be fully weighted. A value less than 5° will be ignored. This command can be used at the remote regardless of the type of inter-receiver
messages use.
Station
Command
Argument
Remote
rtkmode
default
RTKMODE DEFAULT, when issued at the remote station, all RTK parameters are returned to their default values.
Station
Remote
Command
Argument
enable (default)
disable
RTKMODE ENABLE, when issued at the remote station, turns on its ability to receive and process RTCA or RTCM messages. RTKMODE
DISABLE exits the RTK positioning mode.
Station
Reference
rtkmode
Command
rtkmode
Argument
Data
rtcmver
2.1
2.2 (default)
For RTCM-format messaging only, at the reference station, when issued determines what RTCM version to use.
Note: The remote station can use either version 2.1 or 2.2 without the use of this command.
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Station
Remote
Command
rtkmode
Argument
Data
unknown_baseline (default)
known_llh_position
lat,lon,height,[2σ],[m/e]
known_ecef_baseline
∆x, ∆y, ∆z,[2σ]
RTKMODE UNKNOWN_BASELINE prevents the RTK system from using any baseline information in the initial
calculation of ambiguities. It cancels the effect of the RTKMODE KNOWN_LLH_POSITION or RTKMODE
KNOWN_ECEF_BASELINE command. It indicates to the RT-2 software that the previously entered baseline can no
longer be considered valid, usually because the antenna is starting to move.
RTKMODE KNOWN_LLH_POSITION LAT,LON,HEIGHT,[2σ],[M/E] requires the latitude, longitude and
height of the initial remote station antenna location. It can be used to initialize the RT–2 algorithms from a known
antenna position. It speeds up ambiguity resolution by indicating to the RT-2 software the exact length of the vector
between the remote and reference station antennas. It only affects the operation of an RT-2 system on baselines not
exceeding 30 km. LAT requires a decimal fraction format; a negative sign implies South latitude. LON requires a
decimal fraction format; a negative sign implies West longitude. HEIGHT (in meters) can refer either to mean sea level
(default) or to an ellipsoid. The optional 2σ defines the accuracy (2 sigma, 3 dimensional) of the input position, in
meters; it must be 0.03 m or less to cause the RT-2 algorithms to undergo a forced initialization to fixed integer
ambiguities. If no value is entered, a default value of 0.30 m is assumed; this will not cause an initialization to occur.
The optional M or E refers to the height: if “M” is entered, the height will be assumed to be above mean sea level (MSL).
Note that when an MSL height is entered, it will be converted to ellipsoidal height using the NovAtel internal undulation
table or the last value entered with the “UNDULATION” command. You may directly indicate an ellipsoidal height by
using the optional “E” flag.
Example:
rtkmode known_llh_position 51.113618,-114.04358,1059.15,0.01,e
RTKMODE KNOWN_ECEF_BASELINE ∆X,∆Y,∆Z,[2σ] can be used to initialize the RT–2 algorithms from a
known ECEF baseline. The RT-2 system uses this to initialize its ambiguities. It only affects the operation of an RT-2
system on baselines not exceeding 30 km. The ∆X,∆Y,∆Z values represent the remote station’s position minus the reference position, along each axis, in meters. The optional 2σ defines the accuracy (2 sigma, 3 dimensional) of the input
baseline, in meters; it must be 0.03 m or less to cause the RT-2 algorithms to do a forced initialization to fixed integer
ambiguities. If no value is entered, a default value of 0.30 m is assumed; this will not cause an initialization to occur.
Example:
rtkmode known_ecef_baseline 3583,2165,567,0.02
NOTE:
You must be very careful when using these last two commands; erroneous input will cause poor performance
and/or erroneous output. It is also very important to follow these command with an RTKMODE
UNKNOWN_BASELINE command before any motion begins.
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Station
Remote
Command
rtkmode
Argument
auto (default)
static
kinematic
RTKMODE AUTO configures the RTK system to automatically detect motion. It is the default mode. It will
reliably detect motion of 2.5 cm/sec or greater. If you are undergoing motion slower than this which covers more
than 2 cm, you should use the manual mode selection commands (static and kinematic).
RTKMODE STATIC forces the RTK software to treat the remote station as though it were stationary, regardless
of the output of the motion detector.
Note:
For reliable performance the antenna should not move more than 1 - 2 cm when in static mode.
RTKMODE KINEMATIC forces the RTK software to treat the remote station as though it were in motion,
regardless of the output of the motion detector. If the remote station is undergoing very slow steady motion (<
2.5 cm/sec for more than 5 seconds), you should declare KINEMATIC mode to prevent inaccurate results and
possible resets.
Station
Remote
Command
rtkmode
Argument
fixed (default)
float
RTKMODE FIXED tells the RTK system to use fixed discrete ambiguities whenever the system is capable and
can do so reliably; it may never do so for long baselines or poor geometries. Only RT-2 systems are capable of
fixing ambiguities, so issuing this command on an RT-20 system will have no effect.
RTKMODE FLOAT causes the system to compute only a floating ambiguity solution. L2 data will be used
along with L1 data if the system is capable of generating L2 data.
You can force the RT-2 software to not fix ambiguities when it normally would, but you cannot force it to fix
ambiguities when it normally wouldn’t.
Station
Command
Argument
Remote
rtkmode
reset
RTKMODE RESET causes the RTK algorithm (RT-20 or RT-2, whichever is active) to undergo a complete reset, forcing the system to
restart the ambiguity resolution calculations.
Station
Reference
Command
rtkmode
Argument
sv_entries
Data
number (range 4 to 20, default = 12)
RTKMODE SV_ENTRIES NUMBER causes the number of satellite measurements to be limited to the number
indicated. NUMBER refers to the number of PRNs transmitted by the reference station; each PRN can have either
an L1-only measurement or an L1/L2 pair of measurements. At this time, this command affects RTCAOBS
(RTCA Type 7) messages but not RTCM or CMR messages; if RTCM-format messaging is being used, then
observations for all visible satellites are transmitted.
Example:
rtkmode sv_entries 8
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SAVEALMA
This command saves the latest almanac in non-volatile memory.
The option ONNEW is the default; if a different setting is used, a
ONNEW will resume after a reset.
SAVECONFIG
command must be issued or else
Bit 21 in the receiver self-test status word (see Table D-5, Page 196) indicates whether the latest almanac received
by the GPS receiver is newer than the almanac saved in non-volatile memory (NVM).
Syntax:
SAVEALMA
Command
SAVEALMA
option
option
Range Values
onnew
stop
disable ➀
Description
Command
Each almanac is saved in NVM upon reception if it is newer than the one already
stored. This will occur continuously.
Stops auto saving.
Stops auto saving and prevents the use of the almanac, saved in NVM, on startup.
Default
onnew
➀The disable option must be followed by the SAVECONFIG command to have an effect.
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SAVECONFIG
This command saves the user’s present configuration in non-volatile memory.
Syntax:
SAVECONFIG
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SEND
This command is used to send ASCII printable data from the COM1 or COM2 or disk file to a specified
communications port. This is a one-time command, therefore the data message must be preceded by the SEND
command followed by the <Enter> key (<CR><LF>) each time you wish to send data. (Remember to use the
MESSAGES command to disable error reporting whenever two GPSCards are connected together via the COM ports.)
Syntax:
SEND
to-port
Syntax
SEND
to-port
data
data
Range Value
Description
Command
Port option
ASCII data
COM1, COM2
up to 100 characters
Scenario: Assume that you are operating GPSCards as reference and remote stations. It could also be assumed
that the reference station is unattended but operational and you wish to control it from the remote station. From the
remote station, you could establish the data link and command the reference station GPSCard to send differential
corrections.
Figure C-4 Using SEND Command
$PVAA data log...
COM1
send com1 log com 1
e5
pvaa ontim
COM 2
COM 1
COM 2
messages com1 off
send com1 log com1 pvaa ontime 5
Serial Cables
Host PC - Reference
(Operational with position fixed)
Host PC - Rover
Rover station is commanding Reference
to send PVAA differential logs
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SENDHEX
This command is like the SEND command but is used to send non-printable characters expressed as hexadecimal
pairs.
Syntax:
SENDHEX
to-port
data
Syntax
SENDHEX
to-port
data
Range Value
COM1, COM2
•
•
•
•
122
even number of ASCII characters from set of 0-9, A-F
spaces allowed between pairs of characters
carriage return & line feed provided by entering
ODOA at end of string
maximum number of characters limited to about 1400
characters by command interpreter buffer (2800
ASCII characters pairs)
Description
Command
Port option
ASCII data
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SETDGPSID
This command is used to enter a station ID. Once set, the receiver will only accept differential corrections from a
station whose ID matches the set station ID. It is typically used when a station has data links containing RTCM or
RTCA messages from several stations. By entering a specific station ID, the operator can select which station to
listen to. Having set a station ID, incoming, RTCM, RTCMA, RTCA, RTCAA, and RTCAB messages will be received
from only that station. When a valid station ID is entered, an improved data synchronization algorithm will be used.
It is recommended to always set the station ID. This command can also be used to set the station ID for a GPSCard
reference station. See FIX POSITION 4th parameter (station ID).
Syntax:
SETDGPSID
station ID #
SETDGPSID
all
Syntax
SETDGPSID
station ID #
Range Value
0 - 1023
Description
Command
Reference station ID number for RTCM
Default
all
or
“xxxx”
Reference station name for RTCA where ”xxxx” are four
alphanumeric characters, entered between double quotes
or
0 - 31
Reference station ID number for CMR
or
all
Example 1:
SETDGPSID 1023
Example 2:
SETDGPSID “abcd”
Accepts differential corrections from any station
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SETHEALTH
This command permits you the flexibility to override the broadcast health of a satellite. Under certain conditions
and applications, it may be desirable to track and use information from a GPS satellite even though its health has
been set bad by the GPS control segment. To SETHEALTH for more than one satellite, the command must be re-issued
for each satellite.
IMPORTANT: There is usually a reason when the GPS Control Segment sets a satellite to bad health
condition. If you decide to ignore the health warnings and use the satellite information, UNPREDICTABLE
ERRORS MAY OCCUR.
Syntax:
SETHEALTH prn
Syntax
SETHEALTH
prn
health
health
Range Value
1 - 32
good or bad
Description
Default
Command
A satellite PRN integer number
Desired health;
resethealthall
Example:
sethealth 4,good
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SETL1OFFSET
The characteristic signal delays introduced by the antenna, coaxial cable and GPSCard RF section will vary from
one system configuration to another. These delays are measurable using external test equipment. For applications
which involve very precise time transfer, or where ranges are used from multiple receivers, it may be necessary to
add an offset to the L1 pseudorange to compensate for these delays. This is equivalent to a system calibration in
that it corrects for inter-receiver range bias.
It does not affect the output position, and it is unrelated to data latencies.
NOTE:
This feature is to be used by advanced users only.
Its intended application is for use in multi-card systems, in which case the clocks on the different
GPSCards must be synchronized. The command is not necessary for most applications.
Syntax:
SETL1OFFSET
distance
Command
Range Values
SETL1OFFSET
distance
-10 to +10
Description
Pseudorange offset (m)
Example:
setl1offset 1.348693
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SETNAV
This command permits entry of one set of navigation waypoints (see Figure C-5). The origin (FROM) and
destination (TO) waypoint coordinates entered are considered on the ellipsoidal surface of the current datum
(default WGS84). Once SETNAV has been set, you can monitor the navigation calculations and progress by observing
the NAVA/B, GPRMB, and GPZTG log messages.
Track offset is the perpendicular distance from the great circle line drawn between the FROM lat-lon and TO lat-lon
waypoints. It establishes the desired navigation path, or track, that runs parallel to the great circle line, which now
becomes the offset track, and is set by entering the track offset value in meters. A negative track offset value
indicates that the offset track is to the left of the great circle line track. A positive track offset value (no sign
required) indicates the offset track is to the right of the great circle line track (looking from origin to destination).
See Figure C-5 for clarification.
Syntax:
SETNAV
from-lat
track offset
from-lon
to-lat
from-port
to-port
to-lon
SETNAV disable
Syntax
Range Value
SETNAV
from-lat
0± 90
from-lon
0± 360
to-lat
to-lon
track offset
0± 90
0± 360
0± 1000
from-port
to-port
1 to 5 characters
1 to 5 characters
Description
Command
Origin latitude in units of degrees/decimal degrees. A negative
sign implies South latitude. No sign implies North latitude.
Origin longitude in units of degrees/decimal degrees. A
negative sign implies West longitude. No sign implies East
longitude.
Destination latitude in units of degrees/decimal degrees
Destination longitude in units of degrees/decimal degrees
Waypoint great circle line offset (in kilometers); establishes
offset track; positive indicates right of great circle line; negative
indicates left of great circle line
Optional ASCII station name
Optional ASCII station name
Default
disable
Example
setnav
51.1516
-114.16263
51.16263
-114.1516
-125.23
from
to
Example:
setnav 51.1516,-114.16263,51.16263,-114.1516,-125.23,from,to
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Figure C-5 Illustration of SETNAV Parameters
Reference
Description
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
TO, lat-lon
X-Track perpendicular reference point
Current GPS position
A-Track perpendicular reference point
X-Track (cross-track)
A-Track (along track)
Distance and bearing from 3 to 1
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SETTIMESYNC
This command enables or disables time synchronization, which permits two GPSCards in a master/slave
relationship to be synchronized to a common external clock for range comparisons. By default, this function is
disabled.
With SETTIMESYNC enabled, a slave unit is able to interpret injected ($)TM1A/B data messages; for more
information, please refer to the comments relating to the ($)TM1A/B special data messages, and the 1PPS signal.
Syntax:
SETTIMESYNC
Command
SETTIMESYNC
flag
flag
Range of Values
enable or disable
Description
Enable or disable time synchronization
Default
disable
Example:
settimesync enable
NOTE:
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This command is intended for advanced users of GPS only.
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UNASSIGN
This command cancels a previously issued ASSIGN command and the channel reverts to automatic control. If a
channel has reached state 4 (PLL), the satellite being tracked will not be dropped when the UNASSIGN command is
issued, unless it is below the elevation cutoff angle, and there are healthy satellites above the ecutoff that are not
already assigned to other channels.
7
Syntax:
UNASSIGN
Syntax
UNASSIGN
channel
Example:
channel
Range Value
0 - 11
Description
Command
Reset channel to automatic search and acquisition mode
Default
unassignall
unassign 11
UNASSIGNALL
This command cancels all previously issued ASSIGN commands for all channels. Tracking and control for each
channel reverts to automatic mode. If any of the channels have reached state 4 (PLL), the satellites being tracked
will not be dropped when the UNASSIGNALL command is issued, unless they are below the elevation cutoff angle,
and there are healthy satellites above the ecutoff that are not already assigned to other channels.
Syntax:
UNASSIGNALL
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C Commands Summary
UNDULATION
This command permits you to either enter a specific geoidal undulation value or use the internal table of geoidal
undulations. The separation values only refer to the separation between the WGS84 ellipsoid and the geoid,
regardless of the datum chosen, see the PRTKA/B log in Chapter 3 and Appendix D.
Syntax:
UNDULATION
Syntax
UNDULATION
separation
separation
Range Value
Description
table
Command
Selects the internal table of undulations and ignores any previously entered value. The
internal table utilizes OSU - 89B 1.5º x ~1.5º.
or
enter a value
Default
table
A numeric entry that overrides the internal table with a value in meters.
Example 1:
undulation table
Example 2:
undulation -5.6
Please see Appendix A, A.2 Height Relationships for a description of the relationships in Figure C-6.
Figure C-6
130
Illustration of Undulation
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
C Commands Summary
UNFIX
This command removes all position constraints invoked with any of the FIX commands (FIX POSITION, FIX HEIGHT,
or FIX VELOCITY).
Syntax:
UNFIX
UNLOCKOUT
This command allows a satellite which has been previously locked out (LOCKOUT command) to be reinstated in the
solution computation. If more than one satellite is to be reinstated, this command must be reissued for each satellite
reinstatement.
Syntax:
UNLOCKOUT prn
Syntax
UNLOCKOUT
prn
Range Value
1 - 32
Description
Command
A single satellite PRN to be reinstated
Default
unlockoutall
Example:
unlockout 8
UNLOCKOUTALL
This command allows all satellites which have been previously locked out (LOCKOUT command) to be reinstated
in the solution computation.
Syntax:
UNLOCKOUTALL
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C Commands Summary
UNLOG
This command permits you to remove a specific log request from the system.
The [port] parameter is optional. If [port] is not specified, it is defaulted to the port that the command was received
on. This feature eliminates the need for you to know which port you are communicating on if you want logs to
come back on the same port you are sending commands on.
Syntax:
UNLOG
Syntax
UNLOG
[port]
datatype
[port]
datatype
Range Value
COM1, COM2
any valid log
Description
Default
Command
COMn port from which log originated
The name of the log to be disabled
unlogall
Example:
unlog com1,posa
unlog posa
UNLOGALL
If [port] is specified (COM1 or COM2) this command disables all logs on the specified port only. All other ports
are unaffected. If [port] is not specified this command disables all logs on all ports.
Syntax:
UNLOGALL [port]
NOTE:
132
This command does not disable logs that have the HOLD attribute (see description for LOG command).
To disable logs with the HOLD attribute, use the UNLOG command.
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
C Commands Summary
USERDATUM
This command permits entry of customized ellipsoidal datum parameters. Use this command in conjunction with
the DATUM command. The default setting is WGS84.
Syntax:
USERDATUM semi-major
Syntax
Range Value
USERDATUM
semi-major
min.
6300000.0
max.
6400000.0
min.
290.0
max.
305.0
min.
- 2000.0
max.
2000.0
flattening
dx,dy,dz
rx,ry,rz
min.
max.
-10
10
scale
min.
max.
-10
10
flattening
dx
dy
dz
rx
Description
ry
rz
scale
Default
Example
Command
Datum Semi-major Axis (a) in metres
6378137.000
userdatum
6378206.4
Reciprocal Flattening, 1/f = a/(a-b)
298.257223563
294.9786982
Datum offsets from WGS84 in meters:
These will be the translation values between your datum
and WGS84 (internal reference)
Datum Rotation Angle about X, Y and Z axis (sec of arc):
These values will be the rotation between your datum
and WGS84
Scale value is the difference in ppm between your datum
and WGS84
0.000,0.000,0.000
-12,147,192
0.000,0.000,0.000
0,0,0
0.000
0
Example:
userdatum 6378206.4,294.9786982,-12,147,192,0,0,0,0
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C Commands Summary
VERSION
Use this command to determine the current software version of the GPSCard. The response to the
command is logged to the port from which the command originated.
VERSION
Syntax:
VERSION
Command
VERSION
Response Syntax
Card type
Model #
S/N
HW Rev
SW Rev
Date
Example:
version
OEM-3 MILLENRT2 ESN251448497 HW 3-1 SW 4.433/2.03 Feb 18/97
com1>
134
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
C Commands Summary
WAASCORRECTION
WAAS
This command allows you to have an affect on how the card handles WAAS corrections. The card will switch
automatically to Pseudorange Differential (RTCM or RTCA) or RTK if the appropriate corrections are being
received, regardless of the current setting.
The ability to incorporate the WAAS corrections into the position solution is not the default mode. First enter the
following command to put the card in WAAS mode:
config waascorr
Note:
You cannot change GPSCard modes on the fly as the once a CONFIG command is issued the card resets
itself and start the new mode requested.
To enable the position solution corrections, you must issue the WAASCORRECTION ENABLE command.
Syntax:
WAASCORRECTION
Syntax
WAASCORRECTION
keyword
keyword
Range Value
ENABLE
DISABLE
Description
Command
- Card will use the WAAS corrections it receives.
- Card will not use the WAAS corrections that it receives.
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D Logs Summary
D
LOGS SUMMARY
D LOGS SUMMARY
LOG DESCRIPTIONS
ALMA/B Decoded Almanac
This log contains the decoded almanac parameters from subframes four and five as received from the satellite with
the parity information removed and appropriate scaling applied. Multiple messages are transmitted, one for each
SV almanac collected. The Ionospheric Model parameters (IONA) and the UTC Time parameters (UTCA) are also
provided, following the last almanac records. For more information on Almanac data, refer to the GPS SPS Signal
Specification. (See Appendix F of this manual for References.)
MiLLennium cards will automatically save almanacs in their non-volatile memory (NVM), therefore creating an
almanac boot file would not be necessary.
ALMA
Structure:
$ALMA
prn
ra
w
A
incl-angle
Mo
ecc
af0
seconds
week
rate-ra
cor-mean-motion
af1
health-4
health-5
health-alm
*xx
[CR][LF]
ALMA FORMAT
Data Description
Example
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Field #
$ALMA
prn
ecc
seconds
week
rate-ra
ra
w
Mo
Log header
Satellite PRN number for current message, dimensionless
Eccentricity, dimensionless
Almanac reference time, seconds into the week
Almanac reference week (GPS week number)
Rate of right ascension, radians
Right ascension, radians
Argument of perigee, radians
Mean anomaly, radians
$ALMA
1
3.55577E-003
32768
745
-7.8860E-009
-6.0052951E-002
-1.1824254E+000
1.67892137E+000
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
af0
af1
cor-mean-motion
A
incl-angle
health-4
health-5
health-alm
*xx
[CR][LF]
Clock aging parameter, seconds
Clock aging parameter, seconds/second
Corrected mean motion, radians/second
Semi-major axis, metres
Angle of inclination, radians
Anti-spoofing and SV config (subframe 4, page 25)
SV health, 6 bits/SV (subframe 4 or 5, page 25)
SV health, 8 bits (almanac)
Checksum
Sentence terminator
-1.8119E-005
-3.6379E-012
1.45854965E-004
2.65602281E+007
9.55576E-001
1
0
0
*20
[CR][LF]
1 - 19
$ALMA
Next satellite PRN almanac message
1 - 19
$ALMA
Last satellite PRN almanac message
1 - 11
$IONA
Ionospheric Model Parameters
1 - 11
$UTCA
UTC Time Parameters
136
Field type
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
D Logs Summary
Example:
$ALMA,1,3.55577E-003,32768,745,-7.8860E-009,-6.0052951E-002,-1.1824254E+000,
1.67892137E+000,-1.8119E-005,-3.6379E-012,1.45854965E-004,2.65602281E+007,
9.55576E-001,1,0,0*20[CR][LF]
...
$ALMA,31,4.90665E-003,32768,745,-8.0460E-009,3.05762855E+000,6.14527459E-001,
1.69958217E+000,6.67572E-006,3.63797E-012,1.45861888E-004,2.65593876E+007,
9.61664E-001,1,0,0*13[CR][LF]
IONA FORMAT
Structure:
$IONA
act
a1ot
a2ot
a3ot
bct
b1ot
b2ot
b3ot
*xx
Field #
Field type
1
2
3
4
$IONA
act
a1ot
a2ot
5
a3ot
6
7
8
bct
b1ot
b2ot
9
b3ot
10
11
*xx
[CR][LF]
[CR][LF]
Data Description
Log header
Alpha constant term, seconds
Alpha 1st order term, sec/semicircle
2
Alpha 2nd order term, sec/(semic.)
3
Alpha 3rd order term, sec/(semic.)
Beta constant term, seconds
Beta 1st order term, sec/semicircle
2
Beta 2nd order term, sec/(semic.)
3
Beta 3rd order term, sec/(semic.)
Checksum
Sentence terminator
Example
$IONA
1.0244548320770265E-008
1.4901161193847656E-008
-5.960464477539061E-008
-1.192092895507812E-007
8.8064000000000017E+004
3.2768000000000010E+004
-1.966080000000001E+005
-1.966080000000001E+005
*02
[CR][LF]
Example:
$IONA,1.0244548320770265E-008,1.4901161193847656E-008,-5.960464477539061E-008,
-1.192092895507812E-007,8.8064000000000017E+004,3.2768000000000010E+004,
-1.966080000000001E+005,-1.966080000000001E+005*02[CR][LF]
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D Logs Summary
UTCA FORMAT
Structure:
$UTCA
delta-time
Field #
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
pct
lsop
Field type
$UTCA
pct
p1ot
data-ref
wk #-utc
wk #-lset
delta-time
lsop
day #-lset
*xx
[CR][LF]
p1ot
data-ref
day #-lset
*xx
wk#-utc
wk#-lset
[CR][LF]
Data Description
Log header
Polynomial constant term, seconds
Polynomial 1st order term, seconds/second
UTC data reference time, seconds
Week number of UTC reference, weeks
Week number for leap sec effect time, weeks
Delta time due to leap sec, seconds
For use when leap sec on past, seconds
Day number for leap sec effect time, days
Checksum
Sentence terminator
Example
$UTCA
-2.235174179077148E-008
-1.243449787580175E-014
32768
745
755
9
10
5
*37
[CR][LF]
Example:
$UTCA,-2.235174179077148E-008,-1.243449787580175E-014,32768,745,755,9,10,5*37
[CR][LF]
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D Logs Summary
ALMB
ALMB FORMAT:
Message ID = 18
Field #
1
(header)
Field Type
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Sync
Checksum
Message ID
Message byte count
Satellite PRN number
Eccentricity
Almanac ref. time
Almanac ref. week
Omegadot - rate of right ascension
Right ascension
Argument of perigee
Mean anomaly
Clock aging parameter
11
Clock aging parameter
12
13
14
15
16
17
Corrected mean motion
Semi-major axis
Angle of inclination
Sv health from subframe 4, discrete
Sv health from subframe 5, discrete
Sv health from almanac, discrete
IONB FORMAT:
Field #
1
(header)
Message byte count = 120
Message ID = 16
Field Type
Bytes
Format
Units
Offset
w
Mo
af0
3
1
4
4
4
8
8
4
8
8
8
8
8
integer
double
double
integer
double
double
double
double
double
seconds
weeks
radians/second
radians
radians
radians
seconds
0
3
4
8
12
16
24
32
36
44
52
60
68
af1
8
double
seconds/second
76
8
8
8
4
4
4
double
double
double
integer
integer
integer
radians/second
meters
radians
84
92
100
108
112
116
A
Message byte count = 76
Bytes
Format
2
3
4
Sync
Checksum
Message ID
Message byte count
Alpha constant term
Alpha 1st order term
Alpha 2nd order term
3
1
4
4
8
8
8
char
char
integer
integer
double
double
double
5
Alpha 3rd order term
8
double
6
7
8
Beta constant term
Beta 1st order term
Beta 2nd order term
8
8
8
double
double
double
9
Beta 3rd order term
8
double
Units
seconds
sec/semicircle
2
sec/(semic.)
3
sec/(semic.)
seconds
sec/semic
2
sec/(semic.)
3
sec/(semic.)
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
Offset
0
3
4
8
12
20
28
36
44
52
60
68
139
D Logs Summary
UTCB FORMAT:
Field #
1
(header)
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
140
Message ID = 17
Field Type
Sync
Checksum
Message ID
Message byte count
Polynomial constant term
Polynomial 1st order term
UTC data reference time
Week number UTC reference
Week number for leap sec effect time
Delta time due to leap sec
For use when leap sec on past
Day number for leap sec effect time
Message Byte Count = 52
Bytes
3
1
4
4
8
8
4
4
4
4
4
4
Format
char
char
integer
integer
double
double
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
Units
seconds
seconds/second
seconds
weeks
weeks
seconds
seconds
days
Offset
0
3
4
8
12
20
28
32
36
40
44
48
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
D Logs Summary
BSLA/B Baseline Measurement RTK
This log contains the most recent matched baseline representing the vector from the reference station receiver to
the remote station receiver. It is expressed in ECEF coordinates with corresponding uncertainties along each axis,
and a time tag. The estimated variance of the baseline in ECEF XYZ coordinates is the same as the XYZ position
variance.
It is recommended that you use the trigger ‘on changed’ which will log the selected data only when the data has
changed.
BSLA
Structure:
$BSLA
∆x
week
∆y
seconds
∆z
rtk status
Field #
posn type
Field type
1
2
3
4
5
$BSLA
week
seconds
#sv
#high
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
L1L2 # high
∆x
∆y
∆z
∆x σ
∆y σ
∆z σ
soln status
rtk status
posn type
stn ID
*xx
[CR][LF]
∆x σ
#sv
#high
L1L2 #high
∆y σ
∆z σ
soln status
stn ID
*xx
[CR][LF]
Data Description
Log header
GPS week number
GPS time into the week (in seconds)
Number of matched satellites; may differ from the number in view.
Number of matched satellites above RTK mask angle; observations from satellites
below mask are heavily de-weighted.
Number of matched satellites above RTK mask angle with both L1 and L2 available
ECEF X baseline component (remote stn. - reference stn.); in meters
ECEF Y baseline component (remote stn. - reference stn.); in meters
ECEF Z baseline component (remote stn. - reference stn.); in meters
Standard deviation of ∆x solution element; in meters
Standard deviation of ∆y solution element; in meters
Standard deviation of ∆z solution element; in meters
Solution status (see Table D-1)
RTK status (see Tables D-3, D-4)
Position type (see Table D-2)
Reference station identification (RTCM: 0 - 1023, or RTCA: 266305 - 15179385)
Checksum
Sentence terminator
Example
$BSLA
872
174962.00
8
7
7
-1.346
-3.114
-2.517
0.005
0.004
0.005
0
0
4
119
*36
[CR][LF]
Example:
$BSLA,872,174962.00,8,7,7,-1.346,-3.114,
-2.517,0.005,0.004,0.005,0,0,4,119*36[CR][LF]
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D Logs Summary
BSLB
Format:
Message ID = 59
Message byte count = 100
Field #
1
(header)
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Data
Bytes
Sync
Checksum
Message ID
Message byte count
Week number
GPS time into the week
Number of matched satellites (00-12)
Number of matched satellites above RTK mask
angle
Number of matched satellites above RTK mask
angle with both L1 and L2 available
ECEF X baseline
ECEF Y baseline
ECEF Z baseline
Standard deviation of X baseline
Standard deviation of Y baseline
Standard deviation of Z baseline
Solution status (see Table D-1)
RTK status (see Tables D-3, D-4)
Position type (see Table D-2)
Reference station identification (RTCM: 0 - 1023, or
RTCA: 266305 - 15179385)
Format
3
1
4
4
4
8
4
4
char
char
integer
integer
integer
double
integer
integer
4
integer
8
8
8
8
8
8
4
4
4
4
double
double
double
double
double
double
integer
integer
integer
integer
Units
weeks
seconds
Offset
0
3
4
8
12
16
24
28
32
meters
meters
meters
meters
meters
meters
36
44
52
60
68
76
84
88
92
96
Table D-1 GPSCard Solution Status
Value
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Description
Solution computed
Insufficient observations
No convergence
Singular ATPA Matrix
Covariance trace exceeds maximum (trace > 1000 m)
Test distance exceeded (maximum of 3 rejections if distance > 10 km)
Not yet converged from cold start
Height or velocity limit exceeded. (In accordance with COCOM export
licensing restrictions)
Higher numbers are reserved for future use
142
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D Logs Summary
Table D-2 Position Type
Type
0
1
2
3
4
5
Definition
No position
Single point position
Differential pseudorange position
RT-20 position
RT-2 position
WAAS position solution
Higher numbers are reserved for future use
Table D-3 RTK Status for Position Type 3 (RT-20)
Status
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Definition
Floating ambiguity solution (converged)
Floating ambiguity solution (not yet converged)
Modeling reference phase
Insufficient observations
Variance exceeds limit
Residuals too big
Delta position too big
Negative variance
RTK position not computed
Higher numbers are reserved for future use
Table D-4 RTK Status for Position Type 4 (RT-2)
Status
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Definition
Narrow lane solution
Wide lane derived solution
Floating ambiguity solution (converged)
Floating ambiguity solution (not yet converged)
Modeling reference phase
Insufficient observations
Variance exceeds limit
Residuals too big
Delta position too big
Negative variance
RTK position not computed
Narrow lane solution - high standard deviation
Widelane solution - high standard deviation
Higher numbers are reserved for future use
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
143
D Logs Summary
CDSA/B Communication and Differential Decode Status
The GPSCard maintains a running count of a variety of status indicators of the data link. This log outputs a report
of those indicators.
Parity and framing errors will occur if poor transmission lines are encountered or if there is an incompatibility in
the data protocol. If errors occur, you may need to confirm the bit rate, number of data bits, number of stop bits and
parity of both the transmit and receiving ends. Overrun errors will occur if more characters are sent to the UART
than can be removed by the on-board microprocessor.
CDSA
Structure
$cdsa
week
seconds
xon1
csts1
parity1
overrun1
framing1
rx1
tx1
xon2
cts2
parity2
overrun2
framing2
rx2
rtca
crc
rtcaa
fail
rtca
good
rtcm
par
rtcma
fail
rtcm
good
dcsb
fail
dcsb
good
cmr
fail
cmr
good
res’d
*xx
Field #
144
Field
type
dcsa
fail
tx2
dsca
good
[CR][LF]
Data Description
Example
1
$CDSA
Log header
$CDSA
2
week
GPS week number
3
seconds
GPS seconds into the week
4
xon1
Flag to indicate that the com1 is using XON/XOFF handshaking protocol and port has received an
xoff and will wait for an xon before sending any more data.
0
5
cts1
Flag to indicate that com1 is using CTS/RTS handshake protocol and cts line port has been
asserted. The port will wait for the line to de-assert before sending any more data.
0
6
parity1
The number of character parity errors from the UART of COM1
0
7
overrun1
The number of UART buffer overrun errors of COM1
0
8
framing1
The number of character framing errors from the UART of COM1
0
787
500227
9
rx1
The number of the characters received from COM1
0
10
tx1
The number of the characters sent out to COM1
9
11
xon2
Flag to indicate that COM2 is using XON/XOFF handshaking protocol and port has received an
xoff and will wait for an xon before sending any more data.
0
12
cts2
Flag to indicate that COM2 is using CTS/RTS handshake protocol and cts line port has been
asserted. The Port will wait for the line to de-assert before sending any more data.
0
13
parity2
The number of character parity errors from the UART of COM2
0
14
overrun2
The number of UART buffer overrun errors of COM2
0
15
framing2
The number of character framing errors from the UART of COM2
0
16
rx2
The number of characters received from COM2
0
17
tx2
The number of characters sent out to COM2
9
18
rtcacrc
The number of RTCA CRC failures
0
19
rtcaafail
The number of invalid ASCII $RTCA,....,*xx records indicating that the ASCII checksum “xx” failed.
0
20
rtcagood
The number of RTCA records that pass error checking
0
21
rtcmpar
The number of 30 bit RTCM parity failures
0
22
rtcmafail
The number of invalid ASCII $RTCM,....,*xx records indicating that the ASCII checksum “xx”
failed.
0
23
rtcmgood
The number of RTCM records that pass error checking
0
24
dcsafail
DCSA is now obsolete.
0
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
D Logs Summary
Field #
Field
type
25
dcsagood
DCSA is now obsolete.
0
26
dcsbfail
DCSB is now obsolete.
0
27
dcsbgood
DCSB is now obsolete.
0
28
cmrfail
The number of CMR messages which have failed error checking
0
29
cmrgood
The number of good CMR messages received
0
30
res’d
Reserved for future use
31
*xx
Checksum
32
[CR][LF]
Sentence terminator
Data Description
Example
0
*33
[CR][LF]
Example:
$CDSA,787,500227,0,0,0,0,0,0,9,0,0,0,0,0,0,9,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0*33[CR][LF]
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
145
D Logs Summary
CDSB
Format:
Message ID = 39
Field #
Message byte count = 128
Data
Bytes
Format
Units
Offset
1
Sync
3
char
0
(header)
Checksum
1
char
3
Message ID
4
integer
4
Message byte count
4
integer
8
2
Week number
4
integer
weeks
12
3
Time of week
4
integer
seconds
16
4
Xon COM1
4
integer
20
5
CTS COM1
4
integer
24
6
Parity errors COM1
4
integer
28
7
Overrun errors COM1
4
integer
32
8
Framing error COM1
4
integer
36
9
Bytes received in COM1
4
integer
40
10
Bytes sent out COM1
4
integer
44
11
Xon COM2
4
integer
48
12
CTS COM2
4
integer
52
13
Parity errors COM2
4
integer
56
14
Overrun errors COM2
4
integer
60
15
Framing error COM2
4
integer
64
16
Bytes received in COM2
4
integer
68
17
Bytes sent out COM2
4
integer
72
18
RTCA CRC fails
4
integer
76
19
RTCAA checksum fails
4
integer
80
20
RTCA records passed
4
integer
84
21
RTCM parity fails
4
integer
88
22
RTCMA checksum fails
4
integer
92
23
RTCM records passed
4
integer
96
24
DCSA checksum
4
integer
100
25
DCSA records passed
4
integer
104
26
DCSB checksum fails
4
integer
108
27
DCSB records passed
4
integer
112
28
Reserved
4
integer
116
29
Reserved
4
integer
120
30
Reserved
4
integer
124
146
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
D Logs Summary
CLKA/B Receiver Clock Offset Data
This record is used to monitor the state of the receiver time. Its value will depend on the CLOCKADJUST command.
If CLOCKADJUST is enabled, then the offset and drift times will approach zero. If not enabled, then the offset will
grow at the oscillator drift rate. Disabling CLOCKADJUST and monitoring the CLKA/B log will allow you to
determine the error in your GPSCard receiver reference oscillator as compared to the GPS satellite reference.
All logs report GPS time not corrected for local receiver clock error. To derive the closest GPS time one must subtract
the clock offset shown in the CLKA log (field 4) from GPS time reported.
The internal units of the new clock model’s three states (offset, drift and GM state) are meters, meters per second,
and meters. When scaled to time units for the output log, these become seconds, seconds per second, and seconds,
respectively. Note that the old units of the third clock state (drift rate) are seconds per second per second.
CLKA
Structure:
$CLKA
week
drift std
Field #
seconds
cm status
Field type
1
2
3
4
$CLKA
week
seconds
offset
5
drift
6
SA G-M state
7
8
9
offset std
drift std
cm status
10
11
*xx
[CR][LF]
offset
*xx
drift
SA G-M state
offset std
[CR][LF]
Data Description
Log header
GPS week number
GPS seconds into the week
Receiver clock offset, in seconds. A positive offset implies that the
receiver clock is ahead of GPS Time. To derive GPS time, use the
following formula:
GPS time = receiver time - (offset)
Receiver clock drift, in seconds per second. A positive drift implies that
the receiver clock is running faster than GPS Time.
This field contains the output value of the Gauss-Markov Selective
Availability clock dither estimator, in units of seconds. The value reflects
both the collective SA-induced short-term drift of the satellite clocks as
well as any range bias discontinuities that would normally affect the clock
model’s offset and drift states.
Standard deviation of receiver clock offset, in seconds
Standard deviation of receiver drift, in seconds per second
Receiver Clock Model Status where 0 is valid and values from -20 to -1
imply that the model is in the process of stabilization
Checksum
Sentence terminator
Example
$CLKA
637
511323.00
-4.628358547E-003
-2.239751396E-007
2.061788299E-006
5.369997167E-008
4.449097711E-009
0
*7F
[CR][LF]
Example
$CLKA,841,499296.00,9.521895494E-008,-2.69065747E-008,2.061788299E-006,
9.642598169E-008,8.685638908E-010,0*4F
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
147
D Logs Summary
CLKB
Format:
Field #
1
(header)
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
148
Message ID = 02
Message byte count = 68
Field Type
Bytes
Sync
Checksum
Message ID
Message byte count
Week number
Seconds of week
Clock offset
Clock drift
SA Gauss-Markov state
StdDev clock offset
StdDev clock drift
Clock model status
3
1
4
4
4
8
8
8
8
8
8
4
Format
char
char
integer
integer
integer
double
double
double
double
double
double
integer
Units
weeks
seconds
seconds
seconds per second
seconds
seconds
seconds per second
Offset
0
3
4
8
12
16
24
32
40
48
56
64
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
D Logs Summary
CLMA/B Receiver Clock Model
The CLMA and CLMB logs contain the current clock-model matrices of the GPSCard. These logs can be both
generated and received by a GPSCard.
NOTE:
Only advanced users should seek to alter the clock model parameters of a GPSCard.
Throughout the following, these symbols are used:
B=
range bias (m)
BR = range bias rate (m/s)
SAB = Gauss-Markov process representing range bias error due to SA clock dither (m)
For further information, please refer to the documentation given for the clka/b log.
The standard clock model now used is as follows:
clock parameters array = [ B
BR
SAB]
covariance matrix =
2
σ
B
σ σ
BR B
σ σ
B BR
2
σ
BR
σ σ
B SAB
σ
σ
SAB B
σ σ
BR SAB
2
σ
σ
σ
SAB BR
SAB
seconds
status
reject
covariance
clock bias
constellation change
CLMA
Structure:
$CLMA
week
parameters
Field #
Field type
1
2
3
4
$CLMA
week
seconds
status
5
reject
6
noise time
7
update
8 - 10
11 - 19
parameters
covariance
20
21
clock bias
constellation change
22
23
*xx
[CR][LF]
noise time
Data Description
Log header
GPS week number
GPS seconds into the week
Status of clock model (0 = good; -1 to 20 = bad)
Number of rejected range bias
measurements (max. = 5)
GPS time of last estimate (seconds)
- since Jan. 3, 1980 GPS time of last update (seconds)
- since Jan. 3, 1980 Parameters array (1 x 3 = 3 elements)
Covariance matrix (3x3 = 9 elements),
listed left-to-right by rows
last instantaneous clock bias
indicates constellation change
occured
Checksum
Sentence terminator
update
*xx
[CR][LF]
Example
$CLMA
1010
142281.00
0
0
6.109902810E+008
6.109902810E+008
3.004851569E+000,-7.09478374E-002,1.072025038E-001
9.018176231E+002,6.665159580E+000,
-8.93243326E+002,6.665159580E+000,6.071800102E-001,
-6.28582548E+000,-8.93243326E+002,
-6.28582548E+000,8.939683016E+002
3.173387141E+000
0
*70
[CR][LF]
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
149
D Logs Summary
Example:
$CLMA,1010,142281.00,0,0,6.109902810E+008,6.109902810E+008,3.0048
51569E+000,-7.09478374E-002,1.072025038E001,9.018176231E+002,6.665159580E+000,8.93243326E+002,6.665159580E+000,6.071800102E-001,6.28582548E+000,-8.93243326E+002,6.28582548E+000,8.939683016E+002,3.173387141E+000,0*70[CR][LF]
CLMB
Format:
Field #
1
(header)
2
3
4
5
6
7
8 - 10
11 - 19
20
21
150
Message ID = 51
Message byte count = 156
Field Type
Bytes
Format
Sync
Checksum
Message ID
Message byte count
week number
seconds of week
Status of clock model (figure of quality)
Number of rejected observations
GPS time of last estimate
GPS time of last update
Parameters array (1x3 = 3 elements)
Covariance matrix (3x3 = 9 elements),
listed left-to-right by rows
3
1
4
4
4
8
4
4
8
8
3x8
9x8
char
char
integer
integer
integer
double
integer
integer
double
double
double
double
last instantaneous clock bias
boolean flag indicating a constellation
change occured
8
4
double
integer
Units
bytes
weeks
seconds
0 = good; -1 to -20 = bad
observations
seconds
seconds
[m
m/s
m]
[ m2
m2/s m2
2
m /s m2/s2 m2/s
m2
m2/s m2 ]
seconds
0 = no change, 1 =
change
Offset
0
3
4
8
12
16
24
28
32
40
48
72
144
152
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
D Logs Summary
CMR Standard Logs
The Compact Measurement Record (CMR) Format, a standard communications protocol used in Real-Time
Kinematic (RTK) systems to transfer GPS carrier phase and code observations from a reference station to one or
more rover stations.
See Chapter 4 for more information on CMR standard logs.
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
151
D Logs Summary
COM1A/B and COM2A/B Pass-Through Logs
There are two pass-through logs COM1A/B and COM2A/B, available on MiLLennium GPSCards.
The pass-through logging feature enables the GPSCard to redirect any ASCII or binary data that is input at a
specified port (COM1 or COM2) to any specified GPSCard port (COM1 or COM2). This capability, in conjunction with
the SEND command, can allow the GPSCard to perform bi-directional communications with other devices such as
a modem, terminal, or another GPSCard.
Please see Chapter 3 for more information.
152
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
D Logs Summary
DOPA/B Dilution of Precision
The dilution of precision data is calculated using the geometry of only those satellites that are currently being
tracked and used in the position solution by the GPSCard and updated once every 60 seconds or whenever a change
in the constellation occurs. Therefore, the total number of data fields output by the log is variable, depending on
the number of SVs tracking. Twelve is the maximum number of SV PRNs contained in the list.
NOTE:
If a satellite is locked out using the LOCKOUT command, it will still be shown in the PRN list, but is
significantly deweighted in the DOP calculation.
DOPA
Structure:
$DOPA
week
prn list
Field #
seconds
*xx
gdop
pdop
htdop
hdop
tdop
# sats
[CR][LF]
Field type
Data Description
Example
$DOPA
637
512473.00
2.9644
# sats
prn list
Log header
GPS week number
GPS seconds into the week
Geometric dilution of precision - assumes 3-D position and receiver clock offset (all
4 parameters) are unknown
Position dilution of precision - assumes 3-D position is unknown and receiver clock
offset is known
Horizontal position and time dilution of precision.
Horizontal dilution of precision.
Time dilution of precision - assumes 3-D position is known and only receiver clock
offset is unknown
Number of satellites used in position solution (0-12)
PRN list of SV PRNs tracking (1-32), null field until first position solution available
*xx
[CR][LF]
Checksum
Sentence terminator
1
2
3
4
$DOPA
week
seconds
gdop
5
pdop
6
7
8
htdop
hdop
tdop
9
10...
variable
variable
2.5639
2.0200
1.3662
1.4880
6
18,6,11,2,16,
19
*29
[CR][LF]
Example:
$DOPA,637,512473.00,2.9644,2.5639,2.0200,1.3662,1.4880,6,18,6,11,2,16,19
*29[CR][LF]
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
153
D Logs Summary
DOPB
Format:
Field #
1
(header)
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11...
154
Message ID = 07
Data
Message byte count = 68+(sats*4)
Bytes
Format
Sync
3
char
Checksum
1
char
Message ID
4
integer
Message byte count
4
integer
Week number
4
integer
Seconds of week
8
double
gdop
8
double
pdop
8
double
htdop
8
double
hdop
8
double
tdop
8
double
Number of satellites used
4
integer
1st PRN
4
integer
Next satellite PRN
Offset = 68 + (sats*4) where sats = 0 to (number of sats-1)
Units
weeks
seconds
Offset
0
3
4
8
12
16
24
32
40
48
56
64
68
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
D Logs Summary
ETSA/B Extended Tracking Status
These logs provide channel tracking status information for each of the GPSCard parallel channels.
NOTE:
This log is intended for status display only; since some of the data elements are not synchronized
together, they are not to be used for measurement data. Please use the RGEA/B/D, SATA/B, and
SVDA/B logs to obtain synchronized data for post processing analysis.
If both the L1 and L2 signals are being tracked for a given PRN, two entries with the same PRN will appear in the
tracking status logs. As shown in Table D-5 Receiver Self Test Status Codes these entries can be differentiated by
bit 19, which is set if there are multiple observables for a given PRN, and bit 20, which denotes whether the
observation is for L1 or L2. This is to aid in parsing the data.
ETSA
Structure:
$ETSA
prn
sol status
# obs
week
seconds
ch-tr-status
dopp
C/No
residual
locktime
psr
reject code
ch-tr-status
dopp
C/No
residual
locktime
psr
reject code
:
prn
*xx
[CR][LF]
Field #
Field type
1
2
3
$ETSA
week
seconds
4
5
6
7
sol status
# obs
prn
ch-tr-status
8
9
10
11
12
dopp
C/No
residual
locktime
psr
13
reject code
14-21
..
94-101
102
103
.
..
..
..
*xx
[CR][LF]
Data Description
Example
Log header
GPS week number
GPS seconds into the week (receiver time, not corrected for clock
error, CLOCKADJUST enabled)
Solution status (see Table D-1, , Page 142)
Number of observations to follow
Satellite PRN number (1-32) (channel 0)
Hexadecimal number indicating channel tracking status (See Table
D-7, Page 201)
Instantaneous carrier Doppler frequency (Hz)
Carrier to noise density ratio (dB-Hz)
Residual from position filter (m)
Number of seconds of continuous tracking (no cycle slips)
Pseudorange measurement (m)
$ETSA
850
332087.00
Indicates whether the range is valid (code = 0) or not (see Table D11, Page 213)
Next PRN #,ch-tr-status,dopp,C/No,residual,locktime,psr,reject code
..
Last PRN #,ch-tr-status,dopp,C/No,residual,locktime,psr,reject code
Checksum
Sentence terminator
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
0
24
7
00082E04
-613.5
54.682
27.617
12301.4
20257359.5
7
0
*19
[CR][LF]
155
D Logs Summary
Example (carriage returns have been added between observations for clarity):
$ETSA,850,332087.00,0,24,
7,00082E04,-613.5,54.682,27.617,12301.4,20257359.57,0,
7,00582E0B,-478.1,46.388,0.000,11892.0,20257351.96,13,
5,00082E14,3311.2,35.915,1.037,1224.4,24412632.47,0,
5,00582E1B,2580.4,39.563,0.000,1186.7,24412629.40,13,
9,00082E24,1183.1,53.294,-29.857,7283.8,21498303.67,0,
9,00582E2B,921.9,44.422,0.000,7250.2,21498297.13,13,
2,00082E34,-2405.2,50.824,-20.985,19223.6,22047005.47,0,
2,00582E3B,-1874.1,41.918,0.000,19186.7,22046999.44,13,
4,00082E44,3302.8,47.287,7.522,3648.1,22696783.36,0,
4,00582E4B,2573.6,37.341,0.000,3191.2,22696778.15,13,
14,00082E54,2132.7,41.786,-22.388,541.3,25117182.07,0,
14,00582E5B,1661.7,33.903,0.000,500.7,25117179.63,13,
26,00082E64,-3004.3,43.223,2.928,14536.2,25074382.19,0,
26,00582E6B,-2340.9,33.019,0.000,14491.7,25074378.01,13,
15,00082E74,-3037.7,43.669,0.508,12011.5,24104788.88,0,
15,00582E7B,-2367.0,34.765,0.000,11842.4,24104781.53,13,
24,00082E84,3814.0,37.081,7.511,95.7,25360032.49,0,
24,00582E8B,2972.0,24.148,0.000,5.2,25360030.13,13,
28,00082A90,-9800.9,0.000,0.000,0.0,0.00,9,
28,00382A90,-7637.0,0.000,0.000,0.0,0.00,9,
3,000822A0,-3328.3,0.000,0.000,0.0,0.00,9,
3,005828A0,-2593.5,0.000,0.000,0.0,0.00,9,
27,000822B0,-3851.7,0.000,0.000,0.0,0.00,9,
27,005828B0,-3001.7,0.000,0.000,0.0,0.00,9,*41[CR][LF]
ETSB
Format:
Field #
1
(header)
2
3
4
5
Message ID = 48
Message byte count = 32 + (n x 52) where n is number of observations
Data
Sync
Checksum
Message ID
Message byte count
Week number
Time of week
Solution status (see Table D-1, Page 142)
Bytes
Offset
4
4
integer
integer
8
8
double
double
Hz
dB-Hz
40
48
double
double
double
integer
meters
seconds
meters
56
64
72
80
8
9
10
11
12
13
14 ...
Residual
8
Locktime
8
Pseudorange
8
Rejection code (see Table D-11, Page 213) 4
Offset = 32 + (#obs x 52) where #obs varies from 0 - 23
156
Units
char
char
integer
integer
integer
double
integer
integer
Number of observations
PRN number (first observation)
Channel tracking status (See Table D-7,
Page 201)
Doppler
C/N0
6
7
Format
3
1
4
4
4
8
4
4
weeks
seconds
0
3
4
8
12
16
24
28
32
36
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
D Logs Summary
FRMA/B Framed Raw Navigation Data
This message contains the raw framed navigation data. An individual message is sent for each PRN being tracked.
The message is updated with each new frame, therefore it is best to log the data with the ‘onnew’ trigger activated.
FRMA
Structure:
$FRMA
*xx
Field #
week
seconds
prn
cstatus
# of bits
framed raw data
[CR][LF]
Field type
Data Description
Example
1
$FRMA
Log header
$FRMA
2
week
GPS week number
845
3
seconds
GPS seconds into the week
238623.412
4
prn
PRN of satellite from which data originated
120
5
cstatus
Channel Tracking Status (see Table D-7, Page 201)
80811F14
6
# of bits
Number of bits transmitted in the message. 250 for
WAAS, 300 for GPS and 85 for GLONASS.
250
7
framed raw data
One field of raw framed navigation data.
9AFE5354656C2053796E636
8726F6E69636974792020202
020202020B0029E40*3F
8
*xx
Checksum
*42
9
[CR][LF]
Sentence terminator
[CR][LF]
FRMB
Format:
Message ID = 54
Field #
Message byte count = variable
Data
Bytes
Format
Units
Offset
1
Sync
3
char
0
(header)
Checksum
1
char
3
Message ID
4
integer
4
Message byte count
4
integer
bytes
8
2
Week number
4
integer
weeks
12
3
Seconds of week
8
double
seconds
16
4
PRN number
4
integer
1-999
24
5
Channel Tracking Status (see Table D-7, Page 201)
4
integer
n/a
28
6
Number of Bits
4
integer
250 for WAAS
300 for GPS
85 for GLONASS
32
7
Data Sub-frame
variable
char
N/A
36
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
157
D Logs Summary
GGAB Global Position System Fix Data (Binary Format Only)
Time, position and fix-related data of the GPS receiver. This binary log is a replica of the NMEA GPGGA ASCII log
expressed in binary format with NovAtel header added.
Format:
Message ID = 27
Field #
Data
1
(header)
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
158
Bytes
Format
Units
Offset
Sync
Checksum
Message ID
Message byte count
UTC time of position
Latitude (DDmm.mm)
(+ is North, - is South)
Longitude (DDDmm.mm)
(+ is East, - is West)
Fix status
0
=
fix not available or invalid
1
=
GPS fix
2
=
Differential GPS fix
4
=
RTK fixed ambiguity solution
5
=
RTK floating ambiguity solution
2
9
=
WAAS
3
1
4
4
8
8
char
char
integer
integer
double
double
hhmmss.ss
degrees
0
3
4
8
12
20
8
double
degrees
28
4
integer
36
Number of satellites in use. May be different to the number in view
Horizontal dilution of precision
Antenna altitude above/below mean-sea-level (geoid)
Geoidal separation (see Figure C-6, Page 130)
4
8
8
8
8
integer
double
double
double
double
40
44
52
60
68
4
integer
Age of Differential GPS data
Differential reference station ID, 0000-1023
11
Note:
Message byte count = 80
1
meters
meters
seconds
76
1
The maximum age reported here is limited to 99 seconds.
2
An indicator of 9 has been temporarily set for WAAS. Then NMEA standard for WAAS has not been decided yet.
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
D Logs Summary
GPALM Almanac Data
This log outputs raw almanac data for each satellite PRN contained in the broadcast message. A separate record is
logged for each PRN, up to a maximum of 32 records. Following a GPSCard reboot, no records will be output until
new broadcast message data is received from a satellite. It takes a minimum of 12.5 minutes to collect a complete
almanac following GPSCard boot-up. (The almanac reported here has no relationship to the NovAtel $ALMA
almanac injection command. Following a cold start, the log will output null fields until a new almanac is collected
from a satellite.)
Structure:
$GPALM
# msg
alm ref time
omega
msg #
incl angle
long asc node
Field
PRN
Mo
GPS wk
omegadot
af1
ecc
rt axis
*xx
Structure
SV hlth
[CR][LF]
Field Description
1
2
3
4
5
$GPALM
# msg
msg #
PRN
GPS wk
6
SV hlth
7
ecc
8
alm ref time
9
incl angle
10
omegadot
11
rt axis
12
omega
13
long asc node
omega, argument of perigee
o
(OMEGA) ,longitude of ascension node
14
Mo
Mo, mean anomaly
15
af0
af0, clock parameter
16
af1
17
18
*xx
[CR][LF]
Symbol
Log header
Total number of messages logged
Current message number
Satellite PRN number, 01 to 32
GPS reference week number
SV health, bits 17-24 of each almanac page
e, eccentricity
toa, almanac reference time
(sigma)i, inclination angle
OMEGADOT, rate of right ascension
(A)1/2, root of semi-major axis
af1, clock parameter
Checksum
Sentence terminator
Example
1
x.x
x.x
xx
x.x
$GPALM
17
17
28
653
2
hh
00
3
hhhh
3EAF
3
hh
87
3
hhhh
OD68
3
hhhh
FD30
3
hhhhhh
A10CAB
3
hhhhhh
6EE732
3
hhhhhh
525880
3
hhhhhh
6DC5A8
3
hhh
009
3
hhh
005
*hh
*37
[CR][LF]
Example:
$GPALM,17,17,28,653,00,3EAF,87,0D68,FD30,A10CAB,6EE732,525880,6DC5A8,009,
005*37[CR][LF]
1
Variable length integer, 4-digits maximum from (2) most significant binary bits of Subframe 1, Word 3
reference Table 20-I, ICD-GPS-200, Rev. B, and (8) least significant bits from subframe 5, page 25, word 3
reference Table 20-I, ICD-GPS-200, Rev. B, paragraph 20.3.3.5.1.7
2
Reference paragraph 20.3.3.5.1.3, Table 20-VII and Table 20-VIII, ICD-GPS-200, Rev. B
3
Reference Table 20-VI, ICD-GPS-200, Rev. B for scaling factors and units.
To obtain copies of ICD-GPS- 200, see Appendix F, Standards and References, Page 233, for address information.
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
159
D Logs Summary
GPGGA Global Position System Fix Data
Time, position and fix-related data of the GPS receiver. The information contained in this log is also available in
the NovAtel GGAB log in binary format. This log will output all null data fields until the GPSCard has achieved
first fix.
Structure:
$GPGGA
alt
utc
lat
units
null
Field
Structure
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
$GPGGA
utc
lat
lat dir
lon
lon dir
GPS qual
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
# sats
hdop
alt
units
null
null
age
15
16
17
stn ID
*xx
[CR][LF]
lat dir
null
age
lon
lon dir
stn ID
*xx
GPS qual
hdop
[CR][LF]
Field Description
Log header
UTC time of position (hours/minutes/seconds/ decimal seconds)
Latitude (DDmm.mm)
Latitude direction (N = North, S = South)
Longitude (DDDmm.mm)
Longitude direction (E = East, W = West)
GPS Quality indicator
0=
fix not available or invalid
1=
GPS fix
2=
Differential GPS fix
4=
RTK fixed ambiguity solution
5=
RTK floating ambiguity solution
2
9=
WAAS
Number of satellites in use (00-12). May be different to the number in view
Horizontal dilution of precision
Antenna altitude above/below mean sea level (geoid)
Units of antenna altitude (M = meters)
(This field not available on GPSCards)
(This field not available on GPSCards)
Age of Differential GPS data (in seconds)
Differential reference station ID, 0000-1023
Checksum
Sentence terminator
# sats
1
Symbol
Example
hhmmss.ss
llll.ll
a
yyyyy.yy
a
x
$GPGGA
220147.50
5106.7194489
N
11402.3589020
W
1
xx
x.x
x.x
M
xx
xxxx
*hh
08
0.9
1080.406
M
,,
,,
,,
,,
*48
[CR][LF]
1
The maximum age reported here is limited to 99 seconds.
2
An indicator of 9 has been temporarily set for WAAS. Then NMEA standard for WAAS has not been decided yet.
Example:
$GPGGA,220147.50,5106.7194489,N,11402.3589020,W,1,08,0.9,1080.406,M,,,,
*48[CR][LF]
160
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
D Logs Summary
GPGLL Geographic Position
Latitude and longitude of present vessel position, time of position fix, and status. This log will output all null data
fields until the GPSCard has achieved first fix.
Structure:
$GPGLL
Field
lat
lat dir
Structure
1
2
3
4
5
6
$GPGLL
lat
lat dir
lon
lon dir
utc
7
8
9
data status
*xx
[CR][LF]
lon
lon dir
utc
data status
Field Description
Log header
Latitude (DDmm.mm)
Latitude direction (N = North, S = South)
Longitude (DDDmm.mm)
Longitude direction (E = East, W = West)
UTC time of position (hours/minutes/seconds/decimal
seconds)
Data status: A = Data valid, V = Data invalid
Checksum
Sentence terminator
*xx
Symbol
llll.ll
a
yyyyy.yy
a
hhmmss.ss
A
*hh
[CR][LF]
Example
$GPGLL
5106.7198674
N
11402.3587526
W
220152.50
A
*1B
[CR][LF]
Example:
$GPGLL,5106.7198674,N,11402.3587526,W,220152.50,A*1B[CR][LF]
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
161
D Logs Summary
GPGRS GPS Range Residuals for Each Satellite
Range residuals can be computed in two ways, and this log reports those residuals. Under mode 0, residuals output
in this log are used to update the position solution output in the GPGGA message. Under mode 1, the residuals are
re-computed after the position solution in the GPGGA message is computed. The GPSCard computes range residuals
in mode 1. An integrity process using GPGRS would also require GPGGA (for position fix data), GPGSA (for DOP
figures), and GPGSV (for PRN numbers) for comparative purposes.
Structure:
$GPGRS
utc
mode
res
res
res
res
*xx
[CR][LF]
Field
Structure
1
2
3
$GPGRS
utc
mode
4 - 15
res
16
17
*xx
[CR][LF]
res
res
res
res
res
Field Description
Log header
UTC time of position (hours/minutes/seconds/ decimal seconds)
Mode 0 =residuals were used to calculate the position given in
the matching GGA line (apriori) (not used by GPSCard)
Mode 1 =residuals were recomputed after the GGA position was
computed (preferred mode)
Range residuals for satellites used in the navigation solution.
Order matches order of PRN numbers in GPGSA.
Checksum
Sentence terminator
res
res
Symbol
hhmmss.ss
x
x.x,x.x,.....
*hh
res
Example
$GPGRS
192911.0
1
-13.8,-1.9,11.4,-33.6,0.9,
6.9,-12.6,0.3,0.6, -22.3
*65
[CR][LF]
Example:
$GPGRS,192911.0,1,-13.8,-1.9,11.4,-33.6,0.9,6.9,-12.6,0.3,0.6,-22.3,,
*65[CR][LF]
NOTE:
162
If the range residual exceeds ± 99.9, then the decimal part will be dropped. Maximum value for this
field is ± 999. The sign of the range residual is determined by the order of parameters used in the
calculation as follows:
range residual = calculated range - measured range
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
D Logs Summary
GPGSA GPS DOP and Active Satellites
GPS
receiver operating mode, satellites used for navigation and DOP values.
Structure:
$GPGSA
mode MA
prn
prn
prn
pdop
hdop
vdop
Field
Structure
1
2
$GPGSA
mode MA
3
4 - 15
mode 123
prn
16
17
18
19
20
pdop
hdop
vdop
*xx
[CR][LF]
mode 123
prn
*xx
prn
prn
prn
prn
prn
prn
prn
prn
[CR][LF]
Field Description
Log header
A = Automatic 2D/3D (not used by GPSCard) M = Manual, forced to
operate in 2D or 3D
Mode: 1 = Fix not available; 2 = 2D; 3 = 3D
PRN numbers of satellites used in solution (null for unused fields), total
of 12 fields
Position dilution of precision
Horizontal position and time dilution of precision
Vertical dilution of precision
Checksum
Sentence terminator
Symbol
M
x
xx,xx,.....
x.x
x.x
x.x
*hh
Example
$GPGSA
M
3
18,03,13,25,16,
24,12,20,,,,
1.5
0.9
1.2
*3F
[CR][LF]
Example:
$GPGSA,M,3,18,03,13,25,16,24,12,20,,,,,1.5,0.9,1.2*3F[CR][LF]
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
163
D Logs Summary
GPGST Pseudorange Measurement Noise Statistics
Pseudorange measurement noise statistics are translated in the position domain in order to give statistical measures
of the quality of the position solution.
Structure:
$GPGST
orient
Field
utc
rms
lat std
Structure
1
2
3
$GPGST
utc
rms
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
smjr std
smnr std
orient
lat std
lon std
alt std
*xx
[CR][LF]
smjr std
smnr std
lon std
alt std
*xx
[CR][LF]
Field Description
Log header
UTC time of position (hours/minutes/seconds/ decimal seconds)
RMS value of the standard deviation of the range inputs to the
navigation process. Range inputs include pseudoranges and DGPS
corrections.
Standard deviation of semi-major axis of error ellipse (meters)
Standard deviation of semi-minor axis of error ellipse (meters)
Orientation of semi-major axis of error ellipse (degrees from true north)
Standard deviation of latitude error (meters)
Standard deviation of longitude error (meters)
Standard deviation of altitude error (meters)
Checksum
Sentence terminator
Symbol
Example
hhmmss.ss
x.x
$GPGST
192911.0
28.7
x.x
x.x
x.x
x.x
x.x
x.x
*hh
21.6
12.0
20.4
20.7
13.6
11.9
*51
[CR][LF]
Example:
$GPGST,192911.0,28.7,21.6,12.0,20.4,20.7,13.6,11.9*51[CR][LF]
164
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
D Logs Summary
GPGSV GPS Satellites in View
Number of SVs in view, PRN numbers, elevation, azimuth and SNR value. Four satellites maximum per message.
When required, additional satellite data sent in second or third message. Total number of messages being
transmitted and the current message being transmitted are indicated in the first two fields.
NOTE 1: Satellite information may require the transmission of multiple messages. The first field specifies the
total number of messages, minimum value 1. The second field identifies the order of this message
(message number), minimum value 1.
NOTE 2: A variable number of ’PRN-Elevation-Azimuth-SNR’ sets are allowed up to a maximum of four sets per
message. Null fields are not required for unused sets when less than four sets are transmitted.
NOTE 3:
GPGSV
logs will not output until time of first fix.
Structure:
$GPGSV
prn
# msg
msg #
# sats
elev
azimuth
SNR
prn
elev
azimuth
SNR
*xx
[CR][LF]
:
Field
Structure
Field Description
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
$GPGSV
# msg
msg #
# sats
prn
elev
azimuth
SNR
Log header
Total number of messages, 1 to 3
Message number, 1 to 3
Total number of satellites in view
Satellite PRN number
Elevation, degrees, 90¡ maximum
Azimuth, degrees True, 000 to 359
SNR (C/N0) 00-99 dB, null when not tracking
...
...
...
variable
variable
...
...
...
*xx
[CR][LF]
Next satellite PRN number, elev, azimuth, SNR,
...
Last satellite PRN number, elev, azimuth, SNr,
Checksum
Sentence terminator
Symbol
x
x
xx
xx
xx
xxx
xx
*hh
Example
$GPGSV
3
1
09
03
51
140
42
*72
[CR][LF]
Example:
$GPGSV,3,1,09,03,51,140,42,16,02,056,40,17,78,080,42,21,25,234,00*72[CR][LF]
$GPGSV,3,2,09,22,19,260,00,23,59,226,00,26,45,084,39,27,07,017,39*78[CR][LF]
$GPGSV,3,3,09,28,29,311,44*42[CR][LF]
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
165
D Logs Summary
GPRMB Navigation Information
Navigation data from present position to a destination waypoint. The destination is set active by the GPSCard
SETNAV command. If SETNAV has been set, a command to log either GPRMB or GPRMC will cause both logs to output
data.
Structure:
$GPRMB
data status
dest ID
dest lat
lat dir
range
bearing
vel
Field
xtrack
dir
dest lon
arr status
Structure
origin ID
lon dir
*xx
[CR][LF]
Field Description
1
2
3
$GPRMB
data status
xtrack
Log header
Data status: A = data valid; V = navigation receiver warning
4
dir
Direction to steer to get back on track (L/R)
5
origin ID
Origin waypoint ID
6
dest ID
Destination waypoint ID
7
dest lat
Destination waypoint latitude (DDmm.mm
8
lat dir
Latitude direction (N = North, S = South)
9
dest lon
Destination waypoint longitude (DDDmm.mm)
10
lon dir
Longitude direction (E = East, W = West)
11
range
Range to destination, nautical miles
12
13
14
bearing
vel
arr status
15
16
*xx
[CR][LF]
Bearing to destination, degrees True
Destination closing velocity, knots
Arrival status: A = perpendicular passed
V = destination not reached or passed
Checksum
Sentence terminator
Cross track error
1
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
Symbol
Example
A
x.x
$GPRMB
V
0.011
a
L
c--c
START
c--c
END
llll.ll
a
5106.7074
000
N
yyyyy.yy
11402.349
a
E
x.x
0.0127611
x.x
x.x
A
153.093
0.3591502
V
*hh
*13
[CR][LF]
Example:
$GPRMB,V,0.011,L,START,END,5106.7074000,N,11402.3490000,W,0.0127611,153093,
0.3591502,V*13[CR][LF]
1
- If cross track error exceeds 9.99 NM, display 9.99
- Represents track error from intended course
- one nautical mile = 1,852 meters
2
Direction to steer is based on the sign of the crosstrack error,
i.e., L = xtrack error (+); R = xtrack error (–)
3
Fields 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 are tagged from the GPSCard SETNAV command.
4
If range to destination exceeds 999.9 NM, display 999.9
166
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
D Logs Summary
GPRMC GPS Specific Information
Time, date, position, track made good and speed data provided by the GPS navigation receiver. RMC and RMB are
the recommended minimum navigation data to be provided by a GPS receiver. This log will output all null data
fields until the GPSCard has achieved first fix.
Structure:
$GPRMC
lon
utc
pos status
lon dir
speed Kn
mag var
var dir
Field
Structure
1
2
3
$GPRMC
utc
pos status
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
lat
lat dir
lon
lon dir
speed Kn
track true
date
mag var
*xx
lat
lat dir
track true
date
[CR][LF]
Field Description
Symbol
Log header
UTC of position
Position status: A = data valid
V = data invalid
Latitude (DDmm.mm)
Latitude direction (N = North, S = South)
Longitude (DDDmm.mm)
Longitude direction (E = East, W = West)
Speed over ground, knots
Track made good, degrees True
Date: dd/mm/yy
2
Example
hhmmss.ss
A
$GPRMC
220216.50
A
llll.ll
a
yyyyy.yy
a
x.x
x.x
xxxxxx
x.x
5106.7187663
N
11402.3581636
W
0.3886308
130.632
150792
0.000
a
E
*hh
*4B
[CR][LF]
Magnetic variation, degrees
12
var dir
13
14
*xx
[CR][LF]
Magnetic variation direction E/W 1
Checksum
Sentence terminator
Example:
$GPRMC,220216.50,A,5106.7187663,N,11402.3581636,W,0.3886308,130.632,150792,
0.000,E*4B[CR][LF]
1 Easterly variation (E) subtracts from True course
Westerly variation (W) adds to True course
2 Note that this field is the actual magnetic variation East or West and is the inverse sign of the value entered into
the MAGVAR command. See MAGVAR in Appendix C, Page 106 for more information.
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
167
D Logs Summary
GPVTG Track Made Good And Ground Speed
The track made good and speed relative to the ground.
Structure:
$GPVTG
N
track true
speed km
Field
Structure
1
2
3
4
$GPVTG
track true
T
track mag
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
M
speed Kn
N
speed Km
K
*xx
[CR][LF]
T
track mag
K
*xx
M
speed Km
[CR][LF]
Field Description
Symbol
Example
x.x
T
x.x
$GPVTG
24.168
T
24.168
Log header
Track made good, degrees True
True track indicator
Track made good, degrees Magnetic;
Track mag = Track true + (MAGVAR correction)
See the MAGVAR command, Page 106.
Magnetic track indicator
Speed over ground, knots
Nautical speed indicator (N = Knots)
Speed, kilometers/hour
Speed indicator (K = km/hr)
Checksum
Sentence terminator
M
x.x
N
x.x
K
*hh
M
0.4220347
N
0.781608
K
*7A
[CR][LF]
Example:
$GPVTG,24.168,T,24.168,M,0.4220347,N,0.781608,K*7A[CR][LF]
168
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
D Logs Summary
GPZDA UTC Time and Date
This log will output all null data fields until the GPSCard has achieved first fix.
Structure:
$GPZDA
utc
day
month
NULL
NULL
*xx
[CR][LF]
Field
Structure
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
$GPZDA
utc
day
month
year
null
null
8
9
*xx
[CR][LF]
year
Field Description
Symbol
Log header
UTC time
Day, 01 to 31
Month, 01 to 12
Year
Local zone description - not available
Local zone minutes description - not available
Checksum
Sentence terminator
1
hhmmss.ss
xx
xx
xxxx
xx
xx
*hh
Example
$GPZDA
220238.00
15
07
1992
,,
,,
*6F
[CR][LF]
Example:
$GPZDA,220238.00,15,07,1992,00,00*6F[CR][LF]
1
Local time zones are not supported by the GPSCard. Fields 6 and 7 will always be null.
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
169
D Logs Summary
GPZTG UTC & Time to Destination Waypoint
This log reports time to destination waypoint. Waypoint is set using the GPSCard SETNAV command. If destination
waypoint has not been set with SETNAV, time-to-go and destination waypoint ID will be null. This log will output
all null data fields until the GPSCard has achieved first fix.
Structure:
$GPZTG
Field
1
2
3
4
5
6
utc
time
Structure
$GPZTG
utc
time
dest ID
*xx
[CR][LF]
dest ID
*xx
[CR][LF]
Field Description
Log header
UTC of position
Time to go (995959.00 maximum reported)
Destination waypoint ID
Checksum
Sentence terminator
Symbol
hhmmss.ss
hhmmss.ss
c--c
*hh
Example
$GPZTG
220245.00
994639.00
END
*36
[CR][LF]
Example:
$GPZTG,220245.00,994639.00,END*36[CR][LF]
170
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
D Logs Summary
MKPA/B Mark Position
This log contains the estimated position of the antenna at detected mark impulse. It uses the last valid position and
velocities to extrapolate the position at time of mark. Refer to the GPSCard Installation and Operating Manual
Appendix for Mark Input pulse specifications. The latched time of mark impulse is in GPS weeks and seconds into
the week. The resolution of the latched time is 49 ns.
MKPA
Structure:
$MKPA
week
lat std
Field #
seconds
lon std
lat
hgt std
Field type
1
2
3
$MKPA
week
seconds
4
lat
5
lon
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
hgt
undulation
datum ID
lat std
lon std
hgt std
sol status
*xx
[CR][LF]
lon
hgt
undulation
sol status
*xx
datum
ID
[CR][LF]
Data Description
Example
Log header
GPS week number
GPS seconds into the week measured from the receiver clock, coincident with the
time of electrical closure on the Mark Input port.
Latitude of position in current datum, in degrees/decimal degrees
(DD.dddddddd), where a negative sign implies South latitude
Longitude of position in current datum, in degrees/decimal degrees
(DDD.dddddddd), where a negative sign implies West longitude
Height of position in current datum, in meters with respect to MSL
Geoid undulation, in meters (see Figure C-6, Page 130)
Current datum (see Table G-2 in Appendix G, Page 234) I.D. #
Standard deviation of latitude solution element, in meters
Standard deviation of longitude solution element, in meters
Standard deviation of height solution element, in meters
Solution status as listed in Table D-1
Checksum
Sentence terminator
$MKPA
653
338214.773382
376
51.11227014
-114.03907552
1003.799
-16.199
61
7.793
3.223
34.509
0
*3C
[CR][LF]
Example:
$MKPA,653,338214.773382376,51.11227014,-114.03907552,1003.799,-16.199,61,
7.793,3.223,34.509,0*3C[CR][LF]
MKPB
Format:
Field #
1
(header)
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Message ID = 05
Data
Sync
Checksum
Message ID
Message byte count
Week number
Seconds of week
Latitude
Longitude
Height
Undulation
Datum ID
StdDev of latitude
StdDev of longitude
StdDev of height
Solution status
Message byte count = 88
Bytes
3
1
4
4
4
8
8
8
8
8
4
8
8
8
4
Format
char
char
integer
integer
integer
double
double
double
double
double
integer
double
double
double
integer
Units
weeks
seconds
degrees (+ is North, - is South)
degrees (+ is East, - is West)
meters with respect to MSL
meters
meters
meters
meters
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
Offset
0
3
4
8
12
16
24
32
40
48
56
60
68
76
84
171
D Logs Summary
MKTA/B Time of Mark Input
This log contains the time of the detected Mark Input pulse leading edge as detected at the Mark Input I/O port.
The resolution of this measurement is 49ns. Refer to the GPSCard Installation and Operating Manual Appendix
for the Mark Input pulse specifications.
MKTA
Structure:
$MKTA
week
utc offset
Field #
seconds
offset
offset std
cm status
*xx
[CR][LF]
Field type
1
2
3
$MKTA
week
seconds
4
offset
5
6
offset std
utc offset
7
cm status
8
9
*xx
[CR][LF]
Data Description
Example
Log header
GPS week number
Seconds into the week as measured from the receiver clock, coincident with the
time of electrical closure on the Mark Input port.
Receiver clock offset, in seconds. A positive offset implies that the receiver clock
is ahead of GPS Time. To derive GPS time, use the following formula:
GPS time = receiver time - (offset)
Standard deviation of receiver clock offset, in seconds
This field represents the offset of GPS time from UTC time, computed using
almanac parameters. To reconstruct UTC time, algebraically subtract this
correction from field 3 above (GPS seconds).
UTC time = GPS time - (utc offset)
$MKTA
653
338214.773382376
Receiver Clock Model Status where 0 is valid and values from -20 to -1 imply that
the model is in the process of stabilization
Checksum
Sentence terminator
0
0.000504070
0.000000013
-8.000000000
*05
[CR][LF]
Example:
$MKTA,653,338214.773382376,0.000504070,0.000000013,-8.000000000,0 *05[CR][LF]
MKTB
Format:
Field #
1
(header)
2
3
4
5
6
7
172
Message ID = 04
Message byte count = 52
Data
Sync
Checksum
Message ID
Message byte count
Week number
Seconds of week
Clock offset
StdDev clock offset
UTC offset
Clock model status
Bytes
3
1
4
4
4
8
8
8
8
4
Format
char
char
integer
integer
integer
double
double
double
double
integer
Units
weeks
seconds
seconds
seconds
seconds
Offset
0
3
4
8
12
16
24
32
40
48
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
D Logs Summary
NAVA/B Waypoint Navigation Data
This log reports the status of your waypoint navigation progress. It is used in conjunction with the
command.
SETNAV
REMEMBER: The SETNAV command must be enabled before valid data will be reported from this log.
NAVA
Structure:
$NAVA
week
seconds
etas
nav status
Field #
Field type
1
2
3
4
$NAVA
week
seconds
distance
5
bearing
6
along track
7
xtrack
8
etaw
9
etas
10
11
12
13
nav status
sol status
*xx
[CR][LF]
distance
sol status
*xx
bearing
along track
xtrack
etaw
[CR][LF]
Data Description
Example
Log header
GPS week number
GPS seconds into the week
Straight line horizontal distance from current position to the destination waypoint, in meters
(see Figure C-5, Page 127). This value is positive when approaching the waypoint and
becomes negative on passing the waypoint.
Direction from the current position to the destination waypoint in degrees with respect to True
North (or Magnetic if corrected for magnetic variation by MAGVAR command)
Horizontal track distance from the current position to the closest point on the waypoint arrival
perpendicular; expressed in meters. This value is positive when approaching the waypoint
and becomes negative on passing the waypoint.
The horizontal distance (perpendicular track-error) from the vessel’s present position to the
closest point on the great circle line that joins the FROM and TO waypoints. If a "track offset"
has been entered in the SETNAV command, xtrack will be the perpendicular error from the
"offset track". Xtrack is expressed in meters. Positive values indicate the current position is
right of the Track, while negative offset values indicate left.
Estimated GPS week number at time of arrival at the "TO" waypoint along-track arrival
perpendicular based on current position and speed, in units of GPS weeks. If the receiving
antenna is moving at a speed of less than 0.1 m/sec in the direction of the destination, the
value in this field will be"9999".
Estimated GPS seconds into week at time of arrival at destination waypoint along-track arrival
perpendicular, based on current position and speed, in units of GPS seconds into the week.
If the receiving antenna is moving at a speed of less than 0.1 m/sec in the direction of the
destination, the value in this field will be"0.000".
Navigation data status, where 0 = good, 1 = no velocity, and 2 = bad navigation calculation
Solution status as listed in Table D-1, Page 142
Checksum
Sentence terminator
$NAVA
640
333115.00
6399.6305
88.017
6396.9734
184.3929
657
51514.000
0
1
*11
[CR][LF]
Example:
$NAVA,640,333115.00,6399.6305,88.017,6396.9734,184.3929,657,51514.000,0,1
*11[CR][LF]
NOTE:
All distances and angles are calculated using Vincenty’s long line geodetic equations that operate on the
currently selected user datum.
See Figure D-1, Page 175 for an illustration of navigation parameters.
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
173
D Logs Summary
NAVB
Format:
Field #
1
(header)
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
174
Message ID = 08
Data
Sync
Checksum
Message ID
Message byte count
Week number
Seconds of week
Distance
Bearing
Along track
Xtrack
ETA week
ETA seconds
NAV status where
0 = good
1 = no velocity
2 = bad navigation
Solution status
Message byte count = 76
Bytes
Format
3
1
4
4
4
8
8
8
8
8
4
8
4
char
char
integer
integer
integer
double
double
double
double
double
integer
double
integer
4
integer
Units
weeks
seconds
meters
degrees
meters
meters
weeks
seconds
Offset
0
3
4
8
12
16
24
32
40
48
56
60
68
72
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
D Logs Summary
Figure D-1 Example of Navigation Parameters
A = FROM lat-lon
B = TO lat-lon
AB = Great circle line drawn between FROM A lat-lon and TO B lat-lon
AC = Track offset from A to C
BD = Track offset from B to D
CD = Offset track to steer (parallel to AB)
F = Current GPS position
FD = Current distance and bearing from F to D
E = Xtrack perpendicular reference point
EF = Xtrack error from E to F (perpendicular to CD)
FG = Along track from F to G (perpendicular to BD)
AB - True bearing = 70°
AB - Magnetic bearing = True + (MAGVAR correction)
= 70° + (-20)
= 50°
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
175
D Logs Summary
PAVA/B Position Averaging Status
These logs are meant to be used in conjunction with the POSAVE command. If the POSAVE command has not been
issued, all fields in the PAVA/B logs except week and seconds will be zero. However, when position averaging is
underway, the various fields contain the parameters being used in the position averaging process. The log trigger
ONCHANGED is recommended, but ONTIME can also be used.
See the description of the POSAVE command, Page 109.
See also Section A.3.2 Pseudorange Algorithms, Page 67.
NOTE:
All quantities are referenced to the WGS84 ellipsoid, regardless of the use of the DATUM or USERDATUM
commands, except for the height parameter (field 6). The relation between the geoid and the WGS84
ellipsoid is the geoidal undulation, and can be obtained from the POSA/B logs.
PAVA
Structure :
$PAVA
week
seconds
lat
lng
hgt
sdlat
sdlng
sdhgt
time
samples
*xx
Field #
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
Field type
$PAVA
week
seconds
lat
lng
hgt
sdlat
sdlng
sdhgt
time
samples
*xx
[CR][LF]
[CR][LF]
Data Description
Example
Log header
GPS week number
GPS seconds into the week
Average WGS84 latitude (degrees)
Average WGS84 longitude (degrees)
Average height above sea level, or geoid (m)
Estimated standard deviation of the average latitude (m)
Estimated standard deviation of the average longitude (m)
Estimated standard deviation of the average height (m)
Elapsed time of averaging (s)
Number of samples in the average
Checksum
Sentence terminator
$PAVA
846
145872.00
51.11381167
-114.04356455
1068.100
26.2
12.1
54.9
7
1
*0C
[CR][LF]
Example:
$PAVA,846,145872.00,51.11381167,-114.04356455,1068.100,26.2,12.1,54.9,7,1*0C [CR][LF]
176
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
D Logs Summary
PAVB
Format:
Field #
1
(header)
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Message ID = 50
Message byte count = 80
Data
Sync
Checksum
Message ID
Message byte count
GPS week number
GPS seconds into the week
Average WGS84 latitude
Average WGS84 longitude
Average height above sea level
Estimated standard deviation of the
average latitude
Estimated standard deviation of the
average longitude
Estimated standard deviation of the
average height
Elapsed time of averaging
Number of samples in the average
Bytes
Format
Units
Offset
3
1
4
4
4
8
8
8
8
8
char
char
integer
integer
integer
double
double
double
double
double
weeks
seconds
degrees
degrees
meters
meters
0
3
4
8
12
16
24
32
40
48
8
double
meters
56
8
double
meters
64
4
4
integer
integer
seconds
72
76
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
177
D Logs Summary
POSA/B Computed Position
This log will contain the last valid position and time calculated referenced to the GPSAntenna phase centre. The
position is in geographic coordinates in degrees based on your specified datum (default is WGS84). The height is
referenced to mean sea level. The receiver time is in GPS weeks and seconds into the week. The estimated standard
deviations of the solution and current filter status are also included. See also Section A.3.2 Pseudorange
Algorithms, Page 67.
POSA
Structure:
$POSA
week
lat std
Field #
seconds
lon std
lat
hgt std
lon
hgt
sol status
undulation
*xx
datum ID
[CR][LF]
Type
Data Description
Example
1
2
3
4
5
6
$POSA
week
seconds
lat
lon
hgt
$POSA
637
511251.00
51.11161847
-114.03922149
1072.436
7
undulation
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
datum ID
lat std
lon std
hgt std
sol status
*xx
[CR][LF]
Log header
GPS week number
GPS seconds into the week
Latitude of position in current datum, in degrees (DD.dddddddd). A - implies South latitude
Longitude of position in current datum, in degrees (DDD.dddddddd). A + implies West longitude
Height of position in current datum, in meters with respect to mean sea level (see Figure D-2, Page
185)
Geoidal separation, in meters, where + is above spheroid and - is below spheroid (see Figure C6, Page 130)
Current datum ID # (see Table G-2, Page 234 )
Standard deviation of latitude solution element, in meters
Standard deviation of longitude solution element, in meters
Standard deviation of height solution element, in meters
Solution status as listed in Table D-1
Checksum
Sentence terminator
-16.198
61
26.636
6.758
78.459
0
*12
[CR][LF]
Example:
$POSA,637,511251.00,51.11161847,-114.03922149,1072.436,-16.198,61,26.636,
6.758,78.459,0*12[CR][LF]
POSB
Format:
Field #
1
(header)
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
178
Message ID = 01
Message byte count = 88
Data
Sync
Checksum
Message ID
Message byte count
Week number
Seconds of week
Latitude
Longitude
Height
Undulation
Datum ID
StdDev of latitude
StdDev of longitude
StdDev of height
Solution status
Bytes
3
1
4
4
4
8
8
8
8
8
4
8
8
8
4
Format
char
char
integer
integer
integer
double
double
double
double
double
integer
double
double
double
integer
Units
weeks
seconds
degrees (+ is North, - is South)
degrees (+ is East, - is West)
meters with respect to MSL
meters
meters
meters
meters
Offset
0
3
4
8
12
16
24
32
40
48
56
60
68
76
84
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
D Logs Summary
PRTKA/B Computed Position RTK
This log contains the best available position computed by the receiver, along with three status flags. In addition, it
reports other status indicators, including differential lag, which is useful in predicting anomalous behavior brought
about by outages in differential corrections.
This log replaces the P20A log; it is similar, but adds extended status information. With the system operating in an
RTK mode, this log will reflect the latest low-latency solution for up to 30 seconds after reception of the last
reference station observations. After this 30 second period, the position reverts to the best solution available; the
degradation in accuracy is reflected in the standard deviation fields, and is summarized in Table 1-2, Page 17. If
the system is not operating in an RTK mode, pseudorange differential solutions continue for 60 seconds after loss
of the data link, though a different value can be set using the DGPSTIMEOUT command.
PRTKA
Structure:
$PRTKA
week
L1L2 #high
lat σ
posn type
Field #
Field type
1
2
3
4
5
6
$PRTKA
week
sec
lag
#sv
#high
7
8
L1L2 #high
lat
9
lon
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
hgt
undulation
datum ID
lat σ
lon σ
hgt σ
soln status
rtk status
posn type
idle
stn ID
*xx
[CR][LF]
lat
sec
lag
#sv
lon
hgt
undulation
lon σ
hgt σ
idle
stn ID
soln status
*xx
#high
datum ID
rtk status
[CR][LF]
Data Description
Log header
GPS week number
GPS time into the week (in seconds)
Differential lag in seconds
Number of matched satellites; may differ from the number in view.
Number of matched satellites above RTK mask angle; observations from satellites
below mask are heavily de-weighted
Number of matched satellites above RTK mask angle with both L1 and L2 available
Latitude of position in current datum, in decimal fraction format. A negative sign implies
South latitude
Longitude of position in current datum, in decimal fraction format. A negative sign
implies West longitude
Height of position in current datum, in meters above mean sea level
Geoidal separation, in meters, where(+ve) is above ellipsoid and (-ve) is below ellipsoid
Current datum (see Appendix G, Page 234)
Standard deviation of latitude solution element, in meters
Standard deviation of longitude solution element, in meters
Standard deviation of height solution element, in meters
Solution status (see Table D-1, Page 142)
RTK status (see Tables D-3, D-4, Page 143)
Position type (see Table D-2, Page 143)
Percent idle time, percentage
Reference station identification (RTCM: 0 - 1023, or RTCA: 266305 - 15179385)
Checksum
Sentence terminator
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
Example
$PRTKA
872
174963.00
1.000
8
7
7
51.11358042429
-114.04358006710
1059.4105
-16.2617
61
0.0096
0.0100
0.0112
0
0
4
42
119
*51
[CR][LF]
179
D Logs Summary
Example:
$PRTKA,872,174963.00,1.000,8,7,7,51.11358042429,
-114.04358006710,1059.4105,-16.2617,61,
0.0096,0.0100,0.0112,0,0,4,42,119*51[CR][LF]
PRTKB
Format:
Message ID = 63
Field #
1
(header)
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
NOTE:
180
Message byte count = 124
Data
Sync
Checksum
Message ID
Message byte count
Week number
GPS time into the week
Differential lag
Number of matched satellites (00-12)
Number of matched satellites above RTK mask
angle
Number of matched satellites above RTK mask
angle with both L1 and L2 available
Latitude
Longitude
Height above mean sea level
Undulation
Datum ID
Standard deviation of latitude
Standard deviation of longitude
Standard deviation of height
Solution status (see Table D-1, Page 142)
RTK status (see Tables D-3, D-4, Page 143)
Position type (see Table D-2, Page 143)
Idle
Reference station identification (RTCM: 0 - 1023,
or RTCA: 266305 - 15179385)
Bytes
Format
3
1
4
4
4
8
8
4
4
char
char
integer
integer
integer
double
Units
integer
integer
0
3
4
8
12
16
24
32
36
4
integer
40
8
8
8
8
4
8
8
8
4
4
4
4
4
double
double
double
double
integer
double
double
double
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
weeks
seconds
seconds
degrees
degrees
meters
meters
meters
meters
meters
Offset
44
52
60
68
76
80
88
96
104
108
112
116
120
For the non-RTK position types (as indicated by field 18), field 5 (#matched) indicates
the number of satellites used in the pseudorange position, and fields 6 and 7 (#high and
L1L2#high) indicate an estimate of the number of satellites that would be available to
RTK.
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
D Logs Summary
PVAA/B XYZ Position, Velocity and Acceleration
The PVAA/B logs contain the receiver’s latest computed position, velocity and acceleration in ECEF coordinates.
The position, velocity and acceleration status fields indicate whether or not the corresponding data are valid.
This command supports INS (Inertial Navigation System) integration. PVA logs can be injected into the receiver
from an INS. This information is only used by the tracking loops of the receiver to aid in reacquisition of satellites
after loss of lock, otherwise it is ignored. This command is only useful for very high dynamics where expected
velocity changes during the signal blockage of more than 100 meters per second can occur.
NOTE:
These quantities are always referenced to the WGS84 ellipsoid, regardless of the use of the DATUM or
USERDATUM commands.
PVAA
Structure:
$PVAA
A-x
week
A-y
Field #
A-z
Field type
seconds
P-x
P-status
V-status
P-y
Data Description
P-z
V-x
A-status
V-y
V-z
*xx
[CR][LF]
Example
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
$PVAA
week
seconds
P-x
P-y
P-z
V-x
V-y
V-z
A-x
Log header
GPS week number
GPS time of week (s)
Position’s X-coordinate (m)
Position’s Y-coordinate (m)
Position’s Z-coordinate (m)
Velocity vector along X-axis (m/s)
Velocity vector along Y-axis (m/s)
Velocity vector along Z-axis (m/s)
Acceleration vector along X-axis (m/s2)
$PVAA
845
344559.00
-1634953.141
-3664681.855
4942249.361
-0.025
0.140
0.078
0.000
11
A-y
Acceleration vector along Y-axis (m/s2)
-0.000
12
A-z
0.000
13
14
15
16
17
P-status
V-status
A-status
*xx
[CR][LF]
Acceleration vector along Z-axis (m/s2)
Position status (0 = bad; 1 = good)
Velocity status (0 = bad; 1 = good)
Acceleration status (0 = bad; 1 = good)
Checksum
Sentence terminator
1
1
1
*02
[CR][LF]
Example:
$PVAA,845,344559.00,-1634953.141,-3664681.855,4942249.361,-0.025,0.140,
0.078,0.000,-0.000,0.000,1,1,1*02
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
181
D Logs Summary
PVAB
Format:
Field #
1
(header)
Message ID = 49
Field Type
Message byte count = 108
Bytes
Format
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Sync
Checksum
Message ID
Message byte count
GPS week number
GPS time of week
Position vector along X-axis
Position vector along Y-axis
Position vector along Z-axis
Velocity vector along X-axis
Velocity vector along Y-axis
Velocity vector along Z-axis
Acceleration vector along X-axis
3
1
4
4
4
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
char
char
integer
integer
integer
double
double
double
double
double
double
double
double
11
Acceleration vector along Y-axis
8
12
Acceleration vector along Z-axis
8
Offset
m/s2
0
3
4
8
12
16
24
32
40
48
56
64
72
double
m/s2
80
double
m/s2
88
13
Position status
1
4
integer
14
Velocity status
1
4
integer
15
Acceleration status
1
4
integer
1 Only the least-significant bit is used for this flag; the others are reserved for future use.
182
Units
weeks
seconds
meters
meters
meters
m/s
m/s
m/s
96
100
104
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
D Logs Summary
PXYA/B Computed Cartesian Coordinate Position
This log contains the last valid position, expressed in Cartesian x-y-z space coordinates, relative to the center of
the Earth. The positions expressed in this log are always relative to WGS84, regardless of the setting of the DATUM
or USERDATUM command. See Figure D-2, Page 185 for a definition of the coordinates.
PXYA
Structure:
$PXYA
week
fix status
Field #
x
diff lag
*xx
y
z
x std y std
$PXYA
week
seconds
x
y
z
x std
y std
z std
sol status
fix status
12
diff lag
*xx
[CR][LF]
1
z std
sol status
[CR][LF]
Field type
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
13
14
seconds
Data Description
Example
Log header
GPS week number
GPS seconds into the week
Position x coordinate, in meters
Position y coordinate, in meters
Position z coordinate, in meters
Standard deviation of x, in meters
Standard deviation of y, in meters
Standard deviation of z, in meters
Solution status as listed in Table D-1
0=
fix not available or invalid
1=
Single point stand-alone fix
2=
Differential fix
Age of differential correction (seconds) (= 0 if fix status ≠ 2)
$PXYA
713
488150.00
-1634756.995
-3664965.028
4942151.391
2.335
3.464
4.156
0
2
Checksum
Sentence terminator
*08
[CR][LF]
0.4
1 This log provides differential fix and lag status.
Example:
$PXYA,713,488150.00,-1634756.995,-3664965.028,4942151.391,2.335,3.464,
4.156,0,2,0.4*08[CR][LF]
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
183
D Logs Summary
PXYB
Format:
Message ID = 26
Field #
1
(header)
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Message byte count = 88
Data
Bytes
Sync
Checksum
Message ID
Message byte count
Week number
Seconds of week
x
y
z
StdDev of x
StdDev of y
StdDev of z
Solution status
Fix status
1
3
1
4
4
4
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
4
4
Differential lag, age of differential corrections
1
8
Format
char
char
integer
integer
integer
double
double
double
double
double
double
double
integer
integer
double
Units
weeks
seconds
meters
meters
meters
meters
meters
meters
seconds
Offset
0
3
4
8
12
16
24
32
40
48
56
64
72
76
80
1 This log provides differential fix and lag status.
184
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
D Logs Summary
Figure D-2 The WGS84 ECEF Coordinate System
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
185
D Logs Summary
RALA/B Raw Almanac
Almanac and health data are contained in subframes four and five of the satellite broadcast message. Subframe four
contains information for SVs 25-32, as well as ionospheric, UTC and SV configuration data. Subframe five contains
information for SVS 1-24.
Subframes four and five each contain 25 pages of data, and each page contains ten 30-bit words of information as
transmitted from the satellite. The RALA/B log outputs this information with parity bits checked and removed (ten
words - 24 bits each). The log will not be generated unless all ten words pass parity.
This log will alternately report each page from subframes four and five as they are collected. Logging this log
onnew would be the optimal logging rate to capture data from pages in subframes four and five as they are received.
RALA logs contain a hex representation of the raw almanac data (one of the possible 25 pages of either subframe 4
or 5). RALB contains the raw binary information.
RALA
Structure:
$RALA
chan #
prn
Field #
Field type
1
2
3
4
$RALA
chan #
prn
subframe
5
6
*xx
[CR][LF]
subframe
*xx
[CR][LF]
Data Description
Example
Log header
Channel number collecting almanac data (0-11)
PRN of satellite from which data originated
Subframe 4 or 5 of almanac data
(60 hex characters)
Checksum
Sentence terminator
$RALA
7
16
8B0A54852C964C661F086366FDBE00A
10D53DA6565F2503DD7C2AACBFED3
*05
[CR][LF]
Example:
$RALA,7,16,8B0A54852C964C661F086366FDBE00A10D53DA6565F2503DD7C2AACBFED3
*05[CR][LF]
RALB
Format:
Field #
1
(header)
2
3
4
5
186
Message ID = 15
Data
Sync
Checksum
Message ID
Message byte count
Channel number, 0-11
PRN number, 1-32
Almanac data, data [30]
Filler bytes
Bytes
3
1
4
4
4
4
30
2
Message byte count = 52
Format
char
char
integer
integer
integer
integer
char
char
Units
Offset
0
3
4
8
12
16
20
50
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
D Logs Summary
RASA/B Raw Almanac Set
This is a single log for the entire Almanac data set. Only a complete log will be set so you do not have to worry
about ephemeris data imitating an Almanac.
RASA
Structure:
$RASA
RxWeek
RxSec
subframe#
page #
subframe
page #
subframe
AlmWeek
Toa
RxPrn
# subframes
:
subframe#
*xx
Field #
[CR][LF]
Field type
Data Description
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
$RASA
RxWeek
RxSec
AlmWeek
Toa
RxPrn
# subframes
subframe #
page #
subframe
Log header
GPS week data received
Approximate GPS seconds into week data received
Almanac reference week
Almanac reference seconds
PRN of satellite from which data originated
Number of subframes to follow
Subframe Number
Page Number
Subframe of almanac data (60 hex characters, variable
length up to 50 lines of subframe data ≅ 3300 bytes)
...
...
...
variable
variable
...
...
...
*xx
[CR][LF]
Next subframe #, page # and subframe ...
...
Last subframe #, page # and subframe
Checksum
Sentence terminator
Example
$RASA
926
246000
926
319488
1
30
4
2
8B0E784FDA315936EC4EF
CAEFD3600A10C5C896ECE
9412862BD1AEFF0006
*32
[CR][LF]
Example:
$RASA,926,246000,926,319488,1,30,4,2,8B0E784FDA315936EC4EFCAEFD3600A10C5C896ECE9412862BD1AEFF
0006,4,3,8B0E784FDCB05A51184E0A26FD4C00A10DB2609586F2BE804B917BFCFFFB,4,4,8B0E784FDF315B65654
EFF68FD3A00A10CF78A21497D29E4D4504D000013,4,7,8B0E784FE6B15D2D014E07D2FD4800A10ADF5F8CDBAF9F5
720A25C22FF95,4,8,8B0E784FE9315E28E84E057AFD4600A10D1EB58EE4421223816DB8FFFFF7,4,9,8B0E784FEB
B35F3D354E0BD6FD3C00A10D55E000EB1D3D371F95C8000001,4,17,8B0E784FFFB0773246204E524B414D4F444C3
54E204E38342F5A563822A8,4,18,8B0E78500232780C00FF002C00FD00000000000000034E9E0C90020CAAA9,4,2
5,8B0E785013B27F9999999099009999999099999990999080000FC0000FE8,5,1,8B0E784FD835411ED34E0835FD
4900A10C1A615B4ABE261433AAC3040001,5,2,8B0E784FDAB7428CFE4EFECDFD4000A10CF6B3DFACA157B083EBA2
CAFFE4,5,3,8B0E784FDD354314234E060EFD3600A10CD5DFDCCC69CB36EB45F407003C,5,4,8B0E784FDFB744236
74E15B4FD4800A10C850BB1F6DB53D7E65BA6060034,5,5,8B0E784FE2344509CB4E00A7FD3F00A10BEFB48EACD93
58704D58E0F000A,5,6,8B0E784FE4B54637BD4E0AB8FD3B00A10CF5E1492D95D0B001BEF6000000,5,7,8B0E784F
E734474DE04E0C34FD3F00A10C57DFEF88A2B87952974463000A,5,9,8B0E784FEC344936594E0150FD3C00A10C5D
8AC38E0990CA01A8D3FE0004,5,10,8B0E784FEEB64A127F4E0E0BFD5100A10C72359FC2F5A04887F78A01001B,5,
13,8B0E784FF6374D0F544E0AA8FD4CFFA10EF2604E7FB038A9C9152201FFDB,5,14,8B0E784FF8B44E0C634E119F
FD5800A10DBD37674077E0355E13D7030002,5,15,8B0E784FFB354F39E64E1902FD4D00A10D6F0D3E5342A05AC4A
F843E0030,5,16,8B0E784FFDB45012294E0F48FD5400A10CA537A8C902C525BD198A040006,5,17,8B0E78500036
514FC34E19C3FD5100A10CCC0EC06367883FFB1622EA0018,5,18,8B0E785002B45238A44E0107FD3E00A10C455F0
43F43BCBA529078000018,5,19,8B0E78500536531AF54EF68FFD2D00A10D2D88F669888C38E202CA2100BD,5,21,
8B0E78500A355570FE4E0D99FD5200A10D0835E0458927E898247B0B0028,5,22,8B0E78500CB45653134EFEC6FD3
D00A10C1AB4776508EC2C7C0DFB02003D,5,23,8B0E78500F355763534E0FAAFD5400A10CF8376A23AA2FFC8D65B2
000017,5,24,8B0E785011B6583FB74E1C1EFD5200A10D8D0BCB65B2EAD8F641D8650050,5,25,8B0E78501435734
E9E00000000003F000FFFFC000000003F000000AAAAAB*39
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
187
D Logs Summary
RASB
Format:
Field #
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10...
Message ID = 66
Data
Bytes
Sync
Checksum
Message ID
Message byte count
Week data received
Approximate seconds into week data received
Almanac reference week
Almanac reference seconds
PRN of satellite from which data originated
Number of subframes to follow
Subframe number
Page number
Next PRN offset = 40 + (obs *32)
Note: Variable Length = 40 + (n * 32).
188
Message byte count = 40 + (n * 32)
3
1
4
4
4
8
4
4
4
4
1
1
Format
char
char
integer
integer
integer
double
integer
integer
integer
integer
char
char
Maximum = 40 + (50 * 32) = 1640.
Units
weeks
seconds
weeks
seconds
Offset
0
3
4
8
12
16
24
28
32
36
40
41
Typical size (31 subframes) = 1032 bytes.
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
D Logs Summary
RBTA/B Satellite Broadcast Data: Raw Bits
This message contains the satellite broadcast data in raw bits before FEC (forward error correction) decoding or
any other processing. An individual message is sent for each PRN being tracked. For a given satellite, the message
number increments by one each time a new message is generated. This data matches the SBTA/B data if the
message numbers are equal. The data must be logged with the ’onnew’ trigger activated to prevent loss of data.
RBTA
Structure:
$RBTA
week
raw bits
Field #
seconds
*xx
prn
cstatus
message #
# of bits
[CR][LF]
Field type
Data Description
Example
1
$RBTA
Log header
$RBTA
2
week
GPS week number
883
3
seconds
GPS seconds into the week
413908.000
4
prn
PRN of satellite from which data originated
115
5
cstatus
Channel Tracking Status
80812F14
6
message #
Message sequence number
119300
7
# of bits
Number of bits transmitted in the message. At present,
always equals 256 bits.
256
8
raw bits
256 bits compressed into a 32 bytes. Hence, 64 hex
characters are output.
30FB30FB30FB30F878DA621
94000F18322931B9EBDBC1C
BC9324B68FBDAEBE8A
9
*xx
Checksum
*42
10
[CR][LF]
Sentence terminator
[CR][LF]
RBTB
Format:
Message ID = 52
Field #
Data
Message byte count = 72
Bytes
Format
Units
Offset
1
Sync
3
char
0
(header)
Checksum
1
char
3
Message ID
4
integer
4
Message byte count
4
integer
bytes
8
2
Week number
4
integer
weeks
12
3
Seconds of week
8
double
seconds
16
4
PRN number
4
integer
1-999
24
5
Channel Status
4
integer
n/a
28
6
Message #
4
integer
n/a
32
7
# of Bits
4
integer
n/a
36
8
Raw Bits
32
char
n/a
40
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
189
D Logs Summary
RCCA Receiver Configuration
This log outputs a list of all current GPSCard command settings. Observing this log is a good way to monitor the
GPSCard configuration settings. See Chapter 2, Page 24 for the RCCA default list.
190
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
D Logs Summary
RCSA/B Receiver Status
The RCSA log will always output four records: one for VERSION, one for receiver CHANNELS, one for receiver CPU
IDLE time, and one indicating receiver self-test STATUS. However, RCSB will embed the same information in a single
record.
Together, the RVSA/B and VERA/B logs supersede the RCSA/B logs. In other word this log is soon to be obsolete and
eventually will be no longer supported. It is recommended then that you use the RVSA/B and VERA/B logs.
RCSA
Structure:
$RCSA
VERSION
sw ver
*xx
[CR][LF]
$RCSA
CHANNELS
# chans
*xx
[CR][LF]
$RCSA
IDLE
idle time
*xx
[CR][LF]
$RCSA
STATUS
rec status
*xx
[CR][LF]
Log
Data Identifier
$RCSA
VERSION
$RCSA
$RCSA
CHANNELS
IDLE
$RCSA
STATUS
Data Description
sw ver: Software information indicating model, S/N, S/W
version and S/W version date
# chans: Indicates number of parallel channels on GPSCard
idle time: An integer number representing percent idle time
for
the CPU, with a valid range of 0 to 99
rec status: Indicates result of hardware self-test and software
status as shown in Table D-5, Page 196
Checksum
String End
*xx
[CR][LF]
*xx
*xx
[CR][LF]
[CR][LF]
*xx
[CR][LF]
Example:
$RCSA,VERSION,GPSCard-2 3951R LGR94160001 HW 16 SW 3.15 Mar 31/94*16
$RCSA,CHANNELS,10*12
$RCSA,IDLE,40*03
$RCSA,STATUS,000007F6*60
The status code is a hexadecimal number representing the results of the GPSCard BIST test and software status. As
an example, the status code ’000000F6’ indicates that the GPSAntenna is not working properly or is disconnected
and the GPSCard is good, while ’000000F7’ indicates that the GPSAntenna and the GPSCard are both functioning
properly. See Table D-5, Page 196 for a detailed description of the status code. Bit 0 is the least significant bit of
the status code and Bit 16 is the most significant bit.
RCSB
Format:
Field #
1
(header)
2
3
4
5
6
NOTE 1:
Message ID = 13
Message byte count = 100
Data
Sync
Checksum
Message ID
Message byte count
Software version #, ASCII
Number of receiver channels
CPU idle time, percent
Filler
Self-test status
Bytes
3
1
4
4
80
1
1
2
4
Format
char
char
integer
integer
char
char
char
bytes
integer
Offset
0
3
4
8
12
92
93
94
96
See Table D-5 for a detailed GPSCard Receiver Self-test Status Code table and bit descriptions.
NOTE 2: Self test bits 2, 3, 4, 6, 7 are set only once when the GPSCard is first powered up. All other bits are set
by internal test processes each time the RCSA/B log is output.
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
191
D Logs Summary
REPA/B Raw Ephemeris
REPA
This log contains the raw Binary information for subframes one, two and three from the satellite with the parity
information removed. Each subframe is 240 bits long (10 words - 24 bits each) and the log contains a total 720 bits
(90 bytes) of information (240 bits x 3 subframes). This information is preceded by the PRN number of the satellite
from which it originated. This message will not be generated unless all 10 words from all 3 frames have passed
parity.
Ephemeris data whose toe (time of ephemeris) is older than six hours will not be shown.
Structure:
$REPA
Field #
prn
subframe1
subframe2
Field type
subframe3
*xx
Data Description
[CR][LF]
Example
1
2
3
$REPA
prn
subframe1
Log header
PRN of satellite from which data originated
Subframe 1 of ephemeris data (60 hex characters)
4
subframe2
Subframe 2 of ephemeris data (60 hex characters)
5
subframe3
Subframe 3 of ephemeris data (60 hex characters)
6
7
*xx
[CR][LF]
Checksum
Sentence terminator
$REPA
14
8B09DC17B9079DD7007D5D
E404A9B2D
04CF671C6036612560000021
804FD
8B09DC17B98A66FF713092F
12B359D
FF7A0254088E1656A10BE2F
F125655
8B09DC17B78F0027192056E
AFFDF2724C
9FE159675A8B468FFA8D066
F743
*57
[CR][LF]
Example:
$REPA,14,8B09DC17B9079DD7007D5DE404A9B2D04CF671C6036612560000021804FD,
8B09DC17B98A66FF713092F12B359DFF7A0254088E1656A10BE2FF125655,
8B09DC17B78F0027192056EAFFDF2724C9FE159675A8B468FFA8D066F743*57[CR][LF]
REPB
Format:
Field #
1
(header)
2
3-4-5
192
Message ID = 14
Data
Sync
Checksum
Message ID
Message byte count
PRN number, 1-32
Ephemeris data, data [90]
Filler bytes
Message byte count = 108
Bytes
3
1
4
4
4
90
2
Format
char
char
integer
integer
integer
char
char
Offset
0
3
4
8
12
16
106
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
D Logs Summary
RGEA/B/D Channel Range Measurements
RGEA/B/D contain the channel range measurements for the currently observed satellites. The RGED message is
a compressed form of the RGEB message. When using these logs, please keep in mind the constraints noted along
with the description.
It is important to ensure that the receiver clock has been set and can be monitored by the bits in the rec-status field.
Large jumps in range as well as ADR will occur as the clock is being adjusted. If the ADR measurement is being
used in precise phase processing it is important not to use the ADR if the "parity known" flag in the ch-tr-status
field is not set as there may exist a half (1/2) cycle ambiguity on the measurement. The tracking error estimate of
the pseudorange and carrier phase (ADR) is the thermal noise of the receiver tracking loops only. It does not
account for possible multipath errors or atmospheric delays.
RGEA and RGEB contain all of the new extended channel tracking status bits (see Table D-7, Page 201), while
RGED contains only the lowest 24 bits. The receiver self-test status word (see Table D-5, Page 196) now also
indicates L2, OCXO and new almanac status.
If both the L1 and L2 signals are being tracked for a given PRN, two entries with the same PRN will appear in the
range logs. As shown in Table D-7 (Channel Tracking Status), these entries can be differentiated by bit 19, which
is set if there are multiple observables for a given PRN, and bit 20, which denotes whether the observation is for
L1 or L2. This is to aid in parsing the data.
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
193
D Logs Summary
RGEA
Structure:
$RGEA
prn
week
seconds
# obs
rec status
psr
psr std
adr
adr std
dopp
C/No
locktime
ch-tr-status
psr
psr std
adr
adr std
dopp
C/No
locktime
ch-tr-status
:
prn
*xx
[CR][LF]
Field #
Field type
Data Description
1
2
3
4
5
$RGEA
week
seconds
# obs
rec status
Log header
GPS week number
GPS seconds into the week
Number of satellite observations with information to follow
Receiver self-test status, see Table D-5,, Page 196.
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
prn
psr
psr std
adr
adr std
dopp
C/N0
Satellite PRN number (1-32) of range measurement
Pseudorange measurement (m)
Pseudorange measurement standard deviation (m)
Carrier phase, in cycles (accumulated Doppler range)
Estimated carrier phase standard deviation (cycles)
Instantaneous carrier Doppler frequency (Hz)
Signal to noise density ratio C/N0 = 10[log10(S/N0)] (dB-Hz)
13
14
locktime
ch-tr-status
...
...
...
variable
variable
...
...
...
*xx
[CR][LF]
Number of seconds of continuous tracking (no cycle slipping)
Hexadecimal number indicating phase lock, channel number and channel
tracking state, as shown in Table D-7.
Next PRN #, psr, psr std, adr, adr std, dopp, C/No, locktime,ch-tr-status
...
Last PRN #, psr, psr std, adr, adr std, dopp, C/No, locktime, ch-tr-status
Checksum
Sentence terminator
1
Example
$RGEA
845
511089.00
14
000B20FF 1
4
23907330.296
0.119
-125633783.992
0.010
3714.037
44.8
1928.850
82E04
*30
[CR][LF]
This output will always be a hexadecimal representation which must be converted to binary format. In this example, the conversion gives
00000000000010110010000011111111 in binary format, see Appendix H, Page 236 for a complete conversion list. Reading from right to left
you can look to see what each bit represents in Table D-5, following.
Example (carriage returns have been added between observations for clarity):
$RGEA,845,511089.00,14,000B20FF
4,23907330.296,0.119,-125633783.992,0.010,3714.037,44.8,1928.850,82E04,
4,23907329.623,1.648,-97896180.284,0.013,2894.285,35.0,1746.760,582E0B,
2,21298444.942,0.040,-111954153.747,0.006,-1734.838,54.2,17466.670,82E14,
2,21298444.466,0.637,-87236867.557,0.006,-1351.607,43.3,17557.260,582E1B,
9,22048754.383,0.063,-115874135.450,0.006,2174.006,50.4,5489.100,82E24,
9,22048754.424,0.641,-90291443.071,0.006,1694.238,43.2,5489.100,582E2B,
15,23191384.847,0.261,-121887295.980,0.017,-2069.744,38.0,9924.740,82E34,
15,23191384.663,0.596,-94977002.452,0.010,-1612.587,43.8,9881.830,582E3B,
26,24063897.737,0.199,-126477739.189,0.014,-2654.682,40.3,12821.640,82E54,
26,24063898.913,1.043,-98553986.239,0.013,-2068.380,39.0,12793.280,582E5B,
7,20213352.139,0.037,-106237901.461,0.005,439.943,55.0,10313.040,82E74,
7,20213351.196,0.498,-82782498.454,0.007,343.020,45.4,9977.400,582E7B,
27,24393726.829,0.123,-128229016.323,0.012,-4047.338,44.5,22354.119,82E94,
27,24393728.057,1.805,-99918535.513,0.013,-3153.559,34.2,22301.830,582E9B
*30
194
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
D Logs Summary
RGEB
Format:
Message ID = 32
Field #
1
(header)
Message byte count = 32 + (obs x 44)
Data
Bytes
Format
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Sync
Checksum
Message ID
Message byte count
Week number
Seconds of week
Number of observations (obs)
Receiver self-test status
PRN
Pseudorange
StdDev pseudorange
Carrier phase - accumulated Doppler range, cycles
StdDev - accumulated Doppler range, cycles
Doppler frequency
C/N0
3
1
4
4
4
8
4
4
4
8
4
8
4
4
4
char
char
integer
integer
integer
double
integer
integer
integer
double
float
double
float
float
float
13
14
15...
Locktime
Tracking status
Next PRN offset = 32 + (obs x 44)
4
4
float
integer
Units
weeks
seconds
meters
meters
Hz
dB-Hz
seconds
Offset
0
3
4
8
12
16
24
28
32
36
44
48
56
60
64
68
72
RGED
Format:
Field #
1
(header)
Message ID = 65
Data
Sync
Checksum
Message ID
Message byte count
2
Number of obs
3
Week number
4
Seconds of week
5
Receiver status
6
First PRN range record
Next PRN offset = 24 + (20 x number of obs)
Message byte count =24 + (20 x number of obs)
Bytes
3
1
4
4
2
2
4
4
20
Format
Scale
char
char
integer
integer
integer
integer
See Table D-6, Page 199
1
1
1/100
1
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
Offset
0
3
4
8
12
14
16
20
24
195
D Logs Summary
Table D-5 Receiver Self-Test Status Codes
N7
N 6
27
26
25
N5
24
23
22
21
N4
20
19
18
17
N 3
16
15
14
13
N2
12
11
10
9
N1
8
7
6
5
N 0
4
3
2
1
0
<- Nibble
<- Number
Bit Description
lsb ANTENNA
=
0
1 L1 PLL
Range Values
Hex Value
1 = good, 0 = bad
00000001
1 = good, 0 = bad
00000002
2 RAM
1 = good, 0 = bad
00000004
3 ROM
1 = good, 0 = bad
00000008
4 DSP
1 = good, 0 = bad
00000010
5 L1 AGC
1 = good, 0 = bad
00000020
6 COM1
1 = good, 0 = bad
00000040
7 COM2
1 = good, 0 = bad
00000080
8 WEEK
1 = not set, 0 = set
00000100
9 NO
COARSETIME
10 NO FINETIME
1 = not set, 0 = set
00000200
1 = not set, 0 = set
00000400
11 L1 JAMMER
1 = present, 0 = normal
00000800
12 BUFFERCOM1
1 = overrun, 0 = normal
00001000
13 BUFFERCOM2
1 = overrun, 0 = normal
00002000
14 BUFFER
1 = overrun, 0 = normal
CONSOLE
15 CPUOVERLOAD 1 = overload, 0 = normal
00004000
16 ALMANAC
SAVEDIN NVM
17 L2 AGC
1 = yes, 0 = no
00010000
1 = good, 0 = bad
00020000
18 L2 JAMMER
1 = present, 0 = normal
00040000
19 L2 PLL
1 = good, 0 = bad
00080000
20 OCXO PLL
1 = good, 0 = bad
00100000
21 SAVED ALMA.
NEEDS UPDATE
22 ALMANAC
INVALID
23 POSITION
SOLUTION
INVALID
24 POSITIONFIXED
1 = yes, 0 = no
00200000
1 = invalid, 0 = valid
00400000
1 = invalid, 0 = valid
00800000
1 = yes, 0 = no
01000000
25 CLOCK MODEL
INVALID
26 CLOCK
STEERING
DISABLED
27 RESERVED
1 = invalid, 0 = valid
02000000
00008000
1 = disabled, 0 = enabled 04000000
28- RESERVED
31
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MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
D Logs Summary
Notes on Table D-5:
1. Bit 3: On OEM GPSCards, “ROM” includes all forms of non-volatile memory.
2. Bits 12-15: Flag is reset to 0 five minutes after the last overrun/overload condition has occurred.
GPSCard example:
All OK = 0000 0000 0000 1010 0000 0000 1111 1111 (binary) = 000A00FF (hexadecimal); using a VCTCXO oscillator.
RECEIVER STATUS - DETAILED BIT DESCRIPTIONS OF SELF-TEST
Bit 0
Antenna
1
This bit will be set to 1 if the antenna connection is not drawing excessive current.
0
If the antenna connections are shorted together then this bit will be clear (0) indicating a possible antenna
port problem.
Bit 1
L1 PLL
1
When the L1 RF downconverter passes self-test, the bit will be set to 1.
0
If a fault is detected in the L1 RF downconverter, this bit is set to 0.
Bit 2
RAM
1
When this bit is set to 1, the receiver RAM has passed the self-test requirements.
0
If the bit has been set to 0, then RAM test has failed; please contact NovAtel Customer Service.
Bit 3
ROM (Note: “ROM” includes all forms of nov-volatile memory (NVM))
1
When this bit is set to 1, the receiver ROM test has passed the self test requirements.
0
A zero bit indicates the receiver has failed the ROM test.
Bit 4
DSP
1
This bit will be set to 1 when the digital signal processors (DSP) have passed the self-test requirements.
0
0 indicates one or both of the DSP chips has failed self-test; please contact NovAtel Customer Service.
Bit 5
L1 AGC
1
When set to 1, the L1AGC circuits are operating within normal range of control.
0
This bit will be set clear if the L1 AGC is operating out of normal range. Intermittent setting of the AGC bit
indicates that the card is experiencing some electro-magnetic interference of a very short duration.
Continuous setting of the AGC bit may indicate that the card is receiving too much signal power from the
antenna or that a more serious problem with the card may exist. Failure of this test could be the result of
various possibilities, such as: bad antenna LNA, excessive loss in the antenna cable, faulty RF
downconverter, or a pulsating or high power jamming signal causing interference. If this bit is
continuously set clear, and you cannot identify an external cause for the failed test, please contact
NovAtel Customer Service.
Bit 6
COM1
1
When set to 1, the COM1 UART has passed the self-test requirements.
0
If set to 0, the COM1 UART has failed self-test and cannot be used for reliable communications.
Bit 7
COM2
1
When set to 1, the COM2 UART has passed the self-test requirements.
0
If set to 0, the COM2 UART has failed self-test and cannot be used for reliable communications.
Bits 8, 9, 10 Week / No Coarsetime / No Finetime
0
These bits indicate the state of the receiver time and are set only once, generally in the first few minutes
of operation, in the presence of adequate numbers of satellite signals to compute position and time.
1
If these bits are not all set to zero, then the observation data, pseudorange measurement, carrier phase, and
Doppler measurements may jump as the clock adjusts itself.
Bit 11
L1 Jammer Detection
0
Normal operation is indicated when this bit is 0.
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
197
D Logs Summary
1
If set to 1, the receiver has detected a high power signal causing interference. When this happens, the
receiver goes into a special anti-jamming mode where it re-maps the A/D decode values as well as special
L1AGC feedback control. These adjustments help to minimize the loss that will occur in the presence of a
jamming signal. You should monitor this bit, and if set to 1, do your best to remedy the cause of the
jamming signal. Nearby transmitters or other electronic equipment could be the cause of interference;
you may find it necessary to relocate your antenna position if the problem persists.
Bits 12, 13, 14 Buffer COM 1 / COM 2
0
Normal operation is indicated by a 0 value.
1
These bits are set to 1 to inform the user when any of the 8-Kilobyte output buffers have reached an overrun condition (COM1 or COM2). Over-run is caused by requesting more log data than can be taken off the
GPSCard because of bit rate limitations or slow communications equipment. If this happens, the new data
attempting to be loaded into the buffer will be discarded. The receiver will not load a partial data record
into an output buffer. The flag resets to 0 five minutes after the last overrun occurred.
Bit 15
CPU Overload
0
Normal operation is indicated by a 0 value.
1
A value of 1 indicates that the CPU is being over-taxed. This may be caused by requesting an excessive
amount of information from the GPSCard. If this condition is occurring, limit redundant data logging or
change to using binary data output formats, or both. You should attempt to tune the logging requirements
to keep the idle time above 20% for best operation. If the average idle % drops below 10% for prolonged
periods of time (2-5 seconds), critical errors may result in internal data loss and the over-load bit will be
set to 1. You can monitor the CPU % idle time by using the RvSA log message. The flag resets to 0 five
minutes after the first overload occurred.
NOTE:
As the amount of CPU power becomes limited, the software will begin to slow down the position
calculation rate. If the CPU becomes further limited, the software will begin to skip range measurement
processing. Priority processing goes to the tracking loops.
Bit 16
Almanac Saved
0
Almanac not saved in non-volatile memory.
1
Almanac saved in non-volatile memory (12 channel OEM cards only).
Bit 17
L2 AGC
1
When set to 1, the L2 AGC circuits are operating within normal range of control.
0
This bit will be set clear if the L2 AGC is operating out of normal range. Intermittent setting of the AGC bit
indicates that the card is experiencing some electro-magnetic interference of a very short duration.
Continuous setting of the AGC bit may indicate that the card is receiving too much signal power from the
antenna or that a more serious problem with the card may exist. Failure of this test could be the result of
various possibilities, such as: bad antenna LNA, excessive loss in the antenna cable, faulty RF
downconverter, or a pulsating or high power jamming signal causing interference. If this bit is
continuously set clear, and you cannot identify an external cause for the failed test, please contact NovAtel
Customer Service.
Bit 18
L2 Jammer Detection
0
Normal operation is indicated when this bit is 0.
1
If set to 1, the receiver has detected a high power signal causing interference. When this happens, the
receiver goes into a special anti-jamming mode where it re-maps the A/D decode values as well as special
L2AGC feedback control. These adjustments help to minimize the loss that will occur in the presence of a
jamming signal. You should monitor this bit, and if set to 1, do your best to remedy the cause of the
jamming signal. Nearby transmitters or other electronic equipment could be the cause of interference; you
may find it necessary to relocate your antenna position if the problem persists.
Bit 19
L2 PLL
1
When the L2 RF downconverter passes self-test, the bit will be set to 1.
0
If a fault is detected in the L2 RF downconverter, this bit is set to 0.
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MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
D Logs Summary
Bit 20
OCXOPLL
1
When an external oscillator is connected and the OCXOPLL bit passes self-test, the bit will be set to 1.
0
If no external oscillator is detected or a fault is detected in the OCXOPLL bit, this bit is set to 0.
Bit 21
Saved Almanac Needs Update
1
When the almanac received is newer than the one currently stored in NVM (non-volatile memory), the
bit will be set to 1.
0
This bit will be set to 0 if an almanac has not been received that is newer than the one stored in memory.
Bit 22
Almanac Invalid
1
No almanac in use
0
Valid almanac in use
Bit 23
Position Solution Invalid
1
Position solution is not valid
0
Valid position computed
Bit 24
Position Fixed
1
A fix position command has been accepted
0
Position has not been fixed
Bit 25
Clock Model Invalid
1
Clock model has not stabilized
0
Clock model is valid
Bit 26
Clock Steering Disabled
1
Clockadjust disable command has been accepted
0
Clockadjust is enabled
Table D-6 Range Record Format (RGED only)
Data
Bit(s) from first to last
Length (bits)
Format
Scale Factor
PRN
1A, 1B
0..5
6
integer
1
C/No
2
6..10
5
integer
(20+n) dB-Hz
Lock time
3
11.31
21
integer
1/32 s
4
ADR
Doppler frequency
Pseudorange
StdDev - ADR
StdDev - pseudorange
32..63
32
integer 2’s comp.
1/256 cycles
68..95
64..67 msn; 96..127 lsw
128..131
132..135
28
36
4
4
integer 2’s comp.
integer 2’s comp.
integer
1/256 Hz
1/128 m
(n+1) / 512 cyc
Channel Tracking status 6
136..159
24
integer
see 5
see Table D-7, Page 201
Notes on Table D-6:
1A
Only PRNs 1 - 63 are reported correctly (Note: while there are only 32 PRNs in the basic GPS scheme,
situations exist which require the use of additional PRNs)
1B
The prn offsets for WAAS have been mapped to the same range as GPS, ie. 1 - 19, while the prn offsets
for GLONASS are 1 - 29.
2
C/No is constrained to a value between 20 - 51 dB-Hz. Thus, if it is reported that C/No = 20 dB-Hz, the
actual value could be less. Likewise, if it is reported that C/No = 51 dB-Hz, the true value could be greater.
3
Lock time rolls over after 2,097,151 seconds.
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
199
D Logs Summary
4
ADR (Accumulated Doppler Range) is calculated as follows:
ADR_ROLLS = ( -RGED_PSR / WAVELENGTH - RGED_ADR) / MAX_VALUE
Round to the closest integer
IF (ADR_ROLLS ≤ -0.5)
ADR_ROLLS = ADR_ROLLS - 0.5
ELSE
ADR_ROLLS = ADR_ROLLS + 0.5
At this point integerise ADR_ROLLS
CORRECTED_ADR = RGED_ADR + (MAX_VALUE * ADR_ROLLS)
where:
ADR has units of cycles
WAVELENGTH = 0.1902936727984 for L1
WAVELENGTH = 0.2442102134246 for L2
MAX_VALUE = 8388608
5
Code
6
200
RGED
0
0.000 to 0.050
1
0.051 to 0.075
2
0.076 to 0.113
3
0.114 to 0.169
4
0.170 to 0.253
5
0.254 to 0.380
6
0.381 to 0.570
7
0.571 to 0.854
8
0.855 to 1.281
9
1.282 to 2.375
10
2.376 to 4.750
11
4.751 to 9.500
12
9.501 to 19.000
13
19.001 to 38.000
14
38.001 to 76.000
15
76.001 to 152.000
Only bits 0 - 23 are represented in the RGED log
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
D Logs Summary
Table D-7 Channel Tracking Status
N 7
31
30
29
N 6
28
27
26
25
N 5
24
23
22
21
N 4
20
19
18
17
N 3
16
15
14
13
N 2
12
11
10
9
N1
8
7
6
5
N0
4
3
2
1
<- <- Nibble Number
0
Bit
Description
Range Values
lsb = 0
1 Tracking state
Hex.
1
0 - 11 See below
2
2
4
3
8
4
10
5
0 - n (0 = first, n =
20
last)
(n depends on GPSCard) 40
6 Channel number
7
80
8
100
9 Phase lock flag
1 = Lock, 0 = Not locked
200
10 Parity known flag
1 = Known, 0 = Not
known
1 = Lock, 0 = Not locked
400
11 Code locked flag
12
13 Correlator spacing
1000
0 - 7 See below
14
15
16 Satellite system
17
20 Frequency
21 Code type
22
23 Forward error correction
2000
4000
0=GPS 3= Pseudolite 8000
GPS
1=GLONASS 4-7
10000
Reserved
2=WAAS
20000
18 Reserved
19 Grouping
800
40000
1 = Grouped, 0 = Not
grouped
1 = L2, 0 = L1
80000
100000
0 = C/A 2 = P200000
codeless
1 =P
3 = Reserved 400000
1 = FEC enabled, 0 = no
FEC
800000
24
: Reserved
29
30 External range
31 Channel assignment
1 = Ext. range, 0 = Int.
range
1 = Forced, 0 =
Automatic
Table D-7 is referenced by the ETSA/B, FRMA/B, RGEA/B/D and WRCA/B logs.
Table D-7, Bits 0 - 3: Channel Tracking State
State
0
1
2
3
4
5
Description
L1 Idle
L1 Sky search
L1 Wide frequency band pull-in
L1 Narrow frequency band pull-in
L1 Phase-lock loop
L1 Re-acquisition
State
6
7
8
9
10
11
Description
L1 Steering
L1 Frequency-lock loop
L2 Idle
L2 P-code alignment
L2 Search
L2 Phase-lock loop
Higher numbers are reserved for future use
Table D-7, Bits 12-14: Correlator Spacing
State
0
1
2
Description
Unknown: this only appears in versions of software previous to x.45, which didn’t use this field
Standard correlator: spacing = 1 chip
Narrow Correlator tracking technology: spacing < 1 chip
Higher numbers are reserved for future use
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201
D Logs Summary
RINEX
The Receiver-Independent Exchange (RINEX) format is a broadly-accepted, receiver-independent format for
storing GPS data. It features a non-proprietary ASCII file format that can be used to combine or process data
generated by receivers made by different manufacturers. RINEX was originally developed at the Astronomical
Institute of the University of Berne. Version 2, containing the latest major changes, appeared in 1990;
subsequently, minor refinements were added in 1993. To date, there are three different RINEX file types
observation files, broadcast navigation message files and meteorological data files.
Please see Rinex Format, Page 56 for further details.
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D Logs Summary
RPSA/B Reference Station Position and Health
This log contains the ECEF XYZ position of the reference station as received through the RTCA Type 7 or RTCM
Type 3 message. It also features a time tag, the health status of the reference station, and the station ID. This
information is set at the reference station using the FIX POSITION command.
RPSA
Structure:
$RPSA
week
seconds
Field #
X
Field type
1
2
3
4
$RPSA
week
seconds
X
5
6
Y
Z
health
stn ID
*xx
Data Description
[CR][LF]
Example
1
Log header
GPS week number
GPS time into the week (seconds)
ECEF X value (meters)
$RPSA
872
174962.00
-1634962.8660
Y
1
ECEF y value (meters)
-3664682.4140
1
ECEF z value (meters)
4942301.3110
7
8
Z
health
stn ID
0
119
9
10
*xx
[CR][LF]
Reference Station Health
Reference station identification (RTCM: 0 - 1023, or
RTCA: 266305 - 15179385)
Checksum
Sentence terminator
Note:
1
*32
[CR][LF]
If (X, Y, Z) = (0,0,0) then a reference station position has not yet been determined.
Example:
$RPSA,872,174962.00,-1634962.8660,-3664682.4140,4942301.3110,0,119*32[CR][LF]
RPSB
Format:
Field #
1
(header)
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Message ID = 60
Message byte count = 56
Data
Sync
Checksum
Message ID
Message byte count
GPS week number
GPS time into the week
ECEF X value
ECEF Y value
ECEF Z value
Reference station health
Reference station identification (RTCM: 0 - 1023,
or RTCA: 266305 - 15179385)
Bytes
3
1
4
4
4
8
8
8
8
4
4
Format
char
char
integer
integer
integer
double
double
double
double
integer
integer
Units
weeks
seconds
meters
meters
meters
Offset
0
3
4
8
12
16
24
32
40
48
52
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
203
D Logs Summary
RTCA Standard Logs
The RTCA (Radio Technical Commission for Aviation Services) Standard is being designed to support Differential
Global Navigation Satellite System (DGNSS) Special Category I (SCAT-I) precision instrument approaches. The
RTCA Standard is in a preliminary state. NovAtel’s current support for this Standard is based on "Minimum
Aviation System Performance Standards DGNSS Instrument Approach System: Special Category I (SCAT-I)" dated
August 27, 1993 (RTCA/DO-217).
See RTCA Format Messages, Page 45 for more detailed information on RTCA standard logs.
RTCM Standard Logs
The Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services ( RTCM) was established to facilitate the establishment of
various radio navigation standards, which includes recommended GPS differential standard formats.
The standards recommended by the Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services Special Committee 104,
Differential GPS Service (RTCM SC-104,Washington, D.C.), have been adopted by NovAtel for implementation
into the GPSCard. Because the GPSCard is capable of utilizing RTCM formats, it can easily be integrated into
positioning systems around the globe.
See RTCM Format Messages, Page 47 for more detailed information on RTCM standard logs.
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MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
D Logs Summary
RTKA/B Computed Position - Time Matched RTK
This log represents positions that have been computed from time matched reference and remote observations.
There is no reference station extrapolation error on these positions but because they are based on buffered
measurements, they lag real time by some amount depending on the latency of the data link. If the remote receiver
has not been enabled to accept RTK differential data, or is not actually receiving data leading to a valid solution,
this will be reflected by the code shown in field #16 (RTK status) and #17 (position type).
The data in the logs will change only when a reference observation (RTCM Type 59 or the corresponding RTCA
Type 7) changes. If the log is being output at a fixed rate and the differential data is interrupted, then the RTKA/B
logs will continue to be output at the same rate but the position and time will not change.
A good message trigger for this log is "ONCHANGED". Then, only positions related to unique reference station
messages will be produced, and the existence of this log will indicate a successful link to the reference station.
RTKA
Structure:
$RTKA
week
lon
lat
lat σ
lon σ
posn type
Field #
seconds
hgt
hgt σ
dyn mode
Field type
#sv
#high
undulation
datum ID
soln status
stn ID
L1L2 #high
*xx
rtk status
[CR][LF]
Data Description
Example
1
2
3
4
5
$RTKA
week
seconds
#sv
#high
6
7
L1L2 #high
lat
8
lon
9
10
hgt
undulation
11
12
datum ID
lat σ
Log header
GPS week number
GPS time into the week (in seconds)
Number of matched satellites; may differ from the number in view.
Number of matched satellites above RTK mask angle; observations from satellites
below mask are heavily de-weighted
Number of matched satellites above RTK mask angle with both L1 and L2 available
Latitude of position in current datum, in decimal fraction format. A negative sign
implies South latitude
Longitude of position in current datum, in decimal fraction format. A negative sign
implies West longitude
Height of position in current datum, in meters above mean sea level
Geoidal separation, in meters, where positive is above ellipsoid and negative is
below ellipsoid
Current datum (see Appendix G, Page 234)
Standard deviation of latitude solution element, in meters
$RTKA
872
174962.00
8
7
13
lon σ
Standard deviation of longitude solution element, in meters
0.0039
7
51.11358039754
-114.04358003164
1059.4105
-16.2617
61
0.0036
14
hgt σ
Standard deviation of height solution element, in meters
0.0066
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
soln status
rtk status
posn type
dyn mode
stn ID
*xx
[CR][LF]
Solution status (seeTable D-1, Page 142)
RTK status (see Tables D-3, D-4, Page 143)
Position type (see Table D-2, Page 143)
Dynamics mode (0= static, 1= kinematic)
Reference station identification (RTCM: 0 - 1023, or RTCA: 266305 - 15179385)
Checksum
Sentence terminator
0
0
4
0
119
*33
[CR][LF]
Example:
$RTKA,872,174962.00,8,7,7,51.11358039754,-114.04358003164,1059.4105,
-16.2617,61,0.0036,0.0039,0.0066,0,0,4,0,119*33[CR][LF]
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205
D Logs Summary
RTKB
Format:
Message ID = 61
Message byte count = 116
Field #
Data
1
(header)
Sync
Checksum
Message ID
Message byte count
Week number
GPS time into the week
Number of matched satellites (00-12)
Number of matched satellites above RTK mask angle
Number of matched satellites above RTK mask angle with both L1 and
L2 available
Latitude
Longitude
Height above mean sea level
Undulation
Datum ID
Standard deviation of latitude
Standard deviation of longitude
Standard deviation of height
Solution status
RTK status
Position type
Dynamics mode
Reference station identification (RTCM: 0 - 1023, or RTCA: 266305 15179385)
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
206
Bytes
Format
3
1
4
4
4
8
4
4
4
char
char
integer
integer
integer
double
integer
integer
integer
8
8
8
8
4
8
8
8
4
4
4
4
4
double
double
double
double
integer
double
double
double
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
Units
weeks
seconds
degrees
degrees
meters
meters
meters
meters
meters
Offset
0
3
4
8
12
16
24
28
32
36
44
52
60
68
72
80
88
96
100
104
108
112
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
D Logs Summary
RTKOA/B RTK Solution Parameters
RTK
This is the “RTK output” log, and it contains miscellaneous information regarding the RTK solution. It is based on
the matched update. Note that the length of the log messages will vary depending on the number of matched
satellites in the solution, a quantity represented by #sv in the field numbers.
RTKOA
Structure:
$RTKOA
week
sec
status
#sat
#high
L1L2 #high
#sv
σxy
σxz
σyx
σyy
σyz
∆y
∆z
σ∆x
σ∆y
σ∆z
dyn
search
combn
σxx
σzx
σzy
σzz
∆x
rsrv
rsrv
ref id
sat id
amb
res
sat id
amb
res
*xx
[CR][LF]
#res
:
Field#
Field type
1
2
3
4
5
6
$RTKOA
week
sec
status
#sat
#high
7
L1L2 #high
8
#sv
9
10
11
12-20
dyn
search
combn
[σ]
Data Description
Log header
GPS week number
GPS time into the week (in seconds)
RTK status (see Table D-10, Page 209)
Total number of matched satellites available to both receivers
Number of matched satellites above RTK mask angle;
observations from satellites below mask are heavily
deweighted
Number of matched satellites above RTK mask angle with
both L1 and L2 available
Number of matched satellites in solution; may differ from the
number in view.
Dynamics mode (0=static, 1=kinematic)
Searcher status (see Table D-9, Page 209).
Number of possible lane combinations remaining
The σxx,σxy,σxz,σyx,σyy,σyz,σzx,σzy, and σzz components,
in (meters)2, of the ECEF position covariance matrix (3 x 3)
21-23
24-26
∆x,∆y,∆z
σ∆x,σ∆y,σ∆z
ECEF x.y,z of baseline from float solution in meters
x,y,z standard deviations of float solution baseline in meters
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
...
...
...
variable
variable
rsrv
rsrv
ref id
#res
sat id
amb
res
...
...
...
*xx
[CR][LF]
Reserved for future use
Reserved for future use
Reference PRN
Number of residual sets to follow
PRN number
Ambiguity type (see Table D-8, Page 209)
Residual in metres
Next PRN number, amb, res
...
Last PRN number, amb, res
Checksum
Sentence terminator
Example
$RTKOA
929
237639.00
1
8
8
8
8
0
4
1
0.000006136,0.000003797,-0.000003287,
0.000003797,0.000013211,-0.000007043,
-0.000006287,-0.000007043,0.000018575
3.2209,-3.0537,-1.2024
0.0183,0.0138,0.0124
0
0.0000
1
7
21
6
-0.001199
*60
[CR][LF]
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
207
D Logs Summary
Example:
$RTKOA,929,237639.00,1,8,8,8,8,0,4,1,0.000006136,0.000003797,
-0.000006287,0.000003797,0.000013211,-0.000007043,-0.000006287,
-0.000007043,0.000018575,3.2209,-3.0537,
-1.2024,0.0183,0.0138,0.0124,0,0.0000,1,7,
21,6,-0.001199,23,6,0.005461,31,6,0.009608,9,6,0.001963,
15,6,0.000208,29,6,-0.005643,25,6,-0.004366*60[CR][LF]
RTKOB
Format:
Message ID = 62
Message byte count = 196 + (#res)*16
Field #
1
(header)
Data
Bytes
Format
Units
Offset
3
1
4
4
4
8
4
4
char
char
integer
integer
integer
double
integer
integer
4
integer
32
4
integer
36
8
9
10
11
12-20
Sync
Checksum
Message ID
Message byte count
GPS week number
GPS time into the week
RTK status (see Table D-10, Page 209)
Total number of matched satellites available to both
receivers.
Number of matched satellites above RTK mask
angle
Number of matched satellites above RTK mask
angle with both L1 and L2 available
Number of matched satellites in solution
Dynamics mode (0=static, 1=kinematic)
Searcher status (see Table D-9, Page 209).
Number of possible lane combinations remaining
Position covariance matrix
4
4
4
4
72
integer
integer
integer
integer
double
40
44
48
52
56
21-23
24-26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
Baseline in ECEF x,y,z from float filter
Standard deviations of x,y,z from float filter
Reserved for future use
Reserved for future use
Reference PRN
Number of residual sets to follow
PRN number
Ambiguity type (see Table D-8, Page 209)
Residual
Next PRN offset = 196 + (#res)*16
24
24
4
8
4
4
4
4
8
double
double
integer
double
integer
integer
integer
integer
double
2
3
4
5
6
7
208
weeks
s
m2
m
m
0
3
4
8
12
16
24
28
128
152
176
180
188
192
196
m
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
D Logs Summary
Table D-8 Ambiguity Types
Ambiguity Type
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Definition
L1 only floating
Wide lane fixed integer
Reserved
Narrow lane floating
Iono–free floating
Reserved
Narrow lane fixed integer
Iono–free fixed discrete
L1 only fixed integer
Reserved
Undefined type
Higher numbers are reserved for future use
Table D-9 Searcher Status
Searcher Status
Definition
0
1
2
3
4
No search requested
Searcher buffering measurements
Currently searching
Search decision made
Hand-off to L1 and L2 complete
Higher numbers are reserved for future use
Table D-10 RTK Status
RTK Status
1
2
4
8
16
32
64
128
256
512
1024
2048
4096
8192
Definition
Good narrowlane solution
Good widelane solution
Good L1/L2 converged float solution
Good L1/L2 unconverged float solution
Good L1 converged solution
Good L1 unconverged solution
Reserved for future use
Insufficient observations
Variance exceeds limit
Residuals exceed limit
Delta position too large
Negative variance
Undefined
RTK initialize
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
209
D Logs Summary
RVSA/B Receiver Status
This log conveys various status parameters of the receiver system. If the system is a multiple-GPSCard unit with
a master card, certain parameters are repeated for each individual GPSCard. If the system is composed of only one
GPSCard, then only the parameters for that unit are listed. Together, the RVSA/B and VERA/B logs supersede
the RCSA/B logs.
Note that the number of satellite channels (the number of satellites the receiver is capable of tracking) is not
necessarily the same as the number of signal channels. This is because one L1/L2 satellite channel requires two
signal channels. Therefore the 12-channel MiLLennium GPSCard will report 24 signal channels in this field. This
number represents the maximum number of channels reporting information in logs such as ETSA/B and RGEA/
B/D.
RVSA
Structure:
$RVSA
idle
week
seconds
sat_chan
sig_chan
num
reserve
status
:
idle
status
*xx
[CR][LF]
Field #
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
...
...
...
variable
variable
Field type
$RVSA
week
seconds
sat_chan
sig_chan
num
reserve
idle
status
...
...
...
*xx
[CR][LF]
Data Description
Log header
GPS week number
GPS seconds into the week.
Number of satellite channels
Number of signal channels
Number of cards
Reserved field
First GPSCard: CPU idle time (percent)
First GPSCard: Self-test status (see Table D-5, Page 196)
Next GPSCard: CPU idle time & self-test status
...
Last GPSCard: CPU idle time & self-test status
Checksum
Sentence terminator
Example
$RVSA
847
318923.00
12
24
1
16.00
000B00FF
*42
[CR][LF]
Example:
$RVSA,847,318923.00,12,24,1,,16.00,000B00FF*42[CR][LF]
210
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
D Logs Summary
RVSB
Format:
Message ID = 56
Field #
1
(header)
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
8 & 9 are repeated
for each card
NOTE:
Data
Message byte count = 28 + (8 x number of cards)
Bytes
Sync
3
Checksum
1
Message ID
4
Message byte count
4
Week number
4
Seconds of week
8
Number of satellite channels 1
Number of signal channels
1
Number of cards
1
Reserved
1
CPU idle time, percent
4
Self-test status
4
Next Card offset = 28 + (8 x card number)
Format
char
char
integer
integer
integer
double
char
char
char
byte
float
integer
Units
weeks
seconds
Offset
0
3
4
8
12
16
24
25
26
27
28
32
For Field 9, self-test bits 2, 3, 4, 6, & 7 are set only once (when the GPSCard is first powered up). All
other bits are set by internal test processes each time the RVSB log is output.
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
211
D Logs Summary
SATA/B Satellite Specific Data
This log provides satellite specific data for satellites actually being tracked. The record length is variable and
depends on the number of satellites.
Each satellite being tracked has a reject code indicating whether it is used in the solution, or the reason for its
rejection from the solution. The reject value of 0 indicates the observation is being used in the position solution.
Values of 1 through 11 indicate the observation has been rejected for the reasons specified in Table D-11. A range
reject code of 8 only occurs when operating in differential mode and an interruption of corrections has occurred or
the DGPSTIMEOUT has been exceeded.
SATA
Structure:
$SATA
week
seconds
sol status
# obs
azimuth
elevation
residual
reject code
prn
azimuth
elevation
residual
reject code
*xx
[CR][LF]
prn
:
Field #
Field type
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
$SATA
week
seconds
sol status
# obs
prn
azimuth
8
elevation
9
residual
10
reject code
...
...
...
variable
variable
...
...
...
*xx
[CR][LF]
Data Description
Log header
GPS week number
GPS seconds into the week
Solution status as listed in Table D-1
Number of satellite observations with information to follow:
Satellite PRN number (1-32)
Satellite azimuth from user position with respect to True North, in
degrees
Satellite elevation from user position with respect to the horizon, in
degrees
Satellite range residual from position solution for each satellite, in
metres
Indicates that the range is being used in the solution (code 0) or that
it was rejected (code 1-11), as shown in Table D-11
Next PRN number, azimuth, elevation, residual, reject code
...
Last PRN number, azimuth, elevation, residual, reject code
Checksum
Sentence terminator
Example
$SATA
637
513902.00
0
7
18
168.92
5.52
9.582
0
*1F
[CR][LF]
Example:
$SATA,637,513902.00,0,7,18,168.92,5.52,9.582,0,6,308.12,55.48,0.737,0,
15,110.36,5.87,16.010,0,11,49.63,40.29,-0.391,0,
2,250.05,58.89,-12.153,0,16,258.55,8.19,-20.237,0,
19,118.10,49.46,-14.803,0*1F[CR][LF]
212
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
D Logs Summary
SATB
Format:
Message ID =12
Field #
Message byte count = 32 + (obs*32)
Data
Bytes
Format
Units
Offset
1
Sync
3
char
0
(header)
Checksum
1
char
3
Message ID
4
integer
4
Message byte count
4
integer
8
2
Week number
4
integer
weeks
12
3
Seconds of week
8
double
seconds
16
4
Solution status
4
integer
24
5
Number of
observations (obs)
4
integer
28
6
PRN
4
integer
32
7
Azimuth
8
double
degrees
36
8
Elevation
8
double
degrees
44
9
Residual
8
double
metres
52
10
Reject Code
4
integer
11...
Next PRN offset = 32 + (obs*32) where obs varies form 0 to (obs-1)
60
Table D-11 GPSCard Range Reject Codes
Value
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
Description
Observations are good
Bad satellite health is indicated by ephemeris data
Old ephemeris due to data not being updated during last 3 hours
Eccentric anomaly error during computation of the satellite’s position
True anomaly error during computation of the satellite’s position
Satellite coordinate error during computation of the satellite’s position
Elevation error due to the satellite being below the cutoff angle
Misclosure too large due to excessive gap between estimated and actual positions
No differential correction is available for this particular satellite
Ephemeris data for this satellite has not yet been received
Invalid IODE due to mismatch between differential stations
Locked Out: satellite is excluded by user (LOCKOUT command)
Low Power: satellite rejected due to low signal/noise ratio
L2 measurements are not currently used in the filter
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
213
D Logs Summary
SBTA/B Satellite Broadcast Data: Raw Symbols
This message contains the satellite broadcast data in raw symbols before FEC decoding or any other processing.
An individual message is sent for each PRN being tracked. For a given satellite, the message number increments
by one each time a new message is generated. This data matches the RBTA/B data if the message numbers are
equal. The data must be logged with the ’onnew’ trigger activated to prevent loss of data.
SBTA
Structure:
$SBTA
week
seconds
raw symbols
*xx
prn
cstatus
message #
# of symbols
[CR][LF]
Field #
Field type
Data Description
Example
1
$SBTA
Log header
$SBTA
2
week
GPS week number
883
3
seconds
GPS seconds into the week
413908.000
4
prn
PRN of satellite from which data originated
120
5
cstatus
Channel Tracking Status
80812F14
6
message #
Message sequence number
119300
7
# of symbols
Number of symbols transmitted in the message. At present,
always equals 256 symbols.
256
8
raw symbols
256 symbols compressed into a 128 bytes, i.e. 4 bits/symbol.
Hence, 256 hex characters are output. If FEC decoding is
enabled, soft symbols are output with values ranging from E
to 3 where 3’s represent binary 1 and E’s represent binary 0
output.
EE33EEEE33333E33EE33EEEE33
333E33EE33EEEE33333E33EE33E
EEE33333EEEE3333EEE33E33E3
EE33EEE3EEEE33EE3E3EEEEEE
EEEEEEEE3333EEE33EEEEE33E
E3EEE3E3EE3EE33EEE33E333EE
3333E3E3333E33E3333EEEEE333
EE3E3333EE3EE3EE33EE3EE3EE
3E33E33E3EEE33333E3333E33E3
E333E3E33333E3EEE3E3E
9
*xx
Checksum
*4C
10
[CR][LF]
Sentence terminator
[CR][LF]
SBTB
Format:
Message ID = 53
Field #
Data
Message byte count = 168
Bytes
Format
Units
Offset
1
Sync
3
char
0
(header)
Checksum
1
char
3
Message ID
4
integer
4
Message byte count
4
integer
bytes
8
2
Week number
4
integer
weeks
12
3
Seconds of week
8
double
seconds
16
4
PRN number
4
integer
1-999
24
5
Channel Status
4
integer
n/a
28
6
Message #
4
integer
n/a
32
7
# of Symbols
4
integer
n/a
36
8
Raw Symbols
128
char
n/a
40
214
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
D Logs Summary
SPHA/B Speed and Direction Over Ground
This log provides the actual speed and direction of motion of the GPSCard antenna over ground, at the time of
measurement, and is updated up to 10 times per second. It should be noted that the GPSCard does not determine
the direction a vessel, craft, or vehicle is pointed (heading), but rather the direction of motion of the GPS antenna
relative to ground.
SPHA
Structure:
$SPHA
week
vert spd
Field #
seconds
hor spd
sol status
*xx
Field type
1
2
3
4
5
$SPHA
week
seconds
hor spd
trk gnd
6
vert spd
7
8
9
sol status
*xx
[CR][LF]
trk gnd
[CR][LF]
Data Description
Example
Log header
GPS week number
GPS seconds into the week
Horizontal speed over ground, in meters per second
Actual direction of motion over ground (track over ground)
with respect to True North, in degrees
Vertical speed, in metres per second, where positive
values indicate increasing altitude (up) and negative
values indicate decreasing altitude (down)
Solution status as listed in Table D-1
Checksum
Sentence terminator
$SPHA
640
333111.00
0.438
325.034
2.141
0
*02
[CR][LF]
Example:
$SPHA,640,333111.00,0.438,325.034,2.141,0*02[CR][LF]
SPHB
Format:
Field #
1
(header)
2
3
4
5
6
7
Message ID = 06
Message byte count = 52
Data
Sync
Checksum
Message ID
Message byte count
Week number
Seconds of week
Horizontal speed
Track over ground (TOG)
Vertical speed
Solution status
Bytes
3
1
4
4
4
8
8
8
8
4
Format
char
char
integer
integer
integer
double
double
double
double
integer
Units
weeks
seconds
metres per second
degrees
metres per second
Offset
0
3
4
8
12
16
24
32
40
48
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
215
D Logs Summary
SVDA/B SV Position in ECEF XYZ Coordinates with Corrections
When combined with a RGEA/B/D log, this data set contains all of the decoded satellite information necessary to
compute the solution: satellite coordinates (ECEF WGS84), satellite clock correction, ionospheric corrections (from
broadcast model), tropospheric corrections (Hopfield model), decoded differential correction used and range
weight standard deviation. The corrections are to be added to the pseudoranges. Only those satellites that are
healthy are reported here. Also see Figure D-2, Page 185.
SVDA
Structure:
week
$SVDA
prn
seconds
rec clk err
# obs
x
y
z
clk corr
ion corr
trop corr
diff corr
rng std
prn
x
y
z
clk corr
ion corr
trop corr
diff corr
rng std
*xx
[CR][LF]
:
Field #
Field type
1
2
3
$SVDA
week
seconds
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
...
...
...
variable
variable
rec clk err
# obs
prn
x
y
z
clk corr
ion corr
trop corr
diff corr
rng std
...
...
...
*xx
[CR][LF]
Data Description
Log header
GPS week number
GPS seconds into the week (receiver time, not corrected for clock
error, CLOCKADJUST enabled)
Solved receiver clock error (metres)
Number of satellite observations to follow
Satellite PRN number (1-32)
Satellite x coordinate (metres)
Satellite y coordinate (metres)
Satellite z coordinate (metres)
Satellite clock correction (metres)
Ionospheric correction (metres)
Tropospheric correction (metres)
Decoded differential correction used (metres)
Range weight standard deviation (metres)
Next PRN number, x, y, z, clk corr, ion corr, trop corr, diff corr, mg std
...
Last PRN number, x, y, z, clk corr, ion corr, trop corr, diff corr, mg std
Checksum
Sentence terminator
Example
$SVDA
766
143860.00
-4.062
7
20
-15044774.225
-9666598.520
19499537.398
6676.013
-1.657
-2.662
16.975
0.674
*23
[CR][LF]
Example:
$SVDA,766,143860.00,-4.062,7,
20,-15044774.225,-9666598.520,19499537.398,6676.013,-1.657,-2.662,16.975,0.674
5,-10683387.874,-21566845.644,11221810.349,18322.228,-1.747,-2.819,-8.864,0.790,
6,-20659074.698,-28381.667,16897664619,57962.693,-2.543,4.401,-37.490,1.203,
16,142876.148,-26411452.927,2795075.561,-22644.136,-2.733,-4.904,7.701,1.259,
24,-852160.876,-16138149.057,21257323.813,229594.682,-1.545,-2.451,32.178,0.420,
25,-12349609.643,11102877.199,20644151.935,-4313.339,-3.584,-8.579,
-42.813,1.370,
..,
4,14209626.440,-9259502.647,20544348.215,12811.399,-2.675,-4.741,-10.778,1.239
*23[CR][LF]
216
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
D Logs Summary
SVDB
Format:
Field #
1
(header)
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15...
Message ID = 36
Data
Message byte count = 36 +(obs*68)
Bytes
Format
Sync
3
char
Checksum
1
char
Message ID
4
integer
Message byte count
4
integer
Week number
4
integer
Time in seconds
8
double
Receiver clock error
8
double
Number of observations to follow (obs)
4
integer
Satellite PRN number
4
integer
x coordinate of satellite
8
double
y coordinate of satellite
8
double
z coordinate of satellite
8
double
Satellite clock correction
8
double
Ionospheric correction
8
double
Tropospheric correction
8
double
Decoded differential correction used
8
double
Range weight standard deviation
8
double
Next PRN offset = 36 + (obs*68) where obs varies from 0 to (obs-1)
Units
weeks
seconds
metres
metres
metres
metres
metres
metres
metres
metres
metres
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
Offset
0
3
4
8
12
16
24
32
36
40
48
56
64
72
80
88
96
217
D Logs Summary
TM1A/B Time of 1PPS
This log provides the time of the GPSCard 1PPS, normally high, active low pulse (1 millisecond), where falling
edge is reference, in GPS week number and seconds into the week. The TM1A/B log follows a 1PPS pulse. It also
includes the receiver clock offset, the standard deviation of the receiver clock offset and clock model status. This
log will output at a maximum rate of 1 Hz.
TM1A
Structure:
$TM1A
week
utc offset
seconds
cm status
Field #
Field type
1
2
3
$TM1A
week
seconds
4
offset
5
6
offset std
utc offset
7
cm status
8
9
*xx
[CR][LF]
offset
*xx
offset std
[CR][LF]
Data Description
Example
Log header
GPS week number
GPS seconds into the week at the epoch coincident with the 1PPS
output strobe (receiver time)
Receiver clock offset, in seconds. A positive offset implies that the
receiver clock is ahead of GPS Time. To derive GPS time, use the
following formula:
GPS time = receiver time - (offset)
Standard deviation of receiver clock offset, in seconds
This field represents the offset of GPS time from UTC time, computed
using almanac parameters. To reconstruct UTC time, algebraically
subtract this correction from field 3 above (GPS seconds).
UTC time = GPS time + (utc offset)
Receiver Clock Model Status where 0 is valid and values from -20 to -1
imply that the model is in the process of stabilization
Checksum
Sentence terminator
$TM1A
794
414634.99999996
6
-0.000000078
0.000000021
-9.999999998
0
*57
[CR][LF]
Example:
$TM1A,794,414634.999999966,-0.000000078,0.000000021,-9.999999998,0*57[CR][LF]
TM1B
Format:
Field #
1
(header)
2
3
4
5
6
7
218
Message ID = 03
Data
Sync
Checksum
Message ID
Message byte count
Week number
Seconds of week
Clock offset
Stddev clock offset
UTC offset
Clock model status
Message byte count = 52
Bytes
3
1
4
4
4
8
8
8
8
4
Format
char
char
integer
integer
integer
double
double
double
double
integer
Units
weeks
seconds
seconds
seconds
seconds
Offset
0
3
4
8
12
16
24
32
40
48
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
D Logs Summary
VERA/B Receiver Hardware and Software Version Numbers
This log contains the current hardware type and software version number for the GPSCard. Together with the
RVSA/B log, it supersedes the RCSA/B log.
VERA
Structure:
$VERA
Field #
week
seconds
version
Field type
*xx
[CR][LF]
Data Description
Example
1
2
3
4
$VERA
week
seconds
version
Log header
GPS week number
GPS seconds into the week.
GPSCard hardware type and software version number
5
6
*xx
[CR][LF]
Checksum
Sentence terminator
$VERA
853
401364.50
OEM-3 MILLENSTD CGL96170069
HW 3-1 SW 4.42/2.03 May 14/96
*2B
[CR][LF]
Example:
$VERA,853,401364.50,OEM-3 MILLENSTD CGL96170069 HW 3-1 SW 4.42/2.03 May 14/
96*2B[CR][LF]
VERB
Format:
Field #
1
(header)
2
3
4
Message ID = 58
Data
Sync
Checksum
Message ID
Message byte count
Week number
Time into week
Version numbers
Message byte count = 104
Bytes
3
1
4
4
4
8
80
Format
char
char
integer
integer
integer
double
char
Units
weeks
s
Offset
0
3
4
8
12
16
24
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
219
D Logs Summary
VLHA/B Velocity, Latency, and Direction Over Ground
This log is similar to the SPHA/B message. As in the SPHA/B messages the actual speed and direction of the
GPSCard antenna over ground is provided. The VLHA/B differs in that it provides a measure of the latency in the
velocity time tag and a new velocity status word which gives the user more velocity quality information. The
velocity status indicates varying degrees of velocity quality. To ensure healthy velocity, the position sol-status
must also be checked. If the sol-status is non-zero, the velocity will likely be invalid. Also, it includes the age of
the differential corrections used in the velocity computation. It should be noted that the GPSCard does not
determine the direction a vessel, craft, or vehicle is pointed (heading), but rather the direction of motion of the GPS
antenna relative to ground.
VLHA
Structure:
$VLHA
week
vert spd
Field #
seconds
latency
sol status
Field type
1
2
3
4
$VLHA
week
seconds
5
6
7
age
hor spd
trk gnd
8
vert spd
9
10
11
12
sol status
vel status
*xx
[CR][LF]
1
Velocity Latency
latency
1
age
vel status
hor spd
*xx
trk gnd
[CR][LF]
Data Description
Log header
GPS week number
GPS seconds into the week
A measure of the latency in the velocity time tag in seconds. It
should be subtracted from the time to give improved results.
Age of Differential GPS data in seconds
Horizontal speed over ground, in metres per second
Actual direction of motion over ground (track over ground) with
respect to True North, in degrees
Vertical speed, in metres per second, where positive values
indicate increasing altitude (up) and negative values indicate
decreasing altitude (down)
Solution status as listed in Table D-1
Velocity status as listed in Table D-12
Checksum
Sentence terminator
Example
$VLHA
640
333111.00
0.250
3.500
0.438
325.034
2.141
0
0
*02
[CR][LF]
The velocity is computed using Doppler values derived from differences in consecutive carrier phase
measurements. As such, it is an average velocity based on the time difference between successive
position computations and not an instantaneous velocity at the SPHA/B time tag. Under normal operation
the position’s coordinates are updated at a rate of two times per second. The velocity latency compared
to this time tag will normally be 1/2 the time between position fixes. The default filter rate is 2 Hz, so
this latency is typically 0.25 second, but if, for example, the POSA records were to be logged ontime 0.2,
then the velocity latency would be one half of 0.2, or 0.1 second. The latency can be reduced further by
the user requesting the POSA/B, the SPHA/B, or the VLHA/B messages at rates higher than 2 Hz. For
example, a rate of 10 Hz will reduce the velocity latency to 1/20 of a second. For integration purposes,
the velocity latency should be applied to the record time tag.
Example:
$VLHA,640,333111.00,0.250,3.500,0.438,325.034,2.141,0,0*02[CR][LF]
220
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
D Logs Summary
VLHB
Format:
Field #
1
(header)
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Message ID = 34
Message byte count = 72
Data
Bytes
Sync
Checksum
Message ID
Message byte count
Week number
Seconds of week
Latency
Age
Horizontal speed
Track over ground (TOG)
Vertical speed
Solution status
Velocity status
3
1
4
4
4
8
8
8
8
8
8
4
4
Format
char
char
integer
integer
integer
double
double
double
double
double
double
integer
integer
Units
weeks
seconds
metres per second
seconds
metres per second
degrees
metres per second
Offset
0
3
4
8
12
16
24
32
40
48
56
64
68
Table D-12 GPSCard Velocity Status
Value
0
1
2
3
4
5
Description
Velocity computed from differentially corrected carrier phase data
Velocity computed from differentially corrected Doppler data
Old velocity from differentially corrected phase or Doppler (higher latency)
Velocity from single point computations
Old velocity from single point computations (higher latency)
Invalid velocity
Higher values reserved for future use
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
221
D Logs Summary
WALA/B WAAS Almanac
WAAS
Structure:
$WALA
week
seconds
prn
data ID
health
pos X
pos Y
pos Z
vel X
vel Y
vel Z
Field #
Field type
WAAS week
WAAS seconds
Data Description
Example
1
$WALA
Log header
$WALA
2
week
GPS week number
981
3
seconds
GPS seconds into the week
447490.88
4
WAAS week
WAAS week number
981
5
WAAS seconds
WAAS seconds into the week at time of application
447360
6
prn
WAAS GEO satellite PRN number
122
7
data ID
Version of WAAS signal specification, see Table D-14
0
8
health
Health and status of the WAAS GEO satellite, see Table D-13
0
9
pos X
Position x coordinate of WAAS GEO satellite at WAAS seconds (Field #5)
2.5789400E+007
10
pos Y
Position y coordinate of WAAS GEO satellite at WAAS seconds (Field #5)
-3.5479600E+007
11
pos Z
Position z coordinate of WAAS GEO satellite at WAAS seconds (Field #5)
2.60000000E+004
12
vel X
Velocity x coordinate of WAAS GEO satellite
0.00000000E+000
13
vel Y
Velocity y coordinate of WAAS GEO satellite
0.00000000E+000
14
vel Z
Velocity z coordinate of WAAS GEO satellite
0.00000000E+000
15
*xx
Checksum
*32
16
[CR][LF]
Sentence terminator
[CR] [LF]
*Example:
$WALA,981,447490.88,981,447360,122,0,0,2.57894000E+007,3.5479600E+007,2.60000000E+004,0.00000000E+000,0.00000000E+000,0.00000000E+000*32 [CR][LF]
222
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
D Logs Summary
WALB
Format:
Message ID = 81
Field #
1
(header)
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
Message byte count = 92
Data
Bytes
Sync
Checksum
Message ID
Message byte count
Week number
Seconds of week
WAAS week number
WAAS seconds of week
WAAS satellite PRN number
WAAS signal specification version
WAAS satellite health
Position x coordinate of WAAS satellite
Position y coordinate of WAAS satellite
Position z coordinate of WAAS satellite
Velocity x coordinate of WAAS satellite
Velocity y coordinate of WAAS satellite
Velocity z coordinate of WAAS satellite
3
1
4
4
4
8
4
4
4
4
4
8
8
8
8
8
8
Format
char
char
integer
integer
ulong
double
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
double
double
double
double
double
double
Units
weeks
seconds
weeks
seconds
meters
meters
meters
m/s
m/s
m/s
Offset
0
3
4
8
12
16
24
28
32
36
40
44
52
60
68
76
84
Table D-13 Health and Status Bits
Bit Number*
Range Values
0
Ranging
0 = On 1 = Off
1
Corrections
0 = On 1 = Off
2
Broadcast integrity
0 = On 1 = Off
3
Reserved
-
Service Provider ID
-
4-7
*Note:
Description
Read the binary output from the Health field from right to left. The first bit to the right, the least significant bit,
is bit 0 and so on to the left.
Table D-14 Data ID Type
Data ID
Type (Service Provider)
0
WAAS (Wide Area Augmentation System)
1
EGNOS (European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service)
2
MSAS (Multi-Functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT) based Augmentation System)
3-15
Reserved
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
223
D Logs Summary
WRCA/B Wide Band Range Correction (Grouped Format)
This message contains the wide band range correction data. A correction is generated for each PRN being tracked
and these group together into a single log. Internally, the correction for each satellite is updated asynchronously
at a 1 Hz rate. Therefore, logging this message at a rate higher than 1 Hz will result in duplicate data being output.
Each range correction is statistically independent and is derived from the previous 1 second of data.
WRCA
Structure:
$WRCA
prn
week
seconds
# obs
ch-tr-status
tr-bandwidth
wide band correction
prn
ch-tr-status
tr-bandwidth
wide band correction
*xx
[CR][LF]
:
Field #
Field type
Data Description
Example
1
$WRCA
Log header
$WRCA
2
week
GPS week number
637
3
seconds
GPS seconds into the week
513902.00
4
# obs
Number of satellite observations with information to follow:
7
5
prn
Satellite PRN number
18
6
ch-tr-status
Channel Tracking Status: Hexadecimal number indicating phase lock, channel
number and channel tracking state as shown in Table D-7.
E04
7
tr-bandwidth
DLL tracking loop bandwidth in Hz
0.050
8
wide band correction
Wide band range correction in metres
1.323
...
...
...
...
...
...
Next PRN number, ch-tr-status, tr-bandwidth, wide band correction
...
Last PRN number, ch-tr-status, tr-bandwidth, wide band correction
variable
*xx
Checksum
*1F
variable
[CR][LF]
Sentence terminator
[CR][LF]
WRCB
Format:
Message ID = 67
Field #
Data
Message byte count = 28 + (obs*16)
Bytes
Format
Units
Offset
1
Sync
3
char
0
(header)
Checksum
1
char
3
Message ID
4
integer
4
Message byte count
4
integer
bytes
8
2
Week number
4
integer
weeks
12
3
Seconds of week
8
double
seconds
16
4
Number of observations (obs)
4
integer
24
5
PRN
4
integer
28
6
Channel tracking status
4
-
-
32
7
DLL tracking loop bandwidth
4
float
Hz
36
8
Wide Band Range Correction
4
float
metres
40
9...
Next PRN offset = 28 + (obs*16)
224
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
E Comparison Of RT-2 And RT-20
E
COMPARISON OF RT-2 AND RT-20
E COMPARISON OF RT-2 AND RT-20
E.1 RT-2 & RT-20 PERFORMANCE
RT-2 and RT-20 are real-time kinematic software products developed by NovAtel. They can only be used in
conjunction with NovAtel GPS receivers. A quick comparison of RT-2 and RT-20 is shown in Table E-1:
Table E-1 Comparison of RT-2 and RT-20
RT-2
GPS Frequencies Utilized
Nominal Accuracy
Lane Searching
RT-20
L1 & L2
L1
2 cm (CEP)
20 cm (CEP)
Wide lane and narrow lane
None
NovAtel’s RTK software algorithms utilize both carrier and code phase measurements; thus, the solutions are
robust, reliable, accurate and rapid. While both RT-20 and RT-2 operate along similar principles, RT-2 achieves
its extra accuracy and precision due to its being able to utilize dual-frequency measurements. Dual-frequency GPS
receivers have two main advantages over their single-frequency counterparts when running RTK software:
1.
2.
resolution of cycle ambiguity is possible due to the use of wide lane searching
longer baselines are possible due to the removal of ionospheric errors
Depending on the transmitting and receiving receivers, various levels of accuracy can be obtained. Please refer to
the particular accuracy as shown in Table E-2.
Table E-2 RTK Messages Vs. Accuracy
Transmitting (Reference)
GPSCard transmitting RTCA
(i.e. RTCAOBS and RTCAREF)
GPSCard transmitting RTCM type 3 and 59
GPSCard transmitting RTCM or RTCA type 1
Transmitting RTCM type 18 and 19 with type 3
Transmitting CMR
(i.e. CMROBS and CMRREF)
Receiving (Remote)
Accuracy Expected
RT-2 receiver
2 centimetre CEP
RT-20 receiver
20 centimetre CEP
RT-2 receiver
20 centimetre CEP
RT-20 receiver
20 centimetre CEP
RT-2 receiver
1 metre SEP
RT-20 receiver
1 metre SEP
RT-2 receiver
2 centimetre CEP
RT-20 receiver
20 centimetre CEP
RT-2 receiver
2 centimetre CEP
RT-20 receiver
20 centimetre CEP
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
225
E Comparison Of RT-2 And RT-20
RT-2 Performance
The RT-2 software provides the accuracies shown in Table E-3 & Figure E-1 (static mode) and Table E-4 &
Figure E-2 (kinematic mode) for “typical” multipath, ionospheric, tropospheric, and ephemeris errors, where
“typical” is described as follows:
• A typical multipath environment would provide no carrier-phase double-difference multipath errors
greater than 2 cm or pseudorange double-difference multipath errors greater than 2 m on satellites at 11°
elevation or greater. For environments where there is greater multipath, please consult NovAtel Customer
Service.
• Typical unmodeled ionospheric, tropospheric and ephemeris errors must be within 2σ of their average
values, at a given elevation angle and baseline length. It is assumed that the tropospheric correction is
computed with standard atmospheric parameters. All performance specifications assume that at least 6
satellites above the mask angle (varies between 11 and 14 degrees) are being tracked on both L1 and L2.
In Tables E-3 and E-4, accuracy values refer to horizontal RMS error, and are based on matched positions. There
are no data delays for a matched log and therefore no need to add anything. The level of position accuracy at any
time will be reflected in the standard deviations output with the position.
Table E-3 RT-2 Performance: Static Mode
Baseline
length
Time since L2 lock-on with at least
6 satellites above mask angle
Horizontal accuracy at
the stated time
Runs meeting the stated
accuracy at the stated time
< 10 km
70 seconds + 1.5 sec/km
2 cm + 0.5 ppm
75.0%
< 10 km
5 minutes
1 cm + 1 ppm
75.0%
< 15 km
4 minutes
5 cm
66.7%
< 25 km
7 minutes
7 cm
66.7%
< 35 km
10 minutes
35 cm
66.7%
< 35 km
30 minutes
25 cm
66.7%
Table E-4 RT-2 Performance: Kinematic Mode
Baseline
length
Time since L2 lock-on with at least
6 satellites above mask angle
Horizontal accuracy at
the stated time
Runs meeting the stated
accuracy at the stated time
< 10 km
120 seconds + 1.5 sec/km
2 cm + 0.5 ppm
75.0%
< 15 km
8 minutes
8 cm
66.7%
< 25 km
14 minutes
10 cm
66.7%
< 35 km
20 minutes
40 cm
66.7%
< 35 km
60 minutes
25 cm
66.7%
PRTK logs contain some error due to predictions from base station observations. The expected error of a PRTK
log will be that of the corresponding RTK log plus the appropriate error from Table E-5.
Table E-5 RT-2 Degradation With Respect To Data Delay ➀
Data Delay (sec)
Distance (km)
Accuracy (CEP)
0-2
2-7
7 - 30
>30
1
1
1
1
+1 cm/sec
+2 cm/sec
+5 cm/sec
single point or pseudorange differential positioning ➁
➀ Mode = Static or Kinematic
➁ After 30 seconds reverts to pseudorange positioning (single point or differential depending on messages previously received from the base station).
See Section A.3, Page 64 for an overview of GPS positioning.
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MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
E Comparison Of RT-2 And RT-20
Figure E-1 Typical RT-2 Horizontal Convergence - Static Mode
1.4
1.2
Baselines
CEP(meters)
1
0.1 km 15 km
0.8
25 km
50 km
1500
1800
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0
300
600
900
1200
2100
2400
2700
3000
3300
3000
3300
Seconds of Convergence
Figure E-2 Typical RT-2 Horizontal Convergence - Kinematic
Mode
1.4
1.2
Baselines
CEP(meters)
1
0.1 km 15 km
25 km
50 km
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0
300
600
900
1200
1500
1800
2100
2400
2700
Seconds of Convergence
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
227
E Comparison Of RT-2 And RT-20
For baselines under 30 km long, the RT-2 solution shows two pronounced steps in accuracy convergence; these
correspond to the single-point solution switching to the floating ambiguity solution which in turn switches to the
narrow lane solution. If you were monitoring this using NovAtel’s GPSolution program, the convergence sequence
might look something like what is shown in Figure E-3.
Figure E-4 shows the performance of the RT-2 system running RTCM59 corrections at 1/2 Hz rate.
Figure E-3 RT-2 Accuracy Convergence
Single-point solution
Floating ambiguity solution
Narrow lane solution
Figure E-4 Illustration of RT-2 Steady State Performance
RT-20 Performance
As shown in Table E-6, Figure E-5 and Figure E-6 the RT-20 system provides nominal 20 cm accuracy (CEP)
after 3 minutes of continuous lock in static mode. After an additional period of continuous tracking (from 10 to 20
minutes), the system reaches steady state and position accuracies in the order of 3 to 4 cm are typical. The time to
steady state is about 3 times longer in kinematic mode.
RT-20 double-difference accuracies are based on PDOP < 2 and continuous tracking of at least 5 satellites (6
preferred) at elevations of at least 11.5°.
All accuracy values refer to horizontal RMS error, and are based on low-latency positions. The level of position
accuracy at any time will be reflected in the standard deviations output with the position.
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MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
E Comparison Of RT-2 And RT-20
Table E-6 RT-20 Performance
Tracking Time (sec)
Mode 1
Data Delay (sec)
Distance (km)
1 - 180
180 - 3000
> 3000
Static
Static
Static
0
0
0
1
1
1
1 - 600
600 - 3000
> 3000
Kinematic
Kinematic
Kinematic
0
0
0
1
1
1
Either
Either
Either
Either
0-2
2-7
7 - 30
> 30
1
1
1
1
Either
Either
Either
0
0
0
0 - 10
10 - 20
20 - 50
1
2
3
Accuracy (CEP)
100 to 25 cm
25 to 5 cm
5 cm or less
100 to 25 cm
25 to 5 cm
2
5 cm or less
+1 cm/sec
+2 cm/sec
+5 cm/sec
2
pseudorange or single point
+0.5 cm/km
+0.75 cm/km
+1.0 cm/km
3
Mode = Static or Kinematic (during initial ambiguity resolution)
The accuracy specifications refer to the PRTKA/B logs which include about 3 cm extrapolation error. RTKA/B logs are
more accurate but have increased latency associated with them.
After 30 seconds reverts to pseudorange positioning (single point or differential depending on messages previously
received from the base station).
Figure E-5 Typical RT-20 Convergence - Static Mode
1.4
1.2
Baselines
CEP(meters)
1
0.1 km 15 km
0.8
25 km
50 km
1500
1800
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0
300
600
900
1200
2100
2400
2700
3000
3300
Seconds of Convergence
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
229
E Comparison Of RT-2 And RT-20
Figure E-6 Typical RT-20 Convergence - Kinematic Mode
1.4
Baselines
1.2
0.1 km 15 km
CEP(meters)
1
25 km
50 km
1500
1800
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0
300
600
900
1200
2100
2400
2700
3000
3300
Seconds of Convergence
Figure E-7 shows the performance of the RT-20 system running with RTCM59 corrections received at a 1/2 Hz rate.
Figure E-7 RT-20 Steady State Performance
230
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
E Comparison Of RT-2 And RT-20
E.2 PERFORMANCE CONSIDERATIONS
When referring to the “performance” of RTK software, two factors are introduced:
1.
Baseline length: the position estimate becomes less precise as the baseline length increases. Note that the
baseline length is the distance between the phase centres of the two antennas. Identifying the exact position
of your antenna’s phase centre is essential; this information is typically supplied by the antenna’s manufacturer
or vendor.
The RTK software automatically makes the transition between short and longer baselines, but the best
results are obtained for baselines less than 10 km. The following are factors which are related to baseline
length:
•
ephemeris errors - these produce typical position errors of 0.75 cm per 10 km of baseline length.
•
ionospheric effects - the dominant error for single-frequency GPS receivers on baselines exceeding
10 km. Differential ionospheric effects reach their peak at dusk and dawn, being at a minimum during
hours of darkness. Ionospheric effects can be estimated and removed on dual-frequency GPS
receivers, greatly increasing the permissible baseline length, but at the cost of introducing additional
“noise” to the solution. Therefore, this type of compensation is only used in cases where the
ionospheric error is much larger than the noise and multipath error.
•
tropospheric effects - these produce typical position errors of approximately 1 cm per 10 km of baseline length. This error increases if there is a significant height difference between the reference and
remote stations, as well as if there are significantly different weather conditions between the two sites.
A related issue is that of multipath interference, the dominant error on short differential baselines.
Generally, multipath can be reduced by choosing the antenna’s location with care, and by the use of a
choke-ring antenna ground plane, see Appendix B, Page 73.
2.
Convergence time: the position estimate becomes more accurate and more precise with time. However, convergence time is dependent upon baseline length: while good results are available after a minute or so for
short baselines, the time required increases with baseline length. Convergence time is also affected by the
number of satellites which can be used in the solution: the more satellites, the faster the convergence.
Performance Degradation
The performance will degrade if satellites are lost at the remote or if breaks occur in the differential correction
transmission link. The degradations related to these situations are described in the following paragraphs.
Provided lock is maintained on at least 4 SVs and steady state has been achieved, the only degradation will be the
result of a decrease in the geometrical strength of the observed satellite constellation. If steady state has not been
achieved, then the length of time to ambiguity resolution under only 4-satellite coverage will be increased
significantly.
REMOTE TRACKING LOSS
If less than 4 satellites are maintained, then the RTK filter can not produce a position. When this occurs, the POSA/
B and P20A/B logs will be generated with differential (if RTCM Type 1 messages are transmitted with the Type 59
messages) or single point pseudorange solutions if possible. When the satellites are reacquired, the RTK
initialization process described below occurs (see Figure E-8, Page 232).
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
231
E Comparison Of RT-2 And RT-20
DIFFERENTIAL LINK BREAKDOWN
1.
Provided the system is in steady state, and the loss of observation data is for less than 30 seconds, the RTK
positions will degrade according to the divergence of the reference observation extrapolation filters. This
causes a decrease in accuracy of about an order of magnitude per 10 seconds without a reference station
observation, and this degradation is reflected in the standard deviations of the low latency logs. Once the
data link has been re-established, the accuracy will return to normal after several samples have been
received.
2.
If the loss of differential corrections lasts longer than 30 seconds, the RTK filter is reset and all ambiguity
and reference model information is lost. The timeout threshold for RTK differential corrections is 30
seconds, but for Type 1 pseudorange corrections, the timeout is 60 seconds. Therefore, when the RT-20
can no longer function because of this timeout, the pseudorange filter can produce differential positions
for an additional 30 seconds (provided RTCM Type 1 messages were transmitted along with the Type 59
messages) before the system reverts to single point positioning. Furthermore, once the link is reestablished, the pseudorange filter produces an immediate differential position while the RTK filter takes
an additional 14 seconds to generate its positions. The reference models require 7 reference observations
before they are declared useable, and this will take 14 seconds, based on a 1/2 Hz differential correction
rate. The reference model must be healthy before solutions are logged to the low latency logs, so there is
a delay in the use of real time carrier positioning to the user once the link has been re-established. The
RTK logs (RTCA/B, RTKA/B AND BSLA/B) use matched observations only (no extrapolated observations),
and these will be available after three reference observations are received, but will have about 1.5 seconds
latency associated with them.
Figure E-8 RT-20 Re-initialization Process
REFERENCE
REMOTE
RTCM59 messages
required following
RESETRT20
1
2
3
4
5
Reference Start generating
Doppler
reference phase
models and
RTKA/B logs
6
Models
Ready
7
Generate
RTKA/B
and
PRTKA/B
logs
The RTK system is based on a time-matched double difference observation filter. This means that observations at
the remote site have to be buffered while the reference station observation is encoded, transmitted, and decoded.
Only two seconds of remote observations are saved, so the reference station observation transmission process has
to take less than 2 seconds if any time matches are to be made. In addition, only remote observations on whole
second boundaries are retained (e.g. measurements made at 3.0, 4.0 or 5.0 seconds of the week are retained, but
not measurements made at 3.5, 4.1 or 5.25 seconds), so monitor observations must also be sent on whole seconds
if time matches are to be made. The following shows the correct and incorrect way to send corrections:
Correct. Corrections should be sent like this:
LOG COM2 RTCM59 ONTIME 2.0 0.0
Incorrect. Do not attempt to send corrections like this:
LOG COM2 RTCM59 ONTIME 2.0 0.5
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MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
F Standards and References
F
STANDARDS AND REFERENCES
F STANDARDS AND REFERENCES
RTCM STANDARDS REFERENCE
For detailed specifications of RTCM, refer to RTCM SC104 Version 2.1 of "RTCM Recommended Standards For
Differential NAVSTAR GPS Service", January 3, 1994
Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services
1800 Diagonal Road, Suite 600
Alexandria, VA 22314 U.S.A.
Telephone: 703-684-4481
Fax: 703-836-4429
Website: http://www.navcen.uscg.mil/faq/dgpsfaq1.htm#Where
RTCA STANDARDS REFERENCE
For copies of the Minimum Aviation System Performance Standards DGNSS Instrument Approach System:
Special Category-I (SCAT-I), contact:
RTCA, Incorporated
1140 Connecticut Avenue N.W., Suite 1020
Washington, D.C. 20036-4001 U.S.A.
Telephone: 202-833-9339
Fax: 202-833-9434
Website: http://www.rtca.org
GPS SPS SIGNAL SPECIFICATION REFERENCE
For copies of the Interface Control Document (ICD)-GPS-200, contact:
ARINC Research Corporation
2250 East Imperial Highway, Suite 450
El Segundo, CA 90245
Telephone: 310-524-1557
Fax: 310-322-4474
Website: http://www.navcen.uscg.mil/gps/geninfo/gpsdocuments/icd200/default.htm
NMEA REFERENCE
National Marine Electronics Association, NMEA 0183 Standard for Interfacing Marine Electronic Devices,
Version 2.00, January 1, 1992
NMEA Executive Director
P.O. Box 3435
New Bern, NC 28564-3435 U.S.A.
Telephone: 252-638-2626
Fax: 252-638-4885
Website: http://www4.coastalnet.com/nmea
GEODETIC SURVEY OF CANADA
Geodetic Survey of Canada
615 Boothe Street
Ottawa, Ontario
K1A 0E9
Telephone: 613- 995-4410
Fax: 613-995-3215
Website: http://www.geocan.nrcan.gc.ca/ps/geode.html
U.S. NATIONAL GEODETIC SURVEY
NGS Information Services
1315 East-West Highway
Station 9244
Silver Springs, MD 20910-3282
Telephone: 301-713-2692
Fax: 301-713-4172
Website: http://www.ngs.noaa.gov
NOTE:
Website addresses, postal addresses and telephone numbers may be subject to change; however, they are
believed to be accurate at the time of publication.
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
233
G Geodetic Datums
G
GEODETIC DATUMS
G GEODETIC DATUMS
The following tables contain the internal ellipsoid parameters and transformation parameters used in the GPSCard.
The values contained in these tables were derived from the following DMA technical reports:
1.
TR 8350.2
Department of Defence World Geodetic System 1984 and Relationships with Local
Geodetic Systems - Revised March 1, 1988.
2.
TR 8350.2B
Supplement to Department of Defence World Geodetic System 1984 Technical Report
- Part II - Parameters, Formulas, and Graphics for the Practical Application of WGS84
- December 1, 1987.
Table G-1 Reference Ellipsoid Constants
ELLIPSOID
ID CODE
Airy 1830
Modified Airy
Australian National
Bessel 1841
Clarke 1866
Clarke 1880
Everest (India 1830)
Everest (Brunei & E.Malaysia)
Everest (W.Malaysia & Singapore)
Geodetic Reference System 1980
Helmert 1906
Hough 1960
International 1924
South American 1969
World Geodetic System 1972
World Geodetic System 1984
a (metres)
AW
AM
AN
BR
CC
CD
EA
EB
ED
RF
HE
HO
IN
SA
WD
WE
6377563.396
6377340.189
6378160.0
6377397.155
6378206.4
6378249.145
6377276.345
6377298.556
6377304.063
6378137.0
6378200.0
6378270.0
6378388.0
6378160.0
6378135.0
6378137.0
1/f
299.3249647
299.3249647
298.25
299.1528128
294.9786982
293.465
300.8017
300.8017
300.8017
298.257222101
298.30
297.00
297.00
298.25
298.26
298.257223563
f
0.00334085064038
0.00334085064038
0.00335289186924
0.00334277318217
0.00339007530409
0.00340756137870
0.00332444929666
0.00332444929666
0.00332444929666
0.00335281068118
0.00335232986926
0.00336700336700
0.00336700336700
0.00335289186924
0.00335277945417
0.00335281066475
Table G-2 Transformation Parameters (Local Geodetic to WGS84)
GPSCard
Datum ID
number
NAME
DX
DY
DZ
DATUM DESCRIPTION
ELLIPSOID
1
ADIND
-162
-12
206
Adindan (Ethiopia, Mali, Senegal & Sudan)
Clarke 1880
2
ARC50
-143
-90
-294
ARC 1950 (SW & SE Africa)
Clarke 1880
3
ARC60
-160
-8
-300
ARC 1960 (Kenya, Tanzania)
Clarke 1880
4
AGD66
-133
-48
148
Australian Geodetic Datum 1966
Australian National
5
AGD84
-134
-48
149
Australian Geodetic Datum 1984
Australian National
6
BUKIT
-384
664
-48
Bukit Rimpah (Indonesia)
Bessel 1841
7
ASTRO
-104
-129
239
Camp Area Astro (Antarctica)
International 1924
8
CHATM
175
-38
113
Chatum 1971 (New Zealand)
International 1924
9
CARTH
-263
6
431
Carthage (Tunisia)
Clarke 1880
10
CAPE
-136
-108
-292
CAPE (South Africa)
Clarke 1880
11
DJAKA
-377
681
-50
Djakarta (Indonesia)
Bessel 1841
12
EGYPT
-130
110
-13
Old Egyptian
Helmert 1906
13
ED50
-87
-98
-121
European 1950
International 1924
14
ED79
-86
-98
-119
European 1979
International 1924
15
GUNSG
-403
684
41
G. Segara (Kalimantan - Indonesia)
Bessel 1841
16
GEO49
84
-22
209
Geodetic Datum 1949 (New Zealand)
International 1924
234
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
G Geodetic Datums
Table G-2 Transformation Parameters (Local Geodetic to WGS84)
17
GRB36
375
-111
431
Great Britain 1936 (Ordinance Survey)
Airy 1830
18
GUAM
-100
-248
259
Guam 1963 (Guam Island)
Clarke 1866
19
HAWAII
89
-279
-183
Hawaiian Hawaii (Old)
International 1924
20
KAUAI
45
-290
-172
Hawaiian Kauai (Old)
International 1924
21
MAUI
65
-290
-190
Hawaiian Maui (Old)
International 1924
22
OAHU
56
-284
-181
Hawaiian Oahu (Old)
International 1924
23
HERAT
-333
-222
114
Herat North (Afghanistan)
International 1924
24
HJORS
-73
46
-86
Hjorsey 1955 (Iceland)
International 1924
25
HONGK
-156
-271
-189
Hong Kong 1963
International 1924
26
HUTZU
-634
-549
-201
Hu-Tzu-Shan (Taiwan)
International 1924
27
INDIA
289
734
257
Indian (India, Nepal, Bangladesh)
Everest (EA)
28
IRE65
506
-122
611
Ireland 1965
Modified Airy
29
KERTA
-11
851
5
Kertau 1948 (West Malaysia and Singapore)
Everest (ED)
30
KANDA
-97
787
86
Kandawala (Sri Lanka)
Everest (EA)
31
LIBER
-90
40
88
Liberia 1964
Clarke 1880
32
LUZON
-133
-771
-51
Luzon (Philippines excluding Mindanoa Is.)
Clarke 1866
33
MINDA
-133
-70
-72
Mindanoa Island
Clarke 1866
34
MERCH
31
146
47
Merchich (Morocco)
Clarke 1880
35
NAHR
-231
-196
482
Nahrwan (Saudi Arabia)
Clarke 1880
36
NAD83
0
0
0
N. American 1983 (Includes Areas 37-42)
GRS-80
37
CANADA
-10
158
187
N. American Canada 1927
Clarke 1866
38
ALASKA
-5
135
172
N. American Alaska 1927
Clarke 1866
39
NAD27
-8
160
176
N. American Conus 1927
Clarke 1866
40
CARIBB
-7
152
178
N. American Caribbean
Clarke 1866
41
MEXICO
-12
130
190
N. American Mexico
Clarke 1866
42
CAMER
0
125
194
N. American Central America
Clarke 1866
43
MINNA
-92
-93
122
Nigeria (Minna)
Clarke 1880
44
OMAN
-346
-1
224
Oman
Clarke 1880
45
PUERTO
11
72
-101
Puerto Rica and Virgin Islands
Clarke 1866
46
QORNO
164
138
-189
Qornoq (South Greenland)
International 1924
47
ROME
-255
-65
9
Rome 1940 Sardinia Island
International 1924
48
CHUA
-134
229
-29
South American Chua Astro (Paraguay)
International 1924
49
SAM56
-288
175
-376
South American (Provisional 1956)
International 1924
50
SAM69
-57
1
-41
South American 1969
S. American 1969
51
CAMPO
-148
136
90
S. American Campo Inchauspe (Argentina)
International 1924
52
SACOR
-206
172
-6
South American Corrego Alegre (Brazil)
International 1924
53
YACAR
-155
171
37
South American Yacare (Uruguay)
International 1924
54
TANAN
-189
-242
-91
Tananarive Observatory 1925 (Madagascar)
International 1924
55
TIMBA
-689
691
-46
Timbalai (Brunei and East Malaysia) 1948
Everest (EB)
56
TOKYO
-128
481
664
Tokyo (Japan, Korea and Okinawa)
Bessel 1841
57
TRIST
-632
438
-609
Tristan Astro 1968 (Tristan du Cunha)
International 1924
58
VITI
51
391
-36
Viti Levu 1916 (Fiji Islands)
Clarke 1880
59
WAK60
101
52
-39
Wake-Eniwetok (Marshall Islands)
Hough 1960
60
WGS72
0
0
4.5
World Geodetic System - 72
WGS72
61
WGS84
0
0
0
World Geodetic System - 84
WGS84
62
ZANDE
-265
120
-358
Zanderidj (Surinam)
International 1924
63
USER
0
0
0
User Defined Datum Defaults
User *
Notes:
*
*
*
*
Default user datum is WGS84.
Also see the DATUM and USERDATUM commands in Chapter 2 and Appendix C.
The GPSCard DATUM command sets the Datum value based on the name entered as listed in the "NAME" column in Table G-2 (e.g.,
NAD83).
These GPSCard logs report Datum used according to the "GPSCard Datum ID" column: POSA/B, PRTKA/B, RTKA/B, and MKPA/B.
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
235
H Some Common Unit Conversions
H
SOME COMMON UNIT CONVERSIONS
H SOME COMMON UNIT CONVERSIONS
Section H.1 to H.4 list commonly used equivalents between the SI (Système Internationale) units of weights and
measures used in the metric system, and those used in the imperial system. A complete list of hexadecimal values
with their binary equivalents is given in Section H.5 while an example of the conversion from GPS time of week
to calendar day is shown in Section H.6.
H.1 DISTANCE
H.2 VOLUME
1 meter (m) = 100 centimeters (cm) = 1000 millimeters (mm) 1 liter (l) = 1000 cubic centimeters (cc)
1 kilometer (km) = 1000 meters (m)
1 gallon (Imperial) = 4.546 liters
1 nautical mile = 1852 meters
1 gallon (US) = 3.785 liters
1 international foot = 0.3048 meter
1 statute mile = 1609 meters
1 US survey foot = 0.3048006096 meter
H.3 TEMPERATURE
H.4 WEIGHT
degrees Celsius = (5/9) x [(degrees Fahrenheit) - 32]
1 kilogram (kg) = 1000 grams
degrees Fahrenheit = [(9/5) x (degrees Celsius)] + 32
1 pound = 0.4536 kilogram (kg)
H.5 HEXADECIMAL AND BINARY EQUIVALENTS
Hexadecimal
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
A
B
C
D
E
F
236
Binary
0000
0001
0010
0011
0100
0101
0110
0111
1000
1001
1010
1011
1100
1101
1110
1111
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
H Some Common Unit Conversions
H.6 GPS TIME OF WEEK TO CALENDAR DAY (EXAMPLE)
511200 seconds
Day
511200 / 86400 seconds per day
= 5.916666667 days
Hour
.916666667 x 86400 / 3600 seconds per hour
Minute
.000 x 3600 / 60 seconds per minute
Second
.000 x 60
=
22.0000 hours
=
0.000 minutes
=
0.00 seconds
Day 5 (Thursday) + 22 hours, 0 minutes, 0 seconds into Friday.
H.6.1 Calendar Date to GPS Time (e.g. 11:30 hours, January 22, 1995)
Days from January 6, 1980 to January 22, 1995
=
15 years x 365 days /year
=
5475 days
Add one day for each leap year (a year which is divisible by 4 or 400 but not by 100;
every 100 years a leap year is skipped)
4 days
Days into 1997 (22nd is not finished)
21 days
Total days
5500 days
Deduct 5 days: Jan. 1 through 5, 1980
5495 days
GPS Week:
5495 x 86400 seconds per day =
Seconds into week
22nd day:
GPS time of week:
Week 785, 41400 second
474768000 seconds/ 604800 sec per week = 785
11.5 hrs x 3600 sec/hr
41400 seconds
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
237
I Information Messages
INFORMATION MESSAGES
I
INFORMATION MESSAGES
I
TYPE 1 INFORMATION MESSAGES
To date, the only Type 1 messages are the !ERRA and the !MSGA logs.
!ERRA
!ERRA
Field #
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
type
severity
error string
Field type
!ERRA
type
severity
error string
opt. description
*xx
[CR][LF]
opt. description
*xx
[CR][LF]
Data Description
Log header
Log type, numbered 0 - 999 (see Table I-1 below)
Only one is defined to date: severity_fatal (number = 0); causes reset
Error message (see Table I-1)
Optional description
Checksum
Sentence terminator
Example:
!ERRA,1,0,Authorization Code Invalid,*22[CR][LF]
Table I-1 Type 1 !ERRA Types
Log type
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7+
Error String
Unknown ERRA Type
Authorization Code Invalid
No Authorization Code Found
Invalid Expiry In Authorization Code
Unable To Read ESN
Reserved For Future Use
Card Has Stopped Unexpectedly
Reserved For Future Use
!MSGA
!MSGA
type
Field #
message
Field type
1
2
!MSGA
type
3
4
5
6
message
opt. description
*xx
[CR][LF]
opt. description
*xx
[CR][LF]
Data Description
Log header
Log type, numbered from 1000 (see Table I-2,
Page 239)
Message (see Table I-2)
Optional description
Checksum
Sentence terminator
Example:
!MSGA,1001,Authorization Code Is Time Limited, Model 3951R Expires on
960901*6C[CR][LF]
238
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
I Information Messages
Table I-2 Type 1 !MSGA Types
Log type
1000
1001
1002+
Message String
Unknown MSGA Type
Authorization Code Is Time Limited
Reserved For Future Use
TYPE 2 INFORMATION MESSAGES
The following is a list of information messages which are generated by the Command Interpreter in response to a
user’s input. This list is not necessarily complete, but it is the most accurate one available at the time of publication.
It is intended to be a trouble-shooting tool.
Error Message
Meaning
All Ok
Argument Must Be Hexadecimal (0-9,A-F) Pairs
Argument Must Be Numeric
Authorization Changes Not Available On This Card
No errors to report.
An argument which is not hexadecimal was entered.
An argument which is not numeric was entered.
An attempt has been made to change the Authorization Code on a card which is
not an OEM card.
The checksum is incorrect for the Authorization Code. The Authorization Code
was most likely entered incorrectly.
The existing Authorization Code is invalid. Please contact NovAtel GPS customer
service for a new Authorization Code.
The existing Authorization Code cannot be changed. Please contact NovAtel
GPS customer service for assistance.
The clock model status in a $TM1A command is invalid. The $TM1A command
is rejected when the clock model has not been set.
The CLOCKADJUST command is not available on this model.
Authorization Code Entered Incorrectly
Authorization Code Is Invalid
Can’t Change Authorization Code
Clock Model not set TM1A rejected
CLOCK_ADJUST Command Not Available On This
Model
Complete Almanac not received yet - try again later
Data Too Large To Save To NVM
Differential Corrections Not Available On This Model
EXTERNALCLOCK Command Not Available On This
Model
FREQUENCY_OUT Command Not Available On
This Model
FROM port name too LONG
Invalid $ALMA CheckSum
Invalid $DCSA CheckSum
Invalid $DEBUG Options
Invalid $IONA CheckSum
Invalid $PXYA CheckSum
Invalid $REPA CheckSum
Invalid $RTCA CheckSum/CRC
Invalid $RTCM CheckSum
Invalid $TM1A CheckSum
Invalid $UTCA CheckSum
Invalid $VXYA CheckSum
Invalid ADJUSTCLOCK Option
Invalid Baudrate
Invalid Carrier Smoothing Constant
The almanac cannot be saved because a complete almanac has not yet been
received. A SAVEALMA command should be performed at a later time when a
complete almanac has been received.
The configuration data being saved is too large.
This model does not have the ability to send or receive differential corrections.
The EXTERNALCLOCK command is not available on this model.
The FREQUENCY_OUT command is not available on this model.
The FROM port name in a SETNAV command is too long.
The checksum of a $ALMA command is invalid.
The checksum of a $DCSA command is invalid.
An invalid option was entered in the $DEBUG command.
The checksum of a $IONA command is invalid.
The checksum of a $PXYA command is invalid.
The checksum of a $REPA command is invalid.
The CRC of a $RTCA command is invalid.
The checksum of a $RTCA command is invalid.
The checksum of a $TM1A command is invalid.
The checksum of a $UTCA command is invalid.
The checksum of a $VXYA command is invalid.
An invalid CLOCKADJUST switch has been entered.
The bit rate in a COMn command is invalid.
The carrier smoothing constant of the CSMOOTH command is invalid.
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
239
I Information Messages
Invalid Channel Number
Invalid Coarse Modulus Field
Invalid Command CRC
Invalid Command Name
Invalid Command Option
Invalid Coordinates
Invalid Datatype
Invalid Datum Offset
Invalid DATUM Option
Invalid Datum Rotation
Invalid Degree Field
Invalid DGPS time-out value
Invalid Doppler
Invalid Doppler Window
Invalid DTR choice
Invalid DTR Toggle Option
Invalid DTR Toggle Setup Time (0-1000)
Invalid DTR Toggle Terminate Time (0-1000)
Invalid DYNAMICS Option
Invalid Echo Option
Invalid Elevation Cutoff Angle
Invalid ERRMSG Flag
Invalid ERRMSG Port
Invalid EXTERNALCLOCK Option
Invalid EXTERNALCLOCK USER Argument(s)
Invalid Fine Modulus Field
Invalid FIX Option
Invalid Flattening
Invalid Handshake Option
Invalid HEALTH Override
Invalid Height
Invalid Logger Datatype
Invalid Logger Offset
Invalid Logger Period
Invalid Logger Port Option
Invalid Logger Trigger
Invalid Magnetic Variation
Invalid Number of $ALMA Arguments
Invalid Number of $DCSA Arguments
Invalid Number of $IONA Arguments
Invalid Number of $PXYA Arguments
Invalid Number of $REPA Arguments
Invalid Number of $TM1A Arguments
Invalid Number of $UTCA Arguments
Invalid Number of $VXYA Arguments
Invalid Number of Arguments
Invalid Number of Databits
Invalid Number of StopBits
240
An invalid channel number has been entered in a command such as ASSIGN.
The coarsemod argument of the FREQUENCY_OUT command is invalid.
The received command has an invalid checksum.
An invalid command name has been received.
One or more arguments of a command are invalid.
Invalid coordinates received in a command such as $PVCA, $PXYA, etc.
The data type in an ACCEPT command is invalid.
The datum offset in a USERDATUM command is invalid.
An option in a DATUM command is invalid.
The datum rotation angle in a USERDATUM command is invalid.
An invalid degree field has been entered in a command such as FIX POSITION
or SETNAV.
An invalid timeout value was entered in the DGPSTIMEOUT command.
An invalid Doppler has been entered in an ASSIGN command.
An invalid Doppler window has been entered in an ASSIGN command.
An invalid option was entered in the COMn_DTR command.
The active option in the COMn_ DTR command is invalid.
The lead time option in the COMn_ DTR command is invalid.
The tail time option in the COMn_ DTR command is invalid.
The option in a DYNAMICS command is invalid.
The echo option in a COMn command is invalid.
The elevation cutoff angle in an ECUTOFF command is invalid.
The option (on/off) specified in a MESSAGE command is invalid.
The port specified in a MESSAGE command is invalid.
An invalid external clock was entered in the EXTERNALCLOCK command.
An invalid argument was entered in the EXTERNALCLOCK command.
The finemod argument of the FREQUENCY_OUT command is invalid.
An option other than height, position or velocity was specified in a FIX command.
The flattening in a USERDATUM command is invalid.
The handshake option in a COMn command is invalid.
An invalid health has been entered in a SETHEALTH or FIX command.
The height in a FIX HEIGHT command is invalid.
An invalid log has been specified in a LOG/UNLOG command.
An invalid offset has been specified in a LOG command.
An invalid period has been specified in a LOG command.
An invalid port number has been specified in a LOG/UNLOG command.
An invalid trigger has been specified in a LOG command.
The magnetic variation in a MAGVAR command is invalid.
The number of arguments in a $ALMA command is invalid.
The number of arguments in a $DCSA command is invalid.
The number of arguments in a $IONA command is invalid.
The number of arguments in a $PXYA command is invalid.
The number of arguments in a $REPA command is invalid.
The number of arguments in a $TM1A command is invalid.
The number of arguments in a $UTCA command is invalid.
The number of arguments in a $VXYA command is invalid.
A command has been received which has an invalid number of arguments.
The number of data bits in a COMn command is invalid.
The number of stop bits in a COMn command is invalid.
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
I Information Messages
Invalid Parity Option
Invalid Port
Invalid Port number
Invalid PPS Modulus Field
Invalid RINEX Option
Invalid RTCA option
Invalid RTCA station Name (\XXXX\)
Invalid RTCM Bit Rule
Invalid RTCM station Name (0..1023)
Invalid RTCM16T string length - maximum 90
Invalid RTS choice
Invalid RTS Toggle Option
Invalid RTS Toggle Setup Time (0-1000)
Invalid RTS Toggle Terminate Time (0-1000)
Invalid Satellite Number
Invalid Scaling
Invalid Seconds Into Week in TM1A
Invalid SemiMajor Axis
Invalid Standard Deviation Limit (0.1-100 m)
Invalid Symbol Period 1,2,4,5,10,20
Invalid Time Limit (0.1-100 hours)
Invalid Token
Invalid Track Offset
Invalid Velocity
Invalid Week Number in TM1A
MET Command Not Available On This Model
Model Invalid
NVM Error - Unable To Save
RINEX string too LONG
RT20 Logs Not Available On This Model
RTCM9 Logs Not Available On This Model
SAVE Command Not Available On This Model
Save Complete
SETCLOCK disabled TM1A rejected
Standard Deviation not allowed with small time limits
TO Portname too LONG
User Defined DATUM Not Set
Valid Option but Missing Process
The parity in a COMn command is invalid.
The port in a SEND command is invalid.
The port number in an ACCEPT command is invalid.
The ppsmod argument of the FREQUENCY_OUT command is invalid.
An option of a RINEX command is invalid.
An invalid RTCA rule has been entered.
The RTCA station name in a FIX POSITION message is invalid.
An invalid RTCM rule has been entered.
The RTCM station name in a FIX POSITION message is invalid.
The RTCM16T string exceeds 90 characters.
An invalid option was entered in the COMn_RTS command.
The active option in the COMn_RTS command is invalid.
The lead time option in the COMn_RTS command is invalid.
The tail time option in the COMn_RTS command is invalid.
An invalid satellite number has been entered in an ASSIGN, SETHEALTH,
LOCKOUT or UNLOCKOUT command.
The scale value in a USERDATUM command is invalid.
The time in a $TM1A command is invalid.
The semi-major axis in a USERDATUM command is invalid.
A standard deviation in a POSSE command is invalid.
The symbol period is invalid for an ASSIGN on a pseudolite channel.
The averaging time in a POSAVE command is invalid.
This error should never occur. If it does, please contact NovAtel GPS customer
service.
The track offset in the SETNAV command is invalid.
An invalid velocity has been received, either in a FIX VELOCITY command, or in
a command such as $PVCA, $PVCB.
The week in a $TM1A command is invalid.
The MET command is not available on this model.
The Authorization Code has an invalid Model. Please contact NovAtel GPS
customer service for assistance.
The SAVE operation did not complete successfully.
Indicates that the entered RINEX command is too long.
This model does not have the ability to send or receive RT20 differential
corrections.
This model does not have the ability to send or receive RTCM9 logs.
A SAVE operation was attempted which is not available on this model.
The SAVE operation completed successfully.
The $TM1A command is rejected because the user has not enabled clock
synchronization using the SETCLOCK command.
In a POSAVE command, a standard deviation cannot be entered with a small
time. Enter a larger averaging time if standard deviations are desired.
The TO port name in a SETNAV command is too long.
This error should not occur. By default the user defined DATUM is set to WGS84.
If you get this error message, please contact NovAtel GPS customer service.
This message indicates an error in the software. A command option is valid but
software cannot process it
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
241
J Listing Of Tables
J
LISTING OF TABLES
J LISTING OF TABLES
This section is provided for ease of reference. The tables reproduced are as follows:
1-1
1-2
2-1
2-2
3-1
3-2
4-1
C-1
C-2
C-3
D-1
D-2
D-3
D-4
D-5
D-6
D-7
D-8
D-9
D-10
D-11
D-12
E-1
E-2
E-3
E-4
E-5
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GPSCard Pseudorange Differential Initialization Summary
Latency - Induced Extrapolation Error
Commands Table
GPSCard Command Summary Chart
Logs Table
GPSCard Log Summary
Positioning Modes
Antenna LNA Power Configuration
Default Values of Process Noise Elements
VARF Range
GPSCard Solution Status
Position Type
RTK Status For Position Type 3 (RT-20)
RTK Status For Position Type 4 (RT-2)
Receiver Self-Test Status Codes
Range Record Formats (RGED only)
Channel Tracking Status
Ambiguity Types
Searcher Status
RTK Status
GPSCard Range Reject Codes
GPSCard Velocity Status
Comparison of RT-2 and RT-20
RTK Messages Vs. Accuracy
RT-2 Performance - Static Mode
RT-2 Performance - Kinematic Mode
RT-20 Performance
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Table 1-1 GPSCard Pseudorange Differential Initialization Summary
Reference Station
Remote Station
Required:
Required:
FIX POSITION lat lon hgt id (health)
LOG port DATATYPE ontime 5
ACCEPT port DATATYPE
Recommended Options:
Recommended Options:
LOG DATATYPES (binary):
ACCEPT DATATYPES (binary):
RTCMB
RTCAB
RTCM
RTCA
RTCM
RTCA
LOG DATATYPES (acii):
ACCEPT COMMANDS (ascii):
RTCMA
RTCAA
RTCMA
RTCAA
Related Commands/Logs:
Related Commands/Logs:
RTCMRULE
DATUM
POSA/B
VLHA/B
CDSA/B
GPGGA
RTCMRULE
DATUM
Example 1:
fix position 51.3455323 -114.2895345 1201.123 555 0
log com 1 RTCM ontime 2
Example 1:
accept com2 rtcm
log com1 posa ontime 1
Example 2:
fix position 51.3455323 -114.2895345 1201.123 555 0
log com2 rtcaa ontime 2
Example 2:
accept com2 commands
log com1 posa ontime 0.2
log com1 vlha ontime 0.2
Note:
Italicized entries indicate user definable.
Table 1-2 Latency-Induced Extrapolation Error
Time since last reference station observation
Typical extrapolation error (CEP)
0-2 seconds
2-7 seconds
7-30 seconds
1 cm/sec
2 cm/sec
5 cm/sec
Table 2-1 Commands By Function Table
COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND STATUS
Commands
Descriptions
ANTENNAPOWER
COMn
Power to the low-noise amplifier of an active antenna
COMn port configuration control
COMn_DTR
DTR handshaking control
COMn_RTS
DIFF_PROTOCOL
RTS handshaking control
1
Differential Protocol Control
FREQUENCY_OUT
LOG
Variable frequency output (programmable)
Logging control
MESSAGES
RINEX
Disable error reporting from command interpreter
Configure the user defined fields in the file header
RTCMRULE
Sets up RTCM bit rule
RTCM16T
Enters an ASCII message
SEND
Sends ASCII message to COM port
SENDHEX
SETL1OFFSET
1
Sends non-printable characters
Add an offset to the L1 pseudorange to compensate for
signal delays
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1
Intended for advanced users of GPS onl
GENERAL RECEIVER CONTROL AND STATUS
Commands
Descriptions
$ALMA
Download almanac data file
CRESET
DYNAMICS
Reset receiver to factory default
Set correlator tracking bandwidth
HELP
On-line command help
RESET
Performs a hardware reset (OEM only)
SAVEALMA
Saves the latest almanac in NVM
SAVECONFIG
$TM1A
Saves current configuration (OEM only)
Injects receiver time of 1PPS
VERSION
Software/hardware information
POSITION, PARAMETERS, AND SOLUTION FILTERING CONTROL
Commands
CSMOOTH
Descriptions
1
Sets amount of carrier smoothing
DATUM
ECUTOFF
Choose a DATUM name type
Satellite elevation cut-off for solutions
FIX HEIGHT
Constrains to fixed height (2D mode)
FIX POSITION
Constrains to fixed lat, lon, height
FRESET
Clears all data which is stored in NVM
$IONA
Download ionospheric correction data
What ionospheric correction to use (MiLLennium with the
WAAS option)
IONOMODEL
LOCKOUT
$PVAA
Deweights a satellite in solutions
1
Position, velocity and acceleration in ECEF coordinates
RTKMODE
Setup the RTK mode
UNDULATION
Ellipsoid-geoid separation
USERDATUM
User-customized datum
WAASCORRECTION
Controls handling of WAAS corrections.
1 Intended for advanced users of GPS only.
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SATELLITE TRACKING AND CHANNEL CONTROL
Commands
Descriptions
$ALMA
ASSIGN
Download almanac data file
Satellite channel assignment
CONFIG
Switches the channel configuration of the GPSCard
DYNAMICS
FIX VELOCITY
Sets correlator tracking bandwidth
Aids high velocity reacquisition
RESETHEALTH
SETHEALTH
Reset PRN health
Overrides broadcast satellite health
WAYPOINT NAVIGATION
Commands
Descriptions
MAGVAR
Magnetic variation correction
SETNAV
Waypoint input
DIFFERENTIAL REFERENCE STATION
Commands
Descriptions
DGPSTIMEOUT
Sets ephemeris delay
FIX POSITION
Constrain to fixed (reference)
LOG
Selects required differential-output log
POSAVE
Implements position averaging for reference station
RTCMRULE
SETDGPSID
Selects RTCM bit rule
Set reference station ID
DIFFERENTIAL REMOTE STATION
Commands
Descriptions
ACCEPT
Accepts RTCM1, RTCA or RTCAB differential inputs
$ALMA
Input almanac data
DGPSTIMEOUT
RESET
Set maximum age of differential data accepted
Performs a hardware reset
$RTCA
RTCA differential correction input (ASCII)
$RTCM
RTCMRULE
RTCM differential correction input (ASCII)
Selects RTCM bit rule
SETDGPSID
Select differential reference station ID to receive
CLOCK INFORMATION, STATUS, AND TIME
Commands
Descriptions
CLOCKADJUST
DIFF_PROTOCOL
Enable clock modelling & 1PPS adjust
1
EXTERNALCLOCK
Sets default parameters of an optional external oscillator
EXTERNALCLOCK FREQUENCY
SETTIMESYNC
$UTCA
1
Differential protocol control
1
Sets clock rate
Enable or disable time synchronization
Download UTC data
Intended for advanced users of GPS only
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Table 2-2 GPSCard Command Summary
Command
Description
Syntax
$ALMA
Injects almanac
(follows NovAtel ASCII log format)
$IONA
Injects ionospheric refraction corrections
(follows NovAtel ASCII log format)
$PVAA
Injects latest computed position, velocity and acceleration
(follows NovAtel ASCII log format)
$REPA
Injects raw GPS ephemeris data
(follows NovAtel ASCII log format)
$RTCA
Injects RTCA format DGPS corrections in ASCII (Type 1)
(follows NovAtel ASCII log format)
$RTCM
Injects RTCM format differential corrections in ASCII (Type 1)
(follows NovAtel ASCII log format)
$TM1A
Injects receiver time of 1 PPS
(follows NovAtel ASCII log format)
$UTCA
Injects UTC information
(follows NovAtel ASCII log format)
ACCEPT
Port input control (set command interpreter)
accept port,option
ANTENNAPOWER
Power to the low-noise amplifier of an active antenna
antennapower flag
ASSIGN
Assign a prn to a channel #
assign channel,prn,doppler, search window
UNASSIGN
Un-assign a channel
unassign channel
UNASSIGNALL
Un-assign all channels
unassignall
CLOCKADJUST
Disable clock steering mechanism
clockadjust switch
COMn
Initialize Serial Port (1 or 2)
comn bps,parity,databits,stopbits, handshake,echo
COMn_DTR
Programmable DTR lead/tail time
comn_dtr control,active,lead,tail
COMn_RTS
Programmable RTS lead/tail time
comn_rts control,active,lead,tail
CONFIG
Switches the channel configuration of the GPSCard
config cfgtype
CRESET
Configuration reset to factory default
creset
CSMOOTH
Sets carrier smoothing
csmooth value
DATUM
Choose a DATUM name type
datum option
USERDATUM
User defined DATUM
userdatum semi-major,flattening,dx,dy,dz, rx,ry,rz,
scale
DGPSTIMEOUT
Sets maximum age of differential data to be accepted and ephemeris
delay
dgpstimeout value value
DIFF_PROTOCOL
Differential correction message encoding and decoding for
implementation in the GPS card firmware
diff_protocol type key
or diff_protocol disable
or diff_protocol
DYNAMICS
Set receiver dynamics
dynamics option [user_dynamics]
ECUTOFF
Set elevation cutoff angle
ecutoff angle
EXTERNALCLOCK
Sets default parameters of an optional external oscillator
externalclock option
EXTERNALCLOCK
FREQUENCY
Sets clock rate
external frequency clock rate
FIX HEIGHT
Sets height for 2D navigation
fix height height [auto]
FIX POSITION
Set antenna coordinates for reference station
fix position lat,lon,height [station id] [health]
FIX VELOCITY
Accepts INS xyz (ECEF) input to aid in high velocity reacquisition of
SVs
fix velocity vx,vy,vz
UNFIX
Remove all receiver FIX constraints
unfix
FREQUENCY_OUT
Variable frequency output (programmable)
frequency_out n,k
FRESET
Clears all data which is stored in non-volatile memory
freset
HELP or ?
On-line command help
help option
LOCKOUT
Lock out satellite
lockout prn
UNLOCKOUT
Restore satellite
unlockout prn
UNLOCKOUTALL
Restore all satellites
unlockoutall
LOG
Choose data logging type
log [port],datatype,[trigger],[period],[offset],{hold}
UNLOG
Disable a data log
unlog [port],data type
UNLOGALL
Disable all data logs
unlogall [port]
MAGVAR
Set magnetic variation correction
magvar value
MESSAGES
Disable error reporting from command interpreter
messages port,option
POSAVE
Implements position averaging for reference station
posave maxtime, maxhorstd, maxverstd
RESET
Performs a hardware reset (OEM only)
reset
RINEX
Configure the user defined fields in the file headers
rinex cfgtype
246
or
? option
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RTCM16T
Enter an ASCII text message to be sent out in the RTCM data stream
rtcm16t ascii message
RTCMRULE
Set variations of the RTCM bit rule
rtcmrule rule
RTKMODE
Set up the RTK mode
rrtkmode argument, data range
SAVEALMA
Save the latest almanac in non-volatile memory
savealma option
SAVECONFIG
Save current configuration in non-volatile memory (OEM only)
saveconfig
SEND
Send an ASCII message to any of the communications ports
send port ascii-message
SENDHEX
Sends non-printable characters in hexadecimal pairs
sendhex port data
SETDGPSID
Enter in a reference station ID
setdgpsid option
SETHEALTH
Override PRN health
sethealth prn,health
RESETHEALTH
Reset PRN health
resethealth prn
RESETHEALTHALL
Reset all PRN health
resethealthall
SETL1OFFSET
Add an offset to the L1 pseudorange to compensate for signal delays
setL1offset distance
SETNAV
Set a destination waypoint
setnav from lat,from lon,to lat, to lon,track offset, from
port,to port
SETTIMESYNC
Enable or disable time synchronization
settimesync flag
UNDULATION
Choose undulation
undulation separation
VERSION
Current software and hardware information
version
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Table 3-1 Logs By Function Table
COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND STATUS
Descriptions
Logs
CDSA/B
COM1A/B
COM port communications status
Log data from COM1
COM2A/B
Log data from COM2
COMnA/B
RCSA/B
Pass-through data logs
Receiver self-test status
RTCM16T
RTCM16
NovAtel ASCII format special message
RTCM format special message
GENERAL RECEIVER CONTROL AND STATUS
Descriptions
Logs
PVAA/B
RCCA
Receiver’s latest computed position, velocity and acceleration in ECEF coordinates
Receiver configuration status
RCSA/B
RVSA/B
Version and self-test status
Receiver status
VERA/B
Receiver hardware and software version numbers
POSITION, PARAMETERS, AND SOLUTION FILTERING CONTROL
Logs
Descriptions
DOPA/B
GGAB
DOP of SVs currently tracking
GPS fix data
GPGGA
NMEA, position data
GPGLL
NMEA, position data
GPGRS
NMEA, range residuals
GPGSA
GPGST
NMEA, DOP information
NMEA, measurement noise statistics
MKPA/B
POSA/B
Position at time of mark
Position data
PRTKA/B
Computed position
PVAA/B
Computed position, velocity and acceleration in ECEF coordinates
PXYA/B
Position (Cartesian x,y,z coordinates)
RTKA/B
SPHA/B
Computed position
Speed and direction over ground
Logs
SATELLITE TRACKING AND CHANNEL CONTROL
Descriptions
ALMA/B
DOPA/B
Current decoded almanac data
DOP of SVs currently tracking
ETSA/B
Provides channel tracking status information for each of the GPSCard parallel channels
GPALM
GPGSA
NMEA, almanac data
NMEA, SV DOP information
GPGSV
RALA/B
NMEA, satellite-in-view information
Raw almanac
RASA/B
Raw GPS almanac set
RGEA/B/D
SATA/B
Satellite range measurements
Satellite specific information
SBTA/B
SVDA/B
Satellite broadcast data (raw symbols)
SV position (ECEF xyz)
WRCA/B
Wide band range correction data (grouped format)
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Logs
WAYPOINT NAVIGATION
Descriptions
GPRMB
GPRMC
NMEA, waypoint status
NMEA, navigation information
GPVTG
NMEA, track made good and speed
GPZTG
MKPA/B
NMEA, time to destination
Position at time of mark input
NAVA/B
POSA/B
Navigation waypoint status
Position data
SPHA/B
Speed and course over ground
VLHA/B
Velocity, latency & direction over ground
Logs
DIFFERENTIAL REFERENCE STATION
Descriptions
ALMA/B
Current almanac information
CDSA/B
COM port data transmission status
CMR
Pseudorange and carrier phase data
PAVA/B
RGEA/B/D
Parameters being used in the position averaging process
Channel range measurements
RPSA/B
Reference station position and health
RTCAA/B
Transmits RTCA differential corrections in NovAtel ASCII or Binary
RTCM1
Transmits RTCM SC104 standard corrections
RTCM3
RTCM1819
Reference position
Uncorrected carrier phase and pseudorange measurements
RTCM22
Extended reference station parameters
RTCM59
RTCMA/B
NovAtel format RT-20 observation data
Transmits RTCM information in NovAtel ASCII/binary
SATA/B
Satellite specific information
Logs
DIFFERENTIAL REMOTE STATION
Descriptions
CDSA/B
Communication and differential decode status
GPGGA
NMEA, position fix data
GGAB
POSA/B
NovAtel binary version of GPGGA
Position information
PRTKA/B
RTKA/B
Computed Position – best available
Computed Position – Time Matched
RTKOA/B
SATA/B
RTK Output
Satellite specific information
SVDA/B
SV position in ECEF XYZ with corrections
VLHA/B
Velocity, latency & direction over ground
Logs
POST PROCESSING DATA
Descriptions
BSLA/B
Most recent matched baseline expressed in ECEF coords.
CLKA/B
REPA/B
Receiver clock offset information
Raw ephemeris information
RGEA/B/D
Satellite and ranging information
SATA/B
Satellite specific information
SVDA/B
SV position in ECEF XYZ with corrections
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CLOCK INFORMATION, STATUS, AND TIME
Descriptions
Logs
CLKA/B
Receiver clock offset information
1
CLMA/B
GPZDA
Current clock-model matrices of the GPSCard
NMEA, UTC time and date
GPZTG
MKTA/B
NMEA, UTC and time to waypoint
Time of mark input
TM1A/B
Time of 1PPS
Intended for advanced users of GPS only.
1
NAVIGATION DATA
Descriptions
Logs
FRMA/B
Framed raw navigation data
RALA/B
RASA/B
Raw almanac and health data
Raw almanac set
RBTA/B
REPA/B
Satellite broadcast data in raw bits
Raw ephemeris data
Table 3-2 GPSCard Log Summary
Syntax: log port,datatype,[trigger],[period],[offset],{hold}
NovAtel Format Logs
Datatype
Description
Decoded Almanac
RASA/B
Raw GPS Almanac Set
Baseline Measurement
RCCA
Receiver Configuration
Communication and Differential Decode Status
REPA/B
Raw Ephemeris
Receiver Clock Offset Data
RGEA/B/D
Channel Range Measurements
Receiver Clock Model
RPSA/B
Reference Station Position and Health
Log data from COM1
RTCAA/B
RTCA format Differential Corrections with NovAtel headers
Log data from COM2
RTKA/B
Computed Position - Time Matched
Dilution of Precision
RTKOA/B
RTK Solution Parameters
Extended Tracking Status
RTCMA/B
RTCM Type 1 Differential Corrections with NovAtel headers
Global Position System Fix Data - Binary Format
RTCM16T
Special Message
Mark Position
RVSA/B
Receiver Status
Time of Mark Input
SATA/B
Satellite Specific Data
Navigation Data
SBTA/B
Satellite Broadcast Data (Raw Symbols)
Positioning Averaging Status
SPHA/B
Speed and Direction Over Ground
Computed Position
SVDA/B
SV Position in ECEF XYZ Coordinates with Corrections
Computed Position
TM1A/B
Time of 1PPS
XYZ Position, Velocity and Acceleration
VERA/B
Receiver Hardware and Software Version Numbers
Computed Cartesian Coordinate Position
VLHA/B
Velocity, Latency, and Direction over Ground
Raw Almanac
WRCA/B
Wide Band Range Correcion (Grouped)
NMEA Format Logs
GPALM
Almanac Data
GPGSV
GPS Satellites in View
GPGGA
Global Position System Fix Data
GPRMB
Generic Navigation Information
GPGLL
Geographic Position - lat/lon
GPRMC
GPS Specific Information
GPGRS
GPS Range Residuals for Each Satellite
GPVTG
Track Made Good and Ground Speed
GPGSA
GPS DOP and Active Satellites
GPZDA
UTC Time and Date
GPGST
Pseudorange Measurement Noise Statistics
GPZTG
UTC & Time to Destination Waypoint
RTCA Format
RTCA
RTCA Differential Corrections: Type 1 and Type 7
RTCM Format
RTCM1
Type 1 Differential GPS Corrections
RTCM3
Type 3 Reference Station Parameters
RTCM9
Type 9 Partial Satellite Set Differential Corrections
RTCM16
Type 16 Special Message
RTCM1819
Type 18 and Type 19 Uncorrected Carrier Phase and Pseudorange Corrections
RTCM22
Type 22 Extended Reference Station Parameters
RTCM59
Type 59N-0 NovAtel Proprietary Message: RT20 Differential Observations
Note A/B/D:
A refers to GPSCard output logs in ASCII format.
B refers to GPSCard output logs in Binary format.
D refers to GPSCard output logs in compressed binary format.
Datatype
ALMA/B
BSLA/B
CDSA/B
CLKA/B
CLMA/B
COM1A/B
COM2A/B
DOPA/B
ETSA/B
GGAB
MKPA/B
MKTA/B
NAVA/B
PAVA/B
POSA/B
PRTKA/B
PVAA/B
PXYA/B
RALA/B
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Description
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Table 4-1 Positioning Modes
Reference station:
L1
RTCM Type 59N
Reference station:
L1
RTCA Type 7
Reference station:
L1 & L2
RTCM Type 59N
Reference station:
L1 & L2
RTCA Type 7
Remote station: L1
RT-20
RT-20
RT-20
RT-20
Remote station: L1 & L2
RT-20
RT-20
RT-20
RT-2
Table C-1 Antenna LNA Power Configuration
P301: plug connects
pins 1&2
ANTENNAPOWER = ON
ANTENNAPOWER = OFF
internal power connected to
LNA
internal power cut off from
LNA
P301: plug connects
pins 2&3
P301: no plug
no external effect
no external effect
no external effect
no external effect
Table C-2 Default Values of Process Noise Elements
h0
Timing Standard
VCTCXO
OCXO
rubidium
cesium
user (min / max)
h-1
1.0 e-21
2.51 e-26
1.0 e-23
2.0 e-20
1.0 e-31 ≤ h0 ≤ 1.0 e-18
1.0 e-20
2.51 e-23
1.0 e-22
7.0 e-23
1.0 e-31 ≤ h-1 ≤ 1.0 e-18
h-2
2.0 e-20
2.51 e-22
1.3 e-26
4.0 e-29
1.0 e-31 ≤ h-2 ≤ 1.0 e-18
Table C-3 VARF Range (Software Version 4.42 or higher)
n
1
1024
1
1
2
1
k
p
1
65 536
65 536
4000
4
2
1
65 536
65 536
5000
8
2
VARF (Hz)
0
0.004 652 065
0.004 656 612
1
312 500
5 000 000
(Minimum)
(Maximum)
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Table D-1 GPSCard Solution Status
Value
0
1
2
3
Description
Solution computed
Insufficient observations
No convergence
Singular ATPA Matrix
Covariance trace exceeds maximum (trace > 1000 m)
Test distance exceeded (maximum of 3 rejections if distance > 10 km)
Not yet converged from cold start
Height or velocity limit exceeded. (In accordance with COCOM export
licensing restrictions)
4
5
6
7
Higher numbers are reserved for future use
Table D-2 Position Type
Type
0
1
2
3
4
5
Definition
No position
Single point position
Differential pseudorange position
RT-20 position
RT-2 position
WAAS position solution
Higher numbers are reserved for future use
Table D-3 RTK Status for Position Type 3 (RT-20)
Status
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Definition
Floating ambiguity solution (converged)
Floating ambiguity solution (not yet converged)
Modelling reference phase
Insufficient observations
Variance exceeds limit
Residuals too big
Delta position too big
Negative variance
RTK position not computed
Higher numbers are reserved for future use
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Table D-4 RTK Status for Position Type 4 (RT-2)
Status
Definition
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Narrow lane solution
Wide lane derived solution
Floating ambiguity solution (converged)
Floating ambiguity solution (not yet converged)
Modelling reference phase
Insufficient observations
Variance exceeds limit
Residuals too big
Delta position too big
Negative variance
RTK position not computed
Higher numbers are reserved for future use
Table D-5 Receiver Self-Test Status Codes
N7
N 6
27
26
25
N5
24
23
22
21
N4
20
19
18
17
N 3
16
15
14
13
N2
12
11
10
9
N1
8
7
6
5
N 0
4
3
2
1
0
<- Nibble
<- Number
Bit Description
lsb ANTENNA
=
0
1 L1 PLL
Range Values
Hex Value
1 = good, 0 = bad
00000001
1 = good, 0 = bad
00000002
2 RAM
1 = good, 0 = bad
00000004
3 ROM
1 = good, 0 = bad
00000008
4 DSP
1 = good, 0 = bad
00000010
5 L1 AGC
1 = good, 0 = bad
00000020
6 COM1
1 = good, 0 = bad
00000040
7 COM2
1 = good, 0 = bad
00000080
8 WEEK
1 = not set, 0 = set
00000100
9 NO
COARSETIME
10 NO FINETIME
1 = not set, 0 = set
00000200
1 = not set, 0 = set
00000400
11 L1 JAMMER
1 = present, 0 = normal
00000800
12 BUFFERCOM1
1 = overrun, 0 = normal
00001000
13 BUFFERCOM2
1 = overrun, 0 = normal
00002000
14 BUFFER
1 = overrun, 0 = normal
CONSOLE
15 CPUOVERLOAD 1 = overload, 0 = normal
00004000
16 ALMANAC
SAVEDIN NVM
17 L2 AGC
1 = yes, 0 = no
00010000
1 = good, 0 = bad
00020000
18 L2 JAMMER
1 = present, 0 = normal
00040000
19 L2 PLL
1 = good, 0 = bad
00080000
20 OCXO PLL
1 = good, 0 = bad
00100000
21 SAVED ALMA.
NEEDS UPDATE
22 ALMANAC
INVALID
23 POSITION
SOLUTION
INVALID
24 POSITIONFIXED
1 = yes, 0 = no
00200000
1 = invalid, 0 = valid
00400000
1 = invalid, 0 = valid
00800000
1 = yes, 0 = no
01000000
25 CLOCK MODEL
INVALID
26 CLOCK
STEERING
DISABLED
27 RESERVED
1 = invalid, 0 = valid
02000000
00008000
1 = disabled, 0 = enabled 04000000
28- RESERVED
31
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Notes on Table D-5:
1. Bit 3: On OEM GPSCards, “ROM” includes all forms of non-volatile memory.
2. Bits 12-15: Flag is reset to 0 five minutes after the last overrun/overload condition has occurred.
Table D-6 Range Record Format (RGED only)
Data
Bit(s) from first to last
Length (bits)
PRN
1A, 1B
Format
Scale Factor
0..5
6
integer
1
C/No
2
6..10
5
integer
(20+n) dB-Hz
Lock time
3
11.31
21
integer
1/32 s
4
ADR
Doppler frequency
Pseudorange
StdDev - ADR
StdDev - pseudorange
32..63
32
integer 2’s comp.
1/256 cycles
68..95
64..67 msn; 96..127 lsw
128..131
132..135
28
36
4
4
integer 2’s comp.
integer 2’s comp.
integer
1/256 Hz
1/128 m
(n+1) / 512 cyc
Channel Tracking status 6
136..159
24
integer
see 5
see Table D-7, Page 201
Notes on Table D-6:
1A
Only PRNs 1 - 63 are reported correctly (Note: while there are only 32 PRNs in the basic GPS scheme,
situations exist which require the use of additional PRNs)
1B
The prn offsets for WAAS have been mapped to the same range as GPS, ie. 1 - 19, while the prn offsets
for GLONASS are 1 - 29.
2
C/No is constrained to a value between 20 - 51 dB-Hz. Thus, if it is reported that C/No = 20 dB-Hz, the
actual value could be less. Likewise, if it is reported that C/No = 51 dB-Hz, the true value could be greater.
3
Lock time rolls over after 2,097,151 seconds.
4
ADR (Accumulated Doppler Range) is calculated as follows:
ADR_ROLLS = ( -RGED_PSR / WAVELENGTH - RGED_ADR) / MAX_VALUE
Round to the closest integer
IF (ADR_ROLLS ≤ -0.5)
ADR_ROLLS = ADR_ROLLS - 0.5
ELSE
ADR_ROLLS = ADR_ROLLS + 0.5
At this point integerise ADR_ROLLS
CORRECTED_ADR = RGED_ADR + (MAX_VALUE * ADR_ROLLS)
where:
ADR has units of cycles
WAVELENGTH = 0.1902936727984 for L1
WAVELENGTH = 0.2442102134246 for L2
MAX_VALUE = 8388608
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J Listing Of Tables
5
Code
RGED
0
0.000 to 0.050
1
0.051 to 0.075
2
0.076 to 0.113
3
0.114 to 0.169
4
0.170 to 0.253
5
0.254 to 0.380
6
0.381 to 0.570
7
0.571 to 0.854
8
0.855 to 1.281
9
1.282 to 2.375
10
2.376 to 4.750
11
4.751 to 9.500
12
9.501 to 19.000
13
19.001 to 38.000
14
38.001 to 76.000
15
76.001 to 152.000
Only bits 0 - 23 are represented in the RGED log
6
Table D-7 Channel Tracking Status
N 7
31
30
29
N 6
28
27
26
25
N 5
24
23
22
21
N 4
20
19
18
17
N 3
16
15
14
13
N 2
12
11
10
9
N1
8
7
6
5
N0
4
3
2
1
<- <- Nibble Number
0
Bit
Description
Range Values
lsb = 0
1 Tracking state
Hex.
1
0 - 11 See below
2
2
4
3
8
4
10
5
0 - n (0 = first, n =
20
last)
(n depends on GPSCard) 40
6 Channel number
7
80
8
100
9 Phase lock flag
1 = Lock, 0 = Not locked
200
10 Parity known flag
1 = Known, 0 = Not
known
1 = Lock, 0 = Not locked
400
11 Code locked flag
12
13 Correlator spacing
1000
0 - 7 See below
14
15
16 Satellite system
17
20 Frequency
21 Code type
22
23 Forward error correction
2000
4000
0=GPS 3= Pseudolite 8000
GPS
1=GLONASS 4-7
10000
Reserved
2=WAAS
20000
18 Reserved
19 Grouping
800
40000
1 = Grouped, 0 = Not
grouped
1 = L2, 0 = L1
80000
100000
0 = C/A 2 = P200000
codeless
1 =P
3 = Reserved 400000
1 = FEC enabled, 0 = no
FEC
800000
24
: Reserved
29
30 External range
31 Channel assignment
1 = Ext. range, 0 = Int.
range
1 = Forced, 0 =
Automatic
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J Listing Of Tables
Table D-7 is referenced by the ETSA/B, and RGEA/B/D logs.
Table D-7, Bits 0 - 3: Channel Tracking State
State
0
1
2
3
4
5
Description
L1 Idle
L1 Sky search
L1 Wide frequency band pull-in
L1 Narrow frequency band pull-in
L1 Phase-lock loop
L1 Re-acquisition
State
6
7
8
9
10
11
Description
L1 Steering
L1 Frequency-lock loop
L2 Idle
L2 P-code alignment
L2 Search
L2 Phase-lock loop
Higher numbers are reserved for future use
Table D-7, Bits 12-14: Correlator Spacing
State
0
1
2
Description
Unknown: this only appears in versions of software previous to x.45, which didn’t use this field
Standard correlator: spacing = 1 chip
Narrow Correlator tracking technology: spacing < 1 chip
Higher numbers are reserved for future use
256
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J Listing Of Tables
Table D-8 Ambiguity Types
Ambiguity Type
Definition
0
L1 only floating
1
Wide lane fixed integer
2
Reserved
3
Narrow lane floating
4
Iono–free floating
5
Reserved
6
Narrow lane fixed integer
7
Iono–free fixed discrete
8
L1 only fixed integer
9
Reserved
10
Undefined type
Higher numbers are reserved for future use
Table D-9 Searcher Status
Searcher Status
Definition
0
No search requested
1
Searcher buffering measurements
2
Currently searching
3
Search decision made
4
Hand-off to L1 and L2 complete
Higher numbers are reserved for future use
Table D-10 RTK Status
RTK Status
Definition
1
Good narrowlane solution
2
Good widelane solution
4
Good L1/L2 converged float solution
8
Good L1/L2 unconverged float solution
16
Good L1 converged solution
32
Good L1 unconverged solution
64
Reserved for future use
128
Insufficient observations
256
Variance exceeds limit
512
Residuals exceed limit
1024
Delta position too large
2048
Negative variance
4096
Undefined
8192
RTK initialize
Higher numbers are reserved for future use
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J Listing Of Tables
Table D-11 GPSCard Range Reject Codes
Value
Description
0
Observations are good
1
Bad satellite health is indicated by ephemeris data
2
Old ephemeris due to data not being updated during last 3 hours
3
Eccentric anomaly error during computation of the satellite’s position
4
True anomaly error during computation of the satellite’s position
5
Satellite coordinate error during computation of the satellite’s position
6
Elevation error due to the satellite being below the cutoff angle
7
Misclosure too large due to excessive gap between estimated and actual positions
8
No differential correction is available for this particular satellite
9
Ephemeris data for this satellite has not yet been received
10
Invalid IODE due to mismatch between differential stations
11
Locked Out: satellite is excluded by user (LOCKOUT command)
12
Low Power: satellite rejected due to low signal/noise ratio
13
L2 measurements are not currently used in the filter
Higher numbers are reserved for future use
Table D-12 GPSCard Velocity Status
Value
Description
0
Velocity computed from differentially corrected carrier phase data
1
Velocity computed from differentially corrected Doppler data
2
Old velocity from differentially corrected phase or Doppler (higher latency)
3
Velocity from single point computations
4
Old velocity from single point computations (higher latency)
5
Invalid velocity
Higher numbers are reserved for future use
Table E-1 Comparison of RT-2 and RT-20
GPS Frequencies Utilized
Nominal Accuracy
Lane Searching
RT-2
RT-20
L1 & L2
L1
2 cm (CEP)
20 cm (CEP)
Wide lane and narrow lane
None
.
Table E-2 RTK Messages Vs. Accuracy
Transmitting (Reference)
GPSCard transmitting RTCA
(i.e. RTCAOBS and RTCAREF)
GPSCard transmitting RTCM type 3 and 59
GPSCard transmitting RTCM or RTCA type 1
Transmitting RTCM type 18 and 19 with type 3
Transmitting CMR
(i.e. CMROBS and CMRREF)
258
Receiving (Remote)
Accuracy Expected
RT-2 receiver
2 centimetre CEP
RT-20 receiver
20 centimetre CEP
RT-2 receiver
20 centimetre CEP
RT-20 receiver
20 centimetre CEP
RT-2 receiver
1 metre SEP
RT-20 receiver
1 metre SEP
RT-2 receiver
2 centimetre CEP
RT-20 receiver
20 centimetre CEP
RT-2 receiver
2 centimetre CEP
RT-20 receiver
20 centimetre CEP
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J Listing Of Tables
Table E-3 RT-2 Performance: Static Mode
Baseline
length
< 10 km
< 10 km
< 15 km
< 25 km
< 35 km
< 35 km
Time since L2 lock-on
with at least 6 satellites
above mask angle
Horizontal accuracy at
the stated time
70 seconds + 1.5 sec/km
5 minutes
4 minutes
7 minutes
10 minutes
30 minutes
2 cm + 0.5 ppm
1 cm + 1 ppm
5 cm
7 cm
35 cm
25 cm
Runs meeting the stated accuracy at the
stated time
75.0%
75.0%
66.7%
66.7%
66.7%
66.7%
Table E-4 RT-2 Performance: Kinematic Mode
Baseline
length
< 10 km
< 15 km
< 25 km
< 35 km
< 35 km
Time since L2 lock-on
with at least 6 satellites
above mask angle
Horizontal accuracy at
the stated time
Runs meeting the
stated accuracy at
the stated time
120 seconds + 1.5 sec/km
8 minutes
14 minutes
20 minutes
60 minutes
2 cm + 0.5 ppm
8 cm
10 cm
40 cm
25 cm
75.0%
66.7%
66.7%
66.7%
66.7%
Table E-5 RT-2 Degradation With Respect To Data Delay 1
Data Delay (sec)
Distance (km)
Accuracy (CEP)
0-2
2-7
7 - 30
> 30
1
1
1
1
+1 cm/sec
+2 cm/sec
+5 cm/sec
pseudorange or single point
3
Table E-6 RT-20 Performance
Tracking Time (sec)
Mode 1
Data Delay (sec)
Distance (km)
1 - 180
180 - 3000
> 3000
Static
Static
Static
0
0
0
1
1
1
1 - 600
600 - 3000
> 3000
Kinematic
Kinematic
Kinematic
0
0
0
1
1
1
Either
Either
Either
Either
0-2
2-7
7 - 30
> 30
1
1
1
1
Accuracy (CEP)
100 to 25 cm
25 to 5 cm
5 cm or less
100 to 25 cm
25 to 5 cm
2
5 cm or less
+1 cm/sec
+2 cm/sec
+5 cm/sec
2
pseudorange or single point 3
1 Mode = Static or Kinematic
2 The accuracy specifications refer to the PRTKA/B logs which include about 3 cm extrapolation error. RTKA/B logs are more accurate
but have increased latency associated with them.
3 After 30 seconds reverts to pseudorange positioning (single point or differential depending on messages previously
received from the base station).
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K GPS Glossary of Terms
K
K
GPS GLOSSARY OF TERMS
GPS Glossary of Terms
ASCII — A 7 bit wide serial code describing numbers, upper and lower case characters, special and non-printing
characters.
Address field — for sentences in the NMEA standard, the fixed length field following the beginning sentence
delimiter "$" (HEX 24). For NMEA approved sentences, composed of a two character talker
identifier and a three character sentence formatter. For proprietary sentences, composed of the
character "P" (HEX 50) followed by a three character manufacturer identification code.
Almanac — a set of orbit parameters that allows calculation of approximate GPS satellite positions and
velocities. The almanac is used by a GPS receiver to determine satellite visibility and as an aid
during acquisition of GPS satellite signals.
Almanac data — a set of data which is downloaded from each satellite over the course of 12.5 minutes. It
contains orbital parameter approximations for all satellites, GPS to universal time conversion
parameters, and single-frequency ionospheric model parameters.
Arrival alarm — an alarm signal issued by a voyage tracking unit which indicates arrival at or at a predetermined distance from a waypoint [see arrival circle].
Arrival circle — an artificial boundary placed around the destination waypoint of the present navigation leg,
and entering of which will signal an arrival alarm.
Arrival perpendicular — crossing of the line which is perpendicular to the course line and which passes
through the destination waypoint.
Attenuation — reduction of signal strength
Attitude — the position of an aircraft or spacecraft in relation to a given line or plane, as the horizon.
Azimuth — the horizontal direction of a celestial point from a terrestrial point, expressed as the angular
distance from 000° (reference) clockwise through 360°. The reference point is generally True North,
but may be Magnetic North, or Relative (ship's head).
Bearing — the horizontal direction of one terrestrial point from anther terrestrial point, expressed as the
angular distance from a reference direction, usually measured from 000° at the reference direction
clockwise through 360°. The reference point may be True North, Magnetic North, or Relative (ship's
head).
Carrier — the steady transmitted RF signal whose amplitude, frequency, or phase may be modulated to carry
information.
Carrier Phase Ambiguity (or sometimes ambiguity for short) — the number of integer carrier phase cycles
between the user and the satellite at the start of tracking.
Carrier phase measurements — these are “accumulated delta range” measurements. They contain the
instantaneous phase of the signal (modulo 1 cycle) plus some arbitrary number of integer cycles.
Once the receiver is tracking the satellite, the integer number of cycles correctly accumulates the
change in range seen by the receiver. When a “lock break” occurs, this accumulated value can jump
an arbitrary integer number of cycles (this is called a cycle slip).
Checksum — by NMEA standard, a validity check performed on the data contained in the sentences,
calculated by the talker, appended to the message, then recalculated by the listener for comparison
to determine if the message was received correctly. Required for some sentences, optional for all
others.
Circular Error Probable (CEP) — the radius of a circle, centred at the user’s true location, that contains 50
percent of the individual position measurements made using a particular navigation system.
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Coarse Acquisition (C/A) Code — a spread spectrum direct sequence code that is used primarily by
commercial GPS receivers to determine the range to the transmitting GPS satellite. Uses a chip rate
of 1.023 MHz.
Communication protocol — a method established for message transfer between a talker and a listener which
includes the message format and the sequence in which the messages are to be transferred. Also
includes the signalling requirements such as bit rate, stop bits, parity, and bits per character.
Control segment — the Master Control Station and the globally dispersed reference Stations used to manage
the GPS satellites, determine their precise orbital parameters, and synchronize their clocks.
Course — the horizontal direction in which a vessel is to be steered or is being steered; the direction of travel
through the air or water. Expressed as angular distance from reference North (either true, magnetic,
compass, or grid), usually 000° (north), clockwise through 360°. Strictly, the term applies to
direction through the air or water, not the direction intended to be made good over the ground (see
track). Differs from heading.
Course Made Good (CMG) — the single resultant direction from a given point of departure to a subsequent
position; the direction of the net movement from one point to the other. This often varies from the
track caused by inaccuracies in steering, currents, cross-winds, etc. This term is often considered to
be synonymous with Track Made Good, however, track made good is the more correct term.
Course Over Ground (COG) — the actual path of a vessel with respect to the Earth (a misnomer in that
courses are directions steered or intended to be steered through the water with respect to a reference
meridian); this will not be a straight line if the vessel's heading yaws back and forth across the course.
Cross Track Error (XTE) — the distance from the vessel’s present position to the closest point on a great
circle line connecting the current waypoint coordinates. If a track offset has been specified in the
GPSCard SETNAV command, the cross track error will be relative to the offset track great circle
line.
Cycle Slip — when the carrier phase measurement jumps by an arbitrary number of integer cycles. It is
generally caused by a break in the signal tracking due to shading or some similar occurrence.
Dead Reckoning (DR) — the process of determining a vessel’s approximate position by applying from its last
known position a vector or a series of consecutive vectors representing the run that has since been
made, using only the courses being steered, and the distance run as determined by log, engine rpm,
or calculations from speed measurements.
Destination — the immediate geographic point of interest to which a vessel is navigating. It may be the next
waypoint along a route of waypoints or the final destination of a voyage.
Differential GPS (DGPS) — a technique to improve GPS accuracy that uses pseudorange errors at a known
location to improve the measurements made by other GPS receivers within the same general
geographic area.
Dilution of Precision (DOP) — a numerical value expressing the confidence factor of the position solution
based on current satellite geometry. The lower the value, the greater the confidence in the solution.
DOP can be expressed in the following forms.
GDOP
-
estimated uncertainty for all parameters (latitude, longitude, height, clock offset)
PDOP
-
estimated uncertainty for all 3D parameters (latitude, longitude, height)
HTDOP -
estimated uncertainty for all time and 2D parameters (latitude, longitude, time)
HDOP
-
estimated uncertainty for all 2D parameters (latitude, longitude)
VDOP
-
height is uncertain
TDOP
-
clock offset is uncertain
Doppler — the change in frequency of sound, light or other wave caused by movement of its source relative
to the observer.
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K GPS Glossary of Terms
Doppler aiding — a signal processing strategy, which uses a measured Doppler shift to help a receiver
smoothly track the GPS signal, to allow more precise velocity and position measurement.
Double-Difference — a position estimation mechanization which uses observations which are differenced
between receiver channels and between the reference and remote receivers.
Double-Difference Carrier Phase Ambiguity (or sometimes double difference ambiguity or ambiguity, for
short) — carrier phase ambiguities which are differenced between receiver channels and between the
reference and remote receivers. They are estimated when a double difference mechanism is used for
carrier phase positioning.
Earth-Centred-Earth-Fixed (ECEF) — a right-hand Cartesian coordinate system with its origin located at
the centre of the Earth. The coordinate system used by GPS to describe three-dimensional location.
ECEF — Earth-Centred-Earth-Fixed. This is a coordinate-ordinate system which has the X-coordinate in the
earth's equatorial plane pointing to the Greenwich prime meridian, the Z-axis pointing to the north
pole, and the Y-axis in the equatorial plane 90° from the X-axis with an orientation which forms a
right-handed XYZ system.
Ellipsoid — a smooth mathematical surface which represents the earth’s shape and very closely approximates
the geoid. It is used as a reference surface for geodetic surveys, see the PRTKA/B log in Appendix D,
Page 179.
Ellipsoidal Height — height above a defined ellipsoid approximating the surface of the earth.
Ephemeris — a set of satellite orbit parameters that is used by a GPS receiver to calculate precise GPS satellite
positions and velocities. The ephemeris is used in the determination of the navigation solution and
is updated periodically by the satellite to maintain the accuracy of GPS receivers.
Ephemeris Data — the data downlinked by a GPS satellite describing its own orbital position with time.
Epoch — same as measurement time epoch. The local time at which a GPSCard takes a measurement.
Field — a character or string of characters immediately preceded by a field delimiter.
Fixed Ambiguity Estimates — carrier phase ambiguity estimates which are set to a given number and held
constant. Usually they are set to integers or values derived from linear combinations of integers.
Fixed Discrete Ambiguity Estimates — carrier phase ambiguities which are set to values which are members
of a predetermined set of discrete possibilities, and then held constant.
Fixed field — a field in which the number of characters is fixed. For data fields, such fields are shown in the
sentence definitions with no decimal point. Other fields which fall into this category are the address
field and the checksum field (if present).
Fixed Integer Ambiguity Estimates — carrier phase ambiguities which are set to integer values and then held
constant.
Flash ROM — Programmable read-only memory.
Floating Ambiguity Estimates — ambiguity estimates which are not held to a constant value, but are allowed
to gradually converge to the correct solution.
GDOP — Geometric Dilution of Precision - A numerical value expressing the confidence factor of the position
solution based on current satellite geometry. Assumes that 3D position (latitude, longitude, height)
and receiver clock offset (time) are variables in the solution. The lower the GDOP value, the greater
the confidence in the solution.
Geoid — the shape of the earth if it were considered as a sea level surface extended continuously through the
continents. The geoid is an equipotential surface coincident with mean sea level to which at every
point the plumb line (direction in which gravity acts) is perpendicular. The geoid, affected by local
gravity disturbances, has an irregular shape. See the PRTKA/B log in Appendix D, Page 179.
Geodetic datum — the reference ellipsoid surface that defines the coordinate system.
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K GPS Glossary of Terms
Geostationary — a satellite orbit along the equator that results in a constant fixed position over a particular
reference point on the earth’s surface. (GPS satellites are not geostationary.)
Global Positioning System (GPS) — full name NAVSTAR Global Positioning System, a space-based radio
positioning system which provides suitably equipped users with accurate position, velocity and time
data. When fully operational, GPS will provide this data free of direct user charge worldwide,
continuously, and under all weather conditions. The GPS constellation will consist of 24 orbiting
satellites, four equally spaced around each of six different orbiter planes. The system is being
developed by the Department of Defence under U.S. Air Force management.
Great circle — the shortest distance between any two points along the surface of a sphere or ellipsoid, and
therefore the shortest navigation distance between any two points on the Earth. Also called Geodesic
Line.
HDOP — Horizontal Dilution of Precision - A numerical value expressing the confidence factor of the
horizontal position solution based on current satellite geometry. Makes no constraint assumptions
about time, and about height only if the FIX HEIGHT command has been invoked. The lower the
HDOP value, the greater the confidence in the solution.
HTDOP — Horizontal position and Time Dilution of Precision - A numerical value expressing the confidence
factor of the position solution based on current satellite geometry. Assumes height is known if the
FIX HEIGHT command has been invoked. If not, it will give the normalized precision of the
horizontal and time parameters given that nothing has been constrained. The lower the HTDOP
value, the greater the confidence factor.
Heading — the direction in which a vessel points or heads at any instant, expressed in degrees 000° clockwise
through 360° and may be referenced to True North, Magnetic North, or Grid North. The heading of
a vessel is also called the ship's head. Heading is a constantly changing value as the vessel oscillates
or yaws across the course due to the effects of the air or sea, cross currents, and steering errors.
Integer Ambiguity Estimates — carrier phase ambiguity estimates which are only allowed to take on integer
values.
Iono-free Carrier Phase Observation — a linear combination of L1 and L2 carrier phase measurements
which provides an estimate of the carrier phase observation on one frequency with the effects of the
ionosphere removed. It provides a different ambiguity value (non-integer) than a simple
measurement on that frequency.
Kinematic — the user’s GPS antenna is moving. In GPS, this term is typically used with precise carrier phase
positioning, and the term dynamic is used with pseudorange positioning.
L1 frequency — the 1575.42 MHz GPS carrier frequency which contains the course acquisition (C/A) code,
as well as encrypted P-code, and navigation messages used by commercial GPS receivers.
L2 frequency — a secondary GPS carrier, containing only encrypted P-code, used primarily to calculate signal
delays caused by the ionosphere. The L2 frequency is 1227.60 MHz.
Lane — a particular discrete ambiguity value on one carrier phase range measurement or double difference
carrier phase observation. The type of measurement is not specified (L1, L2, L1-L2, iono-free)
Local Observation Set — an observation set, as described below, taken by the receiver on which the software
is operating as opposed to an observation taken at another receiver (the reference station) and
transmitted through a radio link.
Local Tangent Plane — a coordinate system based on a plane tangent to the ellipsoid’s surface at the user’s
location. The three coordinates are east, north and up. Latitude, longitude and height positions
operate in this coordinate system.
Low-latency Solution — a position solution which is based on a prediction. A model (based on previous
reference station observations) is used to estimate what the observations will be at a given time
epoch. These estimated reference station observations are combined with actual measurements
taken at the remote station to provide a position solution.
Magnetic bearing — bearing relative to magnetic north; compass bearing corrected for deviation.
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K GPS Glossary of Terms
Magnetic heading — heading relative to magnetic north.
Magnetic variation — the angle between the magnetic and geographic meridians at any place, expressed in
degrees and minutes east or west to indicate the direction of magnetic north from true north.
Mask angle — the minimum GPS satellite elevation angle permitted by a particular receiver design. Satellites
below this angle will not be used in position solution.
Matched Observation Set Pair — it contains observations from both the reference station and the local
receiver which have been matched by time epoch, contain the same satellites, and are corrected for
any known offsets.
Measurement error variance — the square of the standard deviation of a measurement quantity. The standard
deviation is representative of the error typically expected in a measured value of that quantity.
Measurement Time Epoch — the local time at which a GPSCard takes a measurement.
Multipath errors — GPS positioning errors caused by the interaction of the GPS satellite signal and its
reflections.
Nanosecond — 1 × 10
-9
second
Nautical mile — any of various units of distance for sea and air navigation; in the U.S. since 1959, an
international unit of linear measure equal to 1 minute of arc of a great circle of the Earth, 1,852
metres (6,076 feet).
Non-Volatile Memory — a type of memory device that retains data in the absence of a power supply.
Null field — by NMEA standard, indicates that data is not available for the field. Indicated by two ASCII
commas, i.e., ",," (HEX 2C2C), or, for the last data field in a sentence, one comma followed by either
the checksum delimiter "*" (HEX 2A) or the sentence delimiters <CR><LF> (HEX 0D0A). [Note:
the ASCII Null character (HEX 00) is not to be used for null fields.]
Obscuration — term used to describe periods of time when a GPS receiver’s line-of-sight to GPS satellites is
blocked by natural or man-made objects.
Observation — an input to an estimation algorithm. The two observations used in NovAtel’s RTK algorithms
are the pseudorange measurement and the carrier phase measurement.
Observation Set — a set of GPSCard measurements taken at a given time which includes one time for all
measurements, and the following for each satellite tracked: PRN number, pseudorange or carrier
phase or both, lock time count, signal strength, and tracking status. Either L1 only or L1 and L2
measurements are included in the set. The observation set is assumed to contain information
indicating how many satellites it contains and which ones have L1-only and which ones have L1/L2
pairs.
Origin waypoint — the starting point of the present navigation leg, expressed in latitude and longitude.
Parallel receiver — a receiver that monitors four or more satellites simultaneously with independent channels.
P-Code (precise or protected) — a spread spectrum direct sequence code that is used primarily by military
GPS receivers to determine the range to the transmitting GPS satellite. Uses a chipping rate of 10.23
MHz.
PDOP — Position Dilution of Precision. This is related to GDOP. It describes the effects of geometry on 3
dimensional positioning accuracy. It is defined to be the square root of the sum of the three diagonals
of a normalized (assume measurement noise = 1) covariance matrix which correspond to position
error.
Pitch — the rising and falling of the bow and stern of a ship in a rough sea or the movement up or down of the
nose and tail of an airplane.
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K GPS Glossary of Terms
Precise Positioning Service (PPS) — the GPS positioning, velocity, and time service which will be available
on a continuous, worldwide basis to users authorized by the U.S. Department of Defence (typically
using P-Code).
PRN number — a number assigned by the GPS system designers to a given set of pseudorandom codes.
Typically, a particular satellite will keep its PRN (and hence its code assignment) indefinitely, or at
least for a long period of time. It is commonly used as a way to label a particular satellite.
Pseudolite — an Earth-based transmitter designed to mimic a satellite. May be used to transmit differential
corrections.
Pseudorange — the calculated range from the GPS receiver to the satellite determined by taking the difference
between the measured satellite transmit time and the receiver time of measurement, and multiplying
by the speed of light. This measurement generally contains a large receiver clock offset error.
Pseudorange Measurements — measurements made using one of the pseudorandom codes on the GPS
signals. They provide an unambiguous measure of the range to the satellite including the effect of
the satellite and user clock biases.
Receiver channels — a GPS receiver specification which indicates the number of independent hardware
signal processing channels included in the receiver design.
Reference Satellite — in a double difference implementation, measurements are differenced between different
satellites on one receiver in order to cancel the clock bias effect. Usually one satellite is chosen as
the “reference”, and all others are differenced with it.
Reference Station — the GPS receiver which is acting as the stationary reference. It has a known position and
transmits messages for the "remote" receiver to use to calculate its position.
Relative bearing — bearing relative to heading or to the vessel.
Remote Receiver — the GPS receiver which does not know its position and needs to receive measurements
from a reference station to calculate differential GPS positions. (The terms remote and rover are
interchangeable.)
Residual
— in the context of measurement, the residual is the misclosure between the calculated
measurements, using the position solution and actual measurements.
RMS — root-mean-square, a probability level of 66%.
Roll — to move by turning on an axis or to rotate about its axis lengthwise, as an aircraft in flight.
Route — a planned course of travel, usually composed of more than one navigation leg.
Rover Receiver — the GPS receiver which does not know its position and needs to receive measurements from
a reference station to calculate differential GPS positions. (The terms rover and remote are
interchangeable.)
RT-20 — NovAtel’s Double Differencing Technology for real-time kinematic (RTK) carrier phase floating
ambiguity resolution.
RTCA — Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics, an organization which developed and defined a
message format for differential positioning. See Appendix F, Page 233 for further information.
RTCM — Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services, an organization which developed and defined
the SC-104 message format for differential positioning. See Appendix F for further information.
RTK — real-time kinematic, a type of differential positioning based on observations of carrier phase. In this
document it is also used with reference to RT-2 and RT-20.
Satellite elevation — the angle of the satellite above the horizon.
Selected waypoint — the waypoint currently selected to be the point toward which the vessel is travelling.
Also called "to" waypoint, destination or destination waypoint.
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K GPS Glossary of Terms
Selective Availability (SA) — the method used by the United States Department of Defence to control access
to the full accuracy achievable by civilian GPS equipment (generally by introducing timing and
ephemeris errors).
Sequential receiver — a GPS receiver in which the number of satellite signals to be tracked exceeds the
number of available hardware channels. Sequential receivers periodically reassign hardware
channels to particular satellite signals in a predetermined sequence.
Spherical Error Probable (SEP) — the radius of a sphere, centred at the user’s true location, that contains
50 percent of the individual three-dimensional position measurements made using a particular
navigation system.
Spheroid — sometimes known as ellipsoid; a perfect mathematical figure which very closely approximates
the geoid. Used as a surface of reference for geodetic surveys. The geoid, affected by local gravity
disturbances, is irregular.
Standard Positioning Service (SPS) — a positioning service made available by the United States Department
of Defence which will be available to all GPS civilian users on a continuous, worldwide basis
(typically using C/A Code).
SV —
Space Vehicle ID, sometimes used as SVID; also used interchangeably with Pseudo-Random Noise
Number (PRN).
Static — the user’s GPS antenna does not move.
TDOP — Time Dilution of Precision - A numerical value expressing the confidence factor of the position
solution based on current satellite geometry. The lower the TDOP value, the greater the confidence
factor.
Three-dimensional coverage (hours) — the number of hours-per-day when four or more satellites are
available with acceptable positioning geometry. Four visible satellites are required to determine
location and altitude.
Three-dimensional (3D) navigation — navigation mode in which altitude and horizontal position are
determined from satellite range measurements.
Time-To-First-Fix (TTFF) — the actual time required by a GPS receiver to achieve a position solution. This
specification will vary with the operating state of the receiver, the length of time since the last
position fix, the location of the last fix, and the specific receiver design.
Track — a planned or intended horizontal path of travel with respect to the Earth rather than the air or water.
The track is expressed in degrees from 000° clockwise through 360° (true, magnetic, or grid).
Track made good — the single resultant direction from a point of departure to a point of arrival or subsequent
position at any given time; may be considered synonymous with Course Made Good.
True bearing — bearing relative to true north; compass bearing corrected for compass error.
True heading — heading relative to true north.
Two-dimensional coverage (hours) — the number of hours-per-day with three or more satellites visible.
Three visible satellites can be used to determine location if the GPS receiver is designed to accept an
external altitude input.
Two-dimensional (2D) navigation — navigation mode in which a fixed value of altitude is used for one or
more position calculations while horizontal (2D) position can vary freely based on satellite range
measurements.
Undulation — the distance of the geoid above (positive) or below (negative) the mathematical reference
ellipsoid (spheroid). Also known as geoidal separation, geoidal undulation, geoidal height.
266
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
K GPS Glossary of Terms
Universal Time Coordinated (UTC) — this time system uses the second-defined true angular rotation of the
Earth measured as if the Earth rotated about its Conventional Terrestrial Pole. However, UTC is
adjusted only in increments of one second. The time zone of UTC is that of Greenwich Mean Time
(GMT).
Update rate — the GPS receiver specification which indicates the solution rate provided by the receiver when
operating normally.
VDOP — Vertical Dilution of Precision. This is related to GDOP. It describes the effects of geometry on
vertical positioning accuracy. It is defined to be the square root of the diagonal of a normalized
(assume measurement noise = 1) covariance matrix which corresponds to vertical position error.
Variable field — by NMEA standards, a data field which may or may not contain a decimal point and which
may vary in precision following the decimal point depending on the requirements and the accuracy
of the measuring device.
WGS84 — World Geodetic System 1984 is an ellipsoid designed to fit the shape of the entire Earth as well as
possible with a single ellipsoid. It is often used as a reference on a worldwide basis, while other
ellipsoids are used locally to provide a better fit to the Earth in a local region. GPS uses the centre
of the WGS84 ellipsoid as the centre of the GPS ECEF reference frame.
Waypoint — a reference point on a track.
Wide Lane — a particular integer ambiguity value on one carrier phase range measurement or double
difference carrier phase observation when the difference of the L1 and L2 measurements is used. It
is a carrier phase observable formed by subtracting L2 from L1 carrier phase data: Φ' = Φ1 - Φ2. The
corresponding wavelength is 86.2 cm
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
267
L GPS Glossary of Acronyms
L
GPS GLOSSARY OF ACRONYMS
L GPS GLOSSARY OF ACRONYMS
1PPS
One Pulse Per Second
2D
Two Dimensional
2DRMS
Twice distance RMS
3D
Three Dimensional
A/D
Analog-to-Digital
ADR
Accumulated Doppler Range
AGC
Automatic Gain Control
ASCII
American Standard Code for Information Interchange
BIH
Bureau l’International de l’Heure
BIST
Built-In-Self-Test
bps
Bits per Second
C/A Code
Coarse/Acquisition Code
CEP
Circular Error Probable
C/No
Carrier to Noise Density Ratio
CPU
Central Processing Unit
CR
Carriage Return
CRC
Cyclic Redundancy Check
CTP
Conventional Terrestrial Pole
CTS
Conventional Terrestrial System
CTS
Clear To Send
dB
Decibel
DCE
Data Communications Equipment
DGNSS
Differential Global Navigation Satellite System
DGPS
Differential Global Positioning System
DOP
Dilution Of Precision
DSP
Digital Signal Processor
DSR
Data Set Ready
DTR
Data Terminal Ready
ECEF
Earth-Centred-Earth-Fixed
EGNOS
European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service
EMC
Electromagnetic Compatibility
EMI
Electromagnetic Immunity
ESD
Electrostatic Discharge
FEC
Forward Error Correction
FIA
US Federal Aviation Administration
FIFO
First In First Out
GDOP
Geometric Dilution Of Precision
GMT
Greenwich Mean Time
GND
Ground
GPS
Global Positioning System
HDOP
Horizontal Dilution Of Precision
hex
Hexadecimal
HTDOP
Horizontal position and Time Dilution Of Precision
Hz
Hertz
IC
Integrated Circuit
IF
Intermediate Frequency
IGRF
International Geomagnetic Reference Field
I/O
Input/Output
IODE
Issue of Data (Ephemeris)
IRQ
Interrupt Request
LF
Line Feed
268
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
L GPS Glossary of Acronyms
LHCP
LNA
LO
lsb
Left Hand Circular Polarization
Low Noise Amplifier
Local Oscillator
Least significant bit
MET
MEDLL
MKI
MKO
MSAS
msb
msec
MSL
Multipath Elimination Technology
Multipath Estimation Delay Lock Loop
Mark In
Mark Out
Multi-Functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT) based Augmentation System
Most significant bit
millisecond
Mean sea level
N. mi.
NAVSTAR
NCO
NMEA
ns
Nautical mile
NAVigation Satellite Timing And Ranging (synonymous with GPS)
Numerically Controlled Oscillator
National Marine Electronics Association
nanosecond
OCXO
OEM
Oven Controlled Crystal Oscillator
Original Equipment Manufacturer
PC
P Code
PDOP
PLL
PPS
PRN
Personal Computer
Precise Code
Position Dilution Of Precision
Phase Lock Loop
Precise Positioning Service or Pulse Per Second
PseudoRandom Noise number
RAM
RF
RHCP
ROM
RTCA
RTCM
RTK
RTS
RXD
Random Access Memory
Radio Frequency
Right Hand Circular Polarization
Read Only Memory
Radio Technical Commission for Aviation Services
Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services
Real Time Kinematic
Request To Send
Received Data
SA
SCAT-I
SEP
SNR
SPS
SV
SVN
Selective Availability
Special Category I
Spherical Error Probable
Signal-to-Noise Ratio
Standard Positioning Service
Space Vehicle
Space Vehicle Number
TCXO
TDOP
TTFF
TTL
TXD
Temperature Compensated Crystal Oscillator
Time Dilution Of Precision
Time-To-First-Fix
Transistor Transistor Logic
Transmitted Data
UART
UDRE
UTC
Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter
User Differential Range Error
Universal Time Coordinated
VARF
VCTCXO
VDOP
Variable Frequency
Voltage Controlled Temperature Compensated Crystal Oscillator
Vertical Dilution of Precision
WAAS
WGS
wpt
Wide Area Augmentation System
World Geodetic System
Waypoint
XTE
Crosstrack Error
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
269
M Index
M
INDEX
M INDEX
Numerics
1PPS 33, 83, 128, 218
2D 97, 261, 266
2D mode 26, 97, 163, 244
2DRMS 268
3D 261–262, 266, 268
3D mode 163
A
acceptance 79
accumulated Doppler 55, 194, 200,
254
acquisition 82, 260–261, 263, 268
age of differential corrections 183,
220
alarm 260
almanac 136, 187, 193, 198, 239
data 30, 31, 63, 136, 159, 187,
260, 267
tables 31
ambiguity 71, 72, 74, 117–118,
143, 193, 225, 228, 231, 252–253,
260–263, 265, 267
antenna 160, 197
altitude 158, 160
cable 197
design 74–75, 78
LNA power 81, 251
motion 58, 82
position 117, 171, 198
site 68, 74
ascii 31, 32–35, 42, 43–44, 47, 50–
51, 53, 57, 79, 105, 113, 121, 136,
158, 264
attitude 260
authorization code 239
azimuth 165, 212, 260
B
bearing 75, 106, 173, 260, 263–266
binary 32–36, 42, 44, 45, 47, 50–52,
54, 79, 105, 152, 158, 160, 186,
192, 197
log header 35
broadcast 53–55, 56, 59, 63, 67–68,
71, 112, 159, 186, 202, 216
health 124
270
buffer overload 35
C
C/A code 63, 67, 74, 75, 77, 266
C/No 155, 165, 194, 199, 254, 268
carrier phase 52, 55, 66, 74, 98,
193–194, 197, 220, 260–265, 267
carrier smoothing 88, 239
channel 194, 210, 224
number 240
state 82, 194, 224
tracking 82, 155, 201, 256
channels 32, 129, 155, 191, 210,
262, 264–266
number of 191
chatter 31, 44
checksum 24, 33, 35, 47, 50, 51, 57,
191, 239, 260, 262, 264
clock 33, 37, 42, 53, 56, 59, 63, 65,
67–72, 83, 94–98, 128, 147, 193,
197, 216, 218, 239, 261–262, 265
drift 53, 83, 147
rate 83
frequency error 82
model status 147, 218
offset 37, 68, 147, 153, 172,
218, 265
CMR 17, 18, 45, 55, 79, 80, 144,
145
com
buffers 198
port 31, 33, 46, 47, 51, 79, 84,
105, 121
command
defaults 23
interpreter 43, 79, 239
communications port 47, 49, 51, 52,
121
configuration 14, 33, 35, 49, 53, 70,
81, 86, 87, 101, 110, 125, 186, 190,
251
constellation 62, 153, 231, 263
control segment 62–63, 68, 124,
261
conversion 64, 194, 236, 260
course over ground 261
CPU 35, 191, 198
overload 35, 198
power 198
cross track 166, 173, 261
D
data injection 31
datum 23, 26, 27, 89, 98, 126, 130,
173, 176, 178, 181, 183, 234, 240,
241, 244, 246
ID 171, 178
delay lock loop 77
de-weighting 104
differential
corrections 14, 30, 33, 34, 47,
50–51, 53, 69, 70, 71,
79, 90, 97, 98, 109,
121, 123, 179, 220,
232, 239, 265
fix 158
lag 183
positioning 70
dilution of precision 15, 41, 66,
153, 158, 160, 163, 250, 261, 262,
263, 264, 267, 268
direction
of motion 215
over ground 220
distance 173, 236, 268
Doppler 55, 82, 194, 197, 200, 220,
240, 254, 261, 262, 268
offset 82
double differencing 78, 265
E
ECEF 32, 52, 99, 117, 141, 181,
203, 216, 262
elevation 72, 75, 116, 165, 212,
224, 226, 228
cut-off 88
angle 93
ellipsoid 19, 32, 52, 117, 126, 130,
133, 176, 181, 205, 234, 263, 266,
267
ellipsoidal
datum 133
ephemerides 62, 63
ephemeris 32, 46, 51, 55, 63, 68, 70,
90, 187, 192, 226, 231, 266
error message 43, 79, 108
errors 17, 24, 65, 74, 83, 94, 98,
193, 198, 226, 231, 261, 263, 264
external oscillator 33, 94, 96
F
factory default 23, 87, 101, 110
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
M Index
FIFO 84, 268
frequency 25, 27, 28, 34, 45, 48, 56,
69, 71, 72, 76, 82, 94, 96, 100, 155,
194, 195, 199, 201, 225, 231, 239,
240, 241, 243, 245, 246, 254, 256,
260, 261, 263, 268, 269
G
GDOP 153
GEO 30
geodetic datum 89, 234, 262
geographic coordinates 178
geoid 97, 98, 130, 158, 160, 176,
262, 266
undulation 171
geoidal
separation 158, 178, 266
undulation 130
Global Positioning System 62
GPS time 37, 38, 44, 56, 59, 68, 83,
98, 147, 237
GPSCard Range Reject Codes 213,
258
great circle 126, 261, 263, 264
ground plane 74, 76, 231
H
hardware reset 110
HDOP 153, 160, 163, 261, 263
heading 215, 220, 261, 263–266
health 19, 20, 56, 59, 98, 111, 124,
129, 136, 186, 203, 216, 220, 232,
240
height 19, 64, 71, 75, 97, 98, 117,
171, 176, 178, 231, 261, 262, 263
help 23, 102
high power jamming 197
high power signal 198
HTDOP 153
I
idle time 191, 198
IGRF 106, 268
Inertial Navigation System (INS)
99, 181
information messages 238
ionospheric 31, 56, 59, 70, 136,
186, 226, 231, 260
corrections 31, 216
data 30
errors 225
K
O
kinematic 20, 36, 58, 66, 71, 76,
118, 230, 263, 269
offset 14, 34, 38, 67–71, 82, 94, 98,
105, 126, 147
orbit period 62
oscillator 83, 94, 269
output pulse 100
L
latched time 171
latency 17, 20, 36, 53, 67, 72, 179,
205, 220, 228, 232, 243, 263
latitude 62, 71, 98, 117, 158, 160,
161, 167, 178, 261–264
L-band 63
LNA 81, 197
lockout satellite 104
locktime 88, 194
longitude 62, 71, 98, 117, 158, 160,
161, 167, 171, 178, 261–264
M
magnetic variation 106, 107, 167,
173, 264
mask angle 141, 142, 179, 180, 205,
226, 259, 264
master control station 63, 261
mean sea level 19, 62, 97, 117, 160,
178, 262, 269
misclosure 265
modem 42, 45, 108, 152
monitor station 71, 97, 123
multipath 67, 193, 226, 231, 264,
269
N
Narrow Correlator 67, 77
navigation 11, 46, 47, 53, 56, 59,
62, 99, 112, 126, 163, 166, 167,
173, 175, 181, 202, 204, 260, 262,
264–266, 268, 269
calculations 126
NAVSTAR 62, 263
NMEA 37, 233
node 159
noise 25, 27, 38, 41, 67, 72, 77, 81,
88, 94, 95, 149, 155, 164, 193, 194,
213, 231, 242, 243, 246, 248, 250,
251, 258, 264, 266, 267, 269
non-printable characters 122
non-volatile memory 24, 31, 57,
101, 197, 198, 254, 264
P
pass-through 42–44, 79, 108, 152
PDOP 66, 153, 163, 228, 264
phase lock 74, 194, 224
loop 82
pitch 75, 264
polarity 73
poor reception 75
port 240
position constraints 131
processing 50, 63, 64, 66, 79, 155,
193, 198, 262, 265
propagation 68, 73, 75, 78
pseudorange 36, 50, 53–55, 56, 59,
65–74, 77, 88, 97, 98, 125, 179,
193, 197, 216, 226, 231, 265
measurement 59, 68, 71, 164,
197
pulse 33, 100, 171, 172, 218, 268,
269
R
RAM 197
range weight standard deviation
216
raw almanac 159, 186
reacquisition 32, 82, 99, 181
real-time 64, 65, 68, 71, 225, 265
receiver 14, 19, 24, 32, 33, 35, 37,
45, 47, 51–52, 55, 56, 59, 62–63,
65, 74, 77–78, 83, 89, 93, 97–99,
112, 123, 125, 141, 147, 158, 160,
163, 167, 178, 179, 181, 191, 192,
193, 196, 197, 198, 202, 205, 210,
218, 225, 231, 253, 260–266, 267
clock offset 136, 147, 218
self-test 197
status 35, 119, 191, 193,
194, 196, 253
status 30, 191, 192, 198, 210
redirect data 42, 152
reference station 19, 23, 26, 28, 32,
42, 45, 46, 48, 52–55, 68, 72, 74,
90, 97, 98, 109, 115, 118, 121, 123,
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
271
M Index
141, 179, 203, 205, 245, 246, 261–
265
reject code 212–213, 258
remote station 19–20, 42, 45, 47,
48, 50, 51, 53, 54, 65, 67, 70–72,
88–90, 98, 115, 116, 118, 121, 141,
231, 263
residual 162, 212, 265
RF
downconverter 197
signal 73, 76, 260
RINEX 241
RMS 164, 228, 265
roll 75, 265
RTCA 13, 18, 19, 34, 45, 46, 47, 79,
90, 123, 204, 233, 241, 265
RTCM 13, 34, 45–51, 52, 114, 123,
241, 242
S
satellite 15, 18, 26, 28, 31–33, 45,
46, 48, 51–53, 55, 56, 59, 62, 73–
75, 82, 88, 94, 98, 99, 101, 111,
116, 118, 124, 129, 131, 136, 153,
159, 162, 181, 186, 192, 193, 197,
204, 210, 212, 216, 228, 231, 244,
246, 260, 263–266
segment, control 62
segment, space 62
segment, user 62, 63
self-test 194, 268
smoothing 88
272
software version 134, 219
space segment 62
Space Vehicle Number 63, 269
speed 35, 67, 117, 167, 168, 173,
215, 220, 261, 265
over ground 167, 168, 215, 220
station ID 19, 48, 98, 123, 203
subframes 32, 136, 186, 192
SV health 159
T
tag 11, 42, 44, 56, 58, 61, 79, 141,
166, 179, 203, 220
TCXO 68
TDOP 153, 261, 263, 266
track
made good 167, 168, 261, 266
offset 126, 241
over ground 215, 220
tracking 31, 33, 71, 82, 88, 98, 99,
104, 129, 153, 181, 193, 198, 201,
210, 228, 231, 255, 256, 260, 261,
264
status 193, 194, 264
transformation 234
triangulation 74
trigger 13, 14, 24, 34, 35, 42, 105,
176, 205, 240
trilateration 74
tropospheric corrections 216
true north 106, 164, 173, 212, 215,
220, 260, 264, 266
U
undulation 19, 117, 128, 130, 171,
176, 178, 266
user
datum 173
segment 62, 63
UTC 31, 32, 38, 56, 59, 138, 158,
170, 186, 267
data 30
offset 172, 218
parameters 32
time 136, 160–164, 169
V
VARF 251
VCTCXO 94, 96
VDOP 163, 261, 267
velocity 32, 62, 63, 99, 173, 181,
220, 262–265
latency 220
quality 220
status 221, 258
W
WAAS 26, 29, 30, 42, 103, 135,
157, 223, 269
waypoint 126, 166, 170, 173, 260,
261, 264, 265, 267
WGS-84 52, 89, 98, 126, 130, 133,
178, 183, 185, 216, 267
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
M Index
MiLLennium GPSCard Software Version 4.501 Command Descriptions Manual Rev 1
273
OM-20000048
Rev 1
5/27/99
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