Novatel | Waypoint 8.80 | User manual | Novatel Waypoint 8.80 User Manual

Novatel Waypoint 8.80 User Manual
A NovAtel Precise Positioning Product
Inertial Explorer®
Inertial Explorer Xpress
GrafNav / GrafNet
GrafNav Static
User Manual
Waypoint Software 8.80 User Manual v7
July 2019
Waypoint Software 8.80 User Manual
Publication Number: OM-20000166
Revision Level: v7
Revision Date: July 2019
This manual reflects Inertial Explorer software version 8.80.
Warranty
NovAtel Inc. warrants that its GNSS products are free from defects in materials and workmanship, subject to the
conditions set forth below on our website: www.novatel.com/products/warranty/ and for the following time periods:
Software Warranty One (1) year
Return instructions
To return products, refer to the instructions on the Returning to NovAtel tab of the warranty page: www.novatel.com/products/warranty/.
Proprietary Notice
Information in this document is subject to change without notice and does not represent a commitment on the
part of NovAtel Inc. The software described in this document is furnished under a licence agreement or non-disclosure agreement. The software may be used or copied only in accordance with the terms of the agreement. It
is against the law to copy the software on any medium except as specifically allowed in the license or non-disclosure agreement.
The information contained within this manual is believed to be true and correct at the time of publication.
NovAtel, Waypoint, GrafNav/GrafNet, Inertial Explorer, SPAN, OEM7, OEM6, OEMV, OEM4 and AdVance are
registered trademarks of NovAtel Inc.
All other product or brand names are trademarks of their respective holders.
© Copyright 2019 NovAtel Inc. All rights reserved. Unpublished rights reserved under International copyright
laws.
Waypoint Software 8.80 User Manual v7
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Table of Contents
END-USER LICENSE AGREEMENT (“EULA”)
Foreword
Chapter 1 Waypoint Software Overview
1.1 Overview of the Waypoint Products
1.1.1 Inertial Explorer
1.1.2 Inertial Explorer Xpress
1.1.3 GrafNav
1.1.4 GrafNet
1.1.5 GrafNav Static
1.1.6 Waypoint TerraStar Near Real-Time (NRT) Precise Products
1.1.7 Moving Baseline Features
1.1.7.1 Relative Processing
1.1.7.2 Relative Vector Output
1.1.7.3 Relative Velocity
1.2 Software Utilities
1.2.1 Concatenate, Slice and Resample
1.2.2 Copy User Files
1.2.3 Download Service Data
1.2.4 GPB Viewer
1.2.5 GNSS Data Converter
1.3 Processing Modes and Solutions
1.3.1 Processing Modes
1.3.1.1 Static Mode
1.3.1.2 Kinematic Mode
1.3.2 Processing Solutions
1.3.2.1 ARTK solution
1.3.2.2 Fixed static solution
1.3.2.3 Float solution
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Chapter 2 Installation
2.1 What You Need To Start
2.1.1 Activation ID
2.1.2 Installation file
2.2 Supported Operating Systems
2.3 How to install Waypoint software
2.4 How to Activate Your License
2.5 How to Manually Activate/Return Your License
2.5.1 Manual Activation Process
2.5.2 Manual Return Process
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Chapter 3 Inertial Explorer/Inertial Explorer Express/GrafNav
3.1 GrafNav Overview
3.2 GrafNav Static Overview
3.3 Inertial Explorer Overview
3.4 Inertial Explorer Xpress Overview
3.5 Getting Started with Inertial Explorer
3.5.1 Start Inertial Explorer
3.5.2 Create a project using the New Project Wizard
3.5.3 Process Data
3.5.3.1 Process GNSS-only:
3.5.3.2 Process Loosely Coupled [IE only]:
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3.5.3.3 Process Tightly Coupled [IE/IEX only]
3.5.4 Plotting and Quality Control (QC)
3.5.4.1 Attitude (Roll and Pitch) (IE/IEX only)
3.5.4.2 Attitude (Azimuth/Heading) (IE/IEX only)
3.5.4.3 Attitude Separation (IE/IEX only)
3.5.4.4 IMU-GNSS Position Misclosure (IE/IEX only)
3.5.4.5 Smooth Solution (IE/IEX only)
3.5.5 Export Final Coordinates
3.6 File menu
3.6.1 New Project
3.6.1.1 Project Wizard
3.6.1.2 Empty Project
3.6.2 Open Project
3.6.2.1 How to open a project
3.6.2.2 Recent projects
3.6.3 Save Project
3.6.3.1 How to save a project
3.6.4 Save As
3.6.4.1 How to save as a project
3.6.5 Add Master File(s)
3.6.5.1 Master Station Position
3.6.5.2 Datum Selection
3.6.5.3 Epoch Selection
3.6.5.4 Antenna Height
3.6.5.5 Antenna Models
3.6.6 Add Remote File
3.6.6.1 How to add a remote file
3.6.6.2 Compute from Slant
3.6.7 Add IMU File (IE/IEX only)
3.6.8 Add Precise/Alternate Files
3.6.8.1 Broadcast Ephemeris
3.6.8.2 Precise Ephemerides
3.6.8.3 Waypoint TerraStar Near Real-Time (NRT) Precise Satellite Clocks and Orbits
3.6.8.4 Satellite Clock Files
3.6.9 Load
3.6.9.1 GNSS Solution
3.6.9.2 PPP Solution
3.6.9.3 LC Solution (Loosely Coupled)
3.6.9.4 TC Solution (Tightly Coupled)
3.6.9.5 Any Solution
3.6.9.6 Single Point Solution (from .gpb file)
3.6.9.7 Camera Event Marks
3.6.9.8 Station File (.sta/nst)
3.6.9.9 Stations with Known Lat/Long
3.6.10 Preferences
3.6.10.1 Display
3.6.10.2 Solution
3.6.10.3 Export
3.6.10.4 Update
3.6.11 Exit
3.7 View Menu
3.7.1 Project Overview
3.7.2 Coordinate/Antenna
3.7.2.1 Master Station Settings
3.7.2.2 Coord. Options
3.7.2.3 Save to Favorites
3.7.2.4 Remote Settings
3.7.3 Moving Baseline Options (GrafNav Only)
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3.7.3.1 Azimuth Determination Options
3.7.4 GNSS Observations
3.7.4.1 View Raw GNSS Data
3.7.4.2 View Ephemeris File
3.7.4.3 View Station File
3.7.4.4 Resample/Fill Gaps using the following options
3.7.4.5 Disable
3.7.4.6 Remove
3.7.5 Forward and Reverse Solutions
3.7.5.1 GNSS / PPP Message Log
3.7.5.2 GNSS Summary
3.7.5.3 IMU LC / TC Message Log (IE/IEX only)
3.7.6 Processing Summary
3.7.7 Features
3.7.7.1 Columns on the Features Editor window
3.7.7.2 Buttons on the Features Editor window
3.7.8 ASCII File(s)
3.7.9 Binary File(s) (IE/IEX only)
3.7.10 Raw GNSS Data
3.7.11 Show Map Window
3.7.11.1 Mouse Usage in Map Window
3.8 Process Menu
3.8.1 Process GNSS
3.8.1.1 Processing Method
3.8.1.2 Processing Direction
3.8.1.3 Processing Settings
3.8.1.4 Processing Information
3.8.1.5 General (Differential Settings)
3.8.1.6 General (PPP Settings)
3.8.1.7 ARTK Options (Differential GNSS processing only)
3.8.1.8 Measurement
3.8.1.9 User Cmds (Not available in IEX)
3.8.2 Process LC (Loosely Coupled) and TC (Tightly Coupled)
3.8.2.1 Process Settings
3.8.2.2 IMU Installation (IE/IEX only)
3.8.2.3 Lever Arm Offset (IMU to GNSS Antenna)
3.8.2.4 Body-to-IMU Rotations (Rotate Vehicle Frame into IMU Frame) (IE/IEX only)
3.8.2.5 GNSS Heading Offset (IE/IEX only)
3.8.2.6 Advanced IMU (IE/IEX only)
3.8.2.7 Alignment (IE/IEX only)
3.8.2.8 States (IE/IEX only)
3.8.2.9 GNSS (IE/IEX only)
3.8.2.10 Updates (IE/IEX only)
3.8.2.11 Constraints (IE/IEX only)
3.8.3 Combine Solutions
3.8.4 Smooth Solutions (IE/IEX only)
3.8.5 Solve Boresighting Angles
3.8.5.1 Show
3.8.5.2 Settings
3.8.5.3 Message Window
3.8.5.4 Boresight Settings
3.9 Output Menu
3.9.1 Plot Results
3.9.1.1 Add Group
3.9.1.2 Plot Options
3.9.1.3 Common Plots
3.9.2 Plot Multi-Base
3.9.3 Export Wizard
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3.9.3.1 How to create a new Export Wizard profile
3.9.3.2 How to use the Export Wizard
3.9.3.3 Creating an Output File
3.9.3.4 IMU Epoch Settings
3.9.4 Build HTML Report
3.9.5 Export to Google Earth
3.9.6 Export to RIEGL POF/POQ (IE/IEX only)
3.9.7 Export to SBET (IE/IEX only)
3.9.8 Export to Waypoint Legacy Format
3.9.9 Export to DXF
3.9.9.1 Output File Name
3.9.9.2 Output Components and Options
3.9.9.3 Symbol Sizes
3.9.9.4 Datum
3.9.10 Processing Window
3.9.10.1 Status
3.9.10.2 Progress
3.9.10.3 View
3.9.10.4 Notifications
3.10 Tools Menu
3.10.1 Find Epoch Time
3.10.2 Time Conversion
3.10.3 GPB Utilities
3.10.3.1 Concatenate, Slice and Resample
3.10.3.2 View Raw GNSS Data
3.10.4 Convert
3.10.4.1 Raw GNSS to GPB
3.10.4.2 Raw IMU Data to Waypoint Generic (IMR) (IE/IEX only)
3.10.5 Convert Coordinate File
3.10.6 Compute Geoid Height
3.10.7 Grid/Map Projection
3.10.7.1 Transform Coordinates
3.10.8 Datum Manager
3.10.8.1 Datums
3.10.8.2 Datum Conversions
3.10.8.3 Ellipsoids
3.10.8.4 Transform Coordinates
3.10.9 Favourites Manager
3.10.10 Manage Profiles
3.10.10.1 Project/Profile Tools
3.10.10.2 Profile Settings
3.10.11 Download Service Data
3.10.11.1 Download
3.10.11.2 Add From List
3.10.11.3 Add Closest
3.10.11.4 Options
3.10.11.5 Add Stations and Services
3.11 Window Menu
3.11.1 Tile
3.11.2 Close Window
3.11.3 Close All Windows
3.11.4 List of Windows.
3.11.5 Status
3.11.6 Progress
3.11.7 View
3.11.8 Notifications
3.12 Help Menu
3.12.1 Help Topics
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3.12.2 Support Web Portal
3.12.3 Check for update...
3.12.4 Download manufacturer files
3.12.4.1 List of files downloaded when manufacturer files are updated
3.12.5 NovAtel Waypoint Products
3.13 About
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Chapter 4 GrafNet
4.1 GrafNet Overview
4.1.1 Types of Networks
4.1.1.1 Closed Loop Network
4.1.1.2 Radial Network
4.1.2 Static Solution Types
4.1.2.1 Fixed Solution (ARTK)
4.1.2.2 Float Solution
4.1.2.3 Automatic
4.1.3 Computing Coordinates
4.1.3.1 Traverse Solution
4.1.3.2 Network Adjustment
4.2 Start a Project with GrafNet
4.2.1 Install Software
4.2.2 Convert Data
4.2.3 Create a Project
4.2.4 Add Observation Files to the Project
4.2.5 Add Control and Check Points
4.2.6 Set the Processing Options
4.2.7 Process All Sessions
4.2.8 Verify That All Baselines Have Passed
4.2.9 View Traverse Report
4.2.10 Run Network Adjustment
4.2.11 Export Station Coordinates
4.2.12 Fix Bad Baselines
4.2.12.1 Fixed Static Solutions
4.2.12.2 Change the Processing Direction
4.2.12.3 Change the Elevation Mask
4.2.12.4 Change the Processing Time Range
4.2.12.5 Satellite Omission
4.3 File Menu
4.3.1 New Project
4.3.2 Open Project
4.3.3 Save Project
4.3.4 Save As
4.3.5 Add / Remove Observations
4.3.5.1 Import Options
4.3.6 Add / Remove Control Points
4.3.7 Add / Remove Check Points
4.3.8 Add Precise Files
4.3.9 Import Project Files
4.3.10 View
4.3.10.1 ASCII File
4.3.10.2 Raw GNSS Data
4.3.11 Convert
4.3.11.1 Raw GNSS to GPB
4.3.12 GPB Utilities
4.3.12.1 Concatenate, Slice and Resample
4.3.12.2 View Raw GNSS Data
4.3.13 Recent projects
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4.3.14 Exit
4.4 Process Menu
4.4.1 Processing Sessions
4.4.1.1 Process Options
4.4.1.2 General Options
4.4.1.3 Advanced Options
4.4.1.4 Measurement Options
4.4.1.5 ARTK Options
4.4.1.6 User Cmds
4.4.2 Rescan Solution Files
4.4.3 Ignore Trivial Sessions
4.4.4 Unignore All Sessions
4.4.5 Compute Loop Ties
4.4.6 Network Adjustment
4.4.6.1 Advantages
4.4.6.2 Settings
4.4.6.3 Output Options
4.4.6.4 Using Multiple Control Points
4.4.6.5 How to Process with the Network Adjustment
4.4.6.6 Interpreting the network adjustment report
4.4.6.7 Using Horizontal and Vertical Control Points
4.4.6.8 Variance Factor and Input Scale Factor
4.4.7 View Traverse Solution
4.4.7.1 Traverse Solution
4.4.8 View Processing Report
4.4.9 View All Sessions
4.4.10 View All Observations
4.4.11 View All Stations
4.5 Options Menu
4.5.1 Global Settings
4.5.2 Sessions Settings (Shown in Data Manager)
4.5.3 Grid Options
4.5.4 Geoid Options
4.5.5 Preferences
4.5.5.1 GrafNet Display
4.5.5.2 Solution
4.6 Output Menu
4.6.1 Export Wizard
4.6.1.1 How to create a new Export Wizard profile
4.6.1.2 How to use the Export Wizard
4.6.1.3 Creating an Output File
4.6.2 Output to Google Earth
4.6.3 Export to DXF
4.6.3.1 Station Error Ellipses
4.6.3.2 Baseline Error Ellipses
4.6.3.3 Error ellipse scale factor
4.6.4 Export to STAR*NET
4.6.5 Build HTML Report
4.6.6 Show Map Window
4.6.6.1 Map Window
4.6.6.2 Mouse Usage in Map Window
4.6.7 Show Data Manager
4.6.7.1 Data Manager
4.6.7.2 Observations Window
4.6.7.3 Stations Window
4.6.7.4 Sessions Window
4.6.7.5 Control / Check Points Window
4.6.8 Baselines Window
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4.7 Tools Menu
4.8 Help Menu
4.8.1 Help Topics
4.8.2 Support Web Portal
4.8.3 Check for update...
4.8.4 Download manufacturer files
4.8.4.1 List of files downloaded when manufacturer files are updated
4.8.5 NovAtel Waypoint Products
4.9 About
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Chapter 5 Utilities Overview
5.1 GPB Viewer Overview
5.1.1 File Menu
5.1.1.1 Open
5.1.1.2 Close
5.1.1.3 Save As
5.1.1.4 Export to Waypoint Trajectory
5.1.1.5 Load Alternate Ephemeris File
5.1.1.6 Exit
5.1.2 Move Menu
5.1.2.1 Forward n and Backward n
5.1.2.2 Start of file and End of file
5.1.2.3 Search
5.1.3 Edit Menu
5.1.3.1 Switch Static/Kinematic...
5.1.3.2 Week Number
5.1.3.3 Recalculate Position and Time
5.1.3.4 Disable Satellite(s)
5.1.3.5 Recalculate Doppler
5.1.3.6 Edit GPS L2C Phase Correction
5.2 Concatenate, Slice and Resample Files
5.2.1 Input Files
5.2.2 Output File(s)
5.2.3 Time Interval Options
5.2.4 Time Range Options
5.3 GNSS Data Converter Overview
5.3.1 Convert Raw GNSS data to GPB
5.3.1.1 Receiver Type/Format
5.3.1.2 Get Folder
5.3.1.3 Source Files
5.3.1.4 Convert Files
5.3.2 Pre-processing Checks
5.3.3 Supported Data Formats
5.3.3.1 Ashtech B-File
5.3.3.2 Ashtech Real-Time
5.3.3.3 Javad and Topcon
5.3.3.4 Leica System 500
5.3.3.5 Leica System 1200
5.3.3.6 NavCom NCT
5.3.3.7 NavCom Sapphire
5.3.3.8 BAE Systems / NovAtel CMC
5.3.3.9 NovAtel OEM3
5.3.3.10 NovAtel OEM / SPAN
5.3.3.11 RINEX
5.3.3.12 RTCM Version 3.0
5.3.3.13 Septentrio SBF
5.3.3.14 u-blox UBX
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5.4 Raw IMU Data Converter
5.4.1 Inertial Explorer Data Formats
5.4.2 Waypoint IMU Data Conversion
5.4.2.1 Input/Output Files
5.4.2.2 IMU Profiles
5.4.3 Creating / Modifying a Conversion Profile
5.4.3.1 Sensor/Timing Settings
5.4.3.2 Sensor Orientation Settings
5.4.3.3 Decoder Settings
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Chapter 6 File Format Overview
6.1 GNSS Data Files
6.1.1 GPB File
6.1.2 STA File
6.1.3 EPP File
6.2 FG, RG, CG, FP, RP and CP files
6.3 Inertial Explorer File Formats
6.3.1 IMR File
6.3.2 DMR File
6.3.3 HMR File
6.3.4 MMR File
6.3.5 PVA File
6.4 Inertial Explorer Output Files
6.4.1 FIL/RIL/FTL/RTL Files
6.4.2 FL(S)/RL(S)/FT(S)/RT(S)/CT(S) Files
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APPENDIX A Command Line Utility
A.1
A.2
A.3
A.4
A.5
A.6
A.7
A.8
A.9
Commands
Base Station Commands
Remote Data Commands
IMU Data Commands
DMI Data Commands
Heading Update Data Commands
Processing Commands
Export Commands
General Notes
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APPENDIX B Output Variables
APPENDIX C Antenna Measurements
Glossary
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END-USER LICENSE AGREEMENT (“EULA”)
THIS IS AN AGREEMENT ON END-USER RIGHTS AND NOT AN AGREEMENT FOR SALE. NovAtel continues to own the copy of the Software and the physical media contained in the sales package and any other copies that the End User is authorized to make pursuant to this EULA.
IMPORTANT: Please read the terms and conditions of product application set out below carefully prior to download, installation, copy or use.
BY CLICKING “ACCEPT”, INSTALLING, DOWNLOADING, COPYING, OR OTHERWISE USING ANY
SOFTWARE, AND DATA SERVICES WHICH MAY BE PROVIDED WITH THE SOFTWARE, “YOU”
(EITHER AN INDIVIDUAL OR SINGLE ENTITY) AGREE TO BE BOUND BY THE TERMS OF THIS EULA.
THIS EULA SHALL TAKE PRECEDENCE OVER ANY OTHER DOCUMENT AND SHALL GOVERN THE
USE OF THE SOFTWARE AND DATA SERVICES. IF YOU DO NOT AGREE WITH THESE TERMS OF
USE, YOU ARE NOT AUTHORIZED TO DOWNLOAD, INSTALL, COPY OR USE THIS SOFTWARE OR
DATA SERVICES.
YOU AGREE THAT YOUR USE OF THE SOFTWARE AND DATA SERVICES ACKNOWLEDGES THAT
YOU HAVE READ THIS EULA, UNDERSTAND IT AND AGREE TO BE BOUND BY ITS TERMS AND
CONDITIONS.
1. SOFTWARE
As used in this EULA the term "Software" means: (i) the Waypoint™ computer program and all components
thereof, firmware and script files; (ii) all the contents of the software installation, e-mails and any attachments, or
other media with which this EULA is provided, and/or whether embedded in the hardware, including the object
code form of the Software supplied on a data carrier, via electronic mail or downloaded via the Internet from
NovAtel’s website and servers; (iii) any related explanatory written materials and any other possible documentation related to the Software, above all any description of the Software, its specifications, any description
of the Software properties or operation, any description of the operating environment in which the Software is
used, instructions for use or installation of the Software or any description of how to use the Software (hereinafter referred to as “Documentation”); and (iv) copies of the Software, patches for possible errors in the Software, additions to the Software, extensions to the Software, modified versions of the Software, upgrades and
updates of Software components, if any, licensed to You by NovAtel pursuant to Article 3 of this EULA. The Software shall be provided exclusively in the form of executable object code.
2. INSTALLATION
Software supplied on a data carrier, sent via electronic mail, downloaded from the Internet, downloaded from
NovAtel’s servers or obtained from other sources requires installation. You must install the Software on a correctly configured computer, complying at least with requirements set out in the Documentation. The installation
methodology is described in the Documentation. No computer programs or hardware which could have an
adverse effect on the Software may be installed on the computer on which You install the Software.
3. DATA SERVICES
As used in this EULA, “Data Services” shall mean (i) TerraStar-NRT™ GNSS orbit and clock data files provided
via internet delivery which may be licensed to You exclusively for the Permitted Use (as defined in Section 4.5).
The term of any Data Services license will run concurrently with the term of the associated Software license,
save where Data Services are provided on a subscription basis, in which case the term of the Data Services
license will terminate separately from the Software License at the end of the relevant subscription period without
renewal (hereinafter “Data Services Term” as appropriate).
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END-USER LICENSE AGREEMENT (“EULA”)
4. LICENSE
Subject to the condition that You have agreed to the terms of this EULA, You agree not to use the Software or
Data Services for any purpose other than the due exercise of the rights and licenses hereby agreed to be granted
to You, You pay the License Fee within the maturity period and You comply with all the terms and conditions stipulated herein, Novatel Inc. (“NovAtel”) shall grant You the following rights (“License"):
4.1 Installation and use. You shall have the non-exclusive, non-transferable, non-perpetual, revocable limited
right to install the Software on the hard disk of a computer or other permanent medium for data storage, installation and storage of the Software in the memory of a computer system and to implement, store and display the
Software subject to the limitations set forth below.
4.2 Copies. You may make one copy of the Software on a permanent storage medium as an archival back-up
copy.
4.3 Stipulation of the number of licenses. The right to use the Software shall be bound by the number of
Licenses purchased. You may only use the Software on the computer on which the License has been activated.
4.4 Multiple language versions, dual media software, multiple copies. In the event that the Software supports multiple platforms or languages, or if You receive multiple copies of the Software, You may only use the
Software for the number of computer systems and for the versions for which You obtained a License. You may
not sell, rent, lease, sub-license, lend or transfer versions or copies of the Software which You do not use.
4.5 Data Services. Where You have made payment of the applicable Data Services license fee, then NovAtel
hereby grants You, in accordance with the terms and conditions of this EULA, a non-exclusive, non-transferable,
non-perpetual, revocable, worldwide and limited license to use the Data Services exclusively in connection with
the Software for the duration of the applicable Data Services Term (“Permitted Use”).
You shall not use the Data Services (TerraStar-NRT™) for any purpose other than the defined Permitted Use. All
other means of use (including but not limited to those restrictions in Section 6) of the Data Services is expressly
prohibited both during the Data Services Term and after the expiry of this EULA. For the avoidance of doubt, You
shall not use Data Services in connection with any oil and gas offshore applications. You hereby give warranty to
NovAtel that You shall not utilise and shall not permit any third party to utilise any of the Data Services for any
other use or purpose except for the Permitted Use. You understand and accept that where it comes to NovAtel’s
notice that the Data Services are being utilised for any use or purpose other than the Permitted Use, that such
use or purpose shall be deemed to be a material breach of this EULA. In such an event, the Data Services shall
be disabled with immediate effect and this EULA between You and NovAtel shall be terminated in accordance
with Section 8, notwithstanding any other right or remedy available to NovAtel by operation of the law or otherwise.
As the end user, You acknowledge and accept that reception of the Data Services is dependent on Your location
and access to the internet. NovAtel and its affiliates shall have no liability to You or any third party howsoever
arising by reason of the unavailability of the Data Services irrespective of the negligence, breach of duty whether
statutory or otherwise, of NovAtel and its affiliates.
5. COPYRIGHT
NovAtel owns, or has the right to sublicense, all copyright, trade secret, patent and other proprietary rights in the
Software and Data Services. The Software and Data Services and all rights, without limitation including proprietary rights and intellectual property rights thereto are owned by NovAtel, its affiliates and/or its licensors.
They are protected by international treaty provisions and by all other applicable national laws of the country in
which the Software and Data Services are being used. The structure, organization, algorithms and code of the
Software and Data Services are the valuable trade secrets and confidential information of NovAtel, its affiliates
and/or its licensors. You must not copy the Software, except as set forth in Article 3(a). Any copies which You
are permitted to make pursuant to this EULA must contain the same copyright and other proprietary notices that
appear on the Software. If You reverse engineer, reverse compile, disassemble or otherwise attempt to discover
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END-USER LICENSE AGREEMENT (“EULA”)
the source code of the Software and/or Data Services, in breach of the provisions of this EULA, You hereby
agree that any information thereby obtained shall automatically and irrevocably be deemed to be transferred to
and owned by NovAtel in full, from the moment such information comes into being, notwithstanding NovAtel’s
rights in relation to breach of this EULA. You may not copy the Documentation. No right is conveyed by this
EULA for the use, directly, indirectly, by implication or otherwise by Licensee of the name of NovAtel, or of any
trade names or nomenclature used by NovAtel, or any other words or combinations of words proprietary to
NovAtel in connection with this EULA, without the prior written consent of NovAtel.
6. THE FOLLOWING ARE PROHIBITED FOR YOUR SOFTWARE AND DATA
SERVICES LICENSE:
6.1 You may not use the Software or Data Services on more than one computer simultaneously;
6.2 You may not distribute, transfer, rent, lease, borrow, lend, sell or sublicense all or any portion of the Software
or Data Services, in any form whether modified or unmodified, without the written permission of NovAtel;
6.3 You may not attempt to disable or work around any software licensing security mechanisms that are part of
the Software or Data Services thus disabling the software copy protection;
6.4 You may not modify, translate, reproduce or prepare derivative works of the Software or Data Services;
6.5 You may not use the Software or Data Services in connection with computer-based or cloud-based services
business without the written permission of NovAtel;
6.6 You may not publicly display visual output of the Software or Data Services without crediting NovAtel and
the Software/Data Services name;
6.7 You may not implement DLLs and libraries in a manner that permits automated internet based post- processing (contact NovAtel for special pricing);
6.8 You may not reverse engineer, decompile or disassemble the Software or Data Services or otherwise
attempt to interpret any underlying algorithm or object code; or
6.9 You may not use the Software or Data Services for any purposes associated with development or production of chemical, biological or nuclear weapons or their delivery systems.
7. RESERVATION OF RIGHTS
NovAtel hereby reserves all rights to the Software and Data Services, with the exception of rights expressly granted under the terms of this EULA to You as the End User of the Software and Data Services.
8. TERM AND TERMINATION
The duration of the relevant license grant is defined by the agreement of purchase and sale for the Software and
Data Services or until your Software and/or Data Services subscription or lease expires without being renewed
(as the case may be). In the event that You shall at any time during the term of this EULA be in breach of your
obligations hereunder, where such breach is irremediable, or if capable of remedy is not remedied within thirty
(30) calendar days of notice from NovAtel requiring its remedy, NovAtel may forthwith by notice in writing terminate this EULA together with the rights and licenses hereby granted by NovAtel. You may terminate this
EULA by providing written notice to NovAtel. You agree upon the earlier of the termination of this EULA or expiration of your Software subscription, to cease using the Software and to permanently destroy, delete or return at
your own cost the Software (and any copies, modifications and merged portions of the Software in any form, and
all of the component parts of the Software) and certify such destruction in writing to NovAtel. Termination shall
be without prejudice to the accrued rights of either party, including payments due to NovAtel. This provision shall
survive termination of this EULA.
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END-USER LICENSE AGREEMENT (“EULA”)
9. WARRANTY
9.1 AS THE END USER, YOU ACKNOWLEDGE THAT THE SOFTWARE AND DATA SERVICES ARE
PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, AND TO THE
MAXIMUM EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. NEITHER NOVATEL, ITS LICENSORS OR
AFFILIATES NOR THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS MAKE ANY REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES,
EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, PERFORMANCE OR RESULTS
OR THAT THE SOFTWARE OR DATA SERVICES WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY THIRD-PARTY
PATENTS, COPYRIGHTS, TRADEMARKS OR OTHER RIGHTS. THERE IS NO WARRANTY BY
NOVATEL OR BY ANY OTHER PARTY THAT THE FUNCTIONS CONTAINED IN THE SOFTWARE OR
DATA SERVICES WILL MEET YOUR REQUIREMENTS OR THAT THE OPERATION OF THE
SOFTWARE OR DATA SERVICES WILL BE UNINTERRUPTED OR ERROR-FREE. YOU ASSUME
ALL RESPONSIBILITY AND RISK FOR THE SELECTION OF THE SOFTWARE AND DATA
SERVICES TO ACHIEVE YOUR INTENDED RESULTS AND FOR THE INSTALLATION, USE AND
RESULTS OBTAINED FROM IT. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE RESULTS AND PERFORMANCE OF
THE SOFTWARE OR DATA SERVICES IS ASSUMED BY YOU.
9.2 Disclaimer. THE WARRANTIES IN THIS EULA REPLACE ALL OTHER WARRANTIES, AND
NOVATEL EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS ANY AND ALL OTHER WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
INCLUDING ANY WARRANTIES OF NON-INFRINGEMENT, MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
9.3 NovAtel will not be liable for any loss or damage caused by delay in furnishing the Software, Data Services
or any other performance under this EULA.
9.4 This EULA creates no obligations on the part of NovAtel, affiliates and its licensors other than as specifically
set forth herein.
10. CUSTOMER SUPPORT
10.1 Post Contractual Support (PCS). Each Software license has a PCS subscription period associated with
it. Perpetual Software licenses have, by default, one-year of PCS subscription from the time of purchase. Thereafter, PCS subscription periods can be extended by purchasing additional periods in one-year increments. Software which is licensed under a term subscription or lease shall be entitled to PCS benefits for the term of the
license.
10.2 While within a PCS subscription period You are entitled to:
10.2.1 Bug fixes and maintenance patches (“Updates”) and version releases and enhancements
(“Upgrades”) if and when released during the PCS subscription period for the covered Software; and
10.2.2 Expert phone and e-mail support.
10.3 For software Updates and Upgrades, and regular customer support, contact the NovAtel Support Hotline at
1-800-NOVATEL (U.S. or Canada only), or 403-295-4900, Fax 403-295-4901, e-mail to support@novatel.com,
website: http://www.novatel.com or write to: NovAtel Inc., at the address found on NovAtel’s website.
10.4 Software Version Support. NovAtel will support versions of the Software for a minimum of three (3)
years from the Software release date. This support period includes version-specific auto-download content such
as manufacturer files.
10.5 Lost or Stolen Licenses. You are responsible to ensure that your licenses are properly tracked and maintained. NovAtel is not responsible for any lost or stolen licenses howsoever caused, or cases where the hardware supporting the Software and Data Services is damaged and cannot be repaired.
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END-USER LICENSE AGREEMENT (“EULA”)
11. AUDIT
NovAtel shall have the right, during your normal business hours, to audit your use of the Software and Data Services and your compliance with the provisions of this EULA. NovAtel will provide You with ten (10) business
days prior written notice of an audit. The right of audit shall be limited to twice per calendar year. Prior to the start
of an audit, NovAtel’s personnel will sign a reasonable non-disclosure agreement provided by You. During the
audit, You shall allow NovAtel’s personnel to be provided reasonable access to both your records and personnel.
The cost of the audit shall be paid by NovAtel unless the results of the audit indicate that (a) You are in breach of
the terms of this EULA, or (b) You have underpaid fees to NovAtel, in which case, You agree to promptly pay
NovAtel such fees at the price previously agreed to for the Software license or software subscription plus
interest on such underpayments from the original due date at the lesser of two percent (2%) per month or the
highest rate allowed by applicable law, and You further agree to bear all costs associated with the audit.
12. INDEMNIFICATION
NovAtel nor its affiliates shall not be liable to indemnify You against any loss sustained by it as the result of any
claim made or action brought by any third party for infringement of any intellectual property breaches including letters patent, registered design or like instrument of privilege by reason of the use or application of the Software
and any Data Services by You or any other information supplied or to be supplied to You pursuant to the terms of
this EULA. NovAtel shall not be bound to take legal proceedings against any third party in respect of any claim of
infringement of intellectual property including letters patent, registered design or like instrument of privilege
which may now or at any future time be owned by it. However, should NovAtel elect to take such legal proceedings, at NovAtel's request, You shall co-operate reasonably with NovAtel in all legal actions concerning this
license of the Software and any Data Services under this EULA taken against any third party by NovAtel to protect its rights in the Software and any Data Services. NovAtel shall bear all reasonable costs and expenses
incurred by You in the course of co-operating with NovAtel in such legal action.
NovAtel nor its affiliates shall be under no obligation or liability of any kind (in contract, tort or otherwise and
whether directly or indirectly or by way of indemnity contribution or otherwise howsoever) to You and You will
indemnify and hold NovAtel and its affiliates harmless against all or any loss, damage, actions, costs, claims,
demands and other liabilities or any kind whatsoever (direct, indirect, incidental, consequential, punitive, special
or otherwise) arising directly or indirectly out of or by reason of your use of the Software and/or Data Services
whether the same shall arise in consequence of any such infringement, deficiency, inaccuracy, error or other
defect therein and whether or not involving negligence on the part of any person. Except as required by applicable law, no claim, regardless of form, arising out of or in connection with this EULA may be brought by You
more than one (1) year after the cause of action has occurred.
13. LIMITATION OF LIABILITY
TO THE MAXIMUM EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, IN NO EVENT SHALL NOVATEL, ITS
AFFILIATES, ITS AND THEIR EMPLOYEES OR LICENSORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY LOST PROFITS,
REVENUE, SALES, DATA OR COSTS OF PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES,
PROPERTY DAMAGE, PERSONAL INJURY, INTERRUPTION OF BUSINESS, LOSS OF BUSINESS
INFORMATION OR FOR ANY SPECIAL, DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, ECONOMIC, COVER,
PUNITIVE, SPECIAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, HOWEVER CAUSED AND WHETHER ARISING
UNDER CONTRACT, TORT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER THEORY OF LIABILITY ARISING OUT OF THE
USE OF OR INABILITY TO USE THE SOFTWARE AND/OR DATA SERVICES, EVEN IF NOVATEL, ITS
AFFILIATES, ITS AND THEIR EMPLOYEES OR ITS LICENSORS ARE ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY
OF SUCH DAMAGES. BECAUSE SOME COUNTRIES AND JURISDICTIONS DO NOT ALLOW THE
EXCLUSION OF LIABILITY, BUT MAY ALLOW LIABILITY TO BE LIMITED, IN SUCH CASES, THE
LIABILITY OF NOVATEL, ITS AFFILIATES, ITS AND THEIR EMPLOYEES OR LICENSORS SHALL BE
LIMITED TO THE SUM THAT YOU PAID FOR THE LICENSE.
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END-USER LICENSE AGREEMENT (“EULA”)
14. RESTRICTIONS
14.1 United States Government Restricted Rights. If the Software or any Data Services (including any
Updates, Upgrades, Documentation or technical data related to such Software) is licensed, purchased, subscribed to or obtained, directly or indirectly, by or on behalf of a unit or agency of the United States Government,
then this Section 10.1 also applies:
14.1.1 NovAtel is a Canadian corporation and is an actively registered U.S. Government contractor in the
System for Award Management (SAM) under DUNS# 240662007 and NCAGE Code# 38757. NovAtel certifies that all Software or any Data Services under this EULA are “Commercial Items” as defined under FAR
§2.101 developed at private expense. Notwithstanding the foregoing, for the avoidance of doubt, this certification does not apply to subcontractor or any third-party software product.
14.1.2 For civilian agencies. The Software and Data Services were developed at private expense and is
“restricted computer software” submitted with restricted rights in accordance with the Federal Acquisition
Regulations (“FAR”) 52.227-19 (a) through (d) (Commercial Computer Software – Restricted Rights).
14.1.3 For units of the Department of Defense. The Software and Data Services were developed at
private expense and is “commercial computer software” submitted with restricted rights in accordance with
the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulations (“DFARS”) DFARS 227.7202-3 (Rights in commercial computer software or commercial computer software documentation).
14.2 Export Restrictions. You acknowledge that provision of the Software and any Data Services hereunder
may be subject to applicable export laws, rules and regulations (“Applicable Export Laws”), and as such Software and any Data Services may be restricted or prohibited with respect to You, or the country or nature of enduse. You understand and accept that such Applicable Export Laws shall include, but shall not be limited to, those
of Canada, the United States of America (USA), the United Kingdom (UK) and the European Union (EU) and the
laws of the jurisdiction in which the Software and any Data Services are utilized. You understand and accept that
NovAtel shall not enable Data Services for use, or dispatch any Software and NovAtel personnel to You for use,
diversion, export, re-export or import of Software and any Data Services or any portion thereof: (a) to or in a
restricted country; (b) by any entity or person on any denial/debarment list; or (c) for any prohibited use, as designated by Applicable Export Laws. Applicable Export Laws are subject to change and the onus is upon You to
ensure that it familiarises itself with Applicable Export Laws which specify: (a) restricted countries; (b) denial/debarment lists; and (c) prohibited uses. You hereby warrant to NovAtel that You shall not utilise, divert,
export, re-export or import, and shall not permit any third-party to utilise, divert, export, re-export or import, any
Software and any Data Services: (a) to or in a restricted destination; (b) to any entity or person listed on any denial/debarment list; or (c) for any prohibited use, as designated by Applicable Export Laws.
Any breach of the obligations or representations set forth in this Section shall be deemed to be a material breach
of this EULA, entitling NovAtel to terminate this EULA without notice and seek such remedies as may be appropriate in the circumstances.
15. DATA PROTECTION AND PRIVACY
Personal information provided by You will be used by NovAtel in accordance with NovAtel’s Privacy Policy
which may be found at: https://www.novatel.com/about-us/privacy-policy/ or provided on request from NovAtel.
Personal information may also be supplied to third-parties, including debt collection agencies, for the purpose of
enabling NovAtel to collect debts owed by You.
16. GENERAL
16.1 Entire Agreement. This EULA constitutes the entire agreement between the parties hereto with regard to
the end use license by End User of the Software and any Data Services. This EULA supersedes any and all prior
discussions and/or representations, whether written or oral, and no reference to prior dealings may be used to in
any way modify the expressed understandings of this EULA. Any future representations, promises and verbal
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END-USER LICENSE AGREEMENT (“EULA”)
agreements related to the Software, including but not limited to features, future enhancements, functionality, or
services covered by this EULA will be of no force or effect unless reduced in writing and made a part of this
EULA.
THIS EULA MAY NOT BE AMENDED OR MODIFIED UNLESS SO DONE IN WRITING SIGNED BY
AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVE OF NOVATEL. THE PRE-PRINTED TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF
ANY PURCHASE ORDER OR ANY OTHER TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF A PURCHASE ORDER
WHICH MAY CONFLICT IN ANY WAY WITH THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF THIS EULA SHALL BE
VOID, EVEN IF ISSUED SUBSEQUENT TO THE EFFECTIVE DATE OF THIS EULA AND SHALL NOT BE
DEEMED TO CONSTITUTE A CHANGE TO THIS EULA.
16.2 Severability. If a provision of this EULA is or becomes or is found by a court or other competent authority
to be illegal, invalid or unenforceable, in whole or in part, under any law, such provision will to that extent only be
deemed not to form part of this EULA and the legality, validity and enforceability of the remainder of this EULA
will not be affected or impaired. The parties will negotiate in good faith to replace any such illegal, invalid or unenforceable provision with a valid and enforceable provision which, as far as possible, has the same legal and commercial effect as that which it replaces.
16.3 No Waiver. No delay or failure on the part of any party in exercising a right, power or remedy provided by
law or under this EULA will impair that right, power or remedy or operate as a waiver of it or any other rights and
remedies. The single or partial exercise of any right, power or remedy provided by applicable mandatory law or
under this EULA will not preclude any other or further exercise or the exercise of such rights, power or remedy.
16.4 Governing Law and Venue. This EULA shall be interpreted under the laws of the Province of Alberta,
Canada. This EULA shall not be governed by the conflict of law rules of any jurisdiction or the United Nations
Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, the application of which is expressly excluded. In
the event of a dispute arising out of or relating to this EULA, the parties agree that venue is proper in and that
they will submit irrevocably to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of relevant jurisdiction in Calgary, Alberta,
Canada.
16.5 Notices. Any notice or other communication (“Notice”) required or permitted under this EULA shall be in
writing and either delivered personally or sent by electronic mail, facsimile, overnight delivery, express mail, or
certified or registered mail, postage prepaid, return receipt requested. A Notice delivered personally shall be
deemed given only if acknowledged in writing by the person to whom it is given. A Notice sent by electronic mail
or facsimile shall be deemed given when transmitted, provided that the sender obtains written confirmation from
the recipient that the transmission was received. A Notice sent by overnight delivery or express mail shall be
deemed given twenty-four (24) hours after having been sent. A Notice that is sent by certified mail or registered
mail shall be deemed given forty-eight (48) hours after it is mailed. If any time period in this EULA commences
upon the delivery of Notice to any one or more parties, the time period shall commence only when all of the
required Notices have been deemed given. NovAtel’s address for Notices is NovAtel Inc., 10921–14th Street
N.E., Calgary, Alberta T3K 2L5 Canada, Attn: Legal Department, +1-403-295-4500.
16.6 Assignment. Neither Party shall assign any of its rights or delegate any of its obligations under this EULA
without the prior written consent of the other party, provided that such consent shall not be unreasonably withheld, except that NovAtel may assign its rights and obligations under this EULA without your consent to an
entity which acquires all or substantially all of the assets of NovAtel Inc. or to any subsidiary, affiliate or a successor in a merger or acquisition of NovAtel Inc.
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Foreword
Inertial Explorer®, Inertial Explorer Xpress, GrafNav, GrafNet and GrafNav Static are Windows®-based programs that support GNSS and GNSS+INS data post-processing. This manual will help you install and navigate
your software.
Scope
This manual contains information on the installation and operation of Inertial Explorer, Inertial Explorer Xpress,
GrafNav, GrafNet and GrafNav Static. It allows you to effectively navigate and post-process GNSS or GNSS
and IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit) data in combination with updates from external sources, such as wheel
sensor data, dual antenna data, gimbal units, and external position updates. It is beyond the scope of this
manual to provide details on service or repair. See Customer Service below for customer support.
How to use this manual
This manual is based on the menus in the interface of Waypoint software package. It is intended to be used in
conjunction with the corresponding version of Waypoint’s software.
Although previous experience with Windows is not necessary to use Waypoint software packages, familiarity
with certain actions that are customary in Windows will assist in using the program. This manual has been written with the expectation that you already have a basic familiarity with Windows.
Conventions
This manual covers the full performance capabilities of the Waypoint software. The conventions include the following:
This is a note box that contains important information before you use a feature, or to give additional
information afterward.
In this document, the term Inertial Explorer is used to represent both Inertial Explorer and Inertial
Explorer Xpress. When information is specific to one of the software programs, the software program is
identified (e.g. Inertial Explorer Xpress only).
The term “master” refers to the reference station and the base station.
The term “remote” refers to a rover station.
Customer Service
If the software was purchased through a vendor, contact them for support. Otherwise, for software updates and
customer service, contact Waypoint using the following methods:
Call:
1-800-NovAtel (1-800-668-2835) for North American access
1-403-295-4900 for International access
Email: support@novatel.com
Web: www.novatel.com/support/info/view/software
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Chapter 1 Waypoint Software Overview
NovAtel's Waypoint Products Group offers GNSS post-processing software packages including GrafNav (a static/kinematic baseline processor), GrafNet (a static baseline processor/network adjustment package) and Inertial
Explorer (a GNSS+IMU post processing software). All of these products have a Windows based Graphical User
Interface (GUI) and use the same precise GNSS processing engine. This processing engine has undergone
years of development effort and has been optimized to give the highest precision with the least amount of operator intervention.
1.1 Overview of the Waypoint Products
1.1.1 Inertial Explorer
Inertial Explorer shares a similar interface with GrafNav and provides both GNSS and INS processing capabilities. Inertial Explorer is powerful and feature rich, including support for both loosely and tightly coupled processing, multi-pass processing, a backsmoother, automatic processing profile detection and many other
features. See Inertial Explorer Overview on page 31 for more information.
1.1.2 Inertial Explorer Xpress
Inertial Explorer Xpress provides the same core processing and utilities as Inertial Explorer along with simplified
functions and workflows that have been tailored for UAV markets and small project areas. Data can be post-processed efficiently without compromising position, velocity or attitude accuracy. Inertial Explorer Xpress produces centimetre-level position and attitude solutions compatible with LiDAR, camera and other sensor data.
1.1.3 GrafNav
GrafNav is a kinematic and static GNSS post-processing package. Included with GrafNav is a Precise Point
Positioning (PPP) module, support for multi-base applications, and support for moving base applications. See
GrafNav Overview on page 31 for more information.
1.1.4 GrafNet
GrafNet is a batch static baseline processor and network adjustment package. It is often used to check or establish base station coordinates for later use within GrafNav or to survey static networks. See GrafNet Overview on
page 122 for more information.
1.1.5 GrafNav Static
A GrafNav Static license allows a user to process GNSS data within either GrafNav or GrafNet, however only
static data will be processed. GrafNet is included with the installation of GrafNav and Inertial Explorer, but is not
included with the installation of Inertial Explorer Xpress. See GrafNav Static Overview on page 31 for more
information.
1.1.6 Waypoint TerraStar Near Real-Time (NRT) Precise Products
NovAtel’s Waypoint post-processing software is now available with access to TerraStar Near Real-Time (NRT)
precise clock and orbit products. This is a subscription-based service that requires activation of an additional
license.
With the NRT feature enabled, TerraStar precise products may be downloaded within Waypoint software with an
approximate latency of only 15 minutes and are of comparable accuracy to common correction services (CODE,
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Chapter 1 Waypoint Software Overview
IGS, STA etc.) with significantly longer latency. This facilitates Precise Point Positioning (PPP) in applications
that demand a quick turnaround.
The TerraStar NRT service offers the following advantages as compared to publicly available rapid precise
products:
l
Fast availability
l
Support for all constellations
l
High rate precise satellite clock data (good for kinematic processing)
l
High reliability and redundancy
1.1.7 Moving Baseline Features
GrafNav includes a moving baseline module that processes GNSS data between two moving antennas. Heading can also be computed if the two antennas are mounted on the same vehicle. Moving baseline capability is not
included in Inertial Explorer or Inertial Explorer Xpress.
1.1.7.1 Relative Processing
All of the same advanced GrafNav processing features including ARTK, a robust Kalman filter, and forward/reverse processing are also supported in moving base processing. The only restriction is that only one
base station can be used when processing the relative vector.
For applications where both antennas are mounted on the same vehicle, the surveyed distance between the
antennas can be entered to assist ambiguity resolution. Heading can also be computed for these applications.
1.1.7.2 Relative Vector Output
After processing, the included Export Wizard profiles are available to output the relative vector in local level or
ECEF format.
1.1.7.3 Relative Velocity
In addition to relative position information, GrafNav uses Doppler measurements to compute instantaneous relative velocity between two moving antennas.
1.2 Software Utilities
The following utilities are installed automatically and can be accessed from Start | Programs | Waypoint GPS
8.80 | Utilities.
1.2.1 Concatenate, Slice and Resample
This utility is most often used for combining multiple GPB files together and resampling GPB files to higher intervals. There are many other uses of this utility however and a full description can be found in Concatenate, Slice
and Resample Files on page 158.
1.2.2 Copy User Files
User created content from previous versions of Waypoint software can be found in the User directory of the previous software version. To find this directory, open the previous version of software and navigate to File | Preferences then select the Update tab. The directory listed under the label All user created or modified profiles, grids,
datums, favorites, etc. is your User directory.
The User directory of your previous version of software may contain files such as:
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Chapter 1 Waypoint Software Overview
l
l
User created export profiles (*.prf)
User created processing profiles (*.DefOpt)
Be sure to check your installation directory for user created processing profiles as well.
l
User created datums (user.dtm)
l
User created grids (user.grd)
l
User created favorite points/coordinates (user.fvt)
l
User created plot groups (user.pgr)
l
User created download service links (user.xml)
l
User created 3rd party IMU conversion profiles (user.cim, Inertial Explorer/Inertial Explorer Xpress only)
l
User created IMU error models (user.imu, Inertial Explorer/Inertial Explorer Xpress only)
l
User created vehicle profiles (user.vpf, Inertial Explorer/Inertial Explorer Xpress only)
To find your 8.80 User directory, navigate to the installation directory of your 8.80 software and read the waypoint.settings file. This is an ASCII file that you can read with any ASCII text editor. Your 8.80 User directory
path will be saved in the node labeled UserDir. By default UserDir will be in your 8.80 installation directory.
To migrate your old user created content simply copy the files from the User directory of the previous version of
software to the User directory of your 8.80 software.
All user files from 8.70 are fully compatible with 8.80 and you can copy them directly from 8.70 to 8.80. Waypoint
cannot guarantee 8.80 User file compatibility for older software versions (e.g. the lever arm favourites – user.lvf
– file is not supported in 8.80). If a user file is incompatible with 8.80, you will have to recreate the file using 8.80
utilities.
1.2.3 Download Service Data
This utility allows you to search for freely accessible base station data provided by government organizations.
The utility will download, convert, and if necessary resample and concatenate the downloaded data so that it is
ready to be used within your project.
The download utility can also be used to obtain precise satellite clock and ephemerides, and alternate broadcast
ephemerides.
1.2.4 GPB Viewer
This utility allows you to view converted GNSS data as well as perform certain functions, such as changing the
static/kinematic processing flag. See GPB Viewer Overview on page 154 for more information.
1.2.5 GNSS Data Converter
This utility converts raw GNSS data files into Waypoint GPB format. The following table shows the supported
receivers and formats. See GNSS Data Converter Overview on page 159 for more information.
You will also see the Local License Manager utility.
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Table 1: Supported Data Formats
Make
Model
NovAtel
All Models
Javad
All Models
Leica
System 500
System 1200
GX1230
NavCom
SF-20x0
SF-30x0
Sapphire
RTCM
3.0
Septentrio
SBF
Ashtech
Real Time
B-file
u-blox
Antaris
F9
M-8
RINEX
2.x
3.x
1.3 Processing Modes and Solutions
1.3.1 Processing Modes
The following are the types of processing modes:
1.3.1.1 Static Mode
Static processing involves the determination of a single coordinate for an entire static session. There are two
types of static solutions supported by GrafNav: float and fixed solutions.
1.3.1.2 Kinematic Mode
When processing kinematic data, it is of interest to optimize the entire trajectory. This is in contrast to static processing, which solves one coordinate for the entire session.
In order to quickly achieve cm-level accuracy in kinematic processing environments, ARTK is used to resolve
integer carrier phase ambiguities.
1.3.2 Processing Solutions
1.3.2.1 ARTK solution
AdVance RTK® is NovAtel's industry leading RTK engine which provides rapid centimetre level positioning.
ARTK is used in Waypoint products to resolve integer carrier phase ambiguities.
With short baseline lengths (several kilometres), open sky conditions and dual frequency data, ARTK often
requires only several seconds of data to fix ambiguities. Although ARTK needs at least 5 satellites to resolve, in
practice it is most robust when 7 or more satellites are available. ARTK may resolve at baseline lengths as long
as 70 km, however it is most reliable at distances of 30 km and less provided dual frequency data.
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1.3.2.2 Fixed static solution
The fixed static solution uses ARTK with static constraints to resolve integer carrier phase ambiguities. New
ambiguities are automatically fixed whenever there is a change in satellite geometry (i.e. a new satellite rises or
a satellite drops out). A history of ARTK solutions over the static session is kept and GrafNav/GrafNet allows
you to choose which is accepted as the final solution based on estimated error, lowest RMS, highest reliability,
or an average of all fixes.
1.3.2.3 Float solution
Float solutions, unlike fixed static and ARTK solutions, do not resolve carrier phase ambiguities as integer values. As such, they are associated with lower accuracy applications than fixed solutions. Provided good data,
float solutions improve with time and can still achieve centimetre-level accuracy, depending on factors such as
baseline length, number of satellites and geometry, raw measurement data quality, etc.
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Chapter 2 Installation
Waypoint software supports software-based licensing only. Installation instructions are provided in the following
sections.
2.1 What You Need To Start
2.1.1 Activation ID
A license is required to convert raw GNSS data1, use the Download Service Utility and to process GNSS and
INS data. The license will be delivered electronically by either NovAtel Order Management or Support staff.
A second activation ID can be purchased which provides access to TerraStar Near Real-Time (NRT) precise
satellite clock and orbit data. The activation and return process for an NRT license is the same as for a software
license described in How to Activate Your License on the next page. For more information on the NRT feature,
see Waypoint TerraStar Near Real-Time (NRT) Precise Satellite Clocks and Orbits on page 45.
2.1.2 Installation file
The latest software installation files can be found at the following password protected website:
www.novatel.com/waypoint-installation-files-8-80
The password to this website should have been provided with your software license. If not, contact NovAtel Support at support@novatel.com with your activation ID.
See Supported Operating Systems below for the hardware requirements.
2.2 Supported Operating Systems
Windows 7, 8, 8.1 or 10.
2.3 How to install Waypoint software
Administrator privileges are required to successfully install all components of Waypoint software.
It is recommended that a license be returned prior to any significant computer maintenance or changes
(i.e. upgrading of the operating system, motherboard replacement, etc.).
1. If you have a previous version of Waypoint software installed, we do not recommend uninstalling it prior to
installing a new version. This is because any user created content such as favourites, processing profiles,
customized grids or conversions etc. can be copied over to the new version. This is only possible if the new
version is installed prior to uninstalling the old version.
Each major version of Waypoint software will install to a separate default installation directory and will thus
not overwrite or remove content from a previous major version.
All installation files are provided on a password protected website. Contact support@novatel.com with your
software activation ID for login instructions if required.
1No license is required to convert NovAtel data to Waypoint format.
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2. Launch the setup and follow the on-screen instructions.
3. If you are upgrading from a previous major version, such as 8.70, you will need to upgrade your license.
For upgrade instructions, see How to Activate Your License below or How to Manually Activate/Return Your
License on page 28.
4. See Copy User Files on page 20 for instructions on how to copy user created content from previous major
versions.
2.4 How to Activate Your License
This section applies to customers who wish to activate a new license or upgrade an existing license in order to
use Waypoint software.
If using Waypoint software on a virtual computer, please see the following application note: www.novatel.com/assets/Documents/Papers/APN-081-Waypoint-Virtual-Computer.pdf.
This procedure requires an Internet connection. If you do not have an Internet connection, go to How to
Manually Activate/Return Your License on page 28.
1. Install the Waypoint software that you intend to use. Contact support@novatel.com with your activation ID
if you need help locating the setup file.
2. From the Start menu, navigate to the Utilities folder within the software’s program group and open the Local
License Manager. Alternatively, you can navigate to the software's installation folder on your computer and
open the LLMForm.exe file.
3. If you are upgrading an existing license, you will first need to return the original license. Do this by selecting
your existing license under Local Licenses and then clicking the Return button.
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4. Copy the alpha-numeric Activation ID that was provided to you by Customer Support and paste it into the
box under the Activate License branch. Users are encouraged, but not required, to enter identifying information (user name, computer name etc.) into the text box beside Activator Info. This information may be
retrieved through the customer FlexNet licensing portal or by a Waypoint customer support agent in the
event a license is misplaced.
In order to retrieve the activator info without contacting NovAtel support, login to the FlexNet customer
portal with your activation ID here: https://license.novatel.com/flexnet/operationsportal/showActivationIdLogon.do.
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Select List Licenses under License Support.
You will see the Activator Info user string under the ACTIVATORINFO heading on the right
5. After the Activation ID has been entered, click the Activate button.
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6. If the license was successfully activated, you will see it appear under the Local Licenses branch. Click on
the license to see the relevant information.
If you have activated a term license, then the expiration date will be displayed here.
If the activation fails, contact Customer Support (support@novatel.com).
2.5 How to Manually Activate/Return Your License
This section describes how to activate and/or return a license when no Internet connection is available or you are
unable to access NovAtel's license server.
If you are upgrading an existing license, your original license will need to be returned prior to activating
the upgrade (see the manual return instructions first).
2.5.1 Manual Activation Process
1. Open a console window and navigate to the software's installation folder (e.g. C:\NovAtel\InertialExplorer880\bin).
2. Enter the following command to generate a Manual Activation Request.
LLMForm -am ActivationID OutputFile
Where:
ActivationID is the alpha-numeric Activation ID provided to you by Customer Support
OutputFile is the output XML file that will contain the request
Sample usage:
LLMForm -am 1a2b-3cf4-5e6f-1a2b-3c4d-5e6 c:\temp\activate_req.xml
3. Using your activation ID, login to the FlexNet customer portal here: https://license.novatel.com/flexnet/operationsportal/showActivationIdLogon.do.
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4. Select Manual Activation under Offline Operations.
5. Select Choose File and browse to the request XML file you generated in step 2 and then select Submit.
6. A response will be generated and displayed to the screen. Select Save and a responseXML.xml file will be
saved to the Windows default download directory. Optionally, move this file to the same directory as the
activation request.
7. To process this response, navigate back to the installation directory and enter the following command:
LLMForm -p InputFile
Where:
InputFile is the full name and path of the responseXML.xml file generated from the FlexNet customer portal
Sample usage:
LLMForm -p c:\temp\responseXML.xml
8. If this is the first manual activation on a machine, the license will not be activated on the machine at this
point, because the first response file is simply a configuration response. You will need to repeat step 1 - 7 in
order to re-submit the request and complete the activation.
9. The license should now be activated. To check, enter the following command:
LLMForm -v
Alternately, open the Local License Manager and look under the Local Licenses branch.
2.5.2 Manual Return Process
1. Open a console window and navigate to the software's installation folder (e.g. C:\NovAtel\InertialExplorer880\bin).
2. Enter the following command to generate a Manual Return Request:
LLMForm -rm ActivationID OutputFile
Where:
ActivationID is the alpha-numeric Activation ID provided to you by NovAtel Order Management or
Customer Support
OutputFile is the output XML file that will contain the request
Sample usage:
LLMForm -rm 1a2b-3cf4-5e6f-1a2b-3c4d-5e6 c:\temp\return_req.xml
3. Using your activation ID, login to the customer FlexNet portal here: https://license.novatel.com/flexnet/operationsportal/showActivationIdLogon.do
4. Select Manual Return under Offline Operations.
5. Select Choose File and browse to the manual return request file generated in step 2 and then select Submit.
6. A response will be generated and displayed to the screen. Select Save To File and a responseXML.xml file
will be saved to the default Windows download directory. Optionally, move this file to a temporary directory
or to the root of your hard drive.
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7. To process this response, navigate back to the installation directory and enter the following command:
LLMForm -p InputFile
Where:
InputFile is the full name and path of the responseXML.xml file generated through the FlexNet customer portal
Sample usage:
llmform -p c:\temp\responseXML.xml
8. The license should now be returned. To check, open the Local License Manager and look under the Local
Licenses branch to ensure that the license is no longer listed.
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Chapter 3 Inertial Explorer/Inertial Explorer Express/GrafNav
All Waypoint products described below share a similar interface. As such, all features and functionality
described in this chapter will reference Inertial Explorer unless otherwise explicitly stated.
This chapter describes how to get started with Inertial Explorer and goes through each menu of its interface.
Step-by-step instructions for first-time users are also included.
3.1 GrafNav Overview
GrafNav is a full-featured kinematic and static GNSS post-processing package that uses a proprietary GPS,
GLONASS, BeiDou, Galileo and QZSS processing engine. It supports single and multi-baseline processing,
moving baseline processing, Precise Point Positioning, and directly supports many different receiver formats.
For any receiver formats not currently supported, RINEX files can be imported. See Table 1: Supported Data
Formats on page 22 for more information.
3.2 GrafNav Static Overview
GrafNav Static provides the same processing features as GrafNav, but only for static baselines.
3.3 Inertial Explorer Overview
Inertial Explorer builds upon NovAtel's GNSS-only processor, GrafNav. Inertial Explorer shares a similar interface to GrafNav but also includes IMU processing capabilities. Both Loosely Coupled (LC) and Tightly Coupled
(TC) are supported for both single and multi-base differential and Precise Point Positioning (PPP).
Inertial Explorer is well integrated with NovAtel SPAN products, however support is also available for processing
third party IMU data. Inertial Explorer comes pre-configured with aerial, ground vehicle, marine, pedestrian and
UAV processing profiles as well as a New Project Wizard that helps new customers get started quickly.
3.4 Inertial Explorer Xpress Overview
Inertial Explorer Xpress (IEX) is a feature and area-limited version of Inertial Explorer intended to meet the needs
of the UAV market.
IEX will produce GNSS+INS solutions within a radius of 3 km from the project centroid. The centroid is an average of all non-stationary processed coordinates in the project. Any solutions outside of this area are encrypted
and cannot be exported.
IEX retains the same core processing functionality and utilities as Inertial Explorer, however features that are not
required for UAV applications have been removed for simplicity and to enforce the recommended workflow. IEX
is differentiated from Inertial Explorer by the following:
l
l
IEX accepts only a single base station
IEX supports GNSS-only differential processing and Precise Point Positioning (PPP), as well as differential
and PPP Tightly Coupled (TC) processing. Loosely coupled processing is not supported in IEX.
l
Multi-pass processing is required when processing TC
l
IEX does not include access to the Solve Boresight Angles utility
l
IEX does not support input of Distance Measurement Instruments (DMR), Gimbal Mount data (MMR), or
usage of a PVA update file
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l
No CUPTs or ZUPTs can be manually entered in IEX
l
The User Command tab is not available within either the Advanced GNSS or Advanced INS options
l
IEX will not compute marine heave
l
IEX includes a simplified list of QC plots that are relevant to the capabilities of the product
3.5 Getting Started with Inertial Explorer
This section provides step-by step procedures on how to process data in Inertial Explorer.
Prior to data collection, NovAtel SPAN users are encouraged to review the SPAN Data Logging for Inertial
Explorer application note accessible here: www.novatel.com/assets/Documents/Bulletins/APN-076-SPANLoggingEI8.7.pdf. This reference will help ensure all required and recommended logs are requested.
We also recommend review of the following application notes:
l
l
SPAN Data Collection Recommendations (www.novatel.com/assets/Documents/Bulletins/APN-080SPAN-Data-Collection.pdf)
Inertial Processing with Backpack Systems (www.novatel.com/assets/Documents/Bulletins/APN068.pdf)
3.5.1 Start Inertial Explorer
1. Verify installation and activation of a license. See Installation on page 24 for instructions if required.
2. Launch Inertial Explorer through a desktop icon (if created during installation) or from the Waypoint Inertial
Explorer program group from the Start Menu.
3.5.2 Create a project using the New Project Wizard
This method of project creation is recommended for new users, as it is a guided step-by-step process that only
requires you have raw GNSS/GNSS+INS data on your system ready to process. The New Project Wizard is
accessed through File | New Project | Project Wizard.
3.5.3 Process Data
PPP and differential processing modes are supported for GNSS-only and GNSS+INS users. Loosely and Tightly
coupled processing modes are supported for GNSS+INS users. Precise orbit and clock files will be automatically downloaded if required when selecting the Process button on the main processing dialogue.
There is no requirement for GNSS+INS users to process GNSS-only first, as they may launch the Tightly
Coupled processing dialog immediately after project creation (Process | Process TC). If the user wishes to process loosely coupled, they must first process GNSS-only.
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3.5.3.1 Process GNSS-only:
1. Select Process | Process GNSS.
2. Choose the Processing Method.
Differential GNSS is the default if one or more base station has been added to the project.
Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is the default if no base station has been added to the project.
3. Choose the Processing Direction.
Both processes the data simultaneously forward and backward in time and is the default direction for differential processing.
Multi-pass is the default method of processing PPP data and maximizes float solution convergence by processing data three times sequentially, passing the converging Kalman filter states between passes.
4. Ensure an appropriate processing profile has been set.
Waypoint products are installed with processing profiles for fixed-wing aerial, UAV, ground vehicle, pedestrian, marine, and static applications.
5. Select the Process button.
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3.5.3.2 Process Loosely Coupled [IE only]:
1. Access the Loosely Coupled processing dialog through Process | Process LC (Loosely Coupled).
2. Ensure the Source File for GNSS Updates has been set appropriately. The default selection will be a differentially post-processed trajectory (CG file). If the user processed PPP, choose PPP Combined from the
pull-down.
3. Choose Processing Direction. Both is the default for LC processing.
4. Ensure an appropriate processing profile has been loaded for the application and INS used.
5. Ensure the IMU to GNSS antenna lever arm, IMU installation settings and Body to IMU Rotation have been
set correctly.
6. Select the Process button.
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3.5.3.3 Process Tightly Coupled [IE/IEX only]
1. Access the Tightly Coupled Processing Dialogue through Process | Process TC (Tightly Coupled).
2. Set the Processing Method (Differential or PPP). Differential is the default processing method if one or more
base stations have been added to the project.
3. Set the Processing Direction. The default direction will be loaded from the processing profile that is loaded.
Unlike in GNSS-only and LC processing, Multi-pass is a supported processing direction in TC processing
and helps maximize attitude convergence for low cost IMUs and for low dynamic applications (e.g. pedestrian, marine).
4. Ensure the IMU to GNSS antenna lever arm and Body to IMU Rotations are set appropriately.
5. Select the Process button.
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The Process option features additional options:
Process without pre-processing:
Using this option skips pre-processing checks prior to processing. It may be necessary to use this
option if you would like to bypass a critical pre-processing warning which disables processing.
Solve Lever Arm (Inertial Explorer/Inertial Explorer Xpress only):
Using this option adds the X, Y and Z IMU to GNSS lever arm states to Inertial Explorer's Kalman
filter. After processing, the best converged estimate of the lever arm is automatically reported
after processing.
Please note that several iterations may be required for the lever arm to converge and Inertial
Explorer's ability to estimate lever arm values is dependent on the amount of data collected and
vehicle dynamics.
If processing third party IMU data, an IMU error model must first be developed. It is also recommended
to create a custom processing profile in order to automatically load all preferred processing settings.
3.5.4 Plotting and Quality Control (QC)
Once processing is complete, QC the project using
available plots. Under the Output menu, choose Plot
Results to access available plots. Inertial Explorer
comes pre-loaded with 3 plot groups:
l
l
l
Waypoint GNSS QC
Waypoint GNSS+INS QC (IE/IEX only, meant for
those processing TC)
Waypoint INS QC (IE/IEX only, meant for those
processing LC)
The plot groups contain a collection of frequently
accessed plots for GNSS-only and GNSS+INS processing. Below are commonly accessed plots.
3.5.4.1 Attitude (Roll and Pitch) (IE/IEX
only)
This plot shows the roll and pitch profile of the processed IMU data.
3.5.4.2 Attitude (Azimuth/Heading) (IE/IEX
only)
This plot shows the heading/azimuth of the IMU and
the GNSS course-over-ground (COG). They should be
in reasonable agreement when the vehicle is moving
forward.
If the GNSS COG and the IMU azimuth are biased by a large and constant amount (i.e. +/- 90 degrees or 180
degrees) it indicates the IMU sensor frame has not been rotated to the vehicle body frame (Y-forward, X-right and
Z-up). If this is not intentional, a body to IMU rotation should be applied in the LC or TC processing dialog boxes.
This will ensure Inertial Explorer's output roll, pitch and heading values are referenced to the vehicle frame.
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3.5.4.3 Attitude Separation (IE/IEX only)
This plot requires that forward and reverse have both been processed. It shows the difference between their attitude values. Ideally, they should agree to a reasonable level considering the quality of the IMU and the dynamics
of the survey.
3.5.4.4 IMU-GNSS Position Misclosure (IE/IEX only)
This plot shows the difference between the GNSS solution projected to the IMU center of navigation and the
mechanized INS positions obtained from GNSS/INS processing. They should agree to a reasonable level,
largely dependent on the quality of the GNSS trajectory (i.e. severity of the GNSS signal conditions).
Use the Build Custom button to add some of the these plots to a customized list.
Consider adding your preferred QC plots to a group using the Add Group button. Your custom plot
group will appear under the Grouped Plots list. When plotting a group, all plots within that group are
simultaneously plotted.
3.5.4.5 Smooth Solution (IE/IEX only)
By default, Inertial Explorer's backward smoother is automatically run after processing. This is needed to produce the best possible solution.
Automatic smoothing can be controlled through an option within the Solution tab of File | Preferences. If this has
been disabled, it is strongly recommended to run the Smoother (Process | Smooth Solutions) prior to using the
Export Wizard.
3.5.5 Export Final Coordinates
The steps for exporting final coordinates are below.
1. Select Output | Export Wizard.
2. Specify the source for the solution. Epochs outputs the trajectory, while Features/Stations exports positions
only for loaded features, such as camera marks.
3. Select a profile.
4. Click Next. The Export Wizard will prompt you for all necessary information depending on the contents of
your export profile.
The Export Wizard requires a geoid when exporting orthometric (MSL) heights. Waypoint's geoids may
be downloaded from the NovAtel website at: www.novatel.com/support/waypoint-support/waypointgeoids/.
3.6 File menu
The following sections provide information about the features available on the File menu.
3.6.1 New Project
To process a survey for the first time, start a new project. When you start a new project, choose between Project
Wizard and Empty Project.
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The Project Wizard is recommended for new users as it will guide you through all the steps of getting started,
including data conversion and downloading base station data (if needed). After you are more familiar with the
tools and workflow, you may prefer to use the Empty Project option.
The following sections discuss these options and step-by-step instructions once you have decided on the
method for starting your project.
3.6.1.1 Project Wizard
The Project Wizard offers you a guided step-by-step way of creating a project. The Project Wizard steps are listed below.
1. Create and name the project
2. Add the rover data to the project.
The rover data can be in Waypoint’s GPB format or in the receiver’s raw format. If the data is
in the receiver’s raw format, the Wizard converts it to GPB for you.
If you are a NovAtel SPAN user and you add a raw data file, the Wizard automatically detects
the IMU model for conversion to IMR format.
3. Add the base station data to project.
You can add your own local base station data (in raw or GPB format) or you can have the Wizard download free service data from the Internet.
Optionally, you can choose to add precise satellite clock & orbit products to your project here.
If you have an NRT license activated, TerraStar Near Real-Time precise products will be
downloaded.
Inertial Explorer Xpress does not support adding more than one base station to a project.
3.6.1.2 Empty Project
Creating an empty project is not recommended for new users as all steps involved with project creation must be
done manually. Specifically, the remote GNSS data must be converted to GPB format using the GNSS Data
Converter utility and any base station service data must be downloaded through the Download Service Data utility.
The Project Wizard is best for new users as it guides you through each step involved with starting a project.
Creating an empty project is usually preferred by advanced users. This is because, for someone familiar with
Waypoint's workflow, it may be possible to get started more quickly creating an empty project as opposed to
stepping through a Wizard.
How to create a new project using Empty Project
Prior to starting the following steps, the Raw GNSS Converter must be used to convert the remote data to GPB
format. If required, the Download Service Data Utility must also be used to acquire base station data. (See Convert Raw GNSS data to GPB on page 159 for more information.)
1. Select File | New Project | Empty Project.
2. Enter the name and where you would like to save your project.
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3. Select File | Add Master File(s) to load master files. Select the GPB files collected at the base station(s) and
click Open.
Inertial Explorer Xpress allows the inclusion of only one base station per project.
4. Enter the base station coordinates, datum and antenna information when prompted.
5. Select File | Add Remote File. Select the GPB file corresponding to the data that was collected at the
remote.
6. Enter the antenna information for the remote when prompted. Please note, antenna heights are only relevant
to GNSS-only projects, as GNSS+INS projects require input of a lever arm from the IMU to the GNSS
antenna (measured to the ARP or Phase Center of the antenna).
7. Ensure an appropriate processing profile is selected.
8. Select Process | Process GNSS.
3.6.2 Open Project
This option allows you to open existing projects.
New to version 8.80, you may choose to open an existing legacy CFG file, or the new PROJ format. If opening a
legacy CFG file created in a previous version, a PROJ file will automatically be written and changes made to the
project will be saved only to the PROJ file.
3.6.2.1 How to open a project
1. Choose File | Open Project. A dialog box appears that asks you to select the name of an existing project.
2. Choose the name of the project and click the OK button.
3.6.2.2 Recent projects
Provides a list of recent projects for quick access.
3.6.3 Save Project
When this option is selected, all project settings are saved to a PROJ file format, which is in xml format and new
to version 8.80. The project is automatically saved when processing and thus accessing the save option from
the File menu is not typically necessary.
3.6.3.1 How to save a project
1. Choose File | Save Project.
3.6.4 Save As
Use the Save As command under the File menu to create a new project that has identical processing options as
the current project. This allows you to change the options in the new project and process the data without losing
the solution computed by the original configuration.
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3.6.4.1 How to save as a project
1. Choose File | Save As.
2. Enter the name and where you would like to save your project.
Entering the name of a project that already exists overwrites the file contents.
3.6.5 Add Master File(s)
Up to 32 base stations can be added to a single project. We recommend adding additional base station
data only if each base station is in a distinctly different
project area and is at some point the closest in the trajectory.
Inertial Explorer Xpress allows the inclusion of only one base station per project.
All data must be converted to GPB prior to adding as a base station. When adding a base station, take care to
verify base station coordinates and datum (and epoch, if necessary) as this is critical to absolute position accuracy.
To add a master file:
1. Select File | Add Master File(s).
2. Select the base Station file(s) from the list of available GPB files. Up to 32 base stations can be added to a
project. Click the Open button.
3. Enter the coordinates and datum of each base station when prompted.
If you are importing data retrieved from the Download Service Utility, precise coordinates may be accessed
through the Select from Favorites option under the Coord. options pull-down.
If the datum of any coordinate does not match the processing datum, it will be automatically converted prior
to processing.
4. Enter or verify the antenna model and height information and click the OK button.
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Refer to the following links for information about the fields on this dialog.
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Master Station Position below
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Datum Selection below
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Epoch Selection below
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Antenna Height below
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Antenna Models on the next page
3.6.5.1 Master Station Position
When loading a master station, the coordinates that appear in the master coordinate dialog may come from two
different sources.
If loading data converted from RINEX, as is the case when obtaining base station data through the Download
Service Data Utility, the coordinates that appear initially are scanned from the RINEX header. The coordinates
provided in the RINEX header may be precise or approximate, this will depend on the individual RINEX data provider. The RINEX header does not provide any information regarding the datum of the coordinates. As such, the
user is required to specify the coordinate datum of each base station loaded.
If loading base station data converted from any other source, the coordinates that appear initially are likely averaged from the unprocessed position records decoded in the raw GNSS data file. The accuracy of this position is
typically no better than approximately 2 m horizontal and 5 m vertical. If you select the OK button using averaged
coordinates, a warning dialog appears to ensure you are aware the coordinates may not be accurate.
Regardless of the source of your base station data, it is important that accurate coordinates are loaded. In differential processing, a vector is solved between the base station antenna and the remote antenna. Any error in
the base station position is directly transmitted to the remote position.
To assist in loading precise coordinates, it is recommended that coordinates be selected from the favorites list
through the Select from Favorites option, which appears under the Coord. options pull-down. Coordinates for
select base station networks, such as CORS and IGN, are regularly maintained and accessible through Favorites.
The Compute from PPP option, which also appears under the Coord. options pull-down, can be used to easily
check or survey base station data using the Precise Point Processor. When using this option, the differences
between the loaded and computed coordinates are displayed. Note that PPP accuracy is largely dependent on
the length of the survey and the quality of the data.
3.6.5.2 Datum Selection
GrafNav and Inertial Explorer distinguish between base station coordinate datums and the processing datum.
Each base station may have a unique coordinate datum. If any base station's coordinate datum is different than
the processing datum, it will be automatically converted prior to processing.
3.6.5.3 Epoch Selection
Users can enter the epoch of their base station coordinates for tracking/reporting purposes. This is important as
coordinates change over time due to tectonic plate motion, and as such in any precise application both the datum
and epoch of the coordinates should be known.
If entering the epoch of a base station coordinate, it is required that all base stations have the same epoch (if
using more than one base station).
3.6.5.4 Antenna Height
The antenna height applied at the base station depends on where the base station coordinates are referenced. If
the coordinates are referenced to some point below the antenna, the vertical offset between the marker and the
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Antenna Reference Point (ARP) should be entered for Measured Height. In this case, the total applied height
would then be the addition of the vertical offset defined by the antenna model and the vertical offset between the
ARP and the marker from which the coordinates are referenced.
If the base station coordinates are ARP values, the Measured height is by definition zero and the total Applied
height is only equal to the difference between the ARP and the L1 phase center as defined by the antenna model.
If the base station coordinates are L1 phase center values, choose the L1 Phase Center option within the Measured to options and zero the Measured to height.
3.6.5.5 Antenna Models
The purpose of an antenna model is to:
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l
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Correct for the vertical offset between where GNSS observations are observed (the electronic phase center)
and the bottom of the antenna (Antenna Reference Point, or ARP).
Correct for any difference between the L1 and L2 electronic phase centers, which can be a factor in the success or failure of ambiguity resolution.
Apply elevation based corrections
Absolute antenna models in ANTEX format are supported. If the antenna model is not known at your remote, it is
recommended that the Generic profile be applied, which does not apply any corrections. In that case, the processed positions are referenced to the antenna L1 phase center, or as best can be estimated without applying
the antenna model. The correct antenna model should be selected for best results.
When selecting an antenna model, the ARP to L1 offset reflects the vertical difference between the L1 phase
center and the ARP (which is the bottom of the antenna). This value comes directly from the antenna model and
reduces the processed position from the phase center to the ARP. This value should match any diagram that
appears directly on your antenna, presuming it is an absolute antenna calibration. Antenna heights can be measured to the antenna reference point, phase center, or computed from a slant measurement.
When loading a base station converted from RINEX, the antenna name and radome (if provided) are scanned
from the RINEX header and used to automatically load the appropriate antenna profile. It is good practice to
ensure the correct antenna model is loaded prior to processing.
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3.6.6 Add Remote File
Only one remote file can be added to an Inertial
Explorer project. The file must be converted to GPB
prior to adding it to the project. When selecting the
remote GPB file, Inertial Explorer will automatically
check for any associated IMU data (*.imr file), DMI
data (*.dmr file), heading data (*.hmr file) and mount
data (*.mmr) and prompt you whether you would like to
add this data to the project as well.
When adding a remote GPB file, ensure the Measured
height of the antenna is set to zero. Inertial Explorer
uses the entered IMU to GNSS lever arm in order to
transfer the GNSS position updates to the IMU center
of navigation during processing. A vector can be
entered from the IMU to any other sensor or point of
interest on the vehicle during Export to transfer position data.
3.6.6.1 How to add a remote file
1. Select File | Add Remote File.
From the list of available GPB files, choose the
file collected at the remote station.
2. When prompted, enter the remote station antenna
information.
For GNSS+INS applications (IE or IEX), the Measured Antenna Height should be entered as zero, and the
Measured to setting should be L1 Phase Center. In IE or IEX, users are required to enter a lever arm measured from the IMU center of navigation to the GNSS antenna on the main processing dialog.
3.6.6.2 Compute from Slant
The Compute from Slant feature enables the automatic computation of the true vertical Applied height
required by GrafNav and Inertial Explorer given a slant
measurement, the radius of the ground plane edge and
the offset from the ARP to the ground plane edge.
3.6.7 Add IMU File (IE/IEX only)
Only one IMR file can be added to an Inertial Explorer
project. This menu item is not often needed as IMR
data will be automatically added to the project when
adding the remote GPB file, provided it is in the same
directory and has the same name as the remote GPB
file.
The IMU file must be in the IMR format before being added.
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3.6.8 Add Precise/Alternate Files
The Precise Files dialog primarily facilitates the easy download of precise products. Users can choose between
GPS, GPS+GLONASS, and All GNSS (sources that provide data for GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou, Galileo and
QZSS) sources depending on the signals acquired in data collection.
The Precise Files utility also enables a user to add alternate broadcast ephemeris data downloaded through the
Download Service Data utility. A user may do this to supplement missing broadcast ephemeris data within their
project.
3.6.8.1 Broadcast Ephemeris
The ephemeris file contains Keplerian orbital parameters used to compute satellite positions. Presently, the line
of sight component of satellite positions can be computed within an accuracy of approximately 2 m (RMS) using
the broadcast ephemeris.
Orbital error is largely removed in differential processing, as the line of sight component is correlated at short and
medium baseline lengths (< ~100 km). Therefore, the accuracy of the broadcast orbits is completely sufficient
for most projects. A discussion on precise orbits is found in the next section.
Generally, the GNSS receiver includes broadcast ephemeris data with its raw data files. The decoder converts
these files into EPP format. Receivers typically output ephemerides at startup, as satellites rise into view, or
approximately every two hours.
Prior to processing, all ephemeris information collected at the base station(s) and remote are combined. This minimizes the chance of missing broadcast ephemerides.
In version 8.50 and earlier, if a GPS broadcast ephemeris was missing the satellite could not be used regardless
of whether or not a precise ephemeris file had been added to the project. Versions 8.60 and greater are not
dependent on the presence of GPS, BeiDou, Galileo and QZSS broadcast ephemerides and any missing broadcast values can be fixed by adding a precise ephemeris to the project. The same is not true for GLONASS, broadcast ephemerides are required regardless of whether a precise ephemeris has been added to the project. The
Download Service Data utility can be used to download a global broadcast ephemeris file in EPP format as well
as to download precise ephemerides.
3.6.8.2 Precise Ephemerides
Precise ephemerides are computed from data collected by ground reference stations around the world. These
files are produced by various agencies, including CODE (Center for Orbit Determination in Europe), the IGS, TerraStar and others. The different precise ephemeris products vary in the rate they provide precise clock corrections, the constellations for which data is provided, and their latency. Presently supported products range in
latency from approximately 15 minutes to 3 weeks. The difference in accuracy between rapid and final products
is marginal, well within the noise of either differential or PPP kinematic solutions.
Presently, precise ephemerides reduce the line of sight component of satellite position error to approximately 2
cm RMS (as compared with approximately 2 m RMS for broadcast orbits). As orbital error is largely canceled in
differential processing, adding precise ephemerides to a differential project will only produce observable differences where the baseline length is large (150-200 km). For this reason, adding precise orbits to a differential
project is generally considered optional.
Precise ephemerides can be downloaded through the Download Service Data utility or directly through the
GrafNav/Inertial Explorer interface. Adding a precise ephemeris file will compensate for any missing broadcast
ephemeris data for GPS, BeiDou, Galileo and QZSS satellites. A broadcast ephemeris for each GLONASS satellite observed is required regardless of the presence of a precise ephemeris.
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How to download precise ephemeris files
1. Select File | Add Precise/Alternate Files.
The project start and end date are automatically
scanned from the GNSS data loaded into the project. This should not need to be set manually.
2. Select Browse in order to choose any precise
orbits (.sp3), clock files (.clk) or NRT files (.cor)
that have previously been downloaded.
If no files have been downloaded, select Download after specifying the source to download from
under Constellation. Note that multiple precise
products for the same day cannot be loaded into
one project. The precise orbit (.sp3) and clock
(.clk) data will automatically be downloaded and
added to your project. This requires an internet
connection.
If you have a license for the NRT feature, NRT
correction data (.cor) can be chosen to download into the project. See Waypoint TerraStar Near Real-Time
(NRT) Precise Satellite Clocks and Orbits below.
If your project includes GLONASS or other constellation data, make the appropriate
selection under the "Constellation" pull down menu prior to downloading. The default
search location for precise products contains only GPS data.
3.6.8.3 Waypoint TerraStar Near Real-Time (NRT) Precise Satellite Clocks and Orbits
The Waypoint TerraStar NRT feature provides quick access to precise satellite clock and orbit data, which facilitates Precise Point Positioning (PPP) in applications that demand a quick turnaround. NRT clocks and orbits
are provided by TerraStar, NovAtel’s partner in high precision positioning products and services. TerraStar owns,
operates, maintains and controls its global network of GNSS reference stations and the associated infrastructure to ensure maximum operational reliability of its augmentation services for precise positioning. With a
long history in satellite-based correction services, TerraStar provides seamless delivery of trusted corrections
for demanding applications.
The purchase of an NRT license is required for access to this feature. NRT correction files are available approximately 15 minutes after data collection, with accuracy similar to that of final precise ephemeris data (see Precise Ephemerides on the previous page for more information on precise ephemerides).
3.6.8.4 Satellite Clock Files
Presently, using the data available in the broadcast ephemeris, satellite clock errors can be predicted within an
accuracy of approximately 2 m RMS. Satellite clock error is completely removed in differential processing, as
this error is exactly the same at the base and the rover. Thus adding precise clock files to a differential project
will have no effect.
Satellite clock files can be downloaded through the Download Service Utility or from File | Add Precise/Alternate
Files.
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3.6.9 Load
The following sections describe the options available from File |
Load.
3.6.9.1 GNSS Solution
After processing, forward and reverse solutions are automatically
combined if available. Thus, the trajectory output to the map window,
and all generated plots, are usually relative to a combined forward/reverse solution. The title bar of the map window and plots
clearly indicate which solution is loaded.
If the processing results from a particular direction (forward or
reverse) are of interest, individual solutions can be loaded using this
feature.
3.6.9.2 PPP Solution
The differential and PPP trajectory files have, by design, different file extensions. This allows both differential
and PPP trajectories to be processed within the same project without overwriting each other. If both types of
solutions have been processed, you can control which type of solution is loaded through the GNSS Solution and
PPP Solution options.
3.6.9.3 LC Solution (Loosely Coupled)
Loads the loosely coupled solution.
Loosely coupled processing is not supported in Inertial Explorer Xpress, GrafNav or GrafNav Static.
3.6.9.4 TC Solution (Tightly Coupled)
Loads the tightly coupled solution.
3.6.9.5 Any Solution
This option allows any readable trajectory to be loaded into a project. The only requirement is that the trajectory
cover the same time range as the data within your existing project. An example of when this feature may be used
is when loading a real time trajectory produced from the GNSS decoder.
3.6.9.6 Single Point Solution (from .gpb file)
This option ensures the trajectory displayed to the map window reflects the unprocessed positions in the remote
GNSS data. This trajectory typically represents the real time solution as computed on board the receiver during
data collection.
3.6.9.7 Camera Event Marks
Events from supported GNSS formats are automatically written to a station file (.sta) during conversion of the
raw GNSS data to GPB, and automatically loaded into the project and displayed on the map window.
Use the Load Camera/Event Marks feature to load external time-tagged events from an ASCII file from one of
four supported input formats. When you load events, they must be referenced to GPS time, local H:M:S or GMT
H:M:S. The source of the events can come from an aerial camera, sounding equipment or other real-time
devices.
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How to load camera event marks
1. Under File, select Load | Camera Event Marks.
2. Choose the file format that matches your input
file.
3. Under File Name, use the Browse button to select
the input file.
When features/camera marks have been loaded into a
project, they appear as bright blue circles on the map
window. If no event marks are present after processing, first check that you have not disabled the display of event marks within the General options of the
Display tab within File | Preferences. If Show feature
marks is enabled, it is likely that the time tags are
wrong or no event marks have been loaded. To determine what has been loaded, use the Feature Editor by
selecting View | Features.
File Format
STA File
Most supported receiver formats write features/camera marks directly to the station file. The features load
when you add the GPB file to the project. In the event you have deleted features using the Feature Editor
and you wish to re-load the original station file, use the File | Load | Station File feature.
User#
These formats allow you to import the time and name of each event mark. Optional variables include line
number (description) and altitude information.
Time settings
User time type:
Seconds of the week – GPS time ranging from 0 to 604800.
Local H:M:S – Local hours, minutes and seconds (HH:MM:SS.SSSS).
GMT H:M:S – GMT hours, minutes and seconds (HH:MM:SS.SSSS).
Local time correction:
This is necessary for both Leica and User# formats using Local H:M:S. This is the offset, in hours, from
GMT. For the Eastern Standard Time zone, this number is 5. For the Pacific Standard Time zone, this number is 8. During daylight savings time, these numbers are reduced by one. An incorrect entry causes the
camera marks to be displayed incorrectly or not be displayed at all.
GMT date of first record:
This is necessary for Leica, Ashtech and User# formats implementing H:M:S time-tagging. Enter the date
of the first exposure record in month/day/year format. It is not the date in local time, which may differ
towards the end of the day. An invalid date results in the marks not being displayed.
3.6.9.8 Station File (.sta/nst)
The station file (.sta) associated with the remote GPB file are automatically loaded. This file is produced during
conversion and contains, among other information, any time tagged events. If properly loaded, these time tagged
events are displayed to the map window.
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The program automatically loads the STA station file as long as the filename is the same as the remote GPB file.
If the station file has a different filename than the GPB file, then load the file through the File | Load | Station File
feature.
3.6.9.9 Stations with Known Lat/Long
This option allows you to load and display a file that contains stations with known coordinates. The coordinates
are displayed with pink triangles.
How to load stations with known latitude and longitude
1. Select File | Load | Stations with Known Lat/Long.
2. Use the Browse button to locate the input file containing the points with known positions that you
wish to display to the map window.
3. Choose the appropriate file format under the
Lat/Long Format.
4. Choose an option under Id String Handling to tell
the program how to separate the ID from the
coordinates. The first column usually contains the
station IDs.
Lat/Long Format
The following are formats that the coordinates from
the file can be in:
Degrees Minutes Seconds
For example: 51° 03’ 28.3214”
Degrees Decimal Minutes
For Example: 51° 03.4720’
Decimal Degrees
For Example: 51.0579°
Id String Handling
The settings under this option tell the program how to separate the ID from the coordinates.
Use first continuous word (no spaces)
To be used if the station names are separated from their coordinates by a space.
Comma separation
Use this option if commas separate the IDs from the coordinates.
Use first ‘n’ columns
If you know which column the coordinates start in, you can enter the number for the program to begin at.
Each character is a column.
3.6.10 Preferences
The Preferences dialog has several tabs. The following sections provide information about the features available
on the Preferences dialog.
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3.6.10.1 Display
This tab allows you to edit what is displayed on the
Map Window. Disabling features or base stations from
here will only prevent them from being displayed to the
map window and will not remove them from the project.
General
The following settings are available:
Show feature marks
This option controls whether time-stamped
events, such as camera marks, features or stations appear on the map window. Users may
wish to disable the display of feature marks if
they are continually collected throughout the survey, resulting in hundreds or thousands being
decoded. If this is the case, the feature marks
will make it difficult to see the processed quality
numbers on the map window which can be useful in QC.
Draw White background instead of black
Changes the background color of the Map Window from black to white. This may be preferred when printing generated HTML reports.
Show ARTK marks
ARTK marks indicate where fixed integers have been resolved. Users may or may not want to include
these in the map window display if printing generated HTML reports.
Show base stations
When disabling the display of base stations, the Map Window automatically zooms to the extents of the
project area covered by the remote GNSS antenna. This can be useful for the QC of multi-base or large
scale projects.
Show centroid circle (Inertial Explorer Xpress only)
The circle encompassing a 3 km radius around the project centroid will be drawn on the map window if this
feature is enabled. Only GNSS+INS processed points within this radius may be exported.
The centroid is an average of all non-stationary processed coordinates in the project.
Coordinates for Display
The following settings are available:
Geographic
Displays the latitude and longitude on the screen. The orientation is such that the positive y-axis is true
north.
Grid
Displays the coordinates in the grid selected. By default, the grid applied will be the UTM zone which has
been auto-detected from the remote GNSS data.
Several international and regional grids are supported, such as UTM, US State Plane, British Grid, Irish
Grid etc. Custom grids can also be defined by selecting Define Grids within the Grid Settings for Coordinate Input dialog.
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Defining a grid allows the grid to be accessed by the Export Wizard. Base station coordinates can also be
added directly in grid format as well.
Grid information is stored in the project. Set up a grid for the following reasons:
l
Master coordinates can be entered directly in a supported grid.
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The Map Window can plot in grid coordinates. See Show Map Window on page 61 for more details.
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Export Wizard can use a defined grid for coordinate output. See Export Wizard on page 141 for details.
New grid definitions can be added by clicking Define Grid or via Tools | Grid/Map Projections | Define. See
Grid/Map Projection on page 107 for more information.
Local level (only available if moving baseline processing has been enabled)
This option can only be enabled when using GrafNav.
Plots the local level vector if moving baseline processing has been performed. Moving baseline processing
should only be engaged if both base and rover are kinematic and the relative vector between them is of
interest. Moving baseline processing does not produce accurate absolute positioning results, only accurate relative positioning results.
Map/distance units
Changes the units of the values being displayed for local level or grid coordinates in the Map Window.
Changes the units displayed when using the Distance & Azimuth tool as well.
Zoom Level Settings
This set of options is based on the Zoom Level specified.
Text Size
Controls the font size. The Show Text option allows text to be seen on the screen for the display of base
station coordinate names, ARTK forward/reverse text and the number displayed for feature marks.
Symbol Size
Controls the display of symbols, including processed epochs, ARTK indicators, feature marks and base
stations.
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3.6.10.2 Solution
Processing
Default Datum
Allows you to select a default processing datum
for all projects. This controls the datum of the
processed output. Any coordinates which have
not been entered in this datum will be automatically converted to the processing datum
prior to processing.
Leica airborne sensor work flow (Inertial
Explorer only)
This option enables the Leica IPAS workflow
within Inertial Explorer for FCMS and FlightPro
users. Engaging this option affects the folder
structure created during decoding and processing and will auto-generate a *.sol file after
processing.
Apply lever arm correction for FCMS/FlightPro
When using Leica airborne sensor workflow, a lever arm correction is required with certain FCMS/FlightPro versions. When the Leica airborne sensor work flow check box is selected, Inertial Explorer
detects the need for the correction based on the data from the flight and corrects the lever arm automatically, showing the corrected settings in the user interface. It is recommended to leave this check box
selected.
Perform smoothing automatically (Inertial Explorer only)
With this setting enabled, Inertial Explorer's backsmoother is automatically called following processing.
This is recommended for best position, velocity and attitude results.
Default processing profiles
During conversion, the detected processing environment is written to the header of the decoded GPB file
from analysis of the unprocessed position records. This allows the manufacturer processing settings for
the detected processing environment to automatically load when the process GNSS dialog is first
accessed within a project.
GNSS-only and GNSS+INS default processing profiles can be specified here. This will disable the autodetection of the processing profile from the detected processing environment and load a specific profile
each time (whether it is a customer created profile or default manufacturer profile).
Download
Download TerraStar NRT precise files (requires valid license)
The option to download TerraStar NRT precise products from the North American server is engaged by
default, however it will have no effect unless a Waypoint TerraStar license has been activated.
If an NRT license has been activated, TerraStar precise products will be the default download source
whenever precise products are downloaded within Waypoint products. If this option is disabled, publicly
available precise products will be downloaded instead. TerraStar NRT subscribers may wish to enable or
disable this option for testing purposes, as it conveniently allows download of different precise products
within the software.
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European Waypoint TerraStar subscribers are encouraged to change their NRT download source to the
European server, as this facilitates much faster download of the products. To change to the European
server, click the Server drop list and select Europe.
3.6.10.3 Export
Google Earth
Hold epochs and events to ground
This option plots the trajectory on the ground in
Google Earth. This option is recommended
when exporting ground vehicle surveys to
Google Earth.
Limit epoch output to interval
You can reduce the density of the output trajectory by specifying an interval here. This helps
reduce file size and loading times in Google
Earth.
Optimize output for trajectory comparison
When exporting to Google Earth, the computed
quality numbers as displayed to the map window will also be displayed in Google Earth.
When engaging this feature, that behavior is
overridden and the color of all processed points
will be the same color. This allows easy comparison of trajectories when loading from different projects.
Output MSL height for better compatibility with GE elevation data, using
Google Earth expects orthometric (mean-sea-level, MSL) height values. As such, if Hold epochs and
events to ground is disabled, the plotted height may be below ground. To mitigate this effect, use the
Browse button to locate an appropriate Waypoint Geoid (WPG) file for your processing datum. Waypoint
geoid files are provided here: www.novatel.com/support/waypoint-support/waypoint-geoids/.
3.6.10.4 Update
Auto-Update
After installation, users are prompted to enable a setting which downloads manufacturer files from the
NovAtel server on a bi-weekly basis.
Manufacturer files contain the latest antenna profiles
from the National Geodetic Survey, updates to services and stations of permanently operating base station networks (accessed through the Download
Service Utility), updated published coordinates for
CORS, IGS and IGN base station networks, the latest
GPS P1-C/A DCB clock biases (which affects PPP
convergence), and any new manufacturer grid or
datum conversions. It is recommended to keep these
files up to date to ensure the most up to date information available.
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Directories for ...
This section shows where various content is located. The directory that contains All user created or modified profiles, grids, datums, favorites, etc. is of particular interest if users wish to copy any user created content from a
previous version to 8.80. This is the directory where any/all user created files from previous versions should be
copied to. See Copy User Files on page 20 for more information.
3.6.11 Exit
Exits Waypoint software.
3.7 View Menu
The following sections provide a description of the features available in the View menu.
3.7.1 Project Overview
This window provides a summary of the data in the current project. From here, you can view information regarding the base and remote files, including receiver/antenna types, time coverage, data gaps and the constellations
present in each file.
3.7.2 Coordinate/Antenna
3.7.2.1 Master Station Settings
This option allows modification of the master station
coordinates, station name and antenna information.
Individual base stations can also be disabled from this
dialog.
Coordinates
The coordinates that appear in this dialog when loading a base station may come from different sources. If
loading a base station that has been converted from
RINEX (this includes any data retrieved by the Download Service Utility), the coordinates loaded are
scanned from the RINEX header. These are by definition labeled Approximate coordinates and should be
verified by the user. The RINEX header does not
define the datum of the coordinates, and as such the
user needs to make this selection for each base station loaded.
If loading your own base station data which was converted from a non-RINEX source, the coordinates displayed will be an averaged value computed from the
positions extracted from the GPB file. The accuracy of
this coordinate will vary and care should be made to
ensure precise coordinates are entered. The datum
must be selected by the user and optionally the epoch of the coordinates can also be entered.
Datum
Individual base station coordinate datums are distinguished from the project processing datum. Each base station may have a different coordinate datum and if so, the coordinates will be automatically converted to the processing datum prior to processing. This facilitates working directly with published coordinates in one datum, yet
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producing processed output in another datum as required. The processing datum cannot be changed from this
dialog but rather from the Process GNSS dialog. A user can also select a default processing datum through the
Solution tab of File | Preferences.
Epoch
This is an optional field which is used only for reporting/tracking purposes. Coordinates change over time due to
plate tectonic motion, and velocities can be several cm per year for datums that are not fixed to a specific tectonic plate. As such, the coordinates produced for any precise application should have a known datum and
epoch.
If entering an epoch for one base station, it is required to enter all coordinates relative to the same epoch for all
other base stations in the project, even if they are in a different processing datum.
3.7.2.2 Coord. Options
The following options are available from the Coord. options pull-down menu.
Select Station From Favorites
Precise coordinates for CORS, IGN and IGS stations
are regularly maintained within the manufacturer files.
If downloading base station data from one of these networks, you can load the published coordinates using
the Select Station From Favorites button in the master
coordinate dialog. This returns a list of the closest stations to the coordinates loaded.
When selecting a station from favorites, be sure to
note the available Attributes to Apply at the bottom of
this dialog. This provides the ability to copy not only
the position and datum information from the favorites,
but also the station name, antenna properties (if available) and station velocities. If velocities are selected,
the station velocities are applied to the published
coordinates and reference epoch to update them to a
user-specified epoch. The default epoch is the date of
the survey.
Compute from PPP
This feature can be used to compute or check base station coordinates. If used, this feature will check for the
presence of precise clock and orbit files required for PPP to deliver accurate results. If no files are present, the
best available at the time of download will be downloaded automatically. If a Waypoint TerraStar NRT license
has been activated, the Waypoint TerraStar NRT precise products will be downloaded prior to processing the
PPP solution. The Computing Coordinates Using PPP dialog will then report the processed position at the epoch
of the data collected, within the base station coordinate datum chosen. The horizontal and vertical difference
between the computed coordinate and the coordinate currently loaded on the master dialog will be reported. A
user can then decide to accept the computed coordinates or to select Cancel, if this was only being used as a
check.
Use average position
This will load the average position from the GPB file. This position is often only accurate to several metres and is
not of sufficient accuracy for the majority of applications.
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Enter grid values
This feature launches the Enter grid coordinates dialog, which allows a user to directly enter published grid
coordinates, such as UTM and State Plane values. ECEF coordinates can also be entered using this feature.
Enter MSL height
This feature launches the Enter Orthometric (Mean Sea Level) Height dialog. It allows a user to directly enter a
published MSL height for a base station. When doing so, an ellipsoidal height must be computed from the MSL
height, as all position computations are done relative to the ellipsoid. As such, it is required to point to a geoid in
WPG format and the ellipsoidal height will be calculated using the interpolated geoid undulation and the entered
MSL height. Please see http://www.novatel.com/support/waypoint-support/waypoint-geoids/ to access all of
Waypoint's geoids in WPG format.
3.7.2.3 Save to Favorites
This option launches the Add to Favourites dialog, which allows a user to save master station coordinates,
datum, epoch, and antenna information in order to easily apply that information in future projects that use the
same base station.
3.7.2.4 Remote Settings
This option lets you customize the remote’s antenna information. See Add Remote File on page 43 for additional
information.
3.7.3 Moving Baseline Options (GrafNav Only)
Enable moving baseline processing if your application
involves azimuth determination between two antenna
on the same vehicle or relative vector determination
between two moving antennas on separate moving
platforms.
When moving baseline processing is enabled,
GrafNav cannot fix the base station position. Every
processing epoch uses a different base station position, which is read from the GPB file. The absolute
positioning accuracy of each instantaneous base station position is thus limited to the autonomous positioning accuracy of the receiver used. This is
generally no better than 2 m horizontal and 5 m vertical.
Although the absolute positioning accuracy in moving base mode is approximate, this is not of interest to most
moving base applications. Only the relative position difference and/or azimuth between the antennas is typically
required. When ARTK resolves carrier phase ambiguities in moving base mode, the relative positioning accuracy
between base and remote is the same as in stationary base mode.
If moving base is enabled, choose from one of the four Azimuth determination options explained below.
3.7.3.1 Azimuth Determination Options
Off, no azimuth determination
Use this option if both antennas are on separate moving platforms and the azimuth between the antennas
is not of interest (i.e. only the relative position and/or velocity).
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On, use distance constraint in ARTK and engage ARTK if out of tolerance
Use this option if both antennas are fixed to the same moving platform and a post-processed azimuth is
required. This option requires that you input the surveyed distance between GNSS antennas as it is used
as a distance constraint in ARTK.
On, but compute only (don't use distance constraint at all)
Use this option if the surveyed distance between the antennas is not known, or is known to change significantly during the survey.
On, but only use distance constraint to engage ARTK if out of tolerance
When this option is used, the distance constraint is not applied when resolving carrier phase ambiguities.
Rather, it is used only to re-engage when the computed distance disagrees with the surveyed distance significantly (based on the standard deviation applied to the distance constraint).
3.7.4 GNSS Observations
These options are available via Master or Remote:
3.7.4.1 View Raw GNSS Data
Opens the master or remote GPB file in the GPB Viewer.
3.7.4.2 View Ephemeris File
Opens the master or remote ephemeris file in the internal ASCII viewer.
3.7.4.3 View Station File
Opens the master or remote station file in the internal ASCII viewer.
3.7.4.4 Resample/Fill Gaps using the following options
File Interval
Fills any gaps but does not resample to a higher rate than the file was originally collected at.
Processing Interval
Fills gaps and matches the data rate in accordance with the specified processing interval.
Remote File Times
Produces a new master GPB file with epoch times that match the remote file. Any data gap present in the
remote file is also present in the new master GPB file. This method of resampling removes unneeded data
logged before, and after, the observation time period at the remote.
Resampling base station data to a lower interval will add noise to the processed trajectory. This noise is
negligible if resampling from an original rate of 5 seconds or less, but can add as much as 1-2 cm if resampling from 30 second data. Note, this is often within the noise of a differentially processed trajectory
and thus should not be seen as a significant limitation.
3.7.4.5 Disable
Disables the selected master station from being used for processing. You may want to disable individual
baselines from a multi-base project when trouble shooting poor multi-base processing results.
3.7.4.6 Remove
Removes the master file completely from the project.
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3.7.5 Forward and Reverse Solutions
3.7.5.1 GNSS / PPP Message Log
These files display all messages generated by the processing engine. Inertial Explorer outputs a forward message log (.fml/.fsl) and a reverse message log (.rml/.rsl), depending on the processing mode (differential or PPP).
Possible messages reported here are listed below.
Types of messages written to the message log files
l
l
Times at which ARTK was engaged and the reasons for its engagement. These messages are preceded by
+++.
The satellite constellations (GPS/GLONASS/BeiDou/Galileo/QZSS) that will be used in processing and
within ARTK
l
Any satellites with no ephemeris information.
l
The antenna types detected for the base stations and remote files
l
The GLONASS fixing receiver type mode
l
Base satellite drop outs
l
Epochs of less than 4 common satellites between the master and remote.
l
Periods of poor satellite geometry.
l
The occurrence of cycle slips. This log gives a time and record of these slips that mean problems in kinematic data.
l
Data errors that cause filter resets or the rejection of satellites. These messages are preceded by $$$.
l
Entering static and kinematic modes.
l
l
Events resulting from significant changes in the satellites’ geometry. These include changes in the base
satellite and the rising or falling of satellites above or below the elevation mask.
The omission of satellites, baselines or time periods from processing.
3.7.5.2 GNSS Summary
These summary files (.fss and .rss) display some basic processing settings and the statistics for ARTK fixes
and static sessions. Other items reported in this summary are listed below.
Static/ARTK summary report items
l
l
Final solutions for all static sessions, as well as the type of solution obtained.
Time and place at which ARTK engaged successfully, as well as the corresponding statistics. Such information is useful for evaluating whether or not ARTK resolved ambiguities correctly.
l
Master station coordinates, antenna summary for base and rover, and the processing mode.
l
Satellite usage information pertaining to static sessions.
l
Slope, horizontal and corrected ellipsoidal distances for all static sessions.
l
Program completion information.
3.7.5.3 IMU LC / TC Message Log (IE/IEX only)
These files display IMU messages generated by the processing engine. Inertial Explorer outputs a forward message log (.fIl/.ftl) and a reverse message log (.ril/.rtl), depending on the processing mode (Loosely Coupled or
Tightly Coupled). For information on file formats see IMR File on page 189, DMR File on page 191 and HMR File
on page 192.
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3.7.6 Processing Summary
This file provides a statistical summary of the processing results. It can be used for reporting and quality checking purposes. A list of the items reported in this file include:
l
l
Solution type (forward/reverse/combined)
Summary of the number of epochs in the remote GPB file processed, missing and epochs with poor measurement residuals
l
Summary of measurement RMS values (L1 Phase, C/A code and L1 Doppler)
l
Breakdown of quality number percentages
l
l
l
l
The RMS of the forward/reverse position separation, including separate statistics where both solutions are
fixed
Percentages of standard deviations that fall within given intervals
Percentage of epochs with poor satellite geometry (DD_DOP > 10).
Note: DD_DOP is approximately equal to PDOP^2.
Baseline distance summary
The Processing Summary can be added to the end of an output text file created through the Export Wizard. See
Export Wizard on page 141 for information about the Export Wizard.
3.7.7 Features
The Feature Editor window lists all of the features loaded into the project. If the data has been processed, a summary of processing quality is also displayed. In addition to viewing features, the feature editor can also be used
to:
l
l
Edit Station feature names and time-tags. For camera marks, the line number can be inserted into the
Desc/Info field.
Re-number stations and camera event marks.
Changes made to features are saved automatically to an NST file. To revert back to the original station
information, use File | Load | Station File.
3.7.7.1 Columns on the Features Editor window
The following is a list of the columns displayed on the Features Editor window.
Name
The name of the feature. The symbol next to the name indicates the type of feature loaded. Examples
include camera marks and stations. The symbol appears gray if the feature has been disabled.
Time
This is the feature’s GPS capture time. To show the time in HH:MM:SS, select Show HMS.
Q
Reports the computed quality number. Quality numbers range from 1 (best) to 6 (worst).
l
1 represents a fixed integer solution with good satellite geometry
l
2 & 3 represent either fixed integers with marginal geometry or converging float solutions
l
4 & 5 indicate qualities similar to DGPS
l
6 represents a C/A only solution
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The quality number is only meant to communicate, at a high level, the overall processed data quality. For
more information, access the quality control plots.
Std(m)
Combined standard deviation of the north, east and height components, including additive PPM based
error.
Fix
Shows the ambiguity status of the feature’s solution:
Y = fixed integer
N = float solution
Azimuth
Azimuth, in degrees-minutes-seconds, from previous feature to current feature.
Dist(m)
Distance, in metres, from previous point to current point.
Dt(s)
Time difference, in seconds, between current and previous point.
Height
Height, in metres, of the feature. This is normally an ellipsoidal height, but if the master station height was
entered as orthometric then this height is orthometric. Use the Export Wizard to get the exact orthometric
height. For stations, like STA and GIS, with antenna heights, this height is of the monument and not the
antenna.
AntHgt
The height of the antenna above the monument. Camera marks do not have an antenna height and so N/A
is displayed.
Desc/Info
Describes the feature or line information for the camera mark.
3.7.7.2 Buttons on the Features Editor window
The following is a list of the options that are available with the buttons on the right-hand side of the Features
Editor window.
Add Station
Lets you manually add a station. Also add stations by right-clicking on epochs in the map window.
Remove
Removes the selected stations. Multiple stations can be selected and removed. You might consider disabling a feature instead of deleting it.
Edit
Edits the station name, time-tag, description and remarks.
Select All
Selects all features. Use this prior to Edit Selected when you want to apply global edits to all features.
View Info
Shows processing information for any selected feature enabled during processing.
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Global Edit
Make changes to multiple selected features. Modifications can be made to the antenna height and time offset.
Re-Number
Re-number a selection of stations. Numbering can be performed starting from the bottom or the top of the
list. You can specify the starting number and the increment value. To decrease numbers, use a negative
number.
Move to Static
This feature is used to assist in the quality control of surveys where multiple short static sessions are collected in challenging GNSS signal environments. When used, it allows you to see the difference between
the forward and reverse solution for each static session in your survey when exporting from the Wizard.
An example of an application that may use the Move to Static feature is seismic surveying. Move to Static
requires that a station mark be present within each static session.
Edit, Re-Number and Move to Static work with multiple features selected. To select a continuous
block, hold down the Shift key while clicking on features. To select individual features, use the Ctrl key.
3.7.8 ASCII File(s)
The View ASCII File(s) option allows you to view any of the ASCII files generated by the software using the
ASCII file viewer. Examples of these files include the following:
l
Message logs (FML and RML)
l
Static summaries (FSS and RSS)
l
Station files (STA)
l
Ephemeris files (EPP)
l
Legacy Configuration files (CFG)
l
Project files (PROJ, these XML files are readable in ASCII)
3.7.9 Binary File(s) (IE/IEX only)
The View Binary File(s) option launches the Waypoint binary file viewer where IMR, HMR, DMR, MMR, PVB,
and other binary files used within Waypoint software may be opened for viewing. This viewer may also be used
to save the contents of a file to ASCII for further troubleshooting or analysis.
3.7.10 Raw GNSS Data
This option launches the GPB Viewer. The GPB viewer allows the viewing and editing of raw GNSS data that
has been converted to Waypoint's format. This viewer is also launched by double clicking a converted GPB file
within Windows Explorer. See GPB Viewer Overview on page 154 for more information.
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3.7.11 Show Map Window
Prior to processing, the map window displays the
unprocessed positions within the remote GPB file.
These positions usually reflect the real time position
as logged by the remote receiver.
After processing, the map window displays the processed results, color coded by quality number. Quality
numbers, which range from 1-6, are meant to convey a
general indication of solution quality. A description and
the approximate accuracies associated with each quality number is provided in the table below. The Q/C
plots should be accessed for a more detailed analysis
of solution quality. See Common Plots on page 91 for
descriptions of commonly accessed plots.
The information displayed to the map window is fully
customizable from the Display tab within File | Preferences. Users can choose whether or not to display feature
marks, ARTK marks and base stations.
The accuracies given are only guidelines. Quality numbers are meant only to provide a high level indication of solution quality. We highly recommend accessing the quality control plots for a more in-depth
analysis.
Table 2: GNSS Quality Number Description
Quality
Color
Description
3D Accuracy (m)
1
Green
Fixed integer
0.00 – 0.15
2
Cyan
Converged float or noisy fixed integer
0.05 – 0.40
3
Blue
Converging float
0.20 – 1.00
4
Purple
Converging float
0.50 – 2.00
5
Magenta
DGPS
1.00 – 5.00
6
Red
DGPS
2.00 – 10.00
Unprocessed
Grey
Has not been processed
N/A
3.7.11.1 Mouse Usage in Map Window
Positioning the cursor on a processed epoch and clicking with the left mouse button accesses a summary of the
processing results for that epoch. The time, quality number, number of satellites, standard deviation, forward/reverse separation and other statistics are displayed.
If you have a scroll-wheel on your mouse, you can use it to zoom in and out by scrolling forwards and backwards
over the area of interest.
The Save to HTML option generates an HTML file containing a bitmap version of the Map window. These HTML
and BMP files are saved to the HTML folder contained within the project folder.
See Tools Menu on page 105 for additional interactive mapping tools.
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3.8 Process Menu
The following sections provide descriptions of the features available in the Process menu.
3.8.1 Process GNSS
The Process GNSS dialog is intended to provide a one
page startup where the processing method, processing direction, processing options and processing
datum can all be conveniently accessed.
3.8.1.1 Processing Method
Differential GNSS
Differential processing can be selected if base station
(s) have been added to the project. This method of processing provides access to ARTK, where carrier
phase ambiguities may be fixed for high accuracy
applications.
Precise Point Positioning (PPP)
PPP is an autonomous positioning method where data from only the remote receiver is used. If base station data
has been added to the project, it will not be used when processing PPP. By design, both differential and PPP trajectories can be processed within the same project without over-writing each other.
The PPP processor requires dual frequency data, single frequency PPP is not supported.
Upon selecting Process, pre-processing checks test whether precise ephemeris and clock data have been
added to the project, which are required to remove metre-level error sources. If the project contains only broadcast orbit and clock corrections from the combined ephemeris data (.EPP files), the pre-processing checks will
warn of this through the No Precise Files pre-processing warning.
If it is your intention to process a PPP trajectory without applying any precise corrections, you can do so by
deselecting the Try to fix option at the bottom of the PPP Pre-processing dialog and then select Continue. Users
may wish to do this as a quick check on the quantity and quality of collected data, prior to precise ephemeris files
or base station data becoming available.
If the Try to fix option is selected when you select Continue, the Download Service Utility is called to automatically download the best available source of precise and ephemeris data given the detected constellations in
the remote data file.
3.8.1.2 Processing Direction
Both
When processing Both directions, independent forward and reverse solutions are processed and automatically
combined. This method of processing is the default for differential processing.
Combining forward and reverse solutions maximizes solution accuracy and assists in quality control. Depending
in part on baseline length, satellite geometry and number of satellites available, forward and reverse solutions
may achieve different solution types (fixed/float) for different parts of the survey.
When both directions are combined automatically after processing, inverse variance weighting is applied to
ensure the direction with the lower estimated errors receives the most weight in the combined trajectory.
Position differences between forward and reverse directions can be accessed from the Combined Separation
and Combined Separation (fixed) plots after processing. The latter plot shows the differences in positions only
where both have fixed integer solutions. This plot will help detect incorrectly fixed ambiguities.
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Forward and Reverse
Changing the processing direction to Forward or Reverse is normally done only if a problem is detected after processing Both directions. The Advanced dialog can be accessed to customize processing options prior to reprocessing.
Multi-Pass
This method of processing is available when processing GNSS-only PPP or TC (PPP or differential). Multi-pass
processing maximizes convergence by passing converging Kalman filter states sequentially between processing directions. This benefits PPP processing, as float carrier phase ambiguities are estimated, and heading
convergence for low cost IMUs and low dynamic applications (e.g. pedestrian, marine). Differential GNSS-only
processing does not benefit from multi-pass processing, and is thus not an available selection in the processing
mode, due to ARTK (fixing carrier phase ambiguities).
3.8.1.3 Processing Settings
Profile
Processing profiles are available for aerial, ground vehicle, marine, pedestrian and UAV applications. The processing profile which matches the detected processing environment during decoding of the raw measurement
data to GPB is automatically loaded the first time you access the Process GNSS dialog. Users can change their
default processing profile, which turns off the auto-detection of the processing profile, within the Solution tab of
File | Preferences. Users may wish to change their default profile if a custom profile has been developed or edits
have been made to the manufacturer profiles. These profiles load processing settings that have been empirically
developed to work well for each application, including changes to the default elevation mask, ARTK options,
measurement weighting and more.
Processing profiles are particularly helpful for new users, as adjusting individual processing settings from the
Advanced options are often unnecessary in order generate a high quality result. For advanced user's, processing
settings can be created or customized.
Advanced...
Depending on the processing method selected (differential or PPP), selecting Advanced provides access
to all available processing settings.
In Inertial Explorer Xpress, the UAV profile is always loaded when initially accessing the processing dialogs.
Datum
The processing datum is directly accessible from the Process GNSS dialog for both differential and PPP processing. If any base station coordinates have been entered in a different datum than the processing datum, they
will be automatically converted prior to processing.
3.8.1.4 Processing Information
Description
The processing description automatically appears as Run (1) for the first differential processing run or PPP (1) for
the first PPP processing run. The counter within the parentheses automatically increases each time a processing run is performed. The description of the processing runs can be edited (optional).
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User
You can enter your name or initials here. This can be helpful if multiple users will be processing the same data on
the same computer.
3.8.1.5 General (Differential Settings)
Process Data Type
Defines the type of data used for processing.
Automatic
Chooses between dual frequency, single frequency and C/A only depending on what measurements are in common between the base and
remote.
C/A code only
Only C/A code measurements are applied in this
method of processing which is limited to metrelevel accuracy.
Dual frequency carrier phase
Dual frequency processing should always be used
for best results if both base and remote provide
dual frequency data. Ambiguity resolution is faster,
more reliable and possible at longer baselines lengths than single frequency processing. For long baselines
(>7 km by default), ionospheric processing is automatically engaged, helping to preserve post-processed
accuracy with increasing baseline length.
Single frequency carrier phase (Differential GNSS processing only)
Single frequency processing uses L1/B1/E1/L1CA measurement only from GPS and GLONASS, BeiDou,
Galileo and QZSS if available. While ambiguity resolution can still be successful on short baseline lengths,
this method of processing is generally associated with decimetre level applications. As the ionospheric
error cannot be directly measured and removed, as in dual frequency processing, post-processed accuracy quickly degrades with increasing baseline length.
Processing Interval and Time Range (SOW)
The data rate of the remote GPB file is used as the default processing interval. However as only common data
between the base station and remote can be processed, you will need to ensure the base station(s) were also
logged or resampled to the same interval in order to output a trajectory at this interval. Pre-processing checks will
output a warning if the master data rate is detected to be less than the remote and will automatically resample
the base station data to the remote interval to correct the issue should you select Continue with the Try to fix
option engaged on the pre-processing dialog.
By default, all common data between master and remote is processed but a specific time range in GPS seconds
of the week can be entered here. The start and end processing times can also be set by right clicking on the Q/C
plots.
Signal Pre-filtering
Elevation Mask
Satellites below this elevation (relative to the horizon) are ignored. Common elevation masks for differential kinematic processing are 10-12 degrees. Static processing generally benefits from a higher elevation mask (15 degrees).
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Low elevation signals are more affected by multipath and tropospheric error, and are more likely to be
affected by cycle slips due to signal blockages and/or signal attenuation by the antenna. Thus, pre-filtering
low elevation signals is generally beneficial to post-processed accuracy. Increasing this value too high
may cause satellite geometry to become poor which can affect the performance of integer carrier phase
determination.
L1 Locktime Cutoff:
This is the number of seconds that continuous carrier phase tracking is required before measurements will
be used. Lowering this value will help to maximize GNSS position availability following a total loss of carrier phase lock. However, using low values increases the likelihood of an incorrect ambiguity fix. This is
because the quality of carrier phase measurements may be suspect within the first few seconds the
receiver achieves carrier phase lock.
C/N0 Rejection Tolerance
Most often, pre-filtering GNSS signals by elevation mask and L1 locktime cutoff is effective. For specialized applications, introducing an alternative or additional pre-filtering method based on the signal to
noise ratio may also be effective.
This option is not engaged by default as not every receiver provides a C/N0 value, and different receivers
may output this value at different stages of signal processing. Care should be used if applying this option.
Precise Files (SP3 and Clock)
Precise clock and orbit files can be downloaded by accessing the Precise Files button. Adding a precise ephemeris file will help mitigate residual orbital error on long baselines. Precise clock files are not needed in differential processing as this error cancels completely. However, as both files are required should the advanced
tropospheric state be engaged or if a Precise Point Positioning (PPP) solution is later computed, both precise
files can be added here. Alternately, an NRT correction file can be added instead of the SP3 and clock files.
Satellite/Baseline Omissions
Pre-filtering options will often remove noisy or problematic data prior to the processing stage. During processing,
automatic outlier detection routines work to automatically fix errors when large measurement residuals are detected. Failing all of this, if a problematic measurement or satellite can be identified, usually from repeated warnings
during processing regarding a specific satellite prior to a Kalman filter reset occurring, the Omit Satellite Info dialog can be accessed to manually enter satellite omissions.
Satellites to Omit
All Satellites
Disables all satellites from being used.
Only specified satellite
Disables individual satellites from individual constellations.
Baselines to Omit
Omit satellite for all baselines
Applies the satellite omission to all baselines in the project.
Only selected baseline
Applies the satellite omission only to the specified baseline (applies to multi-baseline projects only).
Time Period
Omit for entire data set
Applies the omission to the entire processing time range.
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Use specified time range
Applies the omission to a specific time period, entered in GPS seconds of the week.
3.8.1.6 General (PPP Settings)
The options found in the General tab of the PPP processing settings are explained in the Differential General tab. See General (Differential Settings) on page 64.
The one exception is Allow processing without precise
files.
Allow processing without precise files
This option removes the restriction where measurements will not be used if precise clock and ephemeris data is unavailable. This enables a user to
process PPP using only broadcast ephemeris
data for the purposes of a quick check on the quality and quantity of data processed prior to precise
products or base station data becoming available.
3.8.1.7 ARTK Options (Differential GNSS processing only)
ARTK (AdVance RTK) is NovAtel's method of resolving integer carrier phase ambiguities. ARTK is
engaged by default and should be attempted in high
accuracy applications, whenever cm level results are
required.
Dual frequency ARTK provides fast, reliable and
robust performance. However, in high multipath environments or where the satellite geometry is marginal,
the possibility of an incorrect ambiguity fix exists. This
is why it is important to access Inertial Explorer's quality control plots which will help detect errors.
Both single and dual frequency ARTK require at least 5 satellites, but 7 or more are preferable.
Integer Ambiguity Resolution processing option settings
On
Engages ARTK for both single and dual frequency data processing.
Off
Disables ARTK. This will produce a float solution.
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General
Criteria for accepting new fixes
ARTK can be used in Default or On engage only modes. These modes are described below.
Default
When ARTK is used in default mode, it is constantly re-checking its solved ambiguities when the satellite
geometry changes (i.e. when new satellites come into the solution or when individual satellites are lost).
Thus it is possible, even under open sky conditions where no loss of lock occurs, that ARTK will accept a
new set of integer ambiguities when there is a change in satellite geometry. This may result in a position
jump where the new ambiguities are accepted.
Using ARTK in default mode is thus mostly preferred for ground vehicle applications, as this method
provides a high level of solution accuracy over the entire length of a trajectory.
On engage only
This method ensures ARTK engages only at startup, when a complete loss of lock occurs, or after a period
of poor satellite geometry. This method is generally preferred for aerial applications as it ensures that new
ambiguity fixes are not accepted in the middle of a flight line, where position jumps may be problematic.
Quality acceptance criteria
This is the confidence level required in residual testing for an ARTK fix to be accepted. Using lower quality
acceptance criteria increases both the likelihood of achieving a fix and the possibility the fix may be incorrect. Conversely, increasing the quality acceptance criteria helps reduce the likelihood of incorrect ambiguity fixes, but also the chance that no fix is achieved when conditions are marginal for ambiguity
determination.
The default criteria applied in all manufacturer processing profiles is the highest possible setting, Q4
(99.9%). This is set purposefully conservative to help guard against the worst-case scenario of an incorrect set of ambiguities being accepted. In this case, the standard deviation of the solution will be cm-level,
however there may be metre-level error in the solution. It is important to view the Combined Separation
with Fixed Ambiguity plot to help identify any incorrectly fixed solutions.
The quality acceptance criteria provides a level of control over ARTK performance. However advanced settings can also be applied, including the minimum reliability, maximum RMS, maximum float/fixed separation and maximum fixed/fixed separation.
Maximum Distance
The distance tolerance for engaging ARTK for both single and dual frequency can be defined here. The
default values applied are high, and therefore are more often lowered than increased.
If your project involves a long flight to or from the project area, and your base station is operating in the project area, it is generally beneficial to lower the distance threshold to 30 km or less. This will prevent ARTK
from engaging itself unnecessarily far from your project area, which increases the likelihood of an incorrect
ambiguity fix.
Engage Options
These options control when ARTK is engaged.
Engage if distance < tolerance1, reset if distance > tolerance2:
The first tolerance is used to automatically re-engage ARTK on approach to any new base station. The
remote must exceed the second tolerance for ARTK to re-engage when re-approaching the same base station. This option, specifically the first tolerance, is useful in multi-base, corridor-type projects.
Engage continuously every:
Engages ARTK at regular intervals. This option does not check other criteria, such as baseline length or
data quality. Thus, it should only be used in slow moving or monitoring applications.
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Engage on event of poor DD_DOP:
It is possible to maintain a fixed integer solution through an event which causes poor satellite geometry,
provided carrier phase lock is maintained on four or more satellites. When satellites are re-acquired, their
carrier phase ambiguities are not automatically re-established as fixed integer solutions. Thus, it is possible that following a period of poor geometry, more satellites in the solution have float ambiguities than
fixed. This will not necessarily result in degraded accuracy, but re-establishing all satellites with fixed ambiguities is generally beneficial to maintaining high accuracies.
Apply Manual Engagement
A manual ARTK engagement forces Inertial Explorer to re-establish carrier phase ambiguities. Introducing
a manual engagement is one technique to recover from an incorrect or drifting ambiguity fix. These
instances (incorrect or drifting ambiguity fixes) can be identified from the forward/reverse separation plots.
If the Engage only on manual setting has not been enabled, Inertial Explorer will compute a float solution
only until a manual ARTK engage time is reached, at which point Inertial Explorer will attempt to resolve
integer carrier phase ambiguities.
Advanced
These options provide advanced users more control over ARTK performance and more tools when reprocessing
problematic surveys. By default, conservative values are applied in all manufacturer processing profiles only to
provide sanity checks on the values returned by ARTK.
Min. Reliability:
The reliability of an ARTK fix is the ratio of the second best RMS and the best RMS. It indicates how much
better, statistically, the best solution is from the second best solution. High reliability values indicate the
best RMS is significantly better (lower) than the second best RMS, and thus a high degree of confidence
can be placed in the solution. This option provides direct control over the minimum reliability ARTK will
accept as a pass.
Max. RMS:
An RMS is computed for every possible ARTK fix within a given search area. This RMS, output by Inertial
Explorer in units of mm, represents the mathematical fit of the solution or how well the carrier phase measurements in the solution agree with each other. Low values (mm level or sub-mm) represent well fitting solutions, or measurements that agree very closely. Large values (cm level) indicate poorer fitting solutions
that are more suspect. This option provides direct user control over the maximum allowable RMS for an
ARTK fix to be considered a pass.
Max. float/fixed separation:
Using this option forces the float solution to converge within a specified distance prior to a fix being accepted. This value is usually dependent on the time used by ARTK to fix. If only seconds of data are used, the
float solution is likely to be metres away from the fixed. This would be normal and not indicative of a problem. If several minutes of data are used prior to fixing, the float solution may have converged to within a
decimetre-level value. Nonetheless, fixed ambiguities with excessively large float/fixed separate values
are suspect and large values may indicate heavy multipath conditions.
Max fixed/fixed separation:
This option is of significance when ARTK is used in Default mode. In this mode, ARTK is constantly rechecking its carrier phase ambiguities as the satellite geometry changes. When a new fixed integer solution is obtained, the position computed with the new set of fixed ambiguities is compared to the position
computed from the previous set of fixed ambiguities and the difference is reported as the fixed/fixed separation. Fixed solutions with large fixed/fixed differences may be suspect, and users can directly control
how different a new set of fixed integer ambiguities can be from the current. It is recommended not to set
this value too low, as it may prevent Inertial Explorer from fixing.
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Only accept fix from closest baseline:
In multi-base processing, ARTK uses data from all base stations within the distance tolerance under the
General ARTK options and chooses the best fix (statistically). As such, the closest base station will not
necessarily be the one which has fixed ambiguities. This option is available should users desire or require
to only accept fixed integer solutions from the nearest baseline. This option is not engaged by default as in
general it does not produce best results.
3.8.1.8 Measurement
Measurement Standard Deviations
Sets the measurement standard deviations applied to
code, carrier and Doppler measurements.
Code
Controls the measurement weighting applied to
the double differenced C/A measurements.
Regardless of what value is entered here, if
ARTK is used to fix integer carrier phase ambiguities, the C/A measurement standard deviation will not significantly impact results. This is
because when ambiguities are fixed, the
strength of the solution comes from the carrier
phase. The C/A measurement weighting can
affect float solution convergence and is one of
the most effective setting available for optimizing float trajectories.
Carrier phase
Controls the measurement weighting applied to
the double differenced carrier phase measurements. This value is automatically increased
if ionospheric processing is engaged. Also, an
additive PPM value is applied to account for
increased noise as the baseline distance
increases.
Doppler
Doppler is the instantaneous rate of change of
the carrier phase signal as measured in the
receiver. Doppler is used to calculate instantaneous velocity. Inertial Explorer assigns a relatively conservative measurement weighting of
either 1.0 m/s or 0.25 m/s depending on the
receiver manufacturer. Inertial Explorer uses a conservative weighting as the quality of Doppler measurements vary significantly from one receiver manufacturer to another. Nonetheless, if a large number of
Doppler errors are reported to the processing dialogs and message log files, consider increasing the weighting after viewing the RMS - Doppler plot or disengage the option to Use Doppler for velocity determination
within the Measurement Usage settings.
Outlier Detection/Rejection
Inertial Explorer attempts to automatically reject satellites or measurements when large measurement
residuals are detected. If a large residual is detected, Inertial Explorer systematically rejects each satellite
individually and recalculates the position and residual. If the new residual is significantly lower than the
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original residual, the satellite is automatically removed from the solution at that epoch. Inertial Explorer’s
sensitivity to high measurement residuals is controlled through this setting.
Measurement Usage
Dual code/carrier clocks (PPP only)
This option engages the use of separate clock states for the code and carrier measurements. Whether this
option should be engaged is completely dependent on receiver design. It is most often needed for Trimble
receivers, so this option is automatically engaged if the remote receiver is detected to be Trimble. If this
option is not used when needed, typically, results are obviously degraded.
Use Doppler for velocity determination
If engaged, Doppler is used to derive instantaneous velocity. If many Doppler measurement errors are output to the Inertial Explorer processing dialog, it may indicate the Doppler measurement quality of your
receiver is very poor. In this case, it is recommended you disable this option or increase the measurement
SD upwards.
Disable baselines when distance becomes greater than (Differential processing only)
This option is used to automatically disable base stations according to baseline length. This is an effective
means of managing base station data use in large project areas.
Use tropospheric error state (PPP processing only)
As no base station data is used to reduce correlated errors, such as tropospheric delay, this must be
solved as an additional state within the PPP filter. The tropospheric spectral density controls how fast Inertial Explorer allows the tropospheric state to change. Medium is suitable for most projects, but High may
work better if very fast and frequent changes in elevation are expected in your survey. High allows the tropospheric conditions to change more rapidly within the filter.
Ionospheric Processing (Differential processing only)
Ionospheric processing requires dual frequency data. It helps maintain GNSS positioning accuracy with increasing baseline length. The ionosphere can be a significant error source for L1 only processing as it is highly variable
and can change rapidly.
Ionospheric processing essentially removes the ionospheric delay as an error source, however does so at the
cost of higher measurement noise. Thus, best results are achieved on short baseline lengths when ionospheric
processing is disabled. However when the baseline distance becomes large, the benefits of correcting for the
ionosphere out-weigh the increased noise and best results are achieved when enabling this option.
In order to handle both scenarios, Inertial Explorer has an Automatic setting that will turn on or off ionospheric processing depending on the length of the baseline detected in the project. Prior to processing, the unprocessed positions in the remote GPB file are compared with the base station position. If more than 10% of the trajectory
exceeds the distance tolerance, ionospheric processing is engaged.
In addition to Automatic, ionospheric processing can also be explicitly turned on or off.
Constellation Usage
Inertial Explorer supports GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou, Galileo and QZSS within the differential and PPP processors.
GPS, by default, is always engaged in PPP and differential processing and does not appear in the list of constellations you can enable/disable. If data from other constellations are detected within the project, they will
appear here and may be omitted from the project by deselecting the check box.
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3.8.1.9 User Cmds (Not available in IEX)
User commands only need to be added if it enables special functionality for something that is not directly available through the GUI. Any user command entered which is also available as a GUI option will override the GUI
setting.
When opening an older project in a new version, any unrecognized commands will appear within the GNSS user
commands. They can be deleted but otherwise will not cause an error or a change in results.
User commands can be used to change commands that are set by the other option tabs, or set commands that
are not handled by the other option tabs.
3.8.2 Process LC (Loosely Coupled) and TC (Tightly Coupled)
Loosely coupled processing is not supported in Inertial Explorer Xpress, GrafNav or GrafNav Static.
This window provides access to most settings related
to IMU processing.
Update Data
Use this option to select the GNSS file from
which Inertial Explorer obtains updates. In most
cases, the differential combined solution is suggested. However, you may specify an alternate
file by selecting External trajectory from the
drop-down menu and clicking the Browse
External button.
File Name
Displays the selected file that will be used for
updates.
3.8.2.1 Process Settings
Profile
A processing profile is automatically loaded
based on the detected processing environment
(airborne, UAV, marine, ground vehicle, pedestrian) when converting the raw GNSS data to
GPB format and the type of SPAN system
used. If the automatically detected processing
profile is incorrect it can be changed by accessing the pull down menu.
Filter Profiles
This option, enabled by default, will only show
profiles associated with the SPAN IMU in use.
If using third party IMU data, this option should
be disabled in order to gain access to custom
processing profiles.
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Datum (TC processing only)
Choose the processing datum for all processed output here. If any base stations have been entered in a different datum, the coordinates will be automatically converted to the processing datum. Users may change
their default processing datum in the Solution tab of Preferences window. See Solution on page 51.
Advanced...(LC Processing)
This button provides access to all IMU processing settings.
Advanced GNSS (TC Processing)
This button provides access to all GNSS processing settings. Refer to Process GNSS on page 62 for
information.
Advanced IMU (TC Processing)
This button provides access to all IMU processing settings.
3.8.2.2 IMU Installation (IE/IEX only)
Read rotations and lever arms from IMR file
If using a NovAtel SPAN system, the IMU to
GNSS lever arm and body to IMU rotation may
be set during data collection. If this has been set
and the necessary logs
(IMUTOANTOFFSETSB,
VEHICLEBODYROTATIONB and
SETIMUORIENTATIONB) are present in the
raw data, this information is imported automatically to Inertial Explorer.
Vehicle Profile
This button accesses the Vehicle Profile Manager. It allows the primary lever arm, secondary
lever arm, body to IMU rotation, gimbal lever
arm, DMI lever arm, and GNSS heading offset
to be saved to a vehicle profile. This facilitates
quick and easy loading of important project parameters that are specific to each survey vehicle.
It is not necessary to save vehicle profiles if
using a NovAtel SPAN system as this information can be retrieved directly from the raw data
and imported automatically. Vehicle profiles are
intended to assist non-SPAN customer workflow.
3.8.2.3 Lever Arm Offset (IMU to GNSS Antenna)
To perform GNSS updates accurately, enter the 3-D offset, in metres, from the IMU sensor array’s navigation
center to the GNSS antenna. This offset vector must be entered with respect to the body-frame of the vehicle, as
Figure 1: Body Frame Definition for Lever Arm Offset on the next page shows.
You must also specify whether the Z value applies to the antenna's reference point (ARP) or L1 phase center. To
specify ARP, you must select an antenna model when you add the remote GPB file to the project. In this case,
the antenna model's offset value is applied to the Z value to raise the Z value to the L1 phase center.
Save lever arms for future access using the Vehicle Profile button.
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Read rotations and lever arms from IMR file
If the lever arm and body to IMU rotation values are written to the header of the IMR file, then use this
option to extract them.
Figure 1: Body Frame Definition for Lever Arm Offset
The IMU is the local origin of the system and the measurements are defined as the following:
X: The measured lateral distance in the vehicle body frame from the IMU to the GNSS antenna.
Y: The measured distance along the longitudinal axis of the vehicle from the IMU to the GNSS antenna.
Z: The measured height change from the IMU to the GNSS antenna.
All measurements are from the navigation center of the IMU to the GNSS antenna.
3.8.2.4 Body-to-IMU Rotations (Rotate Vehicle Frame into IMU Frame) (IE/IEX only)
Many typical IMU installations have the surface of the IMU directly attached to the floor of the vehicle so the
sensor frame of the IMU and the body frame of the vehicle are more or less aligned. In these installations, the
roll, pitch and yaw of the vehicle are directly sensed by the IMU. Some IMUs are installed in a tilted position with
respect to the body frame of the vehicle. If the tilt between the IMU frame and body frame is known, Inertial
Explorer compensates so that the attitude information produced is with respect to vehicle body frame, not the
IMU sensor frame.
The order of rotations employed is Rz , then Rx , followed by Ry , in decimal degree units.
3.8.2.5 GNSS Heading Offset (IE/IEX only)
This value may also be referred to as the "Reference to Aircraft Rotation" and is meant for customers that have
backwards-pointing LIDAR applications or other specialized applications where the IMU cannot be rotated to the
vehicle frame through body to IMU rotations. This option applies a correction (as entered in degrees) to GNSS
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Course Over Ground (COG) values in order to allow kinematic alignments to succeed when the IMU is intentionally not aligned to the vehicle frame. This option has no effect if a static alignment is performed.
3.8.2.6 Advanced IMU (IE/IEX only)
This button provides access to all IMU processing options.
3.8.2.7 Alignment (IE/IEX only)
Method for Initial Alignment
In INS processing, small changes in velocity and orientation are integrated in order to derive position, velocity and attitude from a starting point. As such, it is a
relative positioning method and the initial integration
conditions must be known. Alignment is the process
of solving these initial integration constants.
The initial position and velocity of the IMU are usually
derived from Inertial Explorer's GNSS processor. Initial roll and pitch are derived from the accelerometer
measurements and initial heading is derived from gyroscope measurements.
IMUs of tactical grade or higher are capable of static
alignment. However MEMS IMUs, or any IMU with a
gyro bias larger than the Earth rate (15 deg/hr at the
equator), are not capable of deriving a reliable heading
from gyro measurements alone. In these cases, the
GPS Course-Over-Ground (COG) must be used to
help Inertial Explorer determine the initial azimuth of
the IMU.
Click the Options button to open the Align Options dialog. See Align Options on the next page for information
about the settings available on this dialog.
Time Range Options
Process All IMU Data
If this option is enabled, the software obtains the beginning and end times from the raw binary IMU file.
These times are in GPS seconds of the week.
Use GNSS start/end times
When selected, IMU processing will start and end based on a time range set under the General tab of the
GNSS processing options menu.
Start Time
Forward alignment will begin at the entered time (GPS SOW). Reverse processing will end at this time.
End Time
Reverse alignment will begin at the entered time (GPS SOW). Forward processing will end at this time.
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Align Options
Alignment Method
Automated Alignment (Recommended)
Automated alignment scans the raw IMU data in
order to determine whether a static alignment can
be attempted. If no usable static alignment is
detected, a kinematic alignment is applied when
the vehicle reaches the minimum speed set
within the auto/kinematic align tolerance. If static
data is detected, a static coarse alignment is
attempted for the duration of the detected session
length.
Static alignment
Static alignment uses the sensed gravity vector
components to estimate roll and pitch. It uses
sensed Earth-rotation rate to provide an initial
estimate of the yaw of the IMU. As such, only
IMUs with gyro biases much less than the Earth
rate (15 deg/hr at the equator) are capable of reliable static alignment.
Kinematic alignment
When no static data is detected, a kinematic
alignment will be used. The GNSS Course-OverGround (COG) will be used as an initial approximation of the forward pointing IMU axis. As
such, it is important when using a kinematic alignment that the IMU be mounted Y-forward, X-right and Zup. If it is not possible to mount the IMU in this fashion, appropriate body to sensor rotations should be
entered. If intentionally misaligning the sensor and vehicle frames, use the GNSS Heading Offset to correct the GNSS COG used in the alignment process. Kinematic alignment requires that the IMU be traveling relatively straight and level for at least 4 seconds.
Alignment Options
Minimum Speed
Specifies the minimum speed that the system must be traveling before kinematic alignment is attempted.
This value should be lowered for low dynamics applications such as pedestrian surveying. Minimum speed
is not considered for static alignments.
Heading SD Tolerance
Specifies the tolerance below which the heading standard deviation must fall before the alignment routine
will move into navigation mode. Lower this value if the software is not achieving a good alignment. Raise
this value if the software is not aligning at all. This value is tested for both static alignments and a kinematic alignments.
Initial Static Alignment Duration
Specifies the length of time the system must be stationary for static alignment. If you do not know this
value you can check the GNSS velocity plot.
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Manually Set Initial Position/Heading
This dialog allows the user to manually set the
initial position and heading for a static alignment. It is particularly useful for IMU-only processing or denied GNSS environments. The
position and heading values entered should be
known to a good degree of accuracy.
The Start Time will automatically be loaded
depending on the start/end time in the IMR file.
The Initial Position is to be entered in DMS
format with ellipsoidal height. The Standard
Deviations values are mandatory. Enter small
values if the accuracy of the input position is
well known. The Marker to IMU Lever Arm values are optional. They are intended to be used if
the unit is starting near a known point. The lever
arm must be entered in the local level (ENU)
frame. A compass or magnetometer may be
used, for example, to determine the East and
North directions.
Initial Heading is to be entered in decimal
degrees along with its standard deviation. If the
heading is well known, enter a small value for
standard deviation. The initial heading can be
gathered using a compass or magnetometer, for
example.
Positive heading rotation is clockwise from North
The Copy to <opposite> direction button may be used to copy the input parameters to the opposite direction for alignment (i.e. from forward to reverse or vice versa). This is useful if the beginning and end of
the survey are on an identical position and identical orientation.
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3.8.2.8 States (IE/IEX only)
Error Model
Error models consist of initial standard deviation and
spectral density values which are indicative of IMU
sensor quality. They help control the extent to which
Inertial Explorer weights GNSS and INS measurements during processing.
Inertial Explorer comes pre-configured with error models for all SPAN IMUs. These are automatically selected when loading an appropriate processing profile for
the application (aerial, ground vehicle, marine and pedestrian) and SPAN system used. Inertial Explorer also
comes pre-configured with a handful of error models
developed for third party IMUs as well as generic error
models that can be a useful starting point when
attempting to develop your own new error model for a
non-SPAN IMU. See Edit Error Model Values on the
next page for information about the settings you can
change in the Error Model.
Solve Lever Arm Settings
These values are applied if using the Solve Lever Arm feature under the Process pull-down menu on either the
TC or LC processing dialog.
Inertial Explorer's ability to observe the IMU to GNSS lever arm is largely dependent on the length of data collection, quality of GNSS data and vehicle dynamics. This feature is not meant as a substitute for measuring the
lever arm but rather for checking or troubleshooting purposes.
Initial SD
This value reflects the uncertainty in the lever arm measurement.
Minimum Velocity
The lever arm state will not be updated unless this minimum velocity has been reached. A minimum value
of at least 1 m/s is suggested (but not required) to help avoid the possibility of the IMU to GNSS lever arm
state diverging under very low dynamics.
Accelerometer and Gyro Extra States
These options add scale and/or non-orthogonality states to the Kalman filter for the accelerometer and gyroscope measurements. They are often needed by MEMS sensors to account for errors in the manufacturing process.
Compute Heave (Marine Applications)
Heave is not supported on Inertial Explorer Xpress.
For marine users who wish to apply heave compensation to the computed ellipsoidal height, use this option to
engage Inertial Explorer’s low-pass filter. The algorithm requires that a window size reflecting the period of the
wave motion be entered. The smaller the window size, the more responsive the filter will be to the wave motion.
If using this option, the computed ellipsoidal height and the heave compensated height can be viewed from the
Height Profile plot. The computed heave value can also be viewed from the Heave plot.
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After processing with Apply Heave enabled, you can access heave compensated ellipsoidal and orthometric
heights from the Export Wizard. The Height Profile plot will display the processed ellipsoidal height together with
the heave-compensated ellipsoidal height in order to show the effect of the heave window used. The longer the
window used the smoother the marine heave compensated height will be (i.e., less responsive to changes).
Edit Error Model Values
Error model editing is only necessary when developing
your own error model for a new IMU. Note that when
working with MEMS sensors, it may also be necessary to enable accelerometer and gyro extra states in
order to achieve a reasonable level of performance in
addition to error model tuning.
Initial Standard Deviation Values
The following mathematical quantities are available:
Accel Bias
These values represent the initial uncertainties
in the a priori knowledge of the constant bias
errors in the accelerometer triad. If these bias
values were left at zero, meaning that they are
unknown, then the standard deviation values entered here should reflect this uncertainty. The processor
then computes the biases on-the-fly. These values should be entered in m/s2.
Gyro Drift
These values refer to the initial uncertainty of the a priori knowledge of the sensor drift in the gyroscopes. If
the biases are left at zero, then enter standard deviations values here that reflect this. The program
attempts to compute reasonable values during processing. All values should be entered in degrees/sec.
Spectral Densities Values
Generally speaking, the lower the grade of the sensor, the larger the spectral densities that should be used for
processing. As previously discussed, the spectral densities add noise to the covariance propagation process
prior to filtering. Therefore, the higher the densities, the greater the weight that is placed on the GNSS updates
during filtering. The following mathematical quantities are available:
ARW (Angular Random Walk)
Angular Random Walk, in degrees, becomes a covariance when multiplied by some time interval, δt. If the
sensor triad is problematic in terms of providing an accurate attitude matrix, or if initial alignment is poor,
then you may need to introduce large spectral density values here. These spectral components add noise
to the computed Kalman covariances for ARW, which, in turn, forces the processor to rely more heavily on
the GNSS position and velocity updates. As a result, large errors in the direction cosine matrix are compensated for.
Accel Bias
Accelerometer bias densities, when multiplied by the prediction time interval, act as additive noise to the
accelerometer bias states. As such, larger values here may help to compensate for large biases in the
accelerometers.
Gyro Drift
Gyroscope drift densities similarly act as additives to the covariances computed for the gyroscope drift
states. In the case of inexpensive units, larger values here may be necessary.
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VRW (Velocity Random Walk)
Velocity spectral densities are noise densities that account for unmodeled velocity effects during each Kalman prediction. Increasing this value permits more emphasis to be placed on the GNSS update data, but
may also lead to an increase in error growth during outages. For this reason, these values should be
determined as part of the tuning process. The default values are recommended unless dealing with a trajectory of unusually high dynamics, such as a race car, in which case these may need to be reduced by an
order of magnitude.
Position
Position spectral densities are noise densities that account for unmodeled position effects during each Kalman prediction. Apply all of the considerations mentioned above for the velocity spectral densities.
3.8.2.9 GNSS (IE/IEX only)
Variance Factors Applied in GNSS Residual Testing
Inertial Explorer performs residual testing using a
standard least squares approach on every type of
update applied within our Kalman filter. Phase updates
are only applied when there are a minimum of two
satellites available in TC processing.
Updates are accepted only if the computed residual is
within the set tolerance. The larger the variance factor
tolerance, the less likely an update is to be rejected by
residual testing. For this reason, large values are typically applied in aerial processing profiles in order to
reduce the chances of false rejection and lower
thresholds are applied in ground vehicle profiles in
order to lessen the likelihood that a biased update will
be accepted. It is safe to use large values in clean
GNSS environments where the quality of GNSS data
is good, however lower values (1-3) are recommended
when surveying in challenging GNSS environments.
GNSS Position Pre-filtering
Update interval from GNSS Data
This option is only available in tightly coupled processing. By default, Inertial Explorer will process using all
available GNSS data. This results in position updates being available at the nominal GNSS logging rate.
Use this option to limit the GNSS processing interval in tightly coupled processing. This can be useful if
logging GNSS data at high rates (i.e. >1 Hz).
GNSS velocity updates
GNSS velocity updates are important, especially when a kinematic alignment is performed. As such, this
option is normally engaged. However, for any special applications where GNSS velocity updates are to be
rejected, they can be disabled here.
Require fixed ambiguities
If using a high precision IMU and when surveying in urban conditions with some challenging GNSS data,
this option may be useful in achieving the best possible results. This option is not recommended for most
systems (MEMS or tactical grade IMUs) as any GNSS updates (even one derived from float ambiguities)
are generally beneficial in observing IMU sensor errors.
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SD tolerance
If the position update returned by the GNSS processor is larger than this value, it will not be passed to the
IMU filter. By default a large threshold is used as Inertial Explorer relies on variance factor testing to
determine whether a GNSS position update should be applied or not.
DD DOP tolerance
Double Differenced DOP (DD DOP) is roughly equivalent to PDOP squared. GNSS position updates with
large DOP values can be unreliable, however Inertial Explorer by default uses a very loose pre-filtering
threshold and instead relies on GNSS variance factor testing to determine whether or not a GNSS position
update should be applied. If it is desired to use a lower value, enter it here.
GNSS quality number
The GNSS processing engine assigns a quality number to each processed epoch between the values of 1
to 6, 1 being the best. By default Inertial Explorer does not use the GNSS quality number in pre-filtering as
instead it relies on GNSS variance factor testing in determining whether a GNSS position update should be
accepted. If you wish to enable a lower prefiltering tolerance, enter it here.
3.8.2.10 Updates (IE/IEX only)
Automated ZUPT Detection Tolerances
These settings control the software's ability to detect
periods of zero velocity.
Raw Measurement
The raw gyro measurement threshold. This
value may need to be raised for lower-grade
sensors (i.e. MEMS) to accommodate the noisier measurements.
Velocity
The GPS velocity threshold. Potential ZUPTs
are rejected if the GNSS-derived velocity
exceeds this value.
Period
Length of time span over which measurements
are averaged.
External Position/Velocity/Attitude Updates (IE
only)
A binary PVA file can be input to Inertial Explorer if external position, velocity and/or attitude updates are available. See PVA File on page 194 for the format of this file. Input of this binary file is the recommended approach if
large numbers of external updates are available. Two types of updates are supported by the PVA file: absolute
coordinate and relative coordinate updates. Absolute updates are position, velocity or attitude updates within a
defined reference frame, and the relative updates provide the translation vector between two points in time. If
using a PVA file, the following user commands are supported:
l
PVA_MEAS_SF = sfpos sfvel sfatt [def=1 1 1]
l
l
Scale input standard deviations by these scale factors
PVA_UPDATE = “OFF/REC”
l
REC = use record type from record
l
OFF = turn off the PVA updates from Inertial Explorer
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User commands can be input through the User Cmds tab of the Advanced IMU options.
Absolute Updates
Absolute updates are typically formed from either a robotic total station or with an optical or LIDAR sensor and
ground control. Inertial Explorer needs these updates and the IMU center. If the positions are with respect to
another sensor location, then a lever arm with the offset can be set. Absolute updates can support position, velocity and attitude information.
Relative Updates
Inertial Explorer can accept relative position updates that have been measured by an external sensor, such as a
camera-array and/or LIDAR sensor. For the photogrammetric case, knowledge of scale (or depth) is important,
which becomes difficult with monocular vision systems. Therefore, stereo vision systems with sufficient base
(camera separation) is suggested. In the case of LIDAR, a sufficient number of surfaces that are perpendicular
to the direction of travel need to be present, or preferably estimated accuracy values will compensate for geometry variations. Regardless of the input source, the relative position inputs will have varying accuracy, depending on the number and geometrical distribution of matched points. Thus, computing representative standard
deviations is highly recommended.
Relative updates are measured vector components between two timed events, which are determined by an
external system that is time-synchronized with the navigation system. Basically, the sensor measures the relative motion and orientation between the two epochs, which are generally 0.2 s to 2 s apart. The best data-rate
for the formation of the updates and the best rate for input into Inertial Explorer may differ, where Inertial Explorer
may benefit from a lower rate. The problem with very short intervals is that the noise (measurement error) can be
a significant portion of the vector length. Therefore, an external pre-processor may need to accumulate high-rate
measurements to a lower rate like 1 Hz, which is suitable for Inertial Explorer.
Coordinate System
The coordinate system supported for the relative updates is:
l
Local Level
The input y-axis is aligned to true-north, x-axis to east and z-axis to up. The local level vector frame changes
as the rover position moves, and for the update the local level frame is computed at the update time. It is critical that the local level frame is recomputed for each update.
Data Input
l
The relative updates need to be converted to a binary PVA file before processing in Inertial Explorer. See
PVA File on page 194 for the format of this file. The following variables are needed:
l
Start TOW, week – Begin GPS time of the relative update (epoch i-1)
l
End TOW, week – End time (epoch i), called update time in the format below
l
X, Y, Z – relative vector components (m) (Body or Local Level)
l
SDx, SDy, SDz – estimated accuracy of vector components (m)
l
Covariance/CC – off-diagonal covariance values or correlation coefficients (CC). CC values are stored in
PVA file. If the values are not available, leave them as zeros.
Please note:
l
Knowing or estimating the accuracy of the vector components is extremely valuable, and is preferred over
the just using constant values.
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Manually Enter Updates (IE only)
Inertial Explorer also accepts input of individual
ZUPTs and CUPTs through the Manually Enter
Updates button. This feature is more convenient for
customers that want to manually enter a small number
of such updates as opposed to having to format your
own binary file. This feature also supports loading of
ZUPTs and CUPTs from an ASCII file, however this
feature is limited to supporting a maximum of 1000
updates. For this reason, using the binary PVA file is
encouraged when large numbers of external updates
exist.
Zero Velocity Updates (ZUPTs)
Inertial Explorer automatically detects ZUPTs
by analyzing the GNSS, IMU and, if available,
DMI data. This is true for both loosely and tightly
coupled processing. As such, the manual entry
of ZUPTs is generally not necessary, except in
cases of poor data quality. Nonetheless, individual ZUPTs can be added here or loaded from
an ASCII file.
Coordinate Updates (CUPTs)
External coordinate updates can be very beneficial to GNSS/INS post-processing in areas of denied
GNSS signal reception if they can be properly time tagged. This dialog can be used to add individual time
coordinate updates or load from an ASCII file.
Gimbal Mount
Gimbal mount updates are not supported on Inertial Explorer Xpress, GrafNav or GrafNav Static.
If using a gimbal mount, the IMU to gimbal center lever arm can be entered here. This should be entered in the
vehicle frame (Y-forward, X-right, Z-up) with the origin at the IMU center of navigation. This causes Inertial
Explorer to shift it's output from the IMU to the Gimbal Center.
MMR files are automatically produced by the SPAN data converter and contain the rotations of the stabilized gimbal platform. This is required in order to properly compensate for the changing IMU to GNSS lever arm during
operation of the gimbal unit.
Distance Measuring Instrument (DMI)
DMI updates are not supported on Inertial Explorer Xpress, GrafNav or GrafNav Static.
If logging DMI data, the NovAtel SPAN decoder will automatically write a DMR file which contains time stamped
DMI measurements. If a DMR file is detected during project creation, it is automatically loaded into the project
and thus does not have to be explicitly set here.
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DMI Options
A typical DMI will either output an accumulated tick count or a measured speed. If accumulated tick
counts are recorded, Inertial Explorer converts them to a velocity update using knowledge of the ticks/rev, wheel circumference, and estimated wheel circumference scale factor. If speed was recorded,
then the software applies the update directly as a velocity update.
Detect ZUPTs from DMI sensor
This option is off by default as Inertial Explorer already has two layers of ZUPT detection; analysis of the
raw IMU measurements and using available GNSS data. This option therefore is generally not needed and
if the DMI used does not function well at low velocity, it can actually be harmful.
If however a high resolution DMI is used which works well at low velocity and if ZUPTs will be observed
during periods of extended GNSS outages, this option can be very beneficial in helping to observe ZUPTs.
Measurement standard deviations
The standard deviation associated with the DMI measurements depends on the DMI being used. As such,
this value may need to be determined empirically.
Wheel circumference
The default value is 1.96 metres if no value is detected from the raw GNSS data or set during conversion.
Inertial Explorer computes a DMI scale factor to account for varying wheel sizes during data collection,
however the best estimate possible of the wheel circumference should be input.
Heading Updates
If using the NovAtel dual antenna ALIGN system and requesting HEADING2B logs, an HMR file is automatically produced during data conversion which can be input to Inertial Explorer here. The secondary lever arm
must also be set if using it in Dual GPS Antenna System mode.
Heading updates are most useful in assisting auto/kinematic alignment in low dynamic applications such as marine surveys. When a kinematic alignment is used and heading updates are available, Inertial Explorer will extract
the initial heading of the vehicle from the HMR file.
The HMR data format is described in HMR File on page 192.
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3.8.2.11 Constraints (IE/IEX only)
Non-Holonomic Vehicle Constraints
Vehicle constraints help optimize positioning performance in fixed wheel and land-vehicle applications
where GNSS signal conditions are poor or completely
denied for significant periods. Pedestrian GNSS+INS
surveys may also benefit from these constraints.
The vehicle constraints implemented in Inertial
Explorer apply a zero velocity update with the specified standard deviation about the X and Z vehicle
body axes at 1 Hz. For best results in fixed wheel and
land-vehicle applications, the vehicle boresight should
first be computed as the constraints are applied in the
vehicle frame. In the absence of GNSS updates,
application of vehicle constraints can significantly
limit IMU error growth.
Compute Body->Vehicle Boresight
Even when carefully mounting the IMU in the vehicle,
a small rotational difference exists between the IMU
frame and the vehicle frame. Should output be required in the vehicle frame, or if vehicle constraints will be
applied to maximize positioning performance in fixed wheel or land-vehicle applications, the Body->Vehicle
boresight should be applied.
In order to estimate the Body->Vehicle boresight, first process a survey normally and generate the smoothed
combined output. For best observability of the vehicle boresight, the survey should contain long, straight and flat
sections of data. The Compute button will estimate the vehicle boresight from the smoothed and combined output and populate the dialog with the rotation angles. Reprocess the survey to apply the boresight in Inertial
Explorer's computations.
Rotate Processed Output to Vehicle Frame:
Selecting this option will rotate the processed attitude to the estimated vehicle frame. Note that if you have
just computed the boresight, you will need to reprocess the solution after selecting this option. Re-processing after un-selecting this option will apply the boresight computation to the IMU->GNSS lever arm
translation and DMI computations but will leave the processed/re-processed output in the body frame.
3.8.3 Combine Solutions
The Combine Two Solution dialog does not typically need to be accessed within a project as forward and reverse
solutions are automatically combined when processing in both directions (or when using multi-pass PPP processing). If however a user has reprocessed one direction only and then they wish to re-combine forward and
reverse directions, or if a user wishes to plot the difference between two processed trajectories (i.e. PPP vs Differential), this can be done through the Combine dialog and does not require knowledge of Waypoint file extensions.
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In order to plot the difference between two processed
solutions within the project, first choose the two solutions from the Solution 1 and Solution 2 pull-down lists
and then Combine. Only a list of available solutions is
accessible within the pull-down lists. As an example,
if a user wanted to compare the combined PPP solution to the combined differential solution, choose PPP
Combined as Solution 1 and Differential Combined as
Solution 2 (or vice versa) and then select Combine.
After combining the two trajectories of interest, plot
the combined separation to view the difference in
north, east and height as a function of time.
However, before exporting ensure that either the differential (.cg) or the PPP (.cp) solution is loaded, as the Export Wizard accesses whichever solution is presently
loaded. One way of re-loading combined results is to choose the Differential/PPP forward and Differential/PPP
reverse solutions from this dialog and clicking the Combine button.
3.8.4 Smooth Solutions (IE/IEX only)
Inertial Explorer is capable of combining processing
directions and/or performing back smoothing on an
inertial trajectory.
Smoothing greatly improves position quality over
GNSS data gaps. The benefits of smoothing are not
limited to improving position quality however; velocity
and attitude are also back-smoothed. Even if no
GNSS data gaps are observed, smoothing will always
generate the highest quality trajectory possible.
Smoother Settings
Smoothing can be performed in just one direction, or both. Much like GNSS and GNSS-IMU processing, it is
recommended that smoothing be performed in both directions. Smoothing both directions will also generate the
combined smoothed trajectory.
3.8.5 Solve Boresighting Angles
Solving boresighting angles is not supported on Inertial Explorer Xpress, GrafNav or GrafNav Static.
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3.8.5.1 Show
This drop-down menu is linked to the window below it
and gives viewing access to the values listed below.
Navigation values
The roll, pitch and heading values, along with
their associated standard deviations, are displayed for each loaded camera event. The
coordinates of the IMU at the time of the event
are also displayed. These values are generally
transferred from Inertial Explorer directly and correspond to the IMU values interpolated at camera event times.
Photo E/O values
The omega, phi and kappa values, along with
their associated standard deviations, are displayed for each loaded camera event. These values are produced externally in a photogrammetric package.
Matches/residuals
Before the computations begin, choose whether or not to include the observations associated with a camera event in the least squares procedure by right-clicking on the event. After the least squares procedure
has finished, the window is updated with the final residual values at each camera event. Additional information, such as quality indicators and computed omega, phi and kappa values are also displayed.
3.8.5.2 Settings
The following features are available:
Calibration name
Enter a name to distinguish calibration runs from one another. Inertial Explorer keeps a history of calibration runs, so a unique identifier is helpful when trying to recover previous results. This is useful for
using multiple systems and/or tracking stability over time.
Boresight Angles
Upon successful completion of the calibration procedure, the final values for the computed boresight
angles are displayed here.
Add results to list
When this option is enabled, the last values computed by the program are stored so that they are easily
accessible by the Export Wizard.
View report after computation
Enabling this option forces the software to launch the boresighting report upon successful completion of a
calibration. The contents of the report are discussed later on.
Update navigation angles on entry
When this option is enabled, Inertial Explorer loads the latest navigation values for the camera events into
the boresighting module.
3.8.5.3 Message Window
This window provides valuable insight on the status of the current calibration. Whenever input data is being
loaded, read the messages to ensure the expected number of camera events have been read in. After the cal-
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ibration procedure is complete, the final boresighting values, as well as the number of iterations needed to arrive
at them, are displayed.
The following options are available via the buttons along the bottom of the Solve Boresight Angles window:
Compute
Assuming all the required input data has been loaded, click this button to begin the iterative least squares
procedure. The Message Window contains pertinent information regarding the success or failure of the procedure.
Settings…
This button gives access to the Boresight Settings window, which is useful for configuring many parameters used in the boresight calibration. See Boresight Settings below for information about the setting on
this window.
New
This button clears any stored data from previous calibration runs in order to start a new one.
Load
Use this button to load the required navigation and exterior orientation input data.
The navigation data can be obtained either by loading the latest set of roll, pitch and heading values computed by Inertial Explorer, or by an external file which contains this information for each camera event.
Alternatively, if such information is available, there is the ability to provide the module directly with the
omega, phi and kappa angles required to rotate the ground system into the IMU frame. Obtaining the attitude angles directly from Inertial Explorer is by far the most common usage.
The exterior orientation parameters for each photo must be supplied by an external file. This file should contain the omega, phi and kappa angles required to rotate the ground system into the image system.
View
This button gives access to the post-calibration report. The report contains relevant boresight calibration
information, as well as a list of all the input data provided for each camera event. The bottom of the report
displays the boresight values and residuals from the final iteration.
This report can be viewed through either NotePad or the internal Inertial Explorer ASCII viewer. This button also gives you access to the calibration history. For each calibration run, the final boresighting results are saved, assuming the Add results to list option is enabled.
Clear Msg
This button clears the Message Window of any messages currently displayed.
3.8.5.4 Boresight Settings
Axes/System Definition
System
The selection made here defines the ground coordinate system to which the omega, phi and kappa values
are oriented. Normally, they are referenced to a map projection which is defined in the Grid/Map Definition
settings.
Order
This setting defines the order in which the omega, phi and kappa angles are to be applied during the transformation from the ground system to the image or IMU system. Only the omega-primary, phi-secondary
and kappa-tertiary rotation order is supported.
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Axes
Use this setting to define the orientation of the image system. The most commonly used system is the conventional frame, where the x-axis points forward, the y-axis points left, and the z-axis points upwards. The
frame defined here determines the composition of the Rc matrix.
Grid/Map Definition
The options made available here depend on the system definition chosen. If the input angle was provided with
respect to a map grid, then the selection made here determines the convergence value, α, used to form the Rg
matrix. In addition, grid users are given the opportunity to enter the average ground height in order to maximize
accuracy.
Measurement Weighting
The selections made here determine the composition of the variance-covariance matrix used in the least squares
procedure to derive the final boresighting values. Choose to enter a set of constant standard deviation values to
apply to all measurements, or have the values derived from either the navigation SD values, the photo SD values
(if provided), or a combination of both.
The other setting here pertains to the outlier tolerance. The value specified here determines at which point a
measurement is removed from the least squares procedure.
Display Units
These options pertain to the values displayed in the Solve Boresight Angle window and determine which units
are used when writing to the Boresight Report file. These options also allow the number of decimal places to
which all values are displayed or written to be modified.
3.9 Output Menu
The following sections provide information about the features available in the Output menu.
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3.9.1 Plot Results
Plots are organized into a Grouped Plots category and an
All"category. The All category provides access to individual plots, while the Grouped Plots category contains 3
manufacturer plot groups and any custom created plot
groups. The manufacturer plot groups include groups of
commonly accessed plots for GNSS-only processing,
GNSS+INS TC processing, and GNSS+INS LC processing. When accessing a grouped plot, all plots within
the group are plotted and opened with the Map Window
within your default web browser.
Many plots support different units. For example, you can
plot the Combined Separation, which shows the difference between forward and reverse solutions in metres
or feet. The Distance Separation, or baseline distance,
can be plotted in units of kilometres, miles or metres. In
order to change units on a plot, first select the plot from
the list and then access the Y axis tab. This tab has a
units pull down list which shows supported units for the
selected plot. After changing units, your preference is
remembered for all projects.
Individual plots can be viewed by double clicking a plot in
the list, or by selecting the OK button after selecting a
plot. Up to two plots can be selected simultaneously by
using the Ctrl key in combination with a left mouse click prior to selecting the OK button. Further, if a group of
plots has been created using the Add Group button, all plots within the group are plotted simultaneously.
3.9.1.1 Add Group
You may wish to create a custom group of plots for the
purpose of plotting the entire group at once. For
example, if after processing you always want to see
the Combined Separation, Number of Satellites
(BAR), PDOP and Estimated Position Accuracy,
these four plots can be added to a custom group.
When you click the Add Group button, a second dialog
appears that allows you to provide the group a name
and add plots to your group. There is also an option for
launching an HTML report that includes the grouped
plots and the Map Window.
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3.9.1.2 Plot Options
When you right click on a plot, a menu of options appears.
Properties
Allows access to the X and Y axis properties, X and Y axis labels, plot title
and the plot settings.
Copy
Copies the plot to the clipboard as a bitmap (BMP), allowing you to paste the
image into another application such as Microsoft Word or PowerPoint.
Save to HTML
Copies a BMP version of the plot into an HTML file, which opens upon completion. The HTML and BMP files are saved to the project folder under a directory called HTML.
Refresh
Reloads the selected plot.
X-Axis (Time)...
The X-Axis options are described below.
Auto-scale
Shows the entire time range of the data.
Set Minimum
Makes the current time the X-axis minimum.
Set Maximum
Makes the current time the X-axis maximum.
Select X-Range
Previously used settings of the X-axis are stored here.
Apply to All
Scales the X-axis of the other opened plots to facilitate analysis.
Y-Axis (Value)...
The Y-Axis options are described below.
Auto-scale
Shows the entire value range of the data.
Set Minimum
Makes the current value the Y-axis minimum.
Set Maximum
Makes the current value the Y-axis maximum.
Select Y-Range
Previously used settings of the Y-axis are stored here.
Apply to All
Scales the Y-axis of the other opened plots to facilitate analysis.
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In order to apply the Y-axis to all plots, the maximum and minimum values must be manually specified,
that is, not auto-scaled.
Go to Time…
Gives you the option of finding the nearest available time in the forward or reverse message logs, or finding the
nearest epoch on the Map Window.
Compute Statistics for…
Calculates useful statistics for either the entire valid processed time range, or, if it has been adjusted, only the
time range being plotted. Statistics include RMS, standard deviation, average, maximum and minimum. Note
that this feature is only available for plots where meaningful statistics can be computed.
Set Start Processing Time
Makes the selected time the start time for GNSS data processing.
Set End Processing Time
Makes the selected time the end time for GNSS data processing.
Engage ARTK at Time
Engages ARTK at the selected time.
3.9.1.3 Common Plots
Table 3: Common Plots
Plot
Description
Accuracy
Estimated Position
Accuracy
Plots the standard deviation of the east, north and up directions as well as a 3D (labeled trace)
value.
This plot is a good summary of other factors in your survey, including the float/fixed ambiguity
status and satellite geometry. This is because SD values of fixed solutions are generally much
lower than float solutions, and spikes in DOP caused by loss of satellite signals are typically
correlated with spikes in estimated position accuracy. Please note that the estimated error plot
contains no knowledge of any systematic error (such as biased base station coordinates or
incorrectly fixed integer ambiguities), and as such the values reported are only (by definition)
estimates.
Estimated Attitude
Accuracy
This plot shows the standard deviation computed in the GNSS/INS Kalman filter in terms of
roll, pitch and heading.
Measurement
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Plot
RMS – C/A Code
Description
Plots the RMS of the double differenced C/A residuals for all satellites used in the solution.
High C/A residuals often indicate high multipath.
Also plotted is the standard deviation applied to the C/A measurements within the Kalman
Filter. This value comes in part by the a-priori value set in the Measurement tab. In dual
frequency carrier phase processing, where ARTK is used to resolve integer carrier phase
ambiguities, the C/A code does not heavily influence solution accuracy. Thus the standard
deviation assigned to the measurements is not important, provided it is not overly optimistic.
Adjusting the C/A measurement standard to a value more representative of the size of the
actual residuals (while still being conservative) will benefit float solution convergence.
RMS – Carrier
Phase
Plots the RMS of the double differenced carrier phase residuals for all satellites used in the
solution.
Carrier phase noise increases as the baseline length grows due to factors such as residual
ionospheric and tropospheric error. Further, if ionospheric processing is used, the carrier phase
noise will increase noticeably (although it should still be cm level). Thus, while values at or
below 1 cm may be typical for short baselines (1-2 km), values of 2-4 cm are typical for longer
baselines (10-40+ km).
If large differences are found in the Combined Separation (fixed) plot, the RMS of the carrier
phase can be a very helpful plot in determining which direction (forward or reverse) resolved
the carrier phase integers incorrectly. When doing this, ensure to load each solution (forward
and reverse) separately prior to plotting the carrier phase RMS, in order to ensure you are
viewing the carrier phase residuals for each direction separately. Large ramping trends are
strong indications of incorrect ambiguities.
RMS-L1 Doppler
Plots the RMS of the double differenced Doppler residuals for all satellites in the solution.
Inertial Explorer uses Doppler to compute instantaneous velocity.
Also plotted is the measurement weighting applied to the Doppler measurements within the
Kalman filter. As the quality of the Doppler measurements varies very significantly between
receiver manufacturers, Inertial Explorer applies a somewhat conservative default
measurement weight. Therefore it is common to see that the actual Doppler residuals are
much lower (better) than the weight applied in our filter, although the opposite is also
sometimes true depending on receiver type. A discrepancy between the actual magnitude of
the Doppler residuals and the a-priori measurement weighting will lead to an inappropriately
high (or low) estimation of GNSS velocity.
Some receivers output such noisy Doppler values (on the order of 5 m/s) that it will actually
cause Kalman Filter resets, significantly degrading positioning accuracy. Thus if you see very
large residuals in this plot, we recommend disabling Doppler from the Measurement tab of the
GNSS processing options.
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Plot
Satellite Lock –
Cycle Slips
Description
This plot launches a dialog that provides access to cycle slip plots for all GPB files within the
project, or a user defined GPB file.
Each satellite in the GPB file is plotted as a function of time and is color coded by elevation.
See the bottom of the plot for a legend. Cycle slips for individual satellites are represented as a
vertical red tick mark on the plot.
It is normal for cycle slips to occur on low elevation satellites (< 10 degrees) due to signal
blockages or due to attenuation by the GNSS antenna.
Cycle slips on high elevation satellites may be expected if surveying in a challenging GNSS
signal environment and are thus not necessarily an indication of a problem. However, if the
plot shows many cycle slips on L1 or L2 in aerial survey applications where good signal
tracking is expected, it can help diagnose receiver or antenna problems that can significantly
limit post-processing performance.
If you are getting poorer than expected post-processing performance, checking the quality of
L1 and L2 signal tracking at the remote and base stations is a good first step in determining the
cause.
Individual Satellite
Statistics
Provides access to satellite code residuals, phase residuals, elevation angles and C/NO
values for individual PRNs.
Raw IMU Data
Values
Use this plot to see the raw gyroscope and accelerometer measurements as they appear in
the IMR file.
Separation
Combined
Separation
Plots the north, east and height position difference between any two solutions loaded into the
project. This is most often the forward and reverse processing results, unless other solutions
have been loaded from the Combine Two Solutions dialog.
Plotting the difference between forward and reverse solutions can be an effective QC tool.
When processing both directions, no information is shared between forward and reverse
processing. Thus both directions are processed independently.
When forward and reverse solutions agree closely, it helps provide confidence in the solution.
To a lesser extent, this plot can also help gauge solution accuracy. However, if there is a
common bias in both forward and reverse solutions (for example, due to inaccurate base
station coordinates or due to a large residual tropospheric error), it will never be seen in the
combined separation plot.
Large differences in the combined separation plot may be a result of different solution types
(fixed/float) or different levels of float solution convergence between the processing directions
and thus not a direct indication of a problem. It is important to also consider solution status
(fixed/float) when evaluating forward/reverse differences. This is why the Combined
Separation with Fixed Ambiguity plot can sometimes be more helpful.
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Plot
Combined
Separation with
Fixed Ambiguity
Description
Similar to the Combined Separation plot, however only the position differences between
forward and reverse processing are plotted where both solutions have fixed integer
ambiguities.
Fixed integer solutions are associated with high accuracies (cm, or cm-level accuracies
depending on other factors). Knowing this, there is an expectation of cm level differences
between forward and reverse fixed integer solutions. If large differences (decimetre or metre
level) are obtained, an incorrect ambiguity was very likely obtained in one or both directions.
In this event, loading each solution into the project individually and plotting the RMS - Carrier
Phase can be useful in determining which processing direction the problem occurred. See the
description for the RMS - Carrier Phase plot for more information.
Attitude Separation
This plot shows the difference between the forward and reverse solutions in terms of roll, pitch
and heading. A zero separation is ideal, as it indicates matching solutions in the forward and
reverse IMU processing. Spikes at the beginning and the end of the plot are common, as they
indicate the periods of alignment.
Quality Control
PDOP
PDOP is a unitless number which indicates how favorable the satellite geometry is to 3D
positioning accuracy. A strong satellite geometry, where the PDOP is low, occurs when
satellites are well distributed in each direction (north, south, east and west) as well as directly
overhead.
Values in the range of 1-2 indicate very good satellite geometry, 2-3 are adequate in the sense
that they do not generally, by themselves, limit positioning accuracy. Values between 3-4 are
considered marginal and values approaching or exceeding 5 are considered poor.
If PDOP is poor in your survey, try reprocessing with a lower elevation mask (however care
should be taken when lowering this value below 10 degrees).
Float/Fixed
Ambiguity Status
This plot indicates where the processed solution is fixed (in one or both directions) or float. If
both forward and reverse solutions achieved a fix, the plot shows a value of 2 and is plotted in
bright green. If either the forward or reverse achieved a fix, but not both, a value of 1 is plotted.
The value will be plotted cyan if the fixed direction is forward and blue if the fixed direction is
reverse. If neither direction achieved a fix, a value of 0 is plotted which appears red on the plot.
This plot can be helpful to view in conjunction with the Combined Separation plot, as it will help
determine if large values in the forward/ reverse separation are expected or not, depending on
solution status in each direction. That said, the Combined Separation with Fixed Ambiguity
plot is recommended to quickly check for the presence of incorrect ambiguity fixes.
Number of Satellites Plots the number of satellites used in the solution as a function of time. The bar plot displays
(BAR)
the total number of satellites (GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou, Galileo and QZSS). It does not
distinguish between how many satellites are tracked from each constellation.
Number of Satellites Plots the number of satellites used in the solution as a function of time. The number of GPS
(LINE)
satellites, GLONASS satellites, BeiDou satellites, Galileo satellites, QZSS satellites and the
total number of satellites are distinguished with separate lines.
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Plot
Description
File Data Coverage
Plots the coverage of each GPB file in the project, or a user specified GPB file, as a function of
time. This plot indicates whether the data has been converted as static or kinematic (by
different color codes) and shows the presence of any detected complete losses of carrier
phase lock by vertical bars.
This plot is useful in determining whether any base station data does not overlap with the time
range collected by the remote receiver.
Coordinate Values
Distance Separation This plot shows the distance between the master and remote. For multi-base distance
separation, see Plot Multi-Base on the next page.
Height Profile
Plots the ellipsoidal height of the remote as a function of time.
Velocity Profile
Plots the north, east and up velocity. Also plots the horizontal speed.
IMU
Accelerometer Bias
This is the apparent output in acceleration when there is no input acceleration present. It is
computed by the GNSS/INS Kalman filter and the effects may be sinusoidal or random. It is
plotted in terms of the X (right direction), Y (forward direction), and Z (up direction) of the
vehicle body. Generally, they should stabilize after the alignment period and agree when
processed in both directions.
Attitude
(Azimuth/Heading)
Plots the heading and GNSS COG (course-over-ground) that was computed from the
GNSS/INS processing. Effects of a crab angle is visible in this plot if the GNSS COG bears a
constant offset from INS heading. The IMU Heading COG Difference plot shows the
difference between these two heading values. Note that any transitions between a heading of
359 degrees and 0 degrees shows up as a vertical line.
Attitude (Roll and
Pitch)
Plots the roll and pitch values from GNSS/INS processing. In airborne data, it is common to
see roll values between 30 degrees and pitch values of around 10 degrees, depending on the
flight pattern of the aircraft itself.
Body Frame
Acceleration
This plot shows the components of acceleration in the vehicle body frame.
Body Frame
Velocity
This plot shows the components of velocity in the vehicle body frame.
DMI Scale Factor
This plot presents the DMI scale factor, as computed by the Kalman filter. It should be loaded
separately for forward and reverse processing to ensure that the same scale factor is
computed in both directions. Ideally, the plotted line should be horizontal, indicating a constant
scale factor.
Not available in Inertial Explorer Xpress.
Not available in Inertial Explorer Xpress.
Not available in Inertial Explorer Xpress.
DMI Residual
This plot presents the difference between the computed displacement or velocity and that
reported by the DMI.
Not available in Inertial Explorer Xpress.
DMI Analysis Tool
This tool allows DMI users to view the raw data measurements found in their DMR file. They
can use the options available here to find an appropriate scale factor that will make the DMI
data fit best with the values computed from the GNSS-IMU data.
Not available in Inertial Explorer Xpress.
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Plot
Description
Estimated
Accelerometer Bias
Accuracy
This plot shows the estimated standard deviation of the accelerometer bias. It is plotted in
terms of the X (right direction), Y (forward direction), and Z (up direction) of the INS body.
Estimated Gyro
Drift Accuracy
This plot shows the estimated standard deviation of the gyro drift rate, which generally
decreases with time. It is plotted in terms of the X (right direction), Y (forward direction), and Z
(up direction) of the INS body.
Not available in Inertial Explorer Xpress.
Not available in Inertial Explorer Xpress.
Gyro Drift Rate
This is the apparent change in angular rate over a period of time, as computed by the
GNSS/INS Kalman filter. The effects are usually random. It is plotted in terms of the X (right
direction), Y (forward direction), and Z (up direction) of the INS body. Generally, they should
stabilize after the alignment period and agree when processed in both directions.
IMU Angular Rates
This plot shows the gyroscope rate of change of attitude in the X, Y and Z axes of the IMU
body with the drift removed. This plot is used to check the gyros.
IMU Status Flag
Shows the status of IMU processing. Specifically, this plot provides indication of the type of
update, if any, being applied at each epoch.
IMU-GPS Lever
Arm
This plot presents the body-frame components of the lever arm offset between the IMU and
GNSS antenna. If the offset was manually entered, then this plot has constant horizontal
lines. If left to be solved by the Kalman filter, this plot shows the computed values.
IMU Heading COG
difference
This plot is the difference between the IMU heading and the GNSS course-over-ground
values. Effects of crabbing shows up as a direct bias in this plot.
Not available in Inertial Explorer Xpress.
Velocity Separation
Plots the difference between the East, North and Up components of velocity computed during
forward and reverse processing. Requires that both directions be processed and combined.
Not available in Inertial Explorer Xpress.
IMU-GPS Position
Misclosure
This plot shows the difference between the GNSS solution and the mechanized INS positions
obtained from the GNSS/INS processing. This is a good analysis tool used to check the
GNSS/INS solution as well as checking INS stability. Large jumps or spikes may indicate a
bad INS solution, whereas separations nearing zero confirms the GPS solution.
3.9.2 Plot Multi-Base
Multi-base plots are not available in Inertial Explorer Xpress.
Multi-base plots are available if more than one base
station has been added to your project. In this case,
the multi-base plots are often more helpful than the
main plots, as they distinguish results from each
baseline.
The multi-base plots contain many of the same plots
as the main plotting options and therefore only the
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plots unique to multi-base are described in the following table.
Table 4: Common Multi-base Plots
Plot
Baseline Weighting
Description
Plots the relative weighting applied to each baseline. This is largely dependent on the distance
to each base station.
Number of baselines Shows the number of base stations used as a function of time.
used
3.9.3 Export Wizard
The Export Wizard facilitates customized ASCII
exporting of processed results. Manufacturer profiles
are included with the installation, however they can be
edited and new profiles can be created.
When creating or editing an export profile, you can
choose from over 150 source variables. Units, precision, column width, field separators, and header/footer information can all be customized.
You can choose to export all processed epochs, interpolated results for features/stations (such as camera
marks) or static sessions. The Waypoint application
will try to auto-detect which Source to use given the
data in your project. For example, if more than 80% of
the remote file is static, the Source will default to
Static Sessions. If more than a handful of features are
loaded into the project, the Source will default to
Features/Stations as this is presumably the data of
interest.
3.9.3.1 How to create a new Export Wizard profile
1. Click the New button and type a unique name for
the profile.
Alternatively, it may be quicker to modify a copy
of an existing profile that contains most of the variables required.
2. In the Define Profile window, add the desired variables from the Source Variables list. All source
variables are organized under various headings
from a pull down list.
After selecting a variable, click Add to add the variable to the bottom of the list or Insert to add the
variable above the highlighted variable in the list.
See the table in Output Variables on page 208 for
a list of variables available for output.
3. After you are finished adding all the necessary components of the profile, click the OK button to save the profile.
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Tips for creating an export profile
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To create a profile that does not have spaces between variable entries and the record is based on column
width, follow these steps:
1. Go to the Define Profile window.
2. Click the Field Separator button.
3. Select None under Separation Character to remove any field separators in the file.
The same procedure can be used to have the output be space or comma delimited.
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To change the file by adding a header/footer of a specific format, the Header/Footer button in the Define Profile window allows you to add headers/footers from a predefined text file. If specific characters are needed to
designate the start and end of a text file, strings of characters can also be added to the beginning and end of
the file.
For formats that require no decimal points to be shown in the file, like SEGP1 and Blue Book, the decimal
points can be removed by going into the chosen variable, clicking the Format button in the Define Profile window, and enabling the Do not print decimal point option.
If you need a text string label to designate the type of record being printed/read, for example, $--GLL, *81*,
open up the Miscellaneous variable category and add the User Text String variable. Change the format of the
string by entering the text needed for the label and select the Fixed Width option if the format is dependent on
column width.
Review the Header/Footer button. You can put in your own header file and display datum/projections information, column descriptions and titles. A special character can also be inserted at the start of each header line
making it easier for other software to skip past the header. At the bottom of the file, you can add errors/warnings of any problems that were encountered and processing summary information.
The table in Output Variables on page 208 describes the many variables that you can include your output profiles. Not all variables are available for use with each source.
3.9.3.2 How to use the Export Wizard
1. By default, the export file name is the same name and directory as the project file (.proj), except with a .txt
extension. The file name and directory of the export file can be changed using the Browse button.
2. Ensure the Source has been set correctly according to what you would like to export.
Choosing Epochs produces an output record for each common measurement epoch for the entire trajectory.
Choosing Features/Sessions exports results, linearly interpolated between the nearest two epochs, for any
camera marks, features or stations loaded.
Static Sessions is accessible provided static sessions have been collected. Choosing this option exports
the final post-processed (best converged) solution for each static session.
3. Choose an export profile and select Next to start the Wizard. Depending on the variables in the profile, the
Wizard will prompt you for any needed information. For example, if the chosen export wizard profile contains
orthometric heights, you will be prompted to locate a Waypoint geoid file (.wpg).
4. Click Finish on the last page of the Wizard. If View ASCII output file on completion was selected on the last
page of the Wizard, the text file will open within the internal ASCII viewer.
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3.9.3.3 Creating an Output File
The following is an example of the Export Wizard dialogs that appear when exporting Epochs using the Geographic profile.
Note that when exporting Features or Static Sessions, or when choosing a different export profile, you may see
different dialogs. This is because the Wizard only prompts you for the required information according to your
selections.
Select Output Coordinate Datum
The first page of the Wizard provides an opportunity to
apply a datum transformation during export. This is
required if the datum you wish to export to is not the
same as the processing datum.
Filter Output/Estimated Accuracy Scaling
Results can be filtered using either the quality numbers or combined (3D) standard deviation. An example
of when it is useful to filter by quality number is when
only fixed integer solutions are to be exported. In that
case, apply a value of 1 for the quality number filter.
This dialog also provides an opportunity to scale the
standard deviations output to a higher confidence interval. By default 1-sigma values are output. However
due to the conservative measurement weighting
applied to code, carrier, and Doppler measurements,
they are not by nature overly optimistic.
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Select Epoch Sampling Mode (GNSS+INS only)
When exporting epochs, you can choose to export all
processed epochs or apply distance dependent
sampling.
Note: This option is only available to Inertial Explorer
users who are exporting a GNSS+INS trajectory. The
Select Epoch Sampling Mode page is not applicable to
GNSS-only trajectories.
Export Definition Complete
The last page of the Wizard provides a summary of
the file name and path where the file will be written and
the Source to be exported. The export variables within
the profile are also summarized. Optionally, the output
file can be viewed after export by selecting View
ASCII output file on completion.
3.9.3.4 IMU Epoch Settings
Limit Exported Time Range
The time range to export can be changed here.
Multiple time ranges may be entered.
Epoch Interval Options
The Binary Trajectory Interval displays the interval at which the IMU data was processed. It is
the smallest interval that can be output without
interpolation. The Time Interval option will
export data at the input interval. It may be set to
a value as small as 0.001 seconds (1000 Hz). Any value smaller than, or not a multiple of, the Binary Trajectory Interval will require interpolation of data. The Distance Interval option will output data whenever the
input distance threshold is met/exceeded.
Transfer IMU Coordinates
Allows for the coordinates of the IMU, calculated via the IMU Kalman filter, to be transferred to an alternate
sensor’s location.
Note the orientation of the frame in which these coordinates must be entered.
3.9.4 Build HTML Report
Creates an HTML file containing a bitmap version of any plot that is currently open, including the Map Window.
These HTML and BMP files are saved to the HTML folder contained within the project folder. The HTML file also
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contains information regarding the processing run(s) used to generate the plots.
3.9.5 Export to Google Earth
Writes a compressed Google Earth (KMZ) file to the HTML sub-directory and automatically opens it in Google
Earth.
3.9.6 Export to RIEGL POF/POQ (IE/IEX only)
Selecting this option launches the Export RIEGL dialog which supports the conversion of Inertial
Explorer's native binary output to RIEGL POF (Position & Orientation file) format. The POF file format is
supported by third party software manufacturers and
as such is a convenient way to integrate Inertial
Explorer into a larger workflow. Use the Other Export
Options feature to optionally scale Inertial Explorer's
estimated position and attitude errors.
3.9.7 Export to SBET (IE/IEX only)
Selecting this option launches the Export SBET dialog
which supports the conversion of Inertial Explorer's
native binary output to Applanix SBET binary format.
The Applanix SBET file format is supported by many
third party software packages and thus this utility is a
convenient way to integrate Inertial Explorer into a larger workflow. The utility supports outputting GPS or
UTC time stamps, scaling of Inertial Explorer's estimated position and attitude error and rotation of the computed attitude into the IMU frame rather than the
vehicle frame (as required for processing IMU data in
Inertial Explorer).
3.9.8 Export to Waypoint Legacy Format
This option converts your Waypoint trajectory files to
the binary format defined by 8.60 and previous versions of the software. It is useful if you have a workflow catered to the legacy file formats, including the
CMB or SBTC/SBIC file formats.
This tool converts the trajectory currently loaded in the map window. Load the desired trajectory before
converting to Waypoint legacy format.
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3.9.9 Export to DXF
DXF is a file format read by various CAD packages. This utility
outputs the contents of the map window to DXF format.
3.9.9.1 Output File Name
Specify the name and path of the DXF to be created.
3.9.9.2 Output Components and Options
The following options are available:
Stations/Features
Outputs any stations or features loaded.
Baselines/Static Sessions
Outputs baselines between all the static sessions. The
color of the baselines will be the same as it appears in the
Waypoint application and is determined by the quality
factor.
Epochs
Outputs the trajectory and is only useful for kinematic data. Color is determined by the quality factor.
Join Epochs
Joins a line between epochs.
3.9.9.3 Symbol Sizes
These settings govern the size of the features and stations in the DXF file. Automatic is suggested for a trial.
3.9.9.4 Datum
Allows you to choose between the processing datum or the input datum.
The grid options are available under the Select Grid System tab. For UTM, State Plane or any other zone-dependent grid, check that the zone number is correct because the default is likely wrong.
3.9.10 Processing Window
This window appears during processing and shows
position, status, progress and any high priority messages output by the processing engine.
Click the View button to customize the fields displayed during processing. See Output Variables on
page 208 for descriptions of variables which can be
monitored during data processing.
The values in Plot Results on page 89 differ in the manner in which they are computed depending on the
mode of processing being performed.
If the GNSS is being processed, then the values displayed are those computed in the Kalman filter.
However, during the IMU processing, the values displayed reflect those calculated in the IMU Kalman filter,
using the GNSS information as updates. Ideally, these values should agree. When they do not, monitor the position and velocity misclosure.
The Processing window is updated twice a second.
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3.9.10.1 Status
The Status section of the processing window reports the instantaneous quality number. Quality numbers are
meant to provide a high level indication of solution quality and are further described in Table 2: GNSS Quality
Number Description on page 61.
If integer carrier phase ambiguities have been fixed, a green circle with the word Fixed will be shown immediately
to the right of the quality number. The ARTK statistics of the fix will be shown in the Notifications window below.
If integer ambiguities have not been fixed, a blue circle with the word KAR (Kinematic Ambiguity Resolution) will
be shown instead.
The instantaneous estimated position error will be shown on a meter immediately to the right of the fixed/float
ambiguity status.
Immediately to the right of the estimated position error is the static/kinematic processing mode. If the data is processed in kinematic mode, a green K will be shown, otherwise if the data is processed in static mode a red S will
be shown.
3.9.10.2 Progress
The Progress box graphically displays how much of the data has been processed and how much remains.
3.9.10.3 View
In the left-hand window, various parameters are available for display via the View button. The list of available
parameters is given in Table 7: Processing Window Parameters on the next page.
3.9.10.4 Notifications
The Notifications window displays all information pertaining to the last ARTK fix. Descriptions of these messages are found in Notifications Windows Messages below.
Table 5: Notifications Windows Messages
Message
Description
Search time
Time at which ARTK engaged.
From base
Specifies which base station ARTK used to fix ambiguities. This will often be the closest
base station in multi-base projects.
Search distance
This is the baseline distance when ARTK was first engaged.
Rewind time
When ARTK achieves a fix, the integer carrier phase ambiguities (data quality permitting)
can be applied backwards in time to the moment ARTK was engaged. The rewind time
reports the number of seconds ARTK was able to restore integer ambiguities backwards
from the engage time.
Satellite Count
The number of satellites used by ARTK. The total, fixed and restored numbers are reported.
Total represents the number used in the float solution.
Fixed indicates the number which achieved fixed integers at the restore time.
Restored indicates the number of satellites where it was possible to restore backwards in
time (see Rewind time)
Fix Type
Will either be reported as GNSS Fixed or GNSS Fixed/Verified.
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Message
Description
RMS
The RMS of an ARTK fix represents the mathematical fit of the carrier phase measurements.
Low RMS values (3 mm or less) represent very good fitting solutions. While this does not
guarantee a correct solution, it is a good indication. High RMS values (above 20 mm) may
still be correct but the chances of an incorrect fix are higher. Regardless, the Combined
Separation with Fixed Ambiguity plot can be accessed to help identify incorrect ambiguity
fixes.
Reliability
Reliability is a unitless value that indicates how much better the best ARTK fix is from the
second best. This is determined by dividing the RMS of the second best fix by the RMS of
the best fix. High reliability values (above 3) indicate a high probability the fix is correct as the
best ARTK fix appears much stronger than the second best.
FloatFixSep
This is the distance between the fixed integer solution and the last float solution prior to
achieving a fix. Large values (metre level) can be expected where ARTK uses only several
seconds of data, as the float solution will not be well converged. Unusually high float/fixed
separation values of 5 m or more may be suspect.
FixFixSep
This is the distance between the position computed with a previous set of ambiguities and
the position computed with newly accepted fixed ambiguities.
Table 6: Notifications for Static Processing
Message
Information
RMS
Similar to the RMS computed for an ARTK fix, the RMS of a fixed static solution represents
the fit of the carrier phase measurements.
Reliability
See Reliability for ARTK fixes in Table 5: Notifications Windows Messages on the previous
page for a definition.
The reliability for long fixed static solutions may be reported as N/A, which indicates that only
one fix was within the search area. Thus, there was no second best RMS in order to use in
computing reliability.
Frequency
Reported as single or dual to indicate whether an L1 only or L1/L2 solution was computed.
Time
The length of time used by the fixed integer solution in hh:mm:ss format.
Type
Fixed static solution type used.
Continuous looks for the best continuous block of cycle slip free data to use within the fixed
integer solution.
NewFixed (multi-sat) uses all of the data, although it may reject some sections of data for
individual satellites.
Table 7: Processing Window Parameters
Parameter
Description
Acceleration Vector
Displays the east, north and height acceleration components in Local Level frame.
Baseline Data (MB)
Displays the distance, carrier phase RMS and number of satellites for each baseline.
Baseline Distance
Distance separation for projects containing only one base station.
Channel (Ambiguity)
Displays the ambiguities, as well as their standard deviation, for each satellite being tracked.
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Parameter
Description
Channel (Az/Elev)
Displays elevation and azimuth for each satellite being tracked, in degrees.
Channel
(Flag/Locktime)
Displays the status flag and locktime count for each satellite being tracked.
DOPs
Displays DD_DOP, PDOP, HDOP and VDOP.
Estimated Accuracy
The instantaneous north, east and height standard deviation of the remote position.
Geographic Position
Displays the instantaneous position and antenna height of the remote.
Local Level Vector
Local Level vector in metres.
Measurement RMS
The RMS of the code and phase measurements are displayed, together with their standard
deviation (measurement weight) in the Kalman filter.
Speed/COG
Speed of the vehicle is displayed with the Course-Over-Ground (COG), computed between
consecutive measurement epochs.
Status Flags
Solution quality information such as number of satellites, quality factor and ambiguity status.
Time/Epochs
Displays time in seconds of the week, as well as a continuous count of epochs processed.
The GPS week number is also shown.
Velocity Vector
Components of velocity in the Local Level frame.
Channel Data B/L
Allows for selection of baseline for which to display channel information.
3.10 Tools Menu
3.10.1 Find Epoch Time
This feature makes it easy to find an epoch on the
Map window provided the GPS time in seconds of the
week. When used, it circles the epoch in red and if
necessary changes the zoom level so that it is in the
middle of the Map window.
3.10.2 Time Conversion
This tool converts GPS seconds of the week to hh:mm:ss format (GMT), provided a GPS week number.
Alternatively, hh:mm:ss (GMT) can be converted to
GPS seconds of the week, provided a month, day and
year has been specified.
3.10.3 GPB Utilities
The GPB Utilities are available for use with GPB files and includes the following:
3.10.3.1 Concatenate, Slice and Resample
See Concatenate, Slice and Resample Files on page 158.
3.10.3.2 View Raw GNSS Data
See GPB Viewer Overview on page 154.
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3.10.4 Convert
3.10.4.1 Raw GNSS to GPB
You must convert your raw GNSS data files to GPB prior to adding them to an empty project. It is not necessary
to convert your raw GNSS data prior to creating a new project if using the New Project Wizard. See GNSS Data
Converter Overview on page 159 for more information regarding this utility.
3.10.4.2 Raw IMU Data to Waypoint Generic (IMR) (IE/IEX only)
IMU data must be converted to IMR format in order to be processed by Inertial Explorer. Use this utility to perform this conversion.
This option does not need to be used by NovAtel SPAN customers. All NovAtel data (including all raw GNSS
and IMU data) is automatically converted within the Raw GNSS Data Converter.
3.10.5 Convert Coordinate File
This tool takes an ASCII file containing a list of
coordinates as an input and outputs an ASCII file to a
different datum or format. You can use this utility not
only to convert between datums, but also to change
the format of a file. For example, you can convert an
input list of coordinates from geographic to ECEF, or a
list of coordinates with ellipsoidal heights or MSL.
The Use first continuous word option is the default. If
the station names contain spaces, select Use first ‘n’
characters. The sign conventions used for geographic
coordinates is positive for the northern and eastern
hemispheres and negative for the southern and western hemispheres.
Additional options seen on the screen just before generating the output file include the following:
Include column header
Conserves the header information from the input file.
View output files after conversion
Automatically opens the output file after clicking Finish.
Input grid coordinates in southern hemisphere
Only necessary if the input data has grid coordinates from a project area that is in the southern hemisphere.
Do not apply datum transformation to height
This option is useful for outputting orthometric heights because no datum transformation are applied in this
case.
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3.10.6 Compute Geoid Height
Geoid files are required when exporting Mean Sea
Level (MSL) heights. Geoid files contain a grid of undulation values that represent the difference between
ellipsoidal and MSL height. To calculate MSL height
from ellipsoidal height at any geographic position, an
interpolated geoid height (undulation value) is subtracted from the ellipsoidal height. A Lagrange interpolation method is used.
Waypoint software supports a proprietary WPG geoid
format. All publicly available WPG files can be found
here: www.novatel.com/support/waypoint-support/waypoint-geoids/. Waypoint software also
provides utilities to create WPG files from ASCII files and other known formats in order to create custom or local
geoids.
Every project requires ellipsoidal base station heights. This is because the geoid is a complicated mathematical
surface and all data processing needs to be performed relative to the ellipsoid. However, the Enter MSL Height
feature on the Master Coordinate dialog permits you to work directly with published MSL heights. This works by
back-calculating an ellipsoidal height provided an MSL height and a geoid file.
Regardless of how you have entered your base station coordinates (i.e. if you have directly entered an ellipsoidal
height or if you have used the Enter MSL height feature), the Export Wizard will prompt you for a geoid if your
export profile contains MSL heights.
The Compute Geoid Height dialog allows you to calculate geoid height for individual coordinates. If you have a
list of coordinates to convert from ellipsoidal to MSL (or vise versa), use the Convert Coordinate File on the previous page feature. The Geoid Info button will access basic properties of the WPG file, including the datum, vertical datums and geographic boundaries.
3.10.7 Grid/Map Projection
Grid/map projections are supported in several ways
including the following:
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The Enter Grid Values feature within the Coord.
Options pull-down list on the Master Coordinate
dialog allows you to enter base station coordinates in any defined grid, including ECEF.
You can output final coordinates in a map projection of your choice. See Preferences on
page 48 and Show Map Window on page 61 for
additional information.
Several grids, like UTM, TM, and US State Plane,
have been pre-defined in the software. However,
you can also add your own by selecting New
within the Define Grids dialog as shown on the right.
Use the Transform Coordinates tool under Tools | Grid/Map Projection to convert between geographic
coordinates and grid coordinates.
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3.10.7.1 Transform Coordinates
This tool transforms coordinates for a single point from
geographic to grid, or vice versa.
Use the Add to Favorites button to save a converted coordinate for easy retrieval in future
projects.
3.10.8 Datum Manager
3.10.8.1 Datums
This feature allows custom datums to be added, or
existing datums to be enabled or disabled.
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3.10.8.2 Datum Conversions
This tab allows you to view, edit or add conversions
between datums.
3.10.8.3 Ellipsoids
This tab allows you to view the a, b or 1/f values for a
particular ellipsoid. You can also add new ellipsoids.
3.10.8.4 Transform Coordinates
Use this tab to transform individual points from one
datum to another. If you have a list of points to convert,
use the Convert Coordinate File utility under the Tools
menu. Points can also be loaded from favorites and after
conversion saved back to favorites.
It is generally not necessary to convert base station
coordinates to a common datum prior to processing, as
this is done automatically for any base stations that have
their coordinates entered in a different datum than the project datum.
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Specifying the week number of the coordinate effects the final result if using a 14-parameter
conversion.
3.10.9 Favourites Manager
The Favourites Manager is used to store known
coordinates for GNSS reference stations. This permits easy retrieval without the risk of data entry errors
through the Select From Favourites feature of the master coordinate dialog, which is accessible under the
Coord. Options pull-down.
The Favourites Manager comes pre-loaded with
coordinates for the CORS, IGS and IGN permanently
operating reference networks. The CORS(2011) and
the CORS(IGS08) groups contain published coordinates for the CORS (Continually Operating Reference
Station) network from the National Geodetic Survey.
This is a large network of stations, most of which are
found in the United States.
The CORS(2011) group provides access to published
NAD83(2011) coordinates at epoch 2010 as well as
station velocities. The CORS(IGS08) group provides
access to published IGS08 coordinates at epoch 2005.0 as well as station velocities.
The IGN group provides published RGF93 coordinates from a reference epoch equal to the last time they were
updated within the Waypoint manufacturer files, which should be within a month of the present date provided you
have current manufacturer files. This service provides good coverage within France and the Island of Corsica.
The Favourites Manager and the Download Utility are complimentary in the sense that the latter provides access
to base station data through anonymous FTP and the former ensures precise coordinate and datum information
is loaded into your project.
Both utilities (the Favourites Manager and the Download Utility) are updated on a monthly basis by Waypoint support staff in order to ensure the list of stations and coordinates are kept current. The Waypoint application will
attempt to automatically download the latest manufacturer files on a bi-weekly basis to ensure they are up to
date.
In addition to pre-loaded favourites for specific networks, users can create their own favourite groups in order to
store their own surveyed base station locations.
The following options are available in the Favourites Manager via the buttons on the right-hand side:
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Info
If clicked while a group is highlighted, this
returns the total number of sites contained
within the group.
If clicked while an individual site is highlighted,
the position, velocity and datum are displayed.
Edit
Use this option to modify the information related
to a station, including coordinates, antenna
information and station velocities.
Remove
Use this option to remove an individual site or an
entire group.
Add Site
Use this option to add a new site into any group.
We recommend creating a custom group prior to
adding your own sites.
Add Group
Use this option to add a new group.
3.10.10 Manage Profiles
The profile manager allows new profiles to be created
or existing profiles to be edited.
When creating a custom processing profile, you must
include an Environment and IMU Name. If you are creating a GNSS profile, select N/A for IMU Name. This
will ensure that the profile is accessible from the appropriate processing dialogs.
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3.10.10.1 Project/Profile Tools
New from Project
Creates a new profile using the current project's settings.
New from Selected
Creates a copy of the currently selected profile for
editing.
Edit
Use to edit the profile name and settings.
Delete
Deletes the selected profile.
New from DefOpt
Creates a new profile using default values.
3.10.10.2 Profile Settings
Differential GNSS
Use to view (if default) or modify the differential settings.
PPP
Use to view (if default) or modify the PPP settings.
IMU
Use to view (if default) or modify the IMU settings.
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3.10.11 Download Service Data
The Download Service Utility facilitates downloading,
converting, and if needed concatenating and resampling of GNSS base station data.
There are currently 22 supported networks, providing
access to thousands of publicly available base stations worldwide. Waypoint provides a KML file for all
supported networks within the Waypoint Downloads
section of the NovAtel website.
The Add Closest tab can be used to search for base
station data by providing either a coordinate or a converted GPB file that you wish to process. This function not only reports a list of the nearest stations, but
also automatically scans the date, start/end times,
path to download the files to and sampling rate of the
GPB file.
The download utility can be used not only to quickly
retrieve GNSS base station data, but also to download
precise ephemeris and clock files, Waypoint TerraStar
NRT correction files, additional GNSS broadcast ephemeris data.
3.10.11.1 Download
List of Stations to Download
This displays a list of the stations that have been
selected for download. The list is empty until you add
to it using the Add from List or Add Closest tabs.
Settings
The Path to send files to field specifies where to save the downloaded files. The Date and Time Range parameters indicate the date and time range (GMT) of the data to be downloaded. If using the GPB search mode
option on the Add Closest tab, all of the parameters under Settings are scanned automatically.
Selecting Leave ‘as is’ will preserve the original sampling data rate of the downloaded data. Common sampling
rates provided by GNSS networks are 1, 5, 10, 15 and 30 seconds. Some networks, such as CORS, only make
high rate available for a limited period of time (such as 30 days) prior to archiving the data at a 30 second
sampling rate. Therefore it is good practice to retrieve base station data within days of your survey when possible.
In differential processing, only common epochs can be processed between master and remote. Thus, if you
require processed output at the same logging interval as the remote, base station data needs to be re-sampled to
the same interval should it be collected at a lower rate.
Resampling measurements introduces noise, and the magnitude of the added noise is dependent on the original
sampling rate of the data. Waypoint has found that the amount of noise introduced when resampling from an original rate of 5 seconds is negligible. When resampling from 30 seconds however, 1-2 cm of noise (RMS) can be
introduced, although that is typically within the noise of a kinematic survey.
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3.10.11.2 Add From List
List of Stations
This window provides an alphabetical listing of all services. Expand the list to show the individual stations within
each service. The Info button provides an approximate coordinate, which is used when searching for base station data using the Add Closest tab. The Add button places the station on the List of Stations to Download under
the Download tab.
3.10.11.3 Add Closest
This tab supports two search modes: using a GPB file as
input or a user defined position.
If inputting a GPB file, the download utility searches your file
at regular intervals and will report the minimum distance to
each base station at any point in the trajectory.
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3.10.11.4 Options
Precise Files
Precise ephemeris and clock data can be downloaded
here for GPS-only products, GPS+GLONASS
products, or "All GNSS" products. The latter includes
precise data for GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, BeiDou
and QZSS. The different sources of precise products
will vary in their latency.
Precise ephemeris and clock data are required for
PPP processing in order to correct for metre level
errors. Precise ephemeris data is optional in differential projects as much of the orbital error is canceled, as the line of sight component of satellite orbital
error is correlated with baseline length. Differential projects involving baseline lengths in excess of 150+ km
are likely to benefit from the inclusion of precise ephemerides. Generally speaking, it is considered best
practice to add precise ephemerides to every project
as their inclusion will help compensate for any missing
broadcast ephemerides and will only benefit processing results.
Other Files to Download
Any files selected here are downloaded for the day(s)
specified on the Download tab. You can specify any of
the correction files listed below for download.
GNSS Broadcast Ephemeris
Downloads a GPS and GLONASS global RINEX navigation file for the date specified in the Download tab
and converts to Waypoint's EPP file format. Can be used to supplement missing ephemeris data in a project.
Do not delete RINEX files
The Download Utility will automatically delete downloaded RINEX files after conversion to GPB. If you
wish to keep the original RINEX data, select this option.
3.10.11.5 Add Stations and Services
The services currently found within the download utility are supported because they provide public access to
data and they are known to us.
If you know of another service which provides public FTP access to GNSS reference data, contact Waypoint
support (support@novatel.com) as it may be possible to add the service to the software. This has the added
benefit of making the service available to all other users as well.
If you prefer to add your own custom service, create a user.xml file within your User directory
(C:\NovAtel\WayptGPS880\Resources\User). The first line of the user.xml file must contain <DN1> and the
last line must be </DN1>.
Service and station records must conform to the format described below.
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You might find it easier to copy a service and station record from the manufact.xml file and paste it into
user.xml file for modifying.
Adding a service requires knowledge of the FTP address at which the data is stored. The directory structure and
file type must be known.
Service records must conform to the format described below. Refer to the manufact.xml file for examples of service and station records.
Station record format
<station>
<name></name>
<download>
<appxlat></appxlat>
<appxlon></appxlon>
<appxht></appxht>
<serv>
<name></name>
</serv>
</download>
</station>
Four-character station name as saved on FTP server. See Note 1.
Latitude in decimal degrees (signed).
Longitude in decimal degrees (signed).
Ellipsoidal height, in metres.
Name of service to which the station belongs. See Note 1 and Note 3.
Service record format
<service>
<name></name>
<data></data>
<protocol></protocol>
<address></address>
<username></username>
<password></password>
<ofile></ofile>
<dfile></dfile>
<nfile></nfile>
<gfile></gfile>
<hofile></hofile>
<hdfile></hdfile>
<hnfile></hnfile>
<hgfile></hgfile>
<color></color>
</service>
Name of service, up to a maximum of 8 characters. See Note 1.
Type of file transfer protocol used by the service (FTP or HTTP).
Address of the FTP server.
Required to log into nonpublic sites. See Note 1 and Note 4.
Required to log into nonpublic sites. See Note 1 and Note 4.
Generic path to the observation file. See Note 6.
Generic path to the compressed observation file. See Note 4 and Note 6.
Generic path to the GPS navigation file. See Note 6.
Generic path to the GLONASS navigation file.
Generic path to the hourly observation files. See Note 4 and Note 6.
Generic path to the compressed hourly observation files. See Note 4 and
Note 6.
Generic path to the hourly GPS navigation file. See Note 6.
Generic path to the hourly GLONASS navigation file.
Color to use for symbols in utility’s interface. See Note 4 and Note 5.
Station and Service record notes
1. This field is case-sensitive.
2. Only the Z, GZ, and ZIP formats of compression are supported.
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3. The service name must match the ServID field of a service record, as defined in the manufact.xml file or, if
the service is user-created, in your user.xml file. If the station is found on more than one service, enter a separate <name> entry for each service.
4. This field is optional and, thus, does not need to be present.
5. The color defined here is used in the interface to identify the stations belonging to this service. The following
colors are available: red, green, blue, magenta, cyan, gray, wine, black, gold, darkgray, darkgreen, darkblue,
lightcyan, and darkmagenta.
6. This field identifies the format of the directory structure used on the FTP site to organize the data. Any
folders in the structure that are common to all data must be hard-coded into this field. The rest, however,
must be defined using the following case-sensitive strings:
[JJJ]
[YYYY]
[XXXX]
[week]
[wkrl]
[wkrn]
[yy]
[d]
[MN]
[DM]
[H]
[II]
[mmm]
[CITY]
Julian Day
Year
Station ID
GPS week
GPS week - 1024 - padded with leading zeroes
GPS week -1024 - without padding
Last two digits of the year
Day of the week (0 – 6)
Month number
Day of the month
Hour of the day, in upper case (A-X)
Hour of the day, numeric (00-23)
first three letters of month (Jan-Dec)
any custom string (such as the name of a city or region) contained within an FTP sites folder
structure that varies for individual stations
3.11 Window Menu
This window appears during processing and shows
position, status, progress and any high priority messages output by the processing engine.
Click the View button to customize the fields displayed during processing. See Output Variables on
page 208 for descriptions of variables which can be
monitored during data processing.
The values in Plot Results on page 89 differ in the manner in which they are computed depending on the
mode of processing being performed.
If the GNSS is being processed, then the values displayed are those computed in the Kalman filter.
However, during the IMU processing, the values displayed reflect those calculated in the IMU Kalman filter, using the GNSS information as updates. Ideally, these
values should agree. When they do not, monitor the position and velocity misclosure.
The Processing window is updated twice a second.
3.11.1 Tile
This option will tile all windows within the screen.
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3.11.2 Close Window
This option will close the active window.
3.11.3 Close All Windows
This option will close all open windows.
3.11.4
List of Windows.
Each additional window opened will be listed here. A check mark will be displayed next to the currently active
window.
3.11.5 Status
The Status section of the processing window reports the instantaneous quality number. Quality numbers are
meant to provide a high level indication of solution quality and are further described in Table 2: GNSS Quality
Number Description on page 61.
If integer carrier phase ambiguities have been fixed, a green circle with the word Fixed will be shown immediately
to the right of the quality number. The ARTK statistics of the fix will be shown in the Notifications window below.
If integer ambiguities have not been fixed, a blue circle with the word KAR (Kinematic Ambiguity Resolution) will
be shown instead.
The instantaneous estimated position error will be shown on a meter immediately to the right of the fixed/float
ambiguity status.
Immediately to the right of the estimated position error is the static/kinematic processing mode. If the data is processed in kinematic mode, a green K will be shown, otherwise if the data is processed in static mode a red S will
be shown.
3.11.6 Progress
The Progress box graphically displays how much of the data has been processed and how much remains.
3.11.7 View
In the left-hand window, various parameters are available for display via the View button. The list of available
parameters is given in Table 10: Processing Window Parameters on page 120.
3.11.8 Notifications
The Notifications window displays all information pertaining to the last ARTK fix. Descriptions of these messages are found in Notifications Windows Messages below.
Table 8: Notifications Windows Messages
Message
Description
Search time
Time at which ARTK engaged.
From base
Specifies which base station ARTK used to fix ambiguities. This will often be the closest
base station in multi-base projects.
Search distance
This is the baseline distance when ARTK was first engaged.
Rewind time
When ARTK achieves a fix, the integer carrier phase ambiguities (data quality permitting)
can be applied backwards in time to the moment ARTK was engaged. The rewind time
reports the number of seconds ARTK was able to restore integer ambiguities backwards
from the engage time.
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Message
Description
Satellite Count
The number of satellites used by ARTK. The total, fixed and restored numbers are reported.
Total represents the number used in the float solution.
Fixed indicates the number which achieved fixed integers at the restore time.
Restored indicates the number of satellites where it was possible to restore backwards in
time (see Rewind time)
Fix Type
Will either be reported as GNSS Fixed or GNSS Fixed/Verified.
RMS
The RMS of an ARTK fix represents the mathematical fit of the carrier phase measurements.
Low RMS values (3 mm or less) represent very good fitting solutions. While this does not
guarantee a correct solution, it is a good indication. High RMS values (above 20 mm) may
still be correct but the chances of an incorrect fix are higher. Regardless, the Combined
Separation with Fixed Ambiguity plot can be accessed to help identify incorrect ambiguity
fixes.
Reliability
Reliability is a unitless value that indicates how much better the best ARTK fix is from the
second best. This is determined by dividing the RMS of the second best fix by the RMS of
the best fix. High reliability values (above 3) indicate a high probability the fix is correct as the
best ARTK fix appears much stronger than the second best.
FloatFixSep
This is the distance between the fixed integer solution and the last float solution prior to
achieving a fix. Large values (metre level) can be expected where ARTK uses only several
seconds of data, as the float solution will not be well converged. Unusually high float/fixed
separation values of 5 m or more may be suspect.
FixFixSep
This is the distance between the position computed with a previous set of ambiguities and
the position computed with newly accepted fixed ambiguities.
Table 9: Notifications for Static Processing
Message
Information
RMS
Similar to the RMS computed for an ARTK fix, the RMS of a fixed static solution represents
the fit of the carrier phase measurements.
Reliability
See Reliability for ARTK fixes in Table 8: Notifications Windows Messages on the previous
page for a definition.
The reliability for long fixed static solutions may be reported as N/A, which indicates that only
one fix was within the search area. Thus, there was no second best RMS in order to use in
computing reliability.
Frequency
Reported as single or dual to indicate whether an L1 only or L1/L2 solution was computed.
Time
The length of time used by the fixed integer solution in hh:mm:ss format.
Type
Fixed static solution type used.
Continuous looks for the best continuous block of cycle slip free data to use within the fixed
integer solution.
NewFixed (multi-sat) uses all of the data, although it may reject some sections of data for
individual satellites.
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Table 10: Processing Window Parameters
Parameter
Description
Acceleration Vector
Displays the east, north and height acceleration components in Local Level frame.
Baseline Data (MB)
Displays the distance, carrier phase RMS and number of satellites for each baseline.
Baseline Distance
Distance separation for projects containing only one base station.
Channel (Ambiguity)
Displays the ambiguities, as well as their standard deviation, for each satellite being tracked.
Channel (Az/Elev)
Displays elevation and azimuth for each satellite being tracked, in degrees.
Channel
(Flag/Locktime)
Displays the status flag and locktime count for each satellite being tracked.
DOPs
Displays DD_DOP, PDOP, HDOP and VDOP.
Estimated Accuracy
The instantaneous north, east and height standard deviation of the remote position.
Geographic Position
Displays the instantaneous position and antenna height of the remote.
Local Level Vector
Local Level vector in metres.
Measurement RMS
The RMS of the code and phase measurements are displayed, together with their standard
deviation (measurement weight) in the Kalman filter.
Speed/COG
Speed of the vehicle is displayed with the Course-Over-Ground (COG), computed between
consecutive measurement epochs.
Status Flags
Solution quality information such as number of satellites, quality factor and ambiguity status.
Time/Epochs
Displays time in seconds of the week, as well as a continuous count of epochs processed.
The GPS week number is also shown.
Velocity Vector
Components of velocity in the Local Level frame.
Channel Data B/L
Allows for selection of baseline for which to display channel information.
3.12 Help Menu
3.12.1 Help Topics
Opens an offline HTML version of this manual.
3.12.2 Support Web Portal
Opens the online documentation portal.
3.12.3 Check for update...
Provided an internet connection, this feature checks the Waypoint server to see if any software updates are available. If so, they can be directly downloaded and installed.
3.12.4 Download manufacturer files
Provided an internet connection, use this option to download the latest manufacturer files from Waypoint’s FTP
site. The files downloaded are listed below.
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3.12.4.1 List of files downloaded when manufacturer files are updated
manufact.dcb
List of the differential code biases, in nanoseconds, between the P1 and C/A code for each satellite. Used
by PPP and applied to any receivers that track the C/A code on L1 (as opposed to P1). If this file is out of
date it may limit PPP solution convergence.
manufact.xml
List of base stations available for the Download utility. This is usually updated monthly.
manufact.dtm
List of datums, ellipsoids and transformations between datums.
manufact.fvt
List of Favourites and the groups they are contained in.
manufact.grd
List of manufacturer defined grids.
manufact.utc
List of UTC leap seconds and dates they were or will be introduced.
manufact.atx
Composite absolute antenna calibrations in ANTEX (new IGS) format.
3.12.5 NovAtel Waypoint Products
This option opens the Waypoint Software page in your default web browser. From here, more information on
Waypoint Products can be found, including information regarding the latest version, notices of training seminars,
links to FAQ/training materials and technical reports.
3.13 About
This window displays information about the software version, build dates and copyright information.
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4.1 GrafNet Overview
GrafNet is a batch static baseline processor and network adjustment package. It is used to establish or check
base station coordinates for later use within GrafNav, or survey entire static networks. GrafNet accepts GNSS
data only, no terrestrial observations can be imported.
GrafNet is included with both GrafNav and Inertial Explorer, however can also be purchased separately as
GrafNav Static. This section includes examples of networks that are commonly processed in GrafNet, as well
as step-by-step instructions for first time users.
4.1.1 Types of Networks
4.1.1.1 Closed Loop Network
Surveyors often use this style of network because of increased reliability. Due to the closing of the loops, any
baseline determination errors will show up as tie point errors. Such closure values can be seen via Process |
View Traverse Solution. If just two GNSS receivers are employed, then a method called “leap-frogging” can be
used to collect the data. In this procedure, starting from a known point, the lead receiver is placed on the first
point to be surveyed. After the first session is complete, the trailing receiver is moved ahead of the lead receiver
so that it now becomes the lead. The next baseline is observed and this procedure is repeated until small (4-6)
loops are closed.
Figure 2: Closed Loop Network
Antenna height measurement errors will often cancel with this method and should therefore be doublechecked. Methods involving more than two receivers become quite complex, and are past the scope of
this section.
4.1.1.2 Radial Network
Also referred to as Single Base Station. Applications where productivity is more important, like GIS, do not need
the same degree of reliability as the closed loop network. For these situations, use open loop networks. An
example of this a network is shown below. For this method, one receiver is left stationary over a reference or control point. One of more remote GPS receivers are moved from point to point being surveyed.
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Figure 3: Radial Network
4.1.2 Static Solution Types
GrafNet automatically forms sessions between any GPB files that have a minimum amount of overlapping data.
The default value is 180 seconds, but this can be edited from the Import Options button when adding observations to a project. There are three modes of static processing, including:
4.1.2.1 Fixed Solution (ARTK)
In this mode of processing, integer ambiguity resolution is attempted using ARTK.
When choosing this mode, GrafNet will attempt to fix integer ambiguities regardless of the baseline distance separation. This will overwrite the Automatic setting, which chooses between fixed and float solution using the
baseline distance and the tolerances set within the ARTK tab.
The settings within the Advanced tab control whether ionospheric processing is engaged when attempting a
fixed integer solution and whether the tropospheric error state is engaged.
GrafNet attempts to fix new ambiguities whenever there is a change in satellite geometry, i.e. when a new satellite rises or a satellite drops below the elevation mask. A history of fixes are saved throughout the session and
the final result is by default the averaged value.
4.1.2.2 Float Solution
This method does not attempt to resolve integer ambiguities. Float solution accuracy is largely dependent on the
length of the occupation, as float ambiguities improve with time as they converge towards integer values.
Using this setting will process a float solution for the baseline(s) and override the Automatic mode which
chooses between fixed and float modes using the baseline distance and tolerances set within the ARTK tab.
The settings within the Advanced tab control whether ionospheric processing and the tropospheric error state are
engaged when processing a float solution.
4.1.2.3 Automatic
Automatic mode chooses between fixed and float modes using the baseline distance and the tolerances set
within the ARTK tab as criteria.
The following table contains a list of common solution types in GrafNet.
Table 11: Common Solution Types
Solution Type
Fixed Ionospheric Tropospheric
Integer Correction
Error State
Description
L1-Float
N
N
N
Single frequency float solution without ionospheric
correction or tropospheric error state
L1-ARTK
Y
N
N
Single frequency fixed solution without ionospheric
correction or tropospheric error state
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Solution Type
Fixed Ionospheric Tropospheric
Integer Correction
Error State
Description
L1L2-Float
N
N
N
Dual frequency float solution without ionospheric
correction or tropospheric error state
L1L2-Float-Iono
N
Y
N
Dual frequency float solution with ionospheric
correction and without tropospheric error state
L1L2 Float-Iono- N
Tropo
Y
Y
Dual frequency float solution with ionospheric
correction and tropospheric error state
L1L2-ARTK
Y
N
N
Dual frequency fixed solution without ionospheric
correction or tropospheric error state
L1L2-ARTK-Iono Y
Y
N
Dual frequency fixed solution with ionospheric
correction and without tropospheric error state
L1L2-ARTKIono-Tropo
Y
Y
Dual frequency fixed solution with ionospheric
correction and tropospheric error state
Y
4.1.3 Computing Coordinates
Once the processing is complete, there are two methods to produce coordinates for each station.
4.1.3.1 Traverse Solution
This solution automatically computes during processing. It starts from known stations and transfers positions to
neighboring stations one baseline at a time. A tie or closure will be computed where it is possible to derive a station coordinate from two or more directions as indicated by the vector arrows which show the direction of coordinate transfer.
4.1.3.2 Network Adjustment
This method includes all processed vectors and estimated accuracies into a single weighted least-squares
adjustment. Errors are distributed using least squares throughout the network to produce more accurate station
coordinates than the transverse solution. The network adjustment may flag poor fitting baselines within the Output Vector Residuals section of the network report.
4.2 Start a Project with GrafNet
4.2.1 Install Software
GrafNet is automatically installed when installing either GrafNav or Inertial Explorer. If you have not previously
installed the software, see How to install Waypoint software on page 24 for installation instructions.
4.2.2 Convert Data
GrafNet will only import GPB files. As such, prior to importing data to a GrafNet project the data must first be converted. See GNSS Data Converter Overview on page 159 for information about how to convert raw GNSS data
to GPB format.
4.2.3 Create a Project
Follow the steps below to create a project.
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1. Convert all raw data to Waypoint format prior to creating a GrafNet project. See GNSS Data Converter Overview on page 159 for more information.
2. Open GrafNet from the Waypoint GPS program group in your Start menu.
3. Select File | New Project.
4. Browse to where you would like to create the project.
5. Give the project a name and click Save.
Entering the name of a project that already exists overwrites the file contents.
4.2.4 Add Observation Files to the Project
Follow the steps below to add observation files.
1. When creating a new project, the Add Observation window launches automatically after giving your project a
name.
2. Click Get Folder and select the directory containing the converted data (GPB files).
3. Select the files that you want added or choose Select All. Select Add after all of the desired files have been
added.
4. Verify the station name, antenna height and antenna model for each station loaded.
5. Click the OK button for each station loaded.
6. When finished loading all stations, select Close on the Add Observations window. Unprocessed vectors will
then be displayed to the GrafNet map window.
If data has been collected over the same point more than once, the station ID should be the same for
each observation. Otherwise, two separate stations will be formed and solved for.
4.2.5 Add Control and Check Points
A Ground Control Point (GCP) is a base station with known coordinates. GrafNet computes positions of
unknown points by transferring positions throughout the network using the processed vectors from control
points.
Check points are points with known coordinates, but their positions will not be constrained in the network.
Rather, they will be used only to check the difference between the known coordinate and the processed position
for that point. Adding a minimal amount of control to your project (one 3D GCP) and then adding all other control
points as check points is a good way to check the agreement between control points in your network prior to processing a fully constrained solution.
Follow the steps below to add a ground control point.
1. Select File | Add / Remove Control Point.
Alternatively, you can right click on the station you want to add as a GCP and choose Add as Control Point.
If you use this latter approach, skip directly to step 4.
2. Click the Add button.
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3. Select the ID corresponding to the control point to be added.
If the GPB file was converted from RINEX and coordinates were scanned from the RINEX header, these
will be automatically loaded.
4. Enter or verify the coordinates and datum for that station.
5. Click the OK button.
Repeat similar steps to add check points.
4.2.6 Set the Processing Options
After adding at least one GCP to your project, you will be able to access GrafNet's Process Session menu under
the Process menu.
If you are processing a new project, it is recommended to use the GrafNet default options. GrafNet automatically
chooses the type of solution to process based on the type of data available (single or dual frequency) and the
baseline length.
If you wish to override any of the default processing settings, you can do so by editing the options available
under the Process Session dialog prior to processing.
1. Select the desired static processing mode. These modes are described in Static Solution Types on
page 123.
4.2.7 Process All Sessions
The Process tab of the GrafNet processing options controls which baselines will be processed. When first
accessing a new project, the default selection should be All unsuccessful (status less than good) which will result in all of the baselines in the project being processed.
1. Ensure All unprocessed (status less than good) is selected under as the Sessions to Process on the Process tab.
2. Click the Process button.
3. Upon processing, baselines will either be color coded green (good) or red (failed). If baselines appear red,
see Fix Bad Baselines on the next page.
4.2.8 Verify That All Baselines Have Passed
Passed baselines are plotted in green, failed baselines in red, purple or blue. Duplicate baselines appear yellow.
4.2.9 View Traverse Report
Access the traverse report through Traverse | View Traverse Solution. Loop, check and duplicate ties will be
reported at the bottom of the report, which is valuable information for QC.
4.2.10 Run Network Adjustment
Follow the steps below to run a network adjustment. After these steps are completed, the Network Adjustment
Results opens, while error ellipses are plotted for each station on the Map Window.
1. Select Process | Network Adjustment.
2. Click the Process button.
4.2.11 Export Station Coordinates
Follow the steps below to export station coordinates.
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1. Select Output | Export Wizard.
2. Enter an output file name.
3. Select the source for the coordinates (usually Network).
4. Select a profile containing the desired output variables.
4.2.12 Fix Bad Baselines
The following sections contain ideas to try when attempting to fix bad (red) baselines in GrafNet.
4.2.12.1 Fixed Static Solutions
If a fixed integer solution is not achieved, consider lowering the ARTK quality acceptance criteria to its lowest
setting (Q0) and reprocessing. When doing so, it is important to check any loop, check and duplicate tie points in
the traverse report to ensure the quality of the solution.
If a fixed integer solution is still not achieved, check the baseline distance and plot the number of satellites, DOP
and estimated carrier RMS in order to check if conditions are not favorable to integer ambiguity determination.
4.2.12.2 Change the Processing Direction
Switch from Forward to Reverse processing. The reverse solution might pick a different base satellite and have
a different solution that passes.
4.2.12.3 Change the Elevation Mask
GrafNet by default uses a 15° elevation mask. This is because tropospheric, ionospheric and multipath errors
increase significantly on low elevation satellites. Lowering the mask to 10° allows more satellites into the solution, strengthening the geometry. The improved geometry may more than compensate for increased measurement errors.
4.2.12.4 Change the Processing Time Range
The start / end times can be modified from within the General tab. Sometimes a data set will benefit if a problematic section is removed, such as an extended period where very few satellites are available (plot the Number
of Satellites to check this).
4.2.12.5 Satellite Omission
A bad satellite has many bad data warnings in the message log file (FML/RML). Omit this satellite with the
Advanced tab options.
4.3 File Menu
4.3.1 New Project
Use this option to create a new GrafNet project, which carries a GNT extension.
4.3.2 Open Project
To open an existing project, follow the steps below.
1. Select Open Project from the File menu.
2. Choose the name of the project from the dialog box that appears prompting you to select the name of an
existing project (GNT file).
3. Click the Open button.
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4.3.3 Save Project
This option saves the GrafNet project file (.gnt) to disk, including all observations added to the project.
4.3.4 Save As
Use the Save As command under the File menu to create a new project that has identical processing options as
the current project. This allows you to change the options in the new project and process the data without losing
the solution computed by the original configuration.
4.3.5 Add / Remove Observations
This feature adds observation files to GrafNet projects.
These files must be converted to GPB files using File |
Convert | Raw GNSS to GPB.
If the GPB file was converted from RINEX, the station
name, antenna height and antenna profile may be
loaded automatically when adding stations. Verify this
information is imported correctly for each loaded station.
4.3.5.1 Import Options
Clicking the Import Options button provides access to the following options:
Prompt for station name and antenna height
This option is on automatically as it is good practice to
ensure the station name, antenna height and antenna
model are correctly loaded into the project for each station. If however you are confident the data will be loaded
correctly automatically and you are loading a large number of observations, consider disabling this option.
Break up occupations if gap is greater than: 180 (s)
If a GPB file contains a data gap larger than this adjustable threshold, GrafNet will treat the data before and
after the gap as separate sessions. The default value is 180 seconds. If more than one session is detected
in your data and you are confident the station did not move, deselect this option when importing data.
Minimum observation time per session:
GrafNet will not form sessions between stations that contain less than this adjustable threshold. The
default value is 180 seconds. This is a good way of filtering out short and unintentional baselines from
being included in your project.
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4.3.6 Add / Remove Control Points
Add at least one 3D or horizontal ground control point
before processing. Sessions will not be processed
unless they are connected to a control point. The three
types of control points include the following:
l
3D: constrained horizontally and vertically
l
2D: constrained horizontally
l
1D: constrained vertically
After selecting Add / Remove Control Points from the
File menu, click Add to enter a new control point or Edit
to adjust the station, position or Datum of a control
point. Control and check points can also be added by
right clicking on the stations in the GrafNet map window. When right clicking on a station, Add as Check Point and Add as Control Point are available menu items.
The station ID should match that of the corresponding station.
Standard deviations can be entered at this stage. The default values are 5 mm for horizontal and 5 mm for vertical. Standard deviations are only taken into account in the network adjustment. They are useful for combining
high and low accuracy control points and will control the extent to which the network adjustment adjusts control
point positions.
4.3.7 Add / Remove Check Points
Check points are useful for gauging how well the network fits the existing control fabric. They are added in
the same manner as control points, except that standard deviations are not applicable.
4.3.8 Add Precise Files
Use this feature to add precise ephemeris and clock
files to the project. Precise ephemeris files will reduce
residual satellite orbital error on long baselines. See
Add Precise/Alternate Files on page 44 for more information.
4.3.9 Import Project Files
This feature imports stations and baselines from another GrafNet project into the current project.
4.3.10 View
4.3.10.1 ASCII File
See ASCII File(s) on page 60 for information regarding this feature.
4.3.10.2 Raw GNSS Data
See Raw GNSS Data on page 60 for information regarding this feature.
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4.3.11 Convert
4.3.11.1 Raw GNSS to GPB
Users have to convert their raw data files to GPB format prior to importing into GrafNet. More information on this
utility is available in Convert Raw GNSS data to GPB on page 159.
4.3.12 GPB Utilities
The GPB Utilities are available for use with GPB files and includes the following:
4.3.12.1 Concatenate, Slice and Resample
See Concatenate, Slice and Resample Files on page 158.
4.3.12.2 View Raw GNSS Data
See GPB Viewer Overview on page 154.
4.3.13 Recent projects
Displays recent projects.
4.3.14 Exit
Exits the program.
4.4 Process Menu
4.4.1 Processing Sessions
This option brings up the Process Sessions window, where all processing options are accessed.
4.4.1.1 Process Options
Sessions to Process
Allows you to decide which session to process. The
options are listed below.
All unprocessed
Processes all sessions listed as either Unprocessed or Approximate. These sessions are blue
or purple in the Map Window.
All unsuccessful
Processes all sessions that do not have a Good
status. This includes all sessions that are not
green in the Map Window. Processing will start
nearest to the control points and move outward.
Only those sessions shown in Data Manager
Process only the sessions that are presently listed in the Data Manager window.
Reprocess entire project
Reprocesses all solutions, regardless of status.
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Processing Settings
Determines which processing settings to use for each baseline. The options are listed below.
Overwrite session processing settings with global values
Applies the options set under Options | Global Settings to all baselines being processed. Any individual
baselines whose settings were changed will have their settings overwritten.
Use individual settings stored for each session
Uses the options as individually set for each baseline for processing.
4.4.1.2 General Options
Process Direction
The direction can be set to Forward, Reverse or Both
directions. The forward and reverse solution should
provide similar solutions for a static session but in
some circumstances, a reverse solution passes when
a forward fails, or solutions may differ because of different base satellite selections.
Static Solution Type
See Static Solution Types on page 123 for information.
Frequency
Defines the type of data used for processing. The following settings are available:
Single frequency
Overrides automatic selection and applies single frequency (L1 only) processing.
Dual frequency
Overrides automatic selection and applies dual frequency processing. L1 / L2 data must be present in all
observation files.
Automatic
Chooses between single and dual frequency processing depending on the common data available between
the base and remote.
Constellation Usage
GrafNet supports GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou, Galileo and QZSS. By default, all common data will be processed,
however individual constellations (other than GPS) can be disabled here.
Elevation Mask
Satellites below this mask angle will be ignored. The default value is 15°. Lowering this value allows more satellites to be used, possibly improving a solution with poor geometry.
Time Range
This option is only available when processing sessions individually.
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Interval
Allows you to choose the processing interval. 30 seconds is the default processing interval as processing high
rate data does not typically improve static processing results.
4.4.1.3 Advanced Options
Satellite Omissions
See Satellite / Baseline Omissions in the General (Differential Settings) on page 64 for more information.
Ionospheric Options
See Ionospheric Processing (Differential processing
only) on page 70 for a description of the Ionospheric
options.
Forward/Reverse Process Direction Handling
Use solution last processed
Does not combine forward and reverse solutions
if available, but rather uses the last solution processed in the traverse and network solutions.
This setting is useful when reprocessing problematic baselines.
Combine FWD/REV solutions
If both forward and reverse solutions are available they are combined statistically. This is the software
default.
4.4.1.4 Measurement Options
See Measurement on page 69 for information regarding the settings on this tab.
4.4.1.5 ARTK Options
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Quality Acceptance Criteria
The criteria used in statistical testing in order to
accept or reject an ARTK fix. Consider increasing
this value if the solution type of vectors in your
network indicate fixed solutions, and high loop,
check, or duplicate ties are reported in the traverse report.
The higher this threshold is set, the less likely it is
that incorrect integer ambiguities will be accepted. Conversely, the higher this is set, the less
likely any fixed integer solution will be achieved.
Maximum Distance for Single Frequency
Controls the maximum distance at which a fixed
integer solution will be attempted using ARTK for
single frequency data.
Maximum Distance for Dual Frequency
Controls the maximum distance at which a fixed integer solution will be attempted using ARTK for dual frequency data.
Solution Type
Whenever there is a change in satellite geometry (i.e. a new satellite rises or one drops from view),
GrafNet attempts to recompute fixed integer ambiguities. A history of fixed integer solutions throughout the
session is saved and the solution GrafNet chooses is controlled by this option. The default is to average all
available ARTK fixes but choosing the solution with lowest (best) variance, lowest (best) RMS or highest
(best) reliability may help when troubleshooting a problematic baseline. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of each option, check the magnitude of the loop and check and duplicate ties in the traverse report.
Minimum Reliability
ARTK will not return a successful solution unless the reliability of the ARTK fix meets this threshold. This
option is off by default.
Maximum RMS
ARTK will not return a successful solution unless the RMS of the ARTK fix meets this threshold. This
option is off by default.
4.4.1.6 User Cmds
This changes any command that is passed to GrafNet. It can be used to change commands that are set by the
other option tabs or set commands that are not handled by the other option tabs.
When a configuration file is loaded, all commands that are not handled by the other option tabs appear here. This
includes commands that are not supported in the version of GrafNet being used. These commands can easily be
deleted here.
4.4.2 Rescan Solution Files
This option rescans the FSS (forward static solution) and RSS (reverse static solution) files. This option will only
have an effect if baselines have been processed outside of the GrafNet interface and GrafNet is not recognizing
the updated processing results. Normally, this happens automatically but this is controlled through the
GrafNav/GrafNet interface settings found in the Advanced tab of the GrafNet processing options.
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4.4.3 Ignore Trivial Sessions
GrafNet defines trivial baselines as those that are unnecessary as a result of multiple receivers simultaneously
running. The problem with this is that the baseline solutions computed by GrafNet are correlated, and so they are
dependent. Removing trivial baselines reduces these dependencies, while still maintaining a closed loop. It also
creates a network where the standard deviations reflect the actual errors more accurately.
Consider the network in Figure 4: Trivial Baselines below. The six stations are surveyed with four receivers during two one-hour sessions. During the first session, stations A, B, C, and D are observed. During the second session, the points C, D, E, and F are observed.
Figure 4: Trivial Baselines
This network can be divided in two sub-networks, formed by the first and second time periods. Before the trivial
baseline removal, every baseline in these two sub-networks is dependent on the other baselines. These dependencies cause the loop ties to be low.
With four receivers or more collecting data at the same time, a sub-network is very over-determined. Using three
GPS receivers, the network is still over-determined, but all baselines need to be included to form a closed loop.
GrafNet removes these dependent or trivial baselines by creating a single loop that connects all of the points in
the sub-network. Figure 5: Network with Trivial Baselines Removed below illustrates that it is easy to remove
these baselines.
Figure 5: Network with Trivial Baselines Removed
With four receivers, there are two dependent baselines in each sub-network. GrafNet removes these trivial
baselines for each sub-network. Figure 6: Removal of Trivial Baselines on the next page shows two possibilities
of what GrafNet might do with the first sub-network.
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Figure 6: Removal of Trivial Baselines
GrafNet removes the trivial baseline by setting their session status to Ignore. It is possible to un-ignore any session by simply changing its status back to Unprocessed. GrafNet tries to keep the sessions that are of best quality. The following criteria is considered:
l
The amount of time the baseline was surveyed.
l
The frequencies used in the surveying of the session.
l
The length of the baseline.
l
The number of connecting baselines to the two end-points.
As shown in the figure Figure 5: Network with Trivial Baselines Removed on the previous page, GrafNet automatically excluded AC, BD, CE, and DF. It then forms a single loop for each of the time periods. DC is a
baseline with a duplicate session.
4.4.4 Unignore All Sessions
This feature changes the status of all ignored sessions from Ignore to the status they had previously.
4.4.5 Compute Loop Ties
In some cases, the Traverse or Network residuals show
a poor fit. The first step is to ensure that the network is
minimally constrained, which means that there should
only be one 3-D control point, or one horizontal and one
vertical control point. Convert any additional control
points to check points. See Add / Remove Check Points
on page 129 or Show Data Manager on page 146 for help.
For a constrained network, the poor fit indicated by large
residuals can be caused by the following two issues:
l
l
Incorrect antenna heights used for multiple occupations of a point
Baseline solution is incorrect (by far the most common cause)
In some cases, it is obvious from the traverse output
which baseline is the culprit, but often further investigation is required. The Compute Loop Tie feature makes
such examinations much easier. By adding the vectors of a loop within the network, discrepancy values are
formed in the east, north and height directions. For a loop without problems, these values should be near zero. If
not, then one of the baselines forming the loop has an error. Loops can be formed in the following two ways:
l
Selecting stations
l
Selecting baselines forming loops
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Make the selections on the map or select the stations or sessions in the Data Manager window. After selecting
the first station or session, hold down the Ctrl key while selecting the remaining ones. Selection must be continuous, but it does not matter if the loop is formed in the clockwise or counter-clockwise direction. Once a complete loop is formed, select Process | Compute Loop Tie or right-click on one of the selections in the Data
Manager window and select Compute Loop Tie. A window containing various statistics for the closed loop is displayed.
4.4.6 Network Adjustment
GrafNet contains a least-squares network adjustment that
can be accessed through Process | Network Adjustment.
External network adjustment programs, such as StarNet,
also support GrafNet's output format.
Network adjustments are a means to more accurately compute each station’s coordinates given the solution vectors
computed for each session / baseline. Such an adjustment
uses the X, Y and Z vector components and also utilizes
the 3 x 3 covariance matrix which is the standard deviation
values + coordinate-to-coordinate correlation. Using least
squares, the errors are distributed based on a session’s
estimated accuracy. More weight is placed on sessions
with lower standard deviations.
4.4.6.1 Advantages
In the traverse solution, each station’s coordinates are determined using one session from one previous station.
For networks with redundant measurements, which is usually the case, this will lead to sub-optimal determination of a station’s coordinates. The network adjustment does a much better job of distributing errors. This
makes it less sensitive to errors as long as a session’s estimated accuracy is representative of actual errors.
Thus, the network adjustment always produces the best station coordinates.
Another advantage of the network adjustment over the traverse solution is that it computes a standard deviation
for each station coordinate, which is not possible in a traverse solution.
Before running the network adjustment, all baselines must have already been processed. Only good (green)
baselines will be used, unless otherwise specified with the Utilize sessions labeled ‘BAD’ in network adjustment
option.
4.4.6.2 Settings
Scale Factor
Error ellipses should appear on the stations in the Map Window. These ellipses are scaled by this option.
Confidence Level
The level of confidence (in percent) of the error ellipse can also be adjusted. This uses a statistical 2-D normal distribution. Changing this value does not alter the final coordinates, but it will scale the final standard
deviations and covariance values. For example, 95% results in a standard deviation scale factor of 2.44.
4.4.6.3 Output Options
Controls what is output from the network solution.
Show input stations and vectors
Outputs all the control and check points and their vectors. The coordinates are output in geographic form.
Show orthometric height for output coordinates
Requires that you provide a geoid file, which can be selected with the Browse Geoid button.
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Other output options include outputting the estimated standard deviations.
To process the network adjustment, click the Process button. This step must be performed each time a
project is re-loaded.
Show output coordinates
Output coordinates may be shown in Geographic (latitutde/longitude/ellipsoidal height), Grid and/or ECEF
coordinates.
View output file on completion
Lets you view the ASCII solution file once the adjustment has been made.
4.4.6.4 Using Multiple Control Points
When multiple control points are present, it is suggested to initially use only one. This prevents errors in the existing control from causing otherwise correct session vectors not to fit. Therefore, large tie errors in the traverse
solution or large residuals in the network adjustment are attributed to GNSS processing and not poorly fitting
base station coordinates.
The variance factor is only truly valid as a scale factor for a minimally constrained adjustment. See Interpreting
the network adjustment report on the next page for information about interpreting the output. Once satisfied with
the quality of the GNSS data and the fit of the session vectors, you can add additional control points with File |
Add / remove Control Points or by right-clicking on a station in the Map Window and selecting Add as Control
Point.
Since the network adjustment is a least-squares adjustment, it will move control point coordinates to make the
network fit better. This is an undesirable effect for many applications. To avoid it, give control points very low
standard deviations. The default value is 5 mm, which might have to be lowered if the network fit is poor. Lowering the standard deviation to 0.0001 m forces the control point to “stay put”. A standard deviation of zero is not
allowed. Change the standard deviation for control points via File | Add and Remove Control Points. Select the
desired control point and click Edit.
4.4.6.5 How to Process with the Network Adjustment
1. After successfully processing all of the baselines within GrafNet, access the network adjustment via Process | Network Adjustment.
The network adjustment only accepts session data flagged as Good. Other baselines will be
ignored unless otherwise specified with the Utilize sessions labeled ‘BAD’ in network adjustment option.
For the initial run of the network adjustment, the scale factor should be set to 1.0. This will not scale the final
standard deviations to match observed session vector residuals. See Variance Factor and Input Scale
Factor on page 139 for more information.
2. Click the Process button to compute a network adjustment solution. Any errors encountered are displayed.
3. If there are any “hanging stations”, which are stations that are not attached to the network or are attached by
a Bad baseline, the adjustment will fail. It is possible to change the status of the baseline to Good from the
Sessions window in Data Manager.
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4. A .net file is created, which can be viewed via Process | View Network Adjustment Results.
The network adjustment must be re-run if you have reprocessed sessions or changed the station configuration.
4.4.6.6 Interpreting the network adjustment report
The network adjustment output is an ASCII file that can be viewed and printed from GrafNet.
Input Stations
This is a list of the control (GCP) and check points in the project. Their associated geographic coordinates and
standard deviations are also shown.
Input Vectors
This is the ECEF vector components for each session that has a Good status. The lower triangular of the ECEF
covariance matrix is shown next to the vector components. The value in brackets is the standard deviation of the
ECEF X, Y or Z axis in metres. The covariance values are not scaled by the Scale Factor entered at the start.
Output Vector Residuals
This indicates how well the session vectors fit in the network. The residual values are shown in local level,
where RE is the east axis residual, RN is the north axis residual and RH is the Z axis residual. These values are
expressed in metres and should ideally be a few centimetres or less. Larger values may be acceptable for larger
networks.
In addition to the residual values, a parts-per-million (PPM) value is shown. This indicates the size of the residuals as a function of distance. 1 PPM corresponds to a 1 cm error at a distance of 10 km. The baseline length is
also shown in kilometres. Baselines less than 1 km can have large PPM values. This is because other errors
such as antenna centering become an influencing issue. This might not indicate an erroneous session solution.
The last value is the combined (east, north and up) standard deviation (STD).
Check Point Residuals
If check points have been added, this section shows how well the known coordinates compare to those computed by the network adjustment.
Control Point Residuals
This section shows the adjustment made to control point residuals. When just one control point is used, then the
adjustment will always be zero. With two or more points, the adjustment depends on the input control point standard deviation and the session vector standard deviations.
Output Station Coordinates
This shows the computed coordinates for each of the stations both in geographic and ECEF coordinate systems. The output datum is indicated by the Datum parameter at the top of this file.
Output Variance / Covariance
This section shows the local level (SE, SN and SZ) standard deviations along with ECEF covariance values.
The standard deviation values are scaled by both the input scale factor and the statistical (confidence) scale
factor. The covariance values are only scaled by the input scale factor. If error ellipse parameters are desired,
then the Write Coordinates feature should be used.
Variance factor
See Variance Factor and Input Scale Factor on the next page for information.
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4.4.6.7 Using Horizontal and Vertical Control Points
GrafNet supports horizontal and vertical control points in addition to full 3-D control. To utilize either option, you
must have available 1-10 m accurate coordinates for the unknown axes (that is, Z for horizontal control and latitude and longitude for vertical control). These coordinates can be obtained from the single point solution or from
an initial network adjustment run using just one 3-D control point. The latter method is normally used.
4.4.6.8 Variance Factor and Input Scale Factor
The variance factor is at the bottom of the network adjustment report. It is the ratio between the observed residual errors and the estimated session (baseline) accuracies. Ideally, the variance factor should be 1.0. This indicates that the estimated errors correspond well to observed errors. A variance factor less than 1.0 indicates that
the estimated errors are larger than the observed errors (that is, session standard deviations are pessimistic).
Most often, a value greater than 1.0 denotes that observed errors are larger than estimated accuracies (that is,
session standard deviations are optimistic) unless the GPS data is very clean. Thus, low variance factors are
normally desired. Very large variance factors of 100+ normally indicate abnormally large session errors (that is, a
very poor network fit), and you should try and investigate the source of the problem before using the coordinates
produced.
The variance factor can also be used to scale the station standard deviations to more realistic values. The network adjustment is initially run with a unity scale factor. The resulting variance factor can then be inserted in the
scale factor field from the first screen. After running the network adjustment with this new scale factor, you will
notice larger or smaller standard deviations and that the new variance factor should now be ~1.0. This procedure
will only work for a minimally constrained adjustment (that is, one 3-D control point, or one 2-D and one 1-D control point).
4.4.7 View Traverse Solution
GrafNet computes a traverse solution automatically
after processing each session. The traverse report is
written to a TRV file and opened automatically in
GrafNet's internal viewer.
4.4.7.1 Traverse Solution
Prior to generating the network adjustment report, it is
recommended that you view the traverse report. The traverse report contains useful information, particularly a
report on any loop, check and duplicate ties in the project.
For stations that have more than two baselines connecting, a loop tie is computed. This means that there is
more than one possible transfer of coordinates to this
point. The first transfer is used for coordinate generation. Subsequent transfers are used to compute loop
ties. The loop ties are good for locating erroneous
baselines but they are an accumulated error of many baselines to that point. This means that the last baseline in
that traverse leg may not be the erroneous one. These ties also give a good indication of the accuracy of the network, but the magnitude of the errors will be larger than the network adjustment residuals. The traverse method
accumulates errors (closures) while the network adjustment spreads these errors across the whole network.
4.4.8 View Processing Report
This option displays the RPT file containing information about the stations, sessions, baselines and observations. It also gives a summary for each session processed.
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4.4.9 View All Sessions
This option will display all sessions in the Data Manager.
4.4.10 View All Observations
This option will display all observations in the Data Manager.
4.4.11 View All Stations
This option will display all stations in the Data Manager.
4.5 Options Menu
The following options are available on the Options menu.
4.5.1 Global Settings
This feature accesses the global processing options. The options set here are applied to all baselines in the project, overriding any settings that may have been customized for individual baselines. The processing settings for
individual sessions can be customized by right-clicking on the session in the Data Manager and selecting
Options.
4.5.2 Sessions Settings (Shown in Data Manager)
This feature allows you to set the processing options for only the sessions currently appearing in the Data Manager. In order to use this feature, the Sessions window of the Data Manager must be open.
4.5.3 Grid Options
See Grid/Map Projection on page 107 for information regarding this feature.
4.5.4 Geoid Options
This feature allows specification of the project geoid.
The geoid selected is used as a reference when outputting orthometric heights in the Traverse Solution
and network adjustment.
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4.5.5 Preferences
4.5.5.1 GrafNet Display
See Preferences on page 48 for information regarding
any options not described here.
Zoom Display Settings
The Ellipse scale field changes the size of the
error ellipses. Projects covering large areas
might have large ellipses and decreasing the values for all three zoom scales (0, 1, and 2) will
make the ellipses smaller.
Error Ellipse Display
Controls whether session and station ellipses
are plotted. Station ellipses are only generated
after a network adjustment. The crosses on the
ellipse option shows the axes of the error
ellipses.
4.5.5.2 Solution
Allows the user to choose their default datum and simultaneous forward/reverse processing.
4.6 Output Menu
4.6.1 Export Wizard
The Export Wizard facilitates customized ASCII
exporting of processed results. Manufacturer profiles
are included with the installation, however they can be
edited and new profiles can be created.
When creating or editing an export profile, you can
choose from over 150 source variables. Units, precision, column width, field separators, and header/footer information can all be customized.
You can choose to export all processed epochs, interpolated results for features/stations (such as camera
marks) or static sessions. The Waypoint application
will try to auto-detect which Source to use given the
data in your project. For example, if more than 80% of
the remote file is static, the Source will default to
Static Sessions. If more than a handful of features are
loaded into the project, the Source will default to
Features/Stations as this is presumably the data of
interest.
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4.6.1.1 How to create a new Export Wizard profile
1. Click the New button and type a unique name for
the profile.
Alternatively, it may be quicker to modify a copy
of an existing profile that contains most of the variables required.
2. In the Define Profile window, add the desired variables from the Source Variables list. All source
variables are organized under various headings
from a pull down list.
After selecting a variable, click Add to add the variable to the bottom of the list or Insert to add the
variable above the highlighted variable in the list.
See the table in Output Variables on page 208 for
a list of variables available for output.
3. After you are finished adding all the necessary components of the profile, click the OK button to save the profile.
Tips for creating an export profile
l
To create a profile that does not have spaces between variable entries and the record is based on column
width, follow these steps:
1. Go to the Define Profile window.
2. Click the Field Separator button.
3. Select None under Separation Character to remove any field separators in the file.
The same procedure can be used to have the output be space or comma delimited.
l
l
l
l
To change the file by adding a header/footer of a specific format, the Header/Footer button in the Define Profile window allows you to add headers/footers from a predefined text file. If specific characters are needed to
designate the start and end of a text file, strings of characters can also be added to the beginning and end of
the file.
For formats that require no decimal points to be shown in the file, like SEGP1 and Blue Book, the decimal
points can be removed by going into the chosen variable, clicking the Format button in the Define Profile window, and enabling the Do not print decimal point option.
If you need a text string label to designate the type of record being printed/read, for example, $--GLL, *81*,
open up the Miscellaneous variable category and add the User Text String variable. Change the format of the
string by entering the text needed for the label and select the Fixed Width option if the format is dependent on
column width.
Review the Header/Footer button. You can put in your own header file and display datum/projections information, column descriptions and titles. A special character can also be inserted at the start of each header line
making it easier for other software to skip past the header. At the bottom of the file, you can add errors/warnings of any problems that were encountered and processing summary information.
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The table in Output Variables on page 208 describes the many variables that you can include your output profiles. Not all variables are available for use with each source.
4.6.1.2 How to use the Export Wizard
1. By default, the export file name is the same name and directory as the project file (.proj), except with a .txt
extension. The file name and directory of the export file can be changed using the Browse button.
2. Ensure the Source has been set correctly according to what you would like to export.
Choosing Epochs produces an output record for each common measurement epoch for the entire trajectory.
Choosing Features/Sessions exports results, linearly interpolated between the nearest two epochs, for any
camera marks, features or stations loaded.
Static Sessions is accessible provided static sessions have been collected. Choosing this option exports
the final post-processed (best converged) solution for each static session.
3. Choose an export profile and select Next to start the Wizard. Depending on the variables in the profile, the
Wizard will prompt you for any needed information. For example, if the chosen export wizard profile contains
orthometric heights, you will be prompted to locate a Waypoint geoid file (.wpg).
4. Click Finish on the last page of the Wizard. If View ASCII output file on completion was selected on the last
page of the Wizard, the text file will open within the internal ASCII viewer.
4.6.1.3 Creating an Output File
The following is an example of the Export Wizard dialogs that appear when exporting Epochs using the Geographic profile.
Note that when exporting Features or Static Sessions, or when choosing a different export profile, you may see
different dialogs. This is because the Wizard only prompts you for the required information according to your
selections.
Select Output Coordinate Datum
The first page of the Wizard provides an opportunity to
apply a datum transformation during export. This is
required if the datum you wish to export to is not the
same as the processing datum.
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Filter Output/Estimated Accuracy Scaling
Results can be filtered using either the quality numbers or combined (3D) standard deviation. An example
of when it is useful to filter by quality number is when
only fixed integer solutions are to be exported. In that
case, apply a value of 1 for the quality number filter.
This dialog also provides an opportunity to scale the
standard deviations output to a higher confidence interval. By default 1-sigma values are output. However
due to the conservative measurement weighting
applied to code, carrier, and Doppler measurements,
they are not by nature overly optimistic.
Select Epoch Sampling Mode (GNSS+INS only)
When exporting epochs, you can choose to export all
processed epochs or apply distance dependent
sampling.
Note: This option is only available to Inertial Explorer
users who are exporting a GNSS+INS trajectory. The
Select Epoch Sampling Mode page is not applicable to
GNSS-only trajectories.
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Export Definition Complete
The last page of the Wizard provides a summary of
the file name and path where the file will be written and
the Source to be exported. The export variables within
the profile are also summarized. Optionally, the output
file can be viewed after export by selecting View
ASCII output file on completion.
4.6.2 Output to Google Earth
See Export to Google Earth on page 101 for information regarding this feature.
4.6.3 Export to DXF
Only the options specific to GrafNet are discussed
here. For descriptions of the other options, see Export
to DXF on page 102.
4.6.3.1 Station Error Ellipses
Displays the error ellipses around each station and is
only available if a network adjustment has been completed.
4.6.3.2 Baseline Error Ellipses
Only the baselines that were processed.
4.6.3.3 Error ellipse scale factor
The ellipse scale factor scales the ellipses so they will be visible if you do not see them in the DXF file.
4.6.4 Export to STAR*NET
This feature creates an EXP file which is accepted as input to MicroSurvey's STAR*NET network adjustment
software.
4.6.5 Build HTML Report
Creates an HTML file containing a bitmap version of any plot that is currently open, including the Map Window.
These HTML and BMP files are saved to the HTML folder contained within the project folder. The HTML file also
contains information regarding the processing run(s) used to generate the plots.
4.6.6 Show Map Window
4.6.6.1 Map Window
If you have unintentionally closed the GrafNet Map window, it can be re-opened using this option.
4.6.6.2 Mouse Usage in Map Window
Either double-clicking or right-clicking on a station, gives you access to several options, which are described in
Show Data Manager on the next page.
Clicking on a station displays the station in the Stations window of the Data Manager, while clicking on
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a baseline will display that baseline and any duplicates in the Sessions window.
4.6.7 Show Data Manager
4.6.7.1 Data Manager
This interactive window allows for easy display and organization of all project data.
4.6.7.2 Observations Window
The Observations window displays information regarding all the observation files (GPB) that are included in the
project.
Columns in the Observations Window
Name
Name of the station (entered or scanned during data import).
AntHgt
Antenna height for the period at which the observations were made.
AntType
Name of absolute antenna model applied.
File
File, path and name of the GPB observation file.
#
If multiple observation periods are contained within one GPB file, this column indicates which of those
observation periods is being referred to. Observation periods are numbered sequentially in the order they
appear in the GPB file.
Length
Length of the observation period in HH:MM:SS.
Start Date
Date when the observation period started in MM/DD/YYYY.
Start Time
Time of day at which the observation period started in HH:MM:SS.
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Receiver
Name of receiver as decoded to the GPB file.
Freq
Indicates whether data is single or dual frequency.
Int(s)
Interval, in seconds, at which the data was logged.
Right-click Options for Observations in Project Window
The following options are available by right-clicking on an observation:
View
Displays the Information window for the observation file.
Edit
Opens the Add / Edit Observation window, in which the station name and antenna information can be corrected.
Delete Observation
Removes the observation period from the project.
View GPB File
Opens the observation file in GPB Viewer.
View STA File
Opens the station file for the associated GPB file.
View Ephemeris File
Opens the ephemeris file (EPP) for the associated GPB file.
Plot Coverage
Opens the File Data Coverage plot for all observations in the project. See Common Plots on page 91 for
information regarding this plot.
Plot L1 Satellite Lock
Launches the L1 Satellite Lock / Elevation plot. See Common Plots on page 91.
Plot L2 Satellite Lock
Launches the L2 Satellite Lock / Elevation plot. See Common Plots on page 91.
Show Sessions using Observation
Displays all sessions involving the observation period in the Sessions window.
Expanding the Observations branch in the Data Objects window on the left-hand side of the Data Manager
allows the observations to be displayed individually in the Observations window. Expanding each observation in
the Data Objects window displays the station that was observed.
4.6.7.3 Stations Window
The Stations window displays information regarding all the points observed in the network.
Columns in the Stations window
Name
Name of station.
Type
See Table 12: Station Color Legend on page 149 for information on station types.
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Latitude
Latitude of the station.
Longitude
Longitude of the station.
EllHgt
Ellipsoidal height of the station.
Source
Indicates whether the station coordinates are from the traverse solution or the network adjustment.
#Files
Number of observations periods for that station.
TotalLen
Total observation time made at that station.
A(mm)
Semi-major axis of error ellipse at that station, as defined from the network adjustment.
B(mm)
Semi-minor axis of error ellipse at that station, as defined from the network adjustment.
DH(mm)
Estimated height standard deviation.
Right-click Options in the Stations Window
The following options are available by right-clicking on a station:
View Solution
Displays the solution from traverse computation and network adjustment, if valid.
Add as Control Point
Allows you to define the station as a control point.
Add as Check Point
Allows you to define the station as a check point.
Edit Control / Check Point
Allows for editing of the input coordinates of stations already defined as check or control points.
Toggle between Control / Check Point
Switches status between control point and check point.
Add to Favourites
Adds the station to the Favourites list, using the computed coordinates.
Remove Processing Files
Removes all observation files logged at that station from the project.
Show Observations
Displays all observation periods for that station in the Observations window.
Show Connecting Sessions
Displays all sessions involving that station in the Sessions window.
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Expanding the Stations branch in the Data Objects window on the left-hand side of the Data Manager allows for
the stations to be displayed individually in the Stations window. Further expanding each station in the Data
Objects window displays all observation files in which the station was observed.
Table 12: Station Color Legend
Color
Cyan
Description
Control point – A reference station with known coordinates
Dark Purple Check point – Station has known coordinates available, but they will only be used as a
check. Comparisons are found in the TRV file. The network adjustment output file (NET)
also shows check point residuals.
Light Purple Tie point – Two or more sessions are connected as remotes to this station via the traverse
solution. The TRV file will show traverse ties.
Yellow
Traverse point – No tie information can be computed as there is only one avenue for
establishing coordinates for this station.
4.6.7.4 Sessions Window
The Sessions window displays information regarding all the sessions in the network.
Columns in the Sessions Window
Name
Name of the session, which serves to indicate the direction of coordinate transfer.
SD
Standard deviation, in mm, of the baseline as calculated by the Kalman filter.
Reliability
Reliability of the fixed static solution, if available.
RMS
RMS of the fixed static solution. Applies only to fixed baselines.
SolType
Indicates solution type. See Static Solution Types on page 123 for a full description.
Time
Length of session, in hh:mm format.
Dist
Baseline distance, in km.
Status
Solution status. See Static Solution Types on page 123 for descriptions.
From
Indicates the FromStation.
To
Indicates the ToStation.
#
If multiple sessions exist for the same baseline, indicates which session is being referred to.
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Right-click Options in the Sessions Window
The following options are available by right-clicking on a session:
View Results
Displays the results of forward or reverse processing, or the combined solution.
View Information
Displays the Information box for the session.
View File
Opens the message log, static summary, trajectory output or configuration files.
Plot
Launches the plots discussed in Common Plots on page 91.
Options
Allows access to the processing settings so that they can be set individually for this session. See Process
Menu on page 62 for additional information.
Override Status
Manually sets the status of the session. See Static Solution Types on page 123 for information. Ignore
redundant or troublesome sessions. You can assign a Good status to a failed baseline if the solution is, in
fact, correct. Only do this on closed loop networks.
Process
Processes the session independently of all others.
Delete
Deletes all of the processing files related to that session, or deletes either the forward or reverse solution.
Compute Azimuth / Distance
Displays the Distance and Azimuth box for the session.
Show To / From Stations
Displays both stations in the Stations window. See Stations Window on page 147 for information.
Show To / From Observations
Displays both station Observations windows. See Observations Window on page 146 for information.
Expand the Sessions branch in Data Objects of the Data Manager to display individual sessions in the Sessions
window.
4.6.7.5 Control / Check Points Window
The Control / Check Points window displays information regarding all the stations assigned known coordinates
in the network.
Columns in the Control / Check Points Window
Name
Name of the station.
Type
Type of control or check point, which can be 3D, horizontal or vertical.
Latitude
Known latitude of the station.
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Longitude
Known longitude of the station.
EllHgt
Known ellipsoidal height of the station.
HzSD
Standard deviation of the known horizontal coordinates. Applies only to 3D and horizontal control points.
VtSD
Standard deviation of the known vertical coordinate. Applies only to 3D and vertical control points.
dE
Easting residual between input coordinate and traverse solution at check point.
dN
Northing residual between input coordinate and traverse solution at check point
dH
Height residual between input coordinate and traverse solution at check point
Right-click Options in the Control / Check Points Window
The following options are available by right-clicking on a control or check point:
View Info
Displays the Information box for the point.
Edit
Allows for editing of known coordinates via the Add / Edit Control Point window.
Toggle between Control / Check
Switches status between control point and check point.
Show Station
Displays the station in the Stations window. See Stations Window on page 147 for information.
Expanding the Control or Check Points branches in the Data Objects window on the left-hand side of the Data
Manager allows for the points to be displayed individually in the Control / Check Points window.
4.6.8 Baselines Window
The Baselines Window displays information regarding all the sessions in the network. See Columns in the Sessions Window on page 149 for a description of the columns displayed and the options available by right-clicking
on a session.
Expanding the Baselines branch in the Data Objects window on the left-hand side of the Data Manager allows for
the sessions to be displayed individually according to the baseline they are expanded from. Expanding each
baseline in the Data Objects window allows for the display of any individual session in the Sessions window.
Table 13: Baseline Color Legend
Color
Description
Blue
Unprocessed – Normally represents an unprocessed baseline. In some cases when processing quits
prematurely, the color may remain blue. The return error message can be viewed by right-clicking the
baseline in the Sessions window of the Data Manager and selecting View Information.
Grey
Ignored – Indicates a session that is to be ignored.
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Color
Description
Yellow Duplicate – Indicates a duplicate baseline, meaning that it has more than one session. Such
baselines are plotted with two colors, with one being yellow. The second color represents the best
solution among all the sessions for the duplicate baseline.
Red
Bad / Failed – Represents a baseline where processing failed one or more tests and is thus deemed
to be bad. Right-click the baseline in the Sessions window of the Data Manager and select View
Information to determine the problem. If you are confident that the solution is okay, the status can be
changed from the Sessions window as well. You can control when float solutions pass via the
Solution tab under Options | Preferences.
Green Success – Indicates a session that has passed all tests.
4.7 Tools Menu
See Tools Menu on page 105 for information regarding the features available through this menu.
4.8 Help Menu
4.8.1 Help Topics
Opens an offline HTML version of this manual.
4.8.2 Support Web Portal
Opens the online documentation portal.
4.8.3 Check for update...
Provided an internet connection, this feature checks the Waypoint server to see if any software updates are available. If so, they can be directly downloaded and installed.
4.8.4 Download manufacturer files
Provided an internet connection, use this option to download the latest manufacturer files from Waypoint’s FTP
site. The files downloaded are listed below.
4.8.4.1 List of files downloaded when manufacturer files are updated
manufact.dcb
List of the differential code biases, in nanoseconds, between the P1 and C/A code for each satellite. Used
by PPP and applied to any receivers that track the C/A code on L1 (as opposed to P1). If this file is out of
date it may limit PPP solution convergence.
manufact.xml
List of base stations available for the Download utility. This is usually updated monthly.
manufact.dtm
List of datums, ellipsoids and transformations between datums.
manufact.fvt
List of Favourites and the groups they are contained in.
manufact.grd
List of manufacturer defined grids.
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manufact.utc
List of UTC leap seconds and dates they were or will be introduced.
manufact.atx
Composite absolute antenna calibrations in ANTEX (new IGS) format.
4.8.5 NovAtel Waypoint Products
This option opens the Waypoint Software page in your default web browser. From here, more information on
Waypoint Products can be found, including information regarding the latest version, notices of training seminars,
links to FAQ/training materials and technical reports.
4.9 About
This window displays information about the software version, build dates and copyright information.
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This section describes the following utilities that are included with Waypoint’s software:
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GPB Viewer Overview below
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Concatenate, Slice and Resample Files on page 158
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GNSS Data Converter Overview on page 159
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Raw IMU Data Converter on page 183
This section goes through each menu of their interfaces. Step-by-step instructions for first time users are also
included.
5.1 GPB Viewer Overview
GPB files are in a binary format and cannot be viewed
with a normal text editor. GPBViewer allows you to both
view and edit your raw GNSS data.
5.1.1 File Menu
The following options are available on the File menu.
5.1.1.1 Open
Any GPB file can be opened with this feature.
5.1.1.2 Close
This feature closes the GPB file without exiting from
GPBViewer.
5.1.1.3 Save As
If you are making modifications to a GPB file (such as the static/kinematic flag), this feature can be used to create a copy of your file prior to making any changes. An associated ephemeris file (.epp) will automatically be written when using the Save As feature.
5.1.1.4 Export to Waypoint Trajectory
This feature saves data from the binary GPB file into a Waypoint trajectory file.
5.1.1.5 Load Alternate Ephemeris File
The GPB viewer uses ephemeris data to calculate and display satellite elevations at each epoch. If no ephemeris data was decoded, an alternate ephemeris file can be loaded here. Ephemeris data is required when performing certain editing functions within the GPB viewer.
The Download Service Data utility can be used to download and convert GNSS broadcast ephemeris data. See
Download Service Data on page 113 for more information.
5.1.1.6 Exit
Exits the program.
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5.1.2 Move Menu
5.1.2.1 Forward n and Backward n
Scrolls through n epochs in the direction indicated.
5.1.2.2 Start of file and End of file
Moves to the first and last epoch in the file.
It is easier to scroll through the GPB file using the shortcut keys, specified under the Move menu beside
each option.
5.1.2.3 Search
Moves to a specific location in the file. You can specify an epoch number or a time, in either GPS seconds of the
week or GMT format.
5.1.3 Edit Menu
Several options under this menu make permanent changes to the GPB file. Prior to doing so, you may wish to
create a copy of the original file using the Save As option under the File menu.
5.1.3.1 Switch Static/Kinematic...
The processing mode (static or kinematic) is determined by the static/kinematic flag decoded to the GPB
file. This flag is normally set during decoding, however
it can be altered after decoding using this option.
The static/kinematic flag is found in the Position Information section of the GPB Viewer.
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Process Mode
Specifies whether the mode is to be set to Static or Kinematic.
Epochs to Convert
Determines which epochs will be switched.
All Epochs
Switches all epochs from the start of the file onwards or from the current location onwards, depending
which starting point is specified under Start Location options.
Number of Epochs
Converts the specified number of epochs, subject to the chosen starting point. You can also convert a specific time range that is based on GPS seconds of the week.
Specified Time Range
Converts the specified time range based on GPS seconds of the week.
Time Ranges from File
Inputting start and stop times to a text file is an efficient method of converting multiple ranges of epochs.
When converting from static to kinematic, use the following format: Start(SOW) Start(week) End(SOW)
End(week).
When converting from kinematic to static, use: ID Start(SOW) Start(week) End(SOW) End (week)
Description.
In both cases, do not write a header to the file.
Start Location
Use in conjunction with All epochs and Specified Epochs, under Epochs to Convert. Determines the starting
point of the conversion.
5.1.3.2 Week Number
Week numbers are extracted during conversion of raw
GNSS data. In the rare event that a receiver does not output a week number or outputs an incorrect week number, it
may not be possible to post-process the data. This issue
should be addressed with the GNSS receiver manufacturer, but it can also be fixed here.
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5.1.3.3 Recalculate Position and Time
If position records are requested when logging data, the
Raw GNSS Converter writes them to the GPB file. If no
position records are logged, the pre-processing functions
will compute a single point C/A only solution during data
conversion. This is done in order to plot the unprocessed
trajectory to the Map window and, more importantly, is
also used to determine whether ionospheric processing
should be engaged as the average baseline distance is
checked prior to processing.
GNSS ephemeris data is required should the pre-processing functions attempt to recalculate missing position
records. If neither position records nor ephemeris data
were requested when logging data, no position records
are written to the GPB file. If this is the case, recalculating position and clock data for a file can be done
using this option. You may be required to load alternate ephemeris data (File | Load Alternate Ephemeris), should
this be the reason no position data is present in your original file. See File Menu on page 154 for more information.
5.1.3.4 Disable Satellite(s)
Disabling satellites is normally done within the Satellite/Baseline Omissions section of the processing options. See Satellite/Baseline Omissions on page 65 for more information. This is the recommended method
of ignoring satellite data, however in rare cases a bad satellite may be
causing other problems in the data such as a grossly erroneously computed clockshift value. In this case, it may be necessary to disable the
satellite in the GPBViewer and then recompute the clockshift.
Disabling a satellite through the GPB viewer cannot be undone, unless a
copy of the original GPB file was saved using File | Save As, or by re-decoding the raw GNSS data.
5.1.3.5 Recalculate Doppler
Missing or erroneous Doppler measurements are normally fixed automatically by the converter's pre-processing functions. Therefore recalculating Doppler from the GPB Viewer is not a commonly needed
function. Prior to version 8.40, when pre-processing functions were introduced, this feature was more commonly needed.
5.1.3.6 Edit GPS L2C Phase Correction
L2C measurements are affected by an offset relative to L2 P/Y signals.
This offset is dependent not only upon the manufacturer of your GNSS
receiver, but also the firmware version used. The raw GNSS converter
applies a default L2C offset for each supported data type, however this
may need to be adjusted for your specific receiver.
The correct L2C offset is needed in order to correctly resolve integer carrier phase ambiguities. If the incorrect
L2C offset is applied, integer ambiguity resolution will fail even in ideal conditions. That is, even with a short distance between base and remote antenna, low multipath and unobstructed tracking of all available GNSS satellites, correct ambiguity resolution becomes impossible.
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The RINEX converter applies a default L2C offset of 0 cycles, as it is common for receiver manufacturers to
remove the L2C offset during conversion to RINEX. If this is the case, measurements will be decoded as L2C
(due to a flag set within the raw GNSS data), however the correction needs to be zeroed as it has already been
removed by third party software.
If converting RINEX data that is known to contain a non-zero L2C offset, or any receiver which requires a different L2C offset than is applied by default, the correct value can be entered either during conversion (see the
receivers global conversion options) or after conversion using this feature. There are four possible L2C offset values regardless of receiver manufacturer or firmware version: -0.25, 0.25, 0.5 or 0.
5.2 Concatenate, Slice and Resample Files
This utility is available from File | GPB Utilities. This utility
can be used to:
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Combine multiple GPB files from the same receiver
into one. This could be used to combine multiple
hourly observations into a larger file prior to processing.
Resample static data to a higher interval (1 Hz to 10
Hz), or reduce the sampling rate of any file (static or
kinematic) to a lower rate (10 Hz to 1 Hz).
Produce multiple time sliced output files from one larger file (e.g. produce 24 individual hourly files from a
single 24 hour file).
5.2.1 Input Files
Use the Add button to locate the input GPB file(s). To concatenate several files, add them all at once as they will be
automatically sorted chronologically.
5.2.2 Output File(s)
Determines how the creation and naming of new files is
handled. For concatenating files, use the Combine all Input Files into one file option and provide a name for the
output GPB file. For resampling or splicing multiple files, use the Process Input Files individually option. The
name of the created output files depend on the name of their respective input file and the suffix that is specified.
To break up a file into multiple files of n minutes, enable the Break up input files into time sliced output files
option.
5.2.3 Time Interval Options
Copy each epoch
Select this if the data rate of the output file is to match that of the input file.
Only keep epochs on interval
Use this when a file is resampled to a lower data rate. The interval specified determines which epochs are
copied into the output file.
Resample to higher interval
Use this when a file is resampled to a higher data rate.
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Resampling can only be performed on static data.
5.2.4 Time Range Options
Determines the range of time that is to be used for the creation of the new file. Copy all epochs is generally for
resampling purposes. Splicing a file requires the selection of either Copy Time Range or Copy Epoch Numbers.
5.3 GNSS Data Converter Overview
This utility converts raw GNSS data into GPB format. Supported receiver formats are documented in Supported
Data Formats on the next page.
5.3.1 Convert Raw GNSS data to GPB
5.3.1.1 Receiver Type/Format
Choosing a receiver type prior to conversion applies a
file filter commonly associated with data from the
receiver type. You may add or modify the default filters for any receiver type.
After browsing to the folder containing GNSS data to
be converted, it is recommended to leave the receiver
type as Unknown/AutoDetect and use either the Auto
Add All or Auto Add Recursively functions, which are
described below.
Options
To view decoding options for individual receiver types, choose the receiver type from the pull down menu
and then select Options. Any changes made to the decoding options are remembered and applied in the
future.
You may wish to access the global options of a particular receiver in order to change the static/kinematic
decoding preference or the default L2C offset.
Info
Provides information on the version and status of the DLL file used for the conversion.
5.3.1.2 Get Folder
Use the Get Folder button to browse to a folder containing raw GNSS data.
5.3.1.3 Source Files
Lists the files in the folder with extensions matching those specified in the Filter field.
Add
When selecting Add on a Source File with the Receiver Type/Format as Unknown/Auto Detect, the raw
GNSS data file is scanned and auto-detection of the receiver type is attempted. If auto-detection is successful, it will be added for conversion within the Convert Files section. If auto-detection is unsuccessful,
it may be necessary to first choose the Receiver Type/Format and then select Add on the Source File in
order to attempt to convert it.
Auto Add All
Auto-detects all the files in the Source Files list for conversion.
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Auto Add Recursively
Auto-detects all files in the immediate folder and its subfolders. The maximum number of files that can be
added is 256.
5.3.1.4 Convert Files
This lists all the files to be converted. Prior to conversion, all files will be assigned a gray/white icon. Once the
files have been converted, the icon changes to either a green check mark if conversion succeeds or a red X if
conversion fails. Options available here including the following:
Remove
Removes the selected file from the Convert Files window.
View
Opens the converted GPB file within the GPB Viewer.
5.3.2 Pre-processing Checks
After conversion to GPB, pre-processing checks are performed in order to help ensure the file is ready for postprocessing. Functions performed by the pre-processing checks include:
l
l
l
l
l
l
Ensuring positions are present in the GPB file. If no position records have been requested during data logging, pre-processing computes a code only single point solution. This computed position is then written to
the GPB file. This position is used to display the unprocessed trajectory and determine whether ionospheric
processing will be automatically engaged. The latter option depends on the scanned baseline distance prior
to processing.
Ensuring an accurate clock shift has been decoded to the GPB file. This is needed in order to correctly process and export results relative to GPS time. If this value is incorrect by a large amount it can result in gross
processing errors.
Automatic rejection of impossibly large or small pseudorange observations, which can occur due to unusual
receiver signal tracking issues. Also automatically rejected are any duplicate PRN numbers (which will
cause a processing failure), duplicate epochs and other unusual raw data problems.
Computing missing Doppler measurements. A common issue with some RINEX data is that Doppler measurements are provided as 0 for the entire file. As the Doppler is used for cycle slip detection, this would result
in large processing errors if it is uncorrected. Pre-processing checks ensure any missing Doppler measurements are recomputed from the C/A code.
Static/Kinematic detection. The pre-processing checks attempt to set the static/kinematic flag appropriately. For surveys with significant position changes from epoch to epoch (such as would be the case for a
kinematic survey) data is converted as kinematic. Conversely, if no significant movement is detected from
epoch to epoch, portions of the data may be converted as static. The ability of the pre-processing check to
reliably detect static data largely depends on the noise level of the unprocessed (or computed) position data.
Processing environment detection. The unprocessed position records are scanned in order to determine if
the dynamics are characteristic of aerial, ground vehicle or marine surveys. The detected environment is written to the header of the GPB file, which an appropriate processing profile (GNSS Airborne, GNSS Ground
Vehicle, or GNSS Marine) to automatically load the first time the processing dialog is accessed for a project.
5.3.3 Supported Data Formats
This section discusses the data formats that are currently supported by the Raw GNSS Data to GPB converter.
This information includes the conversion options and supported records.
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5.3.3.1 Ashtech B-File
The following describes the options available for this
converter:
Ashtech Receiver Type
Selects the receiver used to collect the data. If autodetect is unsuccessful, then select the receiver manually.
General Options
Perform pre-processing checks
If enabled, data is scanned after conversion to correct potential issues. See Pre-processing Checks
on the previous page for more information.
Detect static/kinematic from site name
Looks in B-file for data tagged as static or kinematic, using ???? site ID.
Verbose messaging mode
Displays additional warning messages.
Extract stations information from Ashtech 'DFile'
Various Thales hand-held controllers output a D-file containing features and antenna height information.
Enable this checkbox to utilize this information.
Ignore SBAS Satellites
Newer versions of Ashtech firmware have resulted in the logging of raw data from SBAS satellites, which
are not supported by the software. As such, this option should be left enabled to ensure the data is not written to the GPB file.
Static/Kinematic Mode
This option controls how the static/kinematic flags are set in the final GPB file. Auto will set the entire file static
or kinematic according to the detected processing environment.
UTC Options
Use the following UTC time
Changes the GPS to UTC time offset from the current nominal value to a user-defined value. Normally
used for GLONASS processing if no UTC is contained in the data.
Correct GPS time in D-FILE for UTC offset
D-files can have GPS or UTC time. This option changes time from UTC to GPS.
Dfile Options
Chain Repeated Station Marks into 1 Static Session
Combines sessions that are repeated in the Seismark software into one session.
Do NOT Chain Marks that are more than n seconds apart
This value controls the time tolerance used in the previous setting. If two static periods are marked less
than the amount apart, they will be combined.
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Table 14: Files Supported for Ashtech B-File
File
Type
Comment
BssssAyy.jjj
Measurements
Required.
EssssAyy.jjj
Ephemeris
Required.
SssssAyy.jjj
Static Station Information
Written to STA file.
DssssAyy.jjj Kinematic Station Information Written to STA file.
PHOTO.DAT Event Mark
Read in directly by software.
Thales files follow a strict naming convention. In the table above, ssss is the site name, yy is the last
two digits of the year, and jjj is the day of the year.
Antenna heights may need to be edited within the feature editor if not kept constant, as the Thales
format only allows for one value.
You might need to select the receiver type manually.
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5.3.3.2 Ashtech Real-Time
This decoder converts Thales Real-Time (DG16, G12, or Super
C/A) data. The real-time data forms when data is logged externally
from the receiver using a custom data logger.
The following describes the options available for this converter:
General Options
Perform pre-processing checks
If enabled, data is scanned after conversion to correct potential issues. See Pre-processing Checks on page 160 for
more information.
Decode MACM messages and ignore others
If both MBN/MCA and MACM records exist, only the MACM
will be decoded.
Decode old-style MBN locktime
Some older units (for example, Sensor II) output locktimes
with a different resolution. Enable this option to output the
locktime value.
Static/Kinematic Mode
This option controls how the static/kinematic flags are set in the final GPB file. Auto will set the entire file static
or kinematic according to the detected processing environment.
Parthus MACM Settings
These settings are for logging MACM records:
Decode Parthus style MACM record
Parthus units (NS100, GSU-1, and GSU-2) utilize the MACM record. However, due to timing differences,
its implementation is not compatible. Therefore, enable this option.
Data interval adjustment
The GSU-1 benefits greatly by having the correct data interval entered, while the GSU-2 is best processed
using the raw time and having the base interpolated onto these times. See Concatenate, Slice and Resample Files on page 158 for help.
UTC Offset for GLONASS decoding
The following option is available for those users logging GLONASS measurements:
Use the following UTC offset for decoding
Allows you to define your own UTC offset rather than using the nominal or detected value. Important for
GLONASS processing.
Alternate Ephemeris
Use alternate ephemeris
Enable this option if ephemeris data is missing (for example, Parthus, GSU-2) to specify an outside EPP
file.
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Table 15: Records Supported for Ashtech Real-Time
Record
Type
Comment
MBN
Measurements
One of these records is required;
MCA
Measurements
MPC
Measurements
MCL
Measurements
MACM
Measurements
The MBN or MACM records are recommended for G12 receivers. The
MACM record is designed for high-speed data output that is, 10Hz or 20Hz,
under limited bandwidth conditions. The ITA record is for G8 receivers,
while the MPC is for dual frequency receivers, such as those in the Zseries. The MCL record is an L2 codeless record.
ITA
Measurements
(C/A Code Only)
CT1
Measurements
(C/A Code Only)
CT2
Measurements
(C/A Code and L1 Phase)
CT3
Measurements
(C/A Code, L1 Phase and
C/A Code)
SNV
Ephemeris
Required.
SNG
Ephemeris (GLONASS)
Required for GLONASS users.
PBN
Position
Marks the end of the record. Recommended for GrafNet users.
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5.3.3.3 Javad and Topcon
The following describes the options available for this
converter:
Perform pre-processing checks
If enabled, data is scanned after conversion to
correct potential issues. See Pre-processing
Checks on page 160 for more information.
Use locktime records for cycle slip detection
Locktimes from the Javad receiver are used
instead of those computed by the decoder.
Enable this if Javad locktimes are problematic.
Use SAVE marker to store sites to .sta file
Markers are saved to an STA file.
Verbose messaging mode
Alerts you of warnings and errors that have occurred.
L2C phase correction
If your receiver logs L2C measurements, then the phase offset must be entered. If you are unsure, you can
disable its usage.
Static/Kinematic Mode
This option controls how the static/kinematic flags are set in the final GPB file. Auto will set the entire file
static or kinematic according to the detected processing environment.
Table 16: Records Supported for Javad and Topcon
Record
Type
RC, rc
C/A Code Measurement Block
1R
L1 P-Code Measurement Block
3R
L2 C/A Code Measurement Block
R2, r2, 2R, 2r
L2 P-Code Measurement Block
Comment
One of these is required, RC suggested.
2R suggested.
PC, pc, CP, cp L1 Phase Measurement Block
CP suggested.
P2, p2, 2P. 2p
L2 Phase Measurement Block
2P suggested.
3P, 3p
L2C Phase Measurement Block
DC
L1 Doppler Measurements
Recommended.
GE
GPS Ephemeris
Required.
NE
GLONASS Ephemeris
Required for GLONASS users.
TO
Clock Offset
TC
Locktime
PO
Position
Recommended.
SI
PRN List
Required.
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Record
Type
Comment
RD
Receiver Date
Required.
––
Receiver Time
Required.
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5.3.3.4 Leica System 500
This decoder handles data from the System 500 or
SR530 receivers.
The following describes the options available for this
converter:
Perform pre-processing checks
If enabled, data is scanned after conversion to
correct potential issues. See Pre-processing
Checks on page 160 for more information.
Combine multiple (.o00,.o01…) files into single GPB file
Leica SR530 receivers write all data into separate files from one session with different extensions.
Enabling this option will combine files from one session into one GPB file
Verbose message information output
Alerts you of additional warnings and errors that have occurred.
Insert kinematic markers after gaps and stations
Ensures that static sessions are properly created.
Table 17: Records Supported for Leica 500
Record
Type
Comment
19
Measurements (compressed) One of these records is required;
20
Measurements (expanded)
record #20 is needed if Doppler data is of interest.
15
Ephemeris
Required.
10
Position
Recommended for GrafNet users.
13
Station/Event Mark
Written to STA file.
9
Antenna Height
Written to STA file.
108
Antenna Type
Written to STA file.
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5.3.3.5 Leica System 1200
The following describes the options available for this
converter:
Perform pre-processing checks
If enabled, data is scanned after conversion to
correct potential issues. See Pre-processing
Checks on page 160 for more information.
Combine multiple observation files
Leica receivers write data into separate files
from one session with different extensions. This
option combines files from one session into one
GPB file
Break multiple observations into separate GPB files (requires 5 minute data gap)
If you have logged data from multiple sessions and/or days, enable this option to create a separate GPB
file for each.
Verbose message mode
Alerts you of additional warnings and errors that have occurred.
Static/Kinematic Mode
This option controls how the static/kinematic flags are set in the final GPB file. Auto will set the entire file
static or kinematic according to the detected processing environment.
Table 18: Records Supported for Leica 1200
Record
Type
Comment
119
Measurements One of these records is required, but #120 is recommended
120
Measurements
115
Ephemeris
Required.
110
Position
Recommended for GrafNet users.
109
Antenna Height Written to STA file.
113
Event Mark
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5.3.3.6 NavCom NCT
The following describes the options available for this converter:
Perform pre-processing checks
If enabled, data is scanned after conversion to correct potential
issues. See Pre-processing Checks on page 160 for more
information.
Verbose messaging mode
Allows you to see additional warning messages.
Static/Kinematic Mode
This option controls how the static/kinematic flags are set in the final GPB file. Auto will set the entire file
static or kinematic according to the detected processing environment.
Table 19: Records Supported for NavCom NCT
Record
Type
Comment
0xB0
Measurements Required.
0x81
Ephemeris
Required.
0xB1
Position
Recommended for GrafNet users.
0xB4
Event Marker
Written to STA file.
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5.3.3.7 NavCom Sapphire
The following describes the options available for this converter:
Perform pre-processing checks
If enabled, data is scanned after conversion to correct potential
issues. See Pre-processing Checks on page 160 for more information.
Verbose messaging
Alerts you of additional warnings and errors that have occurred.
Static/Kinematic Mode
This option controls how the static/kinematic flags are set in the final GPB file. Auto will set the entire file
static or kinematic according to the detected processing environment.
Table 20: Records Supported for NavCom Sapphire
Record
MEAS1B
Type
Comment
Measurements Required.
EPHEM1B Ephemeris
Required.
ALM1B
Almanacs
Required for GLONASS users.
PVT1B
Position
Recommended for GrafNet users.
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5.3.3.8 BAE Systems / NovAtel CMC
This decoder handles data from the NovAtel CMC AllStar and SuperStar
receivers.
The following describes the options available for this converter:
Perform pre-processing checks
If enabled, data is scanned after conversion to correct potential
issues. See Pre-processing Checks on page 160 for more information.
Verbose messaging mode
Displays additional warning messages.
Reject satellites with low C/NO
Satellites with C/N0 values below the specified threshold will not be decoded.
Static/Kinematic Mode
This option controls how the static/kinematic flags are set in the final GPB file. Auto will set the entire file
static or kinematic according to the detected processing environment.
Table 21: Records Supported for BAE Systems / NovAtel CMC
Record
Type
Comment
ID #23
Measurements
ID #13
Measurements (old style)
ID #14
Measurements (old style)
ID #15
Measurements (old style)
ID #16
Measurements (old style)
ID #20
Position
Recommended for GrafNet users;
should be requested last.
ID #22
Ephemeris
Required.
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but ID #23 is strongly recommended over the others.
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5.3.3.9 NovAtel OEM3
The following describes the options available for this converter:
Perform pre-processing checks
If enabled, data is scanned after conversion to correct potential
issues. See Pre-processing Checks on page 160 for more information.
Static/Kinematic Mode
This option controls how the static/kinematic flags are set in the final GPB file. Auto will set the entire file
static or kinematic according to the detected processing environment.
Table 22: Records and Files Supported for NovAtel OEM3
Record/File
Type
RGEB (ID #32) Measurements (expanded)
Comment
One of these records is required,
but RGED is recommended.
RGEC (ID #33) Measurements (compressed)
RGED (ID #65) Measurements (compressed)
REPB (ID #14) Ephemeris
Required.
POSB (ID# 01) Position
Recommended for GrafNet users.
MKTB (ID# 04) Event Mark (time only)
Written to STA file.
MKPB (ID # 05) Event Mark (time and position) Written to STA file.
CLKB (ID# 02)
Clock Information
See Notes.
Notes
1. If using receivers with standard correlators, you should either request the CLKB record, or else re-calculate
the position and clock information. The clock correction (offset) is needed for processing. This record is also
suggested for users logging data right from power-up. Request the CLKB record before the measurement
record.
2. Ensure that the baud rate is set high enough to properly handle 12 channels worth of measurement records,
as well any additional records.
3. The GPS/GLONASS MiLLennium receiver has 24 channels.
4. Log MKTB or MKPB, but not both.
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5.3.3.10 NovAtel OEM / SPAN
The following describes the options available for this
converter:
Perform pre-processing checks
If enabled, data is scanned after conversion to
correct potential issues. See Pre-processing
Checks on page 160 for more information.
Decode RANGE_1/RANGECMP_1 log
This is applicable to SAASM receivers and to
those logging data from both the primary and
secondary antenna when using a dual antenna
ALIGN system.
Enable this option to decode the RANGE_1B or RANGECMP_1B log to GPB. Please note, only RANGE_
1B or RANGECMP_1B should be requested (not both).
Verbose messaging mode
Displays additional warning messages.
Create separate file for each MARKNTIME record
Enabling this option decodes the event marks from multiple inputs into separate station files.
Show receiver status event warnings
Displays any receiver status event warnings output by the receiver. These messages can be helpful for
determining the cause of data logging anomalies.
Write GPB gaps to summary
Displays a summary of any data gaps in the GPB file. For this feature to report a gap, the epochs must be
missing from the GPB file. If epochs exist in the GPB file, but do not contain any measurements, they will
not be counted as gaps.
Create trajectory files for supported records
This option generates a separate FP file for each supported position record that is logged. The files can be
loaded into a Waypoint project or used to compare against the post-processed solution.
Ignore clock model status for MARKNTIME records
Decode MARKNTIME records regardless of clock model status. This option may be useful for indoor surveys with no GNSS.
L2C phase correction
The default L2C correction for NovAtel receivers is 0.25 cycles. This value will be written to the GPB
header and applied prior to processing. Correctly applying the L2C offset is required to correctly resolve carrier phase integer ambiguities in differential processing.
Static/Kinematic Mode
This option controls how the static/kinematic flags are set in the final GPB file. Auto will set the entire file
static or kinematic according to the detected processing environment.
SPAN/IMU and Distance Measurement Instrument (DMI)
These options are only for users of NovAtel’s SPAN Technology and is only available in Inertial Explorer.
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Logging data
See the SPAN Data Logging for Inertial Explorer application note (available at www.novatel.com/assets/Documents/Bulletins/APN-076-SPANLoggingEI8.7.pdf) for detailed instructions and examples
for data logging.
Table 23: Records Supported for NovAtel OEM/SPAN below contains a full list of supported records, both for
GNSS only and GNSS+INS (NovAtel SPAN) applications. Below are suggestions on how to request these logs
from your NovAtel receiver or SPAN system.
Table 23: Records Supported for NovAtel OEM/SPAN
Record
Type
Comment
VERSIONB (ID #37)
Version information for
all components of a
system
Optional
RANGEB (ID #43)
Measurements
(expanded)
One of these records is required. Do not request more than
one as duplicate measurements will result.
RANGEB_1
Measurements
(expanded)
RANGECMPB (ID #140)
Measurements
(compressed)
RANGECMP2B (ID #1273)
Measurements
(compressed)
RAWEPHEMB (ID #41)
GPS Ephemeris
Required
GLOEPHEMERISB
(ID #723)
GLONASS Ephemeris
Required if logging GLONASS data
BDSEPHEMERISB (ID
#1696)
BeiDou Ephemeris
Required if logging BeiDou data
GALEPHEMERISB (ID#
1122)
Galileo Ephemeris
Required if logging Galileo data
QZSSEPHEMERISB (ID#
1336)
QZSS Ephemeris
Required if logging QZSS data
BESTPOSB (ID #42)
Position
Only required for comparison of real time trajectory to postprocessed
Event Mark Time
Written to STA file
GALINAVEPHEMERISB
(ID# 1309)
GALFNAVEPHEMERISB
(ID# 1310)
RTKPOSB (ID #141)
OMNIHPPOSB (ID #495)
PSRPOSB (ID #47)
MARKTIMEB (ID #231)
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Record
MARKnTIMEB (ID #1130,
616, 1075, 1076)
Type
Comment
Event Mark Time
Written to STA file
Ionospheric Parameters
Optional.
TAGGEDMARKnPVAB (ID
#1258, 1259, 1327, 1328)
IONUTCB (ID #8)
If present will be written to EPP file. This will be applied in
single frequency processing but ignored in dual frequency
processing.
RAWIMUSB (ID #325)
IMU Measurements
RAWIMUSXB (ID #1462)
SPAN users only.
RAWIMUSXB is recommended.
Only one of these is required, do not log both as duplicate
measurements will result.
BESTLEVERARMB (ID
#674)
IMU to GNSS Lever Arm SPAN users only.
BESTLEVERARM2B
(#1256)
IMU to secondary lever
arm
IMUTOANTOFFSETSB (ID
#1270)
Primary and secondary
lever arms
BESTGPSPOSB (ID #423)
Position, velocity and
attitude
Optional for SPAN users only.
IMU Type
Optional for SPAN users only.
BESTGNSSPOSB (ID#
1429)
IMUTOANTOFFSETSB is recommended as both primary
and (if applicable) secondary lever arms are logged.
Lever arms must be set first through the
SETIMUTOANTOFFSET and SETIMUTOANTOFFSET2
commands.
Can be used to compare real time and post-processed
solutions.
IMURATEPVAB (ID #1778)
IMURATEPVASB (ID
#1305)
INSPVAB (ID #507)
INSPVASB (ID #508)
INSPOSB (ID #265)
INSPOSSB (ID #321)
SETIMUTYPE (ID #569)
Recommended if RAWIMUSB is logged, not needed if
RAWIMUSXB is logged.
VEHICLEBODYROTATION Angular offset between SPAN users only.
(ID #642)
vehicle frame and SPAN
Allows vehicle body rotation to be automatically read by
frame
Inertial Explorer.
MARKnPVAB (ID #1067,
1068, 1118, 1119)
Event Mark Time
Written to STA file
HEADINGB (ID #971)
Heading from dual
antenna
Written to HMR file.
HEADING2B (ID #1335)
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Record
Type
Comment
SITEDEFB (ID #153)
Site definitions
TIMEDWHEELDATAB (ID
#622)
Odometer
Measurements
WHEELSIZEB (ID #646)
Circumference of Wheel SPAN users only.
SPAN users only.
Written to DMR file.
Written to DMR file.
RAWDMIB (ID #2269)
DMICONFIGB (ID #2270)
Odometer
Measurements
Only applicable to SPAN firmware 7.07 and newer.
DMI Operation
Configuration
Only applicable to SPAN firmware 7.07 and newer.
Written to DMR file.
Required if logging RAWDMI.
Velocity input is not currently supported.
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5.3.3.11 RINEX
Receiver INdependent EXchange (RINEX) data is a
standard, manufacturer independent ASCII format for
raw GNSS data. Most GNSS manufacturers provide
tools to convert their native data to RINEX format, or
third party utilities may be available. If your receiver type
is not directly supported, first convert the data to RINEX
using a third party utility and then import the RINEX data
to the project.
The following describes the options available for this converter:
General Options
Perform pre-processing checks
If enabled, data is scanned after conversion to correct potential issues. See Pre-processing Checks
on page 160 for more information.
Static/Kinematic Mode
This option controls how the static/kinematic flags are set in the final GPB file. Auto will set the entire file static
or kinematic according to the detected processing environment.
Advanced Options
L2C phase correction
If the RINEX file contains L2C measurements, then the phase offset must be set. The default value is 0
cycles as most manufacturers remove the offset as the firmware level, but this is not always the case.
Shift time to user interval
The decoder attempts to determine the data interval by reading the header or scanning the observation file.
If this fails, enable this option to force an interval. Setting the interval here may be required for successful
conversion of RINEX data that contains data gaps in the first minute of the file. This is because data gaps
early in the file may cause errors computing the expected data interval.
Doppler Source
These options allow you to choose a method of obtaining Doppler measurements.
Automatic/use D1 value
This is the default value and will decode the L1 Doppler measurement (D1) as provided in the RINEX file
when available. If no D1 values are present, they will be automatically recomputed using the C/A code.
Calculate from L1 phase
Calculates Doppler from the change in L1 phase measurements between consecutive epochs. This will
produce an average velocity with comparatively little noise as compared to recomputing Doppler values
from the C/A code. This option is generally preferred over using C/A measurements, however C/A measurements should be used if surveying in challenging environments where carrier phase tracking is poor.
Calculate from CA code
Recomputes Doppler using C/A measurements between consecutive epochs. This will produce average
velocity values between measurement samples that are relatively noisy. Use this option if Doppler values
are missing in the RINEX observation file and if carrier phase tracking is poor.
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Use ephemeris (static)
Recomputes Doppler using predicted satellite motion from the broadcast ephemeris. This requires the data
to be static and is the best method for recomputing Doppler data for static data.
Ephemeris
Prompt user if RINEX Nav file is missing
If a navigation file is either missing or has a different name than the observation file, you will be prompted
to select a navigation file. This may either be a RINEX navigation file or a Waypoint EPPP file.
Use alternative ephemeris file
You may define a path to the navigation file manually. This will override the previous option.
Table 24: Files Supported for RINEX
File
Type
*.yyo, *.obs, *.rxo
Measurements
*.yyd
Measurements (compressed)
Comment
One of these files is required.
*.yyn, *yyp, *.nav, *.rxn GPS Ephemeris
Required.
.yyg
GLONASS Ephemeris
Required only if logging GLONASS data.
.yyc
BeiDou Ephemeris
Required only if logging BeiDou data.
The yy in the file extensions found in the table above designate the last two digits of the year that the
observations were collected in.
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5.3.3.12 RTCM Version 3.0
The following describes the options available for this
converter:
Perform pre-processing checks
If enabled, data is scanned after conversion to
correct potential issues. See Pre-processing
Checks on page 160 for more information.
Verbose messaging mode
Displays additional warning messages.
Static/Kinematic Mode
This option controls how the static/kinematic flags are set in the final GPB file. Auto will set the entire file
static or kinematic according to the detected processing environment.
Table 25: Records Supported for RTCM Version 3.0
Record
Type
Comment
1002
L1 only measurements
One of these is required for GPS users.
1004
L1/L2 measurements
1010
GLONASS L1 only measurements One of these is required for GLONASS users.
1012
GLONASS L1/L2 measurements
1013
System Parameters
Required to extract GPS week number.
1019
GPS Ephemeris
Recommended for GPS users.
1020
GLONASS Ephemeris
Recommended for GLONASS users.
The RTCM decoder has been expanded to support MSM5 and MSM7 messages, which can be used for multiconstellation operation. See Table 26: Supported MSM Messages below.
MSM7 messages are more precise than MSM5 messages, but are also larger.
Table 26: Supported MSM Messages
Record
Type
Comment
1075
MSM5 GPS L1 only measurements
1077
MSM7 GPS L1/L2 measurements
1085
MSM5 GLONASS L1 only measurements One of these is required for GLONASS users.
1087
MSM7 GLONASS L1/L2 measurements
1095
MSM5 Galileo L1 only measurements
1097
MSM7 Galileo L1/L2 measurements
1115
MSM5 QZSS L1 only measurements
1117
MSM7 QZSS L1/L2 measurements
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One of these is required for GPS users.
One of these is required for Galileo users.
One of these is required for QZSS users.
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Record
Type
Comment
1125
MSM5 BeiDou L1 only measurements
1127
MSM7 BeiDou L1/L2 measurements
1013
System Parameters
Required to extract the week number.
1019
GPS Ephemeris
Recommended for GPS users.
1020
GLONASS Ephemeris
Recommended for GLONASS users.
1042
BeiDou Ephemeris
Recommended for BeiDou users.
1044
QZSS Ephemeris
Recommended for QZSS users.
1045
Galileo F/Nav Ephemeris
Recommended for Galileo users.
1046
Galileo I/Nav Ephemeris
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5.3.3.13 Septentrio SBF
The following describes the options available for this
converter:
Perform pre-processing checks
If enabled, data is scanned after conversion to
correct potential issues. See Pre-processing
Checks on page 160 for more information.
Verbose messaging mode
Displays additional warning messages.
Extract multi-antenna data
Usage of this option is required to extract GNSS data from one antenna at a time, if logging data from a
multi-antenna system.
Static/Kinematic Mode
This option controls how the static/kinematic flags are set in the final GPB file. Auto will set the entire file
static or kinematic according to the detected processing environment.
Table 27: Records Supported for Septentrio SBF
Record
Type
Comment
5889
Measurements
5890
Measurements (compressed)
5891
Ephemeris
Required
5904
Position
Recommended for GrafNet users
5924
Event
Written to STA file
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One of these records is required
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5.3.3.14 u-blox UBX
The following describes the options available for this converter:
Perform pre-processing checks
If enabled, data is scanned after conversion to correct potential issues. See Pre-processing Checks on
page 160 for more information.
Static/Kinematic Mode
This option controls how the static/kinematic flags are set in the final GPB file. Auto will set the entire file
static or kinematic according to the detected processing environment.
Verbose messaging mode
Displays additional warning messages.
Table 28: Records Supported for u-blox UBX
Record
Type
Comment
ID #10
Measurement ANTARIS format
ID #15
Measurement M8 format
ID #31
Ephemeris
ANTARIS format
ID #13
Ephemeris
M8 format
ID #02
Position
Recommended
ID #22
Clock
Recommended.
ID #3
Mark
If collecting time stamped events
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5.4 Raw IMU Data Converter
The IMU Data Converter utility is a Win32 application program that converts custom data formats into a generic
raw IMU data format. This utility is available exclusively to users of Inertial Explorer and may be accessed from
File | Convert | Raw IMU Data to Waypoint Generic (IMR).
5.4.1 Inertial Explorer Data Formats
In theory, virtually any IMU sensor can be used with Inertial Explorer. The only requirement is that the data be
logged in the format provided in this section, which allows easy decoding with the IMU Data Conversion utility
described in Waypoint IMU Data Conversion on the next page.
The following table presents the binary structure required by the Raw IMU Converter.
The variable types in the table below are taken from the C standard library header "cstdint"/"stdint.h".
Table 29: Binary Structure of Raw Data
Word
Size
Type
(bytes)
Description
GpsTime
8
double time of the current IMU rate measurements in GPS seconds of the week
GyroX
4
int32_t scaled X-body axis gyro measurement as an angular increment or angular rate
GyroY
4
int32_t scaled Y-body axis gyro measurement as an angular increment or angular rate
GyroZ
4
int32_t scaled Z-body axis gyro measurement as an angular increment or angular rate
AccelX
4
int32_t scaled X-body axis accelerometer measurement as a velocity increment or acceleration
AccelY
4
int32_t scaled Y-body axis accelerometer measurement as a velocity increment or acceleration
AccelZ
4
int32_t scaled Z-body axis accelerometer measurement as a velocity increment or acceleration
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5.4.2 Waypoint IMU Data Conversion
5.4.2.1 Input/Output Files
Refers to the names and locations of all input and output files.
Input Binary IMU File
Click the Browse button to locate the raw IMU
data file.
Output Waypoint Binary File
By default, the binary output file created is given
the same filename as the input file, but with an
IMR extension. It is saved to the directory containing the input file.
Path
Displays the path to the directory containing the
input file. All output files created by this utility
are saved to this directory.
New
Creates a customized profile to convert a unique
format into Waypoint’s generic IMR format. This
is used for custom scale factors, data rates, and orientations in raw data files.
Copy
Copies an existing profile to a new name. Useful if you want to modify an existing profile without overwriting it.
Modify
Allows changes to be made to an existing profile.
Delete
Deletes an existing profile.
Rename
Renames an existing profile.
5.4.2.2 IMU Profiles
Displays a scroll-down list of profiles available for use during conversion. Each profile contains a set of conversion parameters designed to decode measurement data files produced by the indicated sensor. Choose one
profile from the list, or, if necessary, create one. See Creating / Modifying a Conversion Profile on the next page
for help. After all the appropriate fields have been entered, click the Convert button to start converting IMU data
into IMR format. A message window appears to show the status of the conversion process.
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5.4.3 Creating / Modifying a Conversion Profile
5.4.3.1 Sensor/Timing Settings
Gyroscope Measurements
Pertains to the measurements made by the gyroscopes.
The inverse value of the scale factor is required. For
example, a scale factor of 0.0004, which can be represented fractionally by 1/2500, should be entered as
2500.
The gyro measurements can take the form of delta
theta, where angular increments are being observed,
or angular rate.
Accelerometer Measurements
Similar to the scale factor of the gyro measurements,
the inverse of the accelerometer scale factor is
required. As well, the accelerometer measurements
can take two forms, the first being Delta velocities,
and the other being Accelerations.
Timing Settings
Enter the data collection rate of the IMU sensor and specify the time system (GPS time or UTC time) of the IMU
measurements.
5.4.3.2 Sensor Orientation Settings
Define the orientation of the IMU here using the steps
below.
The orientation will always be right-handed.
How to define the orientation of the IMU
1. Specify the X-direction by selecting the direction
that corresponds to the X-axis of the sensor
frame.
2. Click Select to set that direction to the X-axis.
3. Specify the Y-direction by selecting the direction
that corresponds to the Y-axis of the sensor
frame.
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4. Click Select to set that direction to the Y-axis.
Given the constraint that the frame is right-handed, the z-axis direction will be
automatically determined by the software.
5. Click Update to apply the new sensor orientation to the profile.
If a mistake is made at any point during the process, click Clear to start over.
6. Click Save to save the new profile.
It should immediately appear in the scroll-down list under the IMU Profiles box of the main window.
5.4.3.3 Decoder Settings
Specifies which library is used to perform the conversion, based on the input format of the raw data file. For most
sensors, this should be left untouched.
For SPAN, the IMU decoding is handled through the GNSS decoder.
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This section describes the format of the files used by Waypoint software.
6.1 GNSS Data Files
The following files are produced by the raw GNSS data conversion utility.
6.1.1 GPB File
Raw code, carrier and Doppler measurements are converted to a GPB file. These are the raw measurements
required for post-processing. Also written to the GPB file is a position for each measurement epoch, date and
time information and other information.
GPB files can be opened within the GPB Viewer, which allows you to view the raw measurements collected and
perform basic editing functions if needed. Requests for the GPB file format should be made to support@novatel.com.
6.1.2 STA File
A station file contains any decoded camera marks, antenna heights and station names. It is read automatically
when adding a GPB file to a project. The first line of a station file should contain $STAINFO.
The station file may have a header record. If a Pos record is detected, it will be imported automatically when
adding the GPB file as a base station to the project. The following is a description of the header format.
Hdr
{
Proj:
“Name of Project”
User:
“User Name”
Time:
hh:mm:ss LOCAL/GMT
Date:
mm/dd/yyyy
RxName: Receiver
RxSub: Model
Hi:
Hi_m VERT/SLANT
Ant:
V_Offset H_Offset "Name"
Pos:
Mode:
Field project name
Name of field operator
Start time
Start date
Receiver type
Receiver sub type
Antenna height, measured vertically or slanted
Antenna info (vertical offset to phase center, horizontal distance to
measurement mark, antenna model name)
phi lamda ht ELL/ORTHO
Computed position of antenna
SP/DGPS/RTFL/RTFX/RTK/FIX Mode of solution (RTFL=float, RTFX=fixed, RTK=float/fixed
not known, SP=single point, GPS=DGPS, FIX=known)
}
The following is the format for the stationary station marks:
Sta
{
*ID:
"Station ID"
*GTim: SecOfWeek [WeekNo]
UTim: SecOfWeek [WeekNo]
phi lamda ht ELL/ORTHO
GPS Time
UTC Time could be used instead of GTim but this is not recommended
and often not supported.
Computed position of antenna
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Mode: SP/DGPS/RTFL/RTFX/RTK/FIX Mode of solution (RTFL=float, RTFX=fixed, RTK=float/fixed not
known, SP=single point, DGPS=DGPS, FIX=known)
Std:
SdE SdN SdH
Standard deviation, in metres
Hi:
Hi_m VERT/SLANT
Antenna height, measured vertically or slanted
Ant:
V_Offset H_Offset "Name"
Antenna info (vertical offset to phase center, horizontal distance to
measurement mark, antenna model name)
OffR: Range TrueAzimuth DH
Offset to actual point (2D range in metres, azimuth in degrees, height
difference in metres)
OffL: DE DN DH
Offset in local level frame, in metres
OffB: DX DY DZ
Body frame offset, where X-RightWingPos, Y-ForwardPos, Z-UpPos
Att:
roll pitch heading
Attitude, in degrees
Desc: "description”
Rem: "remarks"
Nsv: NumSats NumGPS
NumGlonass
Dop: PDOP HDOP VDOP
Rms: L1Phase CACode
Age:
Sec
Age of last correction or RTK receipt
Enable: 1/0
}
* indicates a required field.
The station file format also handles event marks. Saving a project with event marks loaded brings the event
marks into the station file. The following is the event mark format.
Mrk
{
*Event:
Desc:
*GTim:
*UTim:
Number
"Name"
SecOfWeek [WeekNo]
SecOfWeek [WeekNo]
Event number or name (no spaces)
Roll name
GPS Time
UTC Time could be used instead of GTim but this is not recommended
and often not supported
Pos:
phi lamda ht ELL/ORTHO
Computed position
Mode: SP/DGPS/RTFL/RTFX/RTK/FIX Mode of solution (RTFL=float, RTFX=fixed, RTK=float/fixed not
known, SP=single point, DGPS=DGPS, FIX=known)
Std:
SdE SdN SdH
Standard deviation, in metres
Vel:
VE VN VH
Velocity, in m/s
Att:
roll pitch heading
Attitude, in degrees
Rem: "remarks"
Nsv: NumSats NumGPS
NumGlonass
Dop: PDOP HDOP VDOP
Rms: L1Phase CACode
Age:
Sec
Age of last correction or RTK receipt
Enable: 1/0
}
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* indicates a required field.
6.1.3 EPP File
Waypoint’s software uses a custom ASCII file format for the ephemeris records. These records are created by
the Convert Raw GNSS data to GPB utility. Duplicate records will be automatically ignored by the software.
Requests for the EPP file format should be made to support@novatel.com.
6.2 FG, RG, CG, FP, RP and CP files
FG, RG and CG files are created in differential processing whereas FP, RP and CP files are created in PPP. A
trajectory record is written for each processed measurement epoch.
For a copy of the binary structure definitions that define these files contact support@novatel.com. The legacy
ASCII files, output by version 8.60 and earlier, can be output using the Output | Export to Waypoint Legacy
Format option.
6.3 Inertial Explorer File Formats
6.3.1 IMR File
Waypoint converts all custom IMU raw binary formats into a generic format (IMR), which is read from Inertial
Explorer following the decoding process in IMU Data Converter. See Raw IMU Data Converter on page 183 for
more details.
Because it contains vital information for reading and decoding the data, the first 512 bytes of the generic IMU
data format is a header which must be filled in, read and interpreted. In a C/C++ structure definition, the generic
format header has the following fields:
Table 30: IMR Header Struct Definition
Word
Size
(bytes)
Type
Description
szHeader
8
char[8]
“$IMURAW\0” – NULL terminated ASCII string
bIsIntelOrMotorola
1
int8_t
0 = Intel (Little Endian), default
1 = Motorola (Big Endian)
dVersionNumber
8
double
Inertial Explorer program version number (e.g. 8.80)
bDeltaTheta
4
int32_t
0 = Data to follow will be read as scaled angular rates
1 = (default), data to follow will be read as delta thetas, meaning
angular increments (i.e. scale and multiply by dDataRateHz to get
degrees/second)
bDeltaVelocity
4
int32_t
0 = Data to follow will be read as scaled accelerations
1 = (default), data to follow will be read as delta velocities, meaning
velocity increments (i.e. scale and multiply by dDataRateHz to get
m/s2)
dDataRateHz
8
double
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The data rate of the IMU in Hz. e.g. 0.01 second data rate is 100
Hz
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Size
(bytes)
Word
dGyroScaleFactor
8
Type
double
Description
If bDeltaTheta == 0, multiply the gyro measurements by this to get
degrees/second
If bDeltaTheta == 1, multiply the gyro measurements by this to get
degrees, then multiply by dDataRateHz to get degrees/second
dAccelScaleFactor
8
double
If bDeltaVelocity == 0, multiply the accel measurements by this to
get m/s2
If bDeltaVelocity == 1, multiply the accel measurements by this to
get m/s, then multiply by dDataRateHz to get m/s2
iUtcOrGpsTime
4
int32_t
Defines the time tags as GPS or UTC seconds of the week
0 = Unknown, will default to GPS
1 = Time tags are UTC seconds of week
2 = Time tags are GPS seconds of week
iRcvTimeOrCorrTime
4
int32_t
Defines whether the time tags are on the nominal top of the second
or are corrected for receiver time bias
0 = Unknown, will default to corrected time
1 = Time tags are top of the second
2 = Time tags are corrected for receiver clock bias
dTimeTagBias
8
double
If you have a known bias between your GPS and IMU time tags
enter it here
szImuName
32
char[32]
Name of the IMU being used
reserved1
4
uint8_t[4]
Reserved for future use
szProgramName
32
char[32]
Name of calling program
tCreate
12
time_type
Creation time of file
bLeverArmValid
1
bool
True if lever arms from IMU to primary GNSS antenna are stored in
this header
lXoffset
4
int32_t
X value of the lever arm, in millimeters
lYoffset
4
int32_t
Y value of the lever arm, in millimeters
lZoffset
4
int32_t
Z value of the lever arm, in millimeters
Reserved[354]
354
int8_t[354]
Reserved for future use
The single header, which is a total of 512 bytes long, is followed by a structure of the following type for each IMU
measurement epoch:
Table 31: IMR Record Struct Definition
Word Size Type
Description
Time
8
double Time of the current measurement
gx
4
int32_t Scaled gyro measurement about the IMU X-axis
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Word Size Type
Description
gy
4
int32_t Scaled gyro measurement about the IMU Y-axis
gz
4
int32_t Scaled gyro measurement about the IMU Z-axis
ax
4
int32_t Scaled accel measurement about the IMU X-axis
ay
4
int32_t Scaled accel measurement about the IMU Y-axis
az
4
int32_t Scaled accel measurement about the IMU Z-axis
The angular increments (or angular rates) are signed integers. The scale factor to obtain a double precision word must be supplied by the dGyroScaleFactor variable in the IMR header. Similarly, the accelerations (or velocity increments) are signed integers and must be scaled by the dAccelScaleFactor
variable in the IMR header.
6.3.2 DMR File
All odometer data must be written into Waypoint’s generic format (DMR) before it can be used within
Inertial Explorer.
Table 32: DMR Header Struct Definition
Word
Size
Type
Description
szHdr
8
char[8]
“$DMIRAW\0” – NULL terminated ASCII string
sHdrSize
2
int16_t
Size of the header in bytes, must be set to 512
sRecSize
2
int16_t
Size of each record (refer to dmi_lrec_type or dmi_drec_type)
12 + 8 if sValueType = DMI_VALUE_DOUBLE
12 + 4 if sValueType = DMI_VALUE_LONG
sValueType
2
int16_t
0 = logging data using 4 byte integer values
1 = logging data using double precision values
sMeasType
2
int16_t
1 = logging a distance measurement
2 = logging a speed measurement
sDim
2
int16_t
Number of DMI sensors.
Supports up to 3 wheel sensors, but the software applies DMI updates
from the first wheel sensor only.
sRes
2
int16_t
Measurement resolution of the DMI
1 = low resolution, measurements on full wheel revolutions
2 = high resolution, measurements on partial wheel revolutions or fixed
time intervals
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Word
Size
sDistanceType
2
Type
Description
int16_t
Must be set if sMeasType == 1
1 = logging accumulated tick count
2 = logging distance in meters
3 = logging accumulated distance in meters
sVelocityType
2
int16_t
Must be set if sMeasType == 2
1 = logging velocity in metres/second
2 = logging velocity in ticks/second
dScale
8
double
DMI scale factor in metres/count or metres/second/count.
Must be set if SValueType == 0
1.0 if logging accumulated tick count or ticks/second
szAxisName
48
char[3][16]
Name of axes of each DMI. Optional
dWheelSize
8
double
Circumference of the wheel sensor in metres. Must be set if logging
accumulated tick count
lTicksPerRevolution
4
int32_t
Number of tick counts per revolution of the wheel sensor. Must be set
if logging accumulated tick count or ticks/second
cExtra2
420
int8_t[420]
Reserved for future use
The single header, which is a total of 512 bytes, is followed by one of the following structure types for each DMI
measurement record:
Table 33: DMR Long Record Struct Definition
Word
sSync
Size
Type
Definition
2
int16_t
Sync byte, 0xFFEE
sWeek 2
int16_t
GPS week number, set to -1 if unknown
dTime
8
double
GPS seconds into week
lValue
4 x sDim uint32_t
Value for DMI sensor as an integer.
Table 34: DMR Double Record Struct Definition
Word
sSync
Size
Type
Description
2
int16_t
Sync byte, 0xFFEE
sWeek 2
int16_t
GPS week number, set to -1 if unknown
dTime
double
GPS seconds into week
8
dValue 8 x sDim double
Value for DMI sensor as a double.
6.3.3 HMR File
The 256 byte header contains information that is vital to processing and must be filled in. The C/C++ structure
definition of the HMR header is as follows:
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Table 35: HMR Header Struct Definition
Word
Size
Type
Definition
szTitleStr
12
char[12]
“$IMUHEADING\0” – NULL terminated ASCII string
ucType
1
uint8_t
1 = values from external source
2 = values form dual antenna source
dBoreSightRotationZ
8
double
Heading boresight between the forward direction of travel and
the vector between antennas. Positive rotation is clockwise
about Z
dBoreSightRotationZStdDev
8
double
Accuracy of the boresight, 0.0 if not known
Extra
227
int8_t[227]
Reserved for future use
The single header is then followed by the 34-byte structure type below for each heading update record:
Table 36: HMR Record Struct Definition
Word
Size
Type
Definition
dGpsTime
8
double
GPS seconds of week
sGpsWeek
2
int16_t
GPS week
dHeading
8
double
The heading update value in decimal degrees, positive rotation is
clockwise from North
fHeadingStdDev 4
float
Standard deviation of the update in decimal degrees., 0.0 if not
known
fBaselineLength 4
float
Distance between antennas in meters. Only use if ucType == 2
fPitch
4
float
Pitch between the two antennas in decimal degrees. Only use if
ucType == 2
fPitchStdDev
4
float
Standard deviation of the pitch in decimal degrees, 0.0 if not known
6.3.4 MMR File
Gyro-stabilized mount data must be written to Waypoint’s MMR format before it can be applied within Inertial
Explorer.
Table 37: MMR Header Struct Definition
Word
Size
Type
Definition
szHdr
8
char[8]
“$MOUNT\0” – NULL terminated ASCII string
sHdrSize
2
uint16_t
Size of this header in bytes, must be set to 256
sRecSize
2
uint16_t
Size of each record, must be set to 28 bytes
sWeek
2
int16_t
Week number corresponding to first record (-1 if unknown)
sReserved
2
int16_t
Reserved for future use
szProgName
32
char[32]
Name of the program that created the file
dVersion
8
double
Version of program that created the file
cExtra
200
int8_t[200]
Reserved for future use
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Table 38: MMR Record Struct Definition
Word
Size
Type
Definition
usHdr
2
uint16_t
Must be set to 0xff77
sWeek
2
int16_t
Current week (or -1 if unknown)
dTime
8
double
TOW (seconds)
IAtt
12
Int32_t[3] Attitude values (x,y,z) * 1.0E7
uReserved 4
uint8_t[4] Reserved for future use
6.3.5 PVA File
The PVA (position, velocity, attitude) file is a binary input file that may be formed for the purposes of providing
Inertial Explorer with external updates. Contact support@novatel.com for the file format.
6.4 Inertial Explorer Output Files
This section discusses the different output files that are created when processing with Inertial Explorer.
6.4.1 FIL/RIL/FTL/RTL Files
Message Log files echo all error and warning messages sent to the Process Window during INS processing.
The forward and reverse loosely and tightly coupled message log files contain all messages output by the processing engine. Inertial Explorer assigns priority levels to all messages generated by the processor and only high
priority messages are output to the Process Window during GNSS and INS data processing. All messages generated by the processor (regardless of priority) are output to the message log files. These files can be useful in
helping to find problems that have not been automatically solved by Inertial Explorer's outlier detection routines.
6.4.2 FL(S)/RL(S)/FT(S)/RT(S)/CT(S) Files
A new output binary format has been created for version 8.70 that reduces the number of trajectory files output
from Inertial Explorer. For a copy of the current binary struct definitions output by Waypoint software, please contact support@novatel.com.
Waypoint is aware that there are some products that rely on the old data format from the SBTC/SBIC file. It is
still possible to get these files using the Output | Export to Waypoint Legacy Format option. See Export to Waypoint Legacy Format on page 101 for more details.
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APPENDIX A Command Line Utility
This appendix documents the supported input parameters for the Waypoint GrafNav and Inertial Explorer Command Line (WPGCMD and WPGCMDIMU), which is found within the bin sub-directory of the respective installation directory. WPGCMD is available with the purchase of a GrafNav term license and WPGCMDIMU with an
Inertial Explorer term CLI license.
A.1 Commands
Table 39: List of Available Commands
Command
Description
basefile#
Path to base station data file (raw or GPB)1
basetype#
Base station receiver type (NovAtel OEMV, Trimble DAT, etc)1
basecoord#
Coordinates of base station (latitude/longitude/height)1
baseant#
Base station antenna profile (using ATX format)1
baseht#
Base station antenna height1
remfile
Path to remote data file (raw or GPB)
remtype
Remote receiver type (NovAtel OEMV, Trimble DAT, etc)
remant
Remote antenna profile (using ATX format)
remht
Remote antenna height
remstatic
Convert remote in static mode
imufile
Path to IMU data file (IMR only)2
imutype
For NovAtel SPAN only – specifies the IMU model (CPT/LN200/etc)2
imula
IMU-to-GNSS antenna lever arm2
imurot
IMU-to-body frame rotation2
dmifile
Path to DMI data file (DMR only)2
dmistddev
Standard deviation of DMI measurements2
hmrfile
Path to heading update file (HMR only)2
hmrla
IMU-to-secondary GNSS antenna lever arm2
proccfg
Name of project file to use for output
procmode
Processing mode (TC/DGPS/PPP/etc)
procdata
Data processing type (C/A, L1, L1+L2)
procdir
Processing direction (both or multi-pass)
procdatum
Processing datum
procstatic
Static processing mode (float/ARTK or fixed static)
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Command
Description
procprecise
Path to precise files (SP3/CLK or COR)
procprofile
Name of processing profile
procmsg
Write processing messages to disk
expprofile
Export Wizard profile
expfile
Export Wizard output file name
expsrc
Export Wizard source (epochs, static sessions, features)
expla
Export Wizard lever arm for coordinate transfer
exputmzone
UTM zone number to use for export
1 This command can be used up for up to 32 base stations; use the # designator to uniquely identify the base
station (# = 1…32)
2 This command is only available with WPGCMDIMU
All commands must be preceded by a hyphen (-).
A.2 Base Station Commands
The following commands are related to the base station and therefore are only applicable if you are doing differential processing (i.e. DGPS or TC).
Command
Example
Description
Input
-basefile# [input]
-basefile1 "C:\My Data\base.gpb"
Specifies the location of the GNSS base station data file.
Full file path to the GPB or raw data file.
If this file is not in GPB format, the command-line utility will convert it (see -basetype).
Notes
Wrap the path in quotation marks if it contains spaces.
Required?
The # designator must be 1…32 to uniquely identify the base station(s).
No. For differential processing, a base station file will be downloaded if this command is not
present.
Command
Example
Description
Input
-basetype# [input]
-basetype2 GPS_LEICA1200
Specifies the receiver/format used for the base station data.
See Table 40: List of Receiver Types (for -basetype and -remtype) on the next page
Check with Waypoint Support if your receiver type is not listed here.
Notes
Only applicable if the -basefile command is used.
Required?
The # designator must be 1…32 to uniquely identify the base station(s).
No. If the file specified by -basefile is not already in GPB format and this command is not
used, then the utility will attempt to auto-detect the receiver type.
Use this command if auto-detection fails.
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APPENDIX A Command Line Utility
Command
Example
Description
Input
-basecoord# [latitude] [longitude] [height]
-basecoord1 36.161066211 -121.137349121 101.484
Specifies the coordinates of the base station.
Latitude (decimal degrees), longitude (decimal degrees), ellipsoidal height (metres)
These coordinates must be in the same datum specified by the -procdatum command.
Notes
Only applicable if the -basefile command is used.
Required?
The # designator must be 1…32 to uniquely identify the base station(s).
No. If the -basefile command is used but no coordinates are specified, the utility will
automatically compute them using PPP.
Command
Example
Description
Input
-baseht# [input]
-baseht3 1.094
Specifies the height of the base station antenna.
Antenna height to ARP or absolute L1 phase center (metres).
This vertical height is measured relative to the coordinates passed by -basecoord.
Notes
Only applicable if the -basefile and -basecoord commands are used.
Required?
The # designator must be 1…32 to uniquely identify the base station(s).
No. If not used, then the coordinates specified by -basecoord will be assumed to represent the
ARP if the -baseant command is set, or else the absolute L1 phase center if the -baseant
command is not set.
Command
Example
Description
Input
-baseant# [input]
-baseant1 LEIATX1230+GNSS
Specifies the antenna profile to be used at the base station.
Name of the antenna profile (IGS format for absolute antenna calibrations).
Consult the NGS or IGS website to find the proper name of your antenna's profile.
Notes
Only applicable if the -basefile and -basecoord commands are used.
Required?
The # designator must be 1…32 to uniquely identify the base station(s).
No
Table 40: List of Receiver Types (for -basetype and -remtype)
Receiver Type
Input
NovAtel OEM/SPAN
GPS_NOVATEL_OEM4
NovAtel OEM3
GPS_NOVATEL_OEM3
NovAtel CMC
GPS_NOVATEL_CMC
Javad/Topcon
GPS_TOPCON_JAVAD
Leica LB2 (System 500)
GPS_LEICASR5
Leica MDB (System 1200)
GPS_LEICA1200
NavCom NCT
GPS_NAVCOM
NavCom Sapphire
GPS_NAVCOM_SAPPHIRE
RINEX
GPS_RINEX
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Receiver Type
Input
RTCMV3
GPS_RTCM3
Septentrio SBF
GPS_SEPTENTRIO
Thales B-File
GPS_THALES_BFILE
Thales Real-Time
GPS_THALES_REALTIME
Trimble DAT
GPS_TRIMBLE_DAT
Trimble Real-Time
GPS_TRIMBLE_REALTIME
Ublox UBX
GPS_UBLOX
A.3 Remote Data Commands
The following commands are related to the remote data and are applicable to all projects.
Command
Example
Description
Input
-remfile [input]
-remfile "C:\My Data\Rover.pdc"
Specifies the location of GNSS remote file.
Full file path to the GPB or raw data file.
If this file is not in GPB format, the command-line utility will convert it (see -remtype).
Notes
Wrap the path in quotation marks if it contains spaces.
Required?
For NovAtel SPAN users, this file will contain GNSS, IMU and DMI (if applicable) data.
Yes
Command
Example
Description
Input
Notes
Required?
-remtype [input]
-remtype GPS_NOVATEL_OEM4
Specifies the receiver/format used for the remote data.
See Table 40: List of Receiver Types (for -basetype and -remtype) on the previous page
Check with Waypoint Support if your receiver type is not listed here.
No. If the file specified by -remfile is not already in GPB format and this command is not used,
then the utility will attempt to auto-detect the receiver type.
Use this command if auto-detection fails.
Command
Example
Description
Input
Notes
-remht [input]
-remht 0.957
Specifies the height of the remote antenna.
Antenna height to ARP or absolute L1 phase center (metres).
By default, GNSS coordinates are computed at the L1 phase center. Using this command will
result in a vertical shift in the computed trajectory.
Required?
Inertial users should not pass this command (see -imula for information).
No
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APPENDIX A Command Line Utility
Command
Example
Description
Input
Notes
Required?
-remant [input]
-remant "ASH701941.B SCIS"
Specifies the antenna calibration profile to be used for the remote.
Name of the antenna profile (IGS format for absolute antenna calibrations).
Consult the NGS or IGS website to find the proper name of your antenna's profile.
No
Command
Example
Description
-remstatic [on/off]
-remstatic on
Specifies whether or not the entire file should be converted as static.
on to have the entire file converted in static mode.
Input
Notes
Required?
off to let pre-processing checks determine the mode automatically.
This command is intended for customers performing static processing. It should be set to on if
you are processing static baselines (see -procstatic) or doing static coordinate determination
via PPP. It is only applicable if the remote file is being converted to GPB.
No. Default is off.
A.4 IMU Data Commands
The following commands are related to the IMU data and therefore are only applicable if you are doing inertial processing.
Command
Example
Description
Input
-imufile [input]
-imufile “C:\My Data\Rover.imr”
Specifies the location of the IMU data file.
Full the file path to the IMR file.
This file must be in IMR format. No other format is accepted.
Notes
NovAtel SPAN users should ignore this command (see –remfile).
Required?
Wrap the path in quotation marks if it contains spaces.
Required for inertial users if IMU data was not collected from a NovAtel SPAN system.
Command
Example
Description
Input
Notes
Required?
-imutype [input]
-imutype SPAN_CPT
Specifies the NovAtel SPAN IMU type.
See Table 41: List of IMU Types (for -imutype) on the next page.
This command is only for NovAtel SPAN users.
No. Use this command only if the utility fails to auto-detect the SPAN IMU type.
Command
Example
Description
Input
-imula [X] [Y] [Z]
-imula 0.458 -1.112 1.012
Specifies the IMU-to-GNSS antenna lever arm.
The X/Y/Z spatial offsets, in metres, from the IMU to the GNSS antenna.
The offsets must be referenced in the X-right, Y-forward, Z-up frame. The IMU’s center of
navigation is the origin of the frame.
Only if the values are not already written in the header of the IMR file.
Notes
Required?
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APPENDIX A Command Line Utility
Command
Example
Description
Input
Notes
Required?
-imurot [X] [Y] [Z]
-imurot 0.0 -90.0 180.0
Specifies the body-to-IMU rotations.
The X/Y/Z angles, in decimal degrees, needed to rotate the IMU into the vehicle frame.
The IMU must be rotated into the X-right, Y-forward, Z-up frame.
Only if the values are not already written in the header of the IMR file.
Table 41: List of IMU Types (for -imutype)
NovAtel SPAN IMU Types
Input
SPAN CPT
SPAN_CPT
SPAN LN200
SPAN_LN200
SPAN AG58
SPAN_AG58
SPAN AG62
SPAN_AG62
SPAN FSAS
SPAN_FSAS
SPAN LCI
SPAN_LCI
SPAN uIRS
SPAN_UIRS
SPAN ADIS16488
SPAN_ADIS16488
SPAN STIM300
SPAN_STIM300
SPAN KVH1750
SPAN_KVH1750
SPAN HG1900
SPAN_HG1900
SPAN HG1930
SPAN_HG1930
SPAN LCI-100C
SPAN_LCI100C
SPAN EPSON G320
SPAN_EPSONG320
SPAN EPSON G370
SPAN_EPSONG370
SPAN uIMU
SPAN_UIMU
SPAN CPT7
SPAN_CPT7
SPAN IAM-20680
SPAN_IAM20680
A.5 DMI Data Commands
The following commands are related to the DMI data and therefore are only applicable if you are doing inertial processing.
Command
Example
Description
Input
-dmifile [input]
-dmifile “C:\My Data\Rover.dmr”
Specifies the location of the DMI data file.
Full file path to DMR file.
This file must be in DMR format. No other format is accepted.
Notes
NovAtel SPAN users should ignore this command (see –remfile).
Required?
Wrap the path in quotation marks if it contains spaces.
Required for inertial users if DMI data was not collected from a NovAtel SPAN system.
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APPENDIX A Command Line Utility
Command
Example
Description
Input
Notes
Required?
-dmistddev [input]
-dmistddev 0.10
Specifies the standard deviation of the measurements contained within the DMI file.
Standard deviation, in m/s.
This command controls the weighting placed on the DMI measurements.
No. Default is 0.30 m/s.
A.6 Heading Update Data Commands
The following commands are related to heading update data and therefore are only applicable if you are doing inertial processing.
Command
Example
Description
Input
-hmrfile [input]
-hmrfile “C:\My Data\Rover.hmr”
Specifies the location of the heading update (HMR) data file.
Full file path to Heading update (HMR) file.
This file must be in the HMR format. No other format is accepted.
Notes
NovAtel SPAN users should ignore this command (see –remfile).
Required?
Command
Example
Description
Input
Notes
Required?
Wrap the path in quotation marks if it contains spaces.
Required for inertial users if heading update data was not collected from a NovAtel SPAN
system.
-hmrla [X] [Y] [Z]
-hmrla 0.200 0.465 2.114
Specifies the IMU-to-secondary GNSS antenna lever arm.
The X/Y/Z spatial offsets, in metres, from the IMU to the secondary GNSS antenna.
The offsets must be referenced in the X-right, Y-forward, Z-up frame. The IMU’s center of
navigation is the origin of the frame.
Only if the values are not already written in the header of the HMR file.
A.7 Processing Commands
The following commands relate to data processing and are applicable to all projects.
Command
Example
Description
Input
Notes
Required?
-procmode [input]
-procmode tc
Specifies the type of processing to be performed.
See Table 42: List of Processing Modes (for -procmode) on page 203.
This command determines how the data will be processed. It also affects which commands
are available for use. See Table 44: List of Commands Supported for Each Processing Mode
on page 204.
Yes
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APPENDIX A Command Line Utility
Command
Example
Description
Input
Notes
Required?
Command
Example
Description
Input
Notes
Required?
Command
Example
Description
Input
Notes
Required?
Command
Example
Description
Input
Notes
Required?
Command
Example
Description
Input
Notes
Required?
-proccfg [input]
-proccfg "C:\My Data\Project.proj"
Specifies the project file to be created.
Full file path and name of the PROJ file to be created.
This command will be used to determine the name of the project file and all other files
generated during processing.
No. If this command is not used, the project files will be given the same name as the remote
data file and saved to the same folder.
-procdata [input]
-procdata L1L2
Specifies the type of data to be processed.
See Table 43: List of Data Processing Types (for -procdata) on the next page.
Dual frequency processing is only available if L1/L2 measurements are available at the base
station(s) and remote.
No. If not specified, the utility will scan the input file(s) to determine which data types are
available for processing.
-procdatum [input]
-procdatum nad83
Specifies the datum to be used for processing and output.
The name of the datum.
If this command is not used, the utility will use the default datum. The default can be set via
File | Preferences within GrafNav or Inertial Explorer.
Only required if using -basefile and -basecoord.
-procdir [input]
-procdir both
Specifies if data should be processed in both or multi-pass modes.
both to process the data in the forward and reverse directions independently.
multi to process in multi-pass mode.
both is applicable to all processing modes.
multi is applicable to all modes except GNSS-only differential and LC differential.
No. The default is both.
-procprofile [input]
-procprofile "SPAN Airborne (AG58)"
Specifies the profile from which to load the processing settings.
The name of the processing profile.
Processing profiles are loaded first and may have their settings overridden by other commands
available here.
No, but strongly recommended. If not used, the utility will attempt to detect the best profile
based on the pre-processing checks performed during decoding.
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APPENDIX A Command Line Utility
Command
Example
Description
Input
Notes
Required?
Command
Example
Description
Input
Notes
Required?
Command
Example
Description
Input
Notes
Required?
-procprecise [input1] [input2] … [inputn]
-procprecise "C:\My Data\COD17254.clk" "C:\My Data\COD17254.sp3"
Specifies the precise clock and orbit files to use during processing.
Full file paths and names of the SP3 and CLK files or COR files (for Inertial Explorer NRT
users).
This command is mostly intended for PPP, but is available to all projects.
This command can read multiple input files for projects spanning more than one day.
No. If performing PPP processing and this command is not used, the utility will download the
required precise files.
-procstatic [input]
-procstatic fixed
Specifies the mode of processing to use for static data.
float for float static processing.
fixed for fixed static processing.
Only applicable for static data. See -remstatic for more information.
No. Default is to perform float static processing.
-procmsg [on/off]
-procmsg on
Specifies whether or not to write all messages to disk.
on to have all messages written to a file on disk (in addition to the console).
off to have all messages written only to the console.
The output file name will use this convention: "<project name>_ProcMsg.log"
Processing messages will always be written to the console.
No. By default the messages will only be written to the console.
Table 42: List of Processing Modes (for -procmode)
Processing Mode
Input
GNSS-only differential
dgps
GNSS-only precise point positioning (PPP)
ppp
GNSS+IMU tightly-coupled (differential)
tc
GNSS+IMU loosely-coupled (differential)
lc
GNSS+IMU tightly-coupled (PPP)
ppptc
GNSS+IMU loosely-coupled (PPP)
ppplc
Table 43: List of Data Processing Types (for -procdata)
Data Processing Types
Input
Single frequency (L1) processing
L1
Dual frequency (L1 & L2) processing
L1L2
Code-only (C/A) processing
CA
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APPENDIX A Command Line Utility
Table 44: List of Commands Supported for Each Processing Mode
-procmode
DGPS
PPP
TC
LC
PPPTC
PPPLC
basefile#
X
X
X
basetype#
X
X
X
basecoord#
X
X
X
baseant#
X
X
X
baseht#
X
X
X
remfile
X
X
X
X
X
X
remtype
X
X
X
X
X
X
remant
X
X
X
X
X
X
remht
X
X
X
X
X
X
remstatic
X
X
imufile
X
X
X
X
imutype
X
X
X
X
imula
X
X
X
X
imurot
X
X
X
X
dmifile
X
X
X
X
dmistddev
X
X
X
X
hmrfile
X
X
X
X
hmrla
X
X
X
X
proccfg
X
X
X
X
X
X
procdata
X
X1
X
X
X1
X1
X
X
X
X2
procdir
procdatum
X
X
X
X
X
X
procstatic
X
X
X
X
X
X
procprecise
X
X
X
X
X
X
procprofile
X
X
X
X
X
X
procmsg
X
X
X
X
X
X
expprofile
X
X
X
X
X
X
expfile
X
X
X
X
X
X
expla
X
X
X
X
X
X
expsrc
X
X
X
X
X
X
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APPENDIX A Command Line Utility
-procmode
exputmzone
DGPS
PPP
TC
LC
PPPTC
PPPLC
X
X
X
X
X
X
1 PPP processing requires dual frequency carrier phase data.
2 Multi-pass will be performed during the GNSS-only PPP portion, not during IMU processing.
A.8 Export Commands
The following commands relate to the export of the final solution and are applicable to all projects.
Command
Example
Description
Input
Notes
Required?
-expprofile [input]
-expprofile Geographic
Specifies the profile to be used when writing the formatted solution to disk.
Name of the Export Wizard profile to be used.
You can use one of the software's built-in profiles or customize one through the interface.
No. If not used, no output file will be generated.
Command
Example
Description
Input
-expfile [input]
-expfile "C:\My Data\final_solution.txt"
Specifies the name given to the output file.
Full file path and name of the output file to be created during the export process.
Only applicable if the -expprofile command is used.
Notes
Required?
If the file already exists, it will be over-written.
No. If the -expprofile command is used but the output file name is not specified, the utility will
use the project name (see -proccfg).
Command
Example
Description
-expsrc [input]
-expsrc epochs
Specifies the source to be used when generating the output file.
epochs to output the trajectory at a fixed time interval.
Input
features to output data only for the loaded camera events/features.
static to output data only for the static sessions.
Only applicable if the -expprofile command is used.
Notes
Required?
In order to use the features option, there must be valid features/events loaded.
The static option will not output solutions for any kinematic epochs.
No. If the -expprofile command is used but the output source is not specified, the utility will
output in epochs mode.
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APPENDIX A Command Line Utility
Command
Example
Description
Input
Notes
Required?
Command
Example
Description
Input
Notes
Required?
-expla [X] [Y] [Z]
-expla -0.145 0.986 0.883
Specifies the lever arm to be applied during export.
The X/Y/Z spatial offsets, in metres, from the IMU to the point of interest.
Only applicable if the -expprofile command is used.
Only applicable for inertial processing.
The offsets must be referenced in the X-right, Y-forward, Z-up frame. The IMU’s center of
navigation is the origin of the frame.
No. If not specified, the output file will be generated with respect to the IMU.
-exputmzone [input]
-exputmzone 11
Specifies the UTM zone number to be applied during export.
0 to have the software automatically determine the zone number.
1…60 to force the UTM zone number to a specific value.
Only applicable if the -expprofile command is used.
Only applicable if the export profile contains UTM grid output variables.
No. If not specified, the software will use whichever UTM zone number was most recently
used with the export profile.
A.9 General Notes
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
The program returns 0 upon successful completion or 1 if an error is encountered. Note that a return value of
0 is not a guarantee of accuracy – only that the program did not encounter any serious errors. It is left to you
to ensure that the final solution meets your requirements.
If the input value for a command is a string containing spaces (i.e. file path or file name), it must be wrapped
in quotation marks.
Waypoint software contains many processing options, most of which are not available to be set via the command line. If you wish to customize the processing options, it is suggested that you create your own processing profile and pass it in using the -procprofile command. Processing profiles can be created within
GrafNav under Tools | Manage Profiles.
When downloading base station data, the utility will first search the Favorites for coordinates. If none are
found, it will compute them using PPP. User-provided base station data will be processed with PPP if no
coordinates are passed via the -basecoord command.
You cannot load an existing project file (*.PROG) for processing.
This utility supports the input of up to 32 base stations. However, for differential users who do not pass in
their own base station data, only one base station will be downloaded. If you require more, it is recommended that you download the desired data first using the Download Service Data utility and then pass it in
using the appropriate command.
Precise files are required for PPP or PPPTC processing. If the files are not provided, and the utility fails to
download them, then processing will not continue.
The commands themselves are not case-sensitive, but some inputs are (i.e. antenna profile names).
All messages written to the console are preceded by a designator to indicate the nature of the message. See
the table below for more information.
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APPENDIX A Command Line Utility
Table 45: List of Message Types
Message Designator
Description
_MSG_
General message; for informational purposes only.
_WARNING_
Non-critical message; should be reviewed and addressed.
_ERROR_
Critical message; only output if the utility cannot continue.
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APPENDIX B Output Variables
Table 46: List of Output Variables
Variable
Description
Absolute ECEF-XYZ
XYZ coordinates in the Earth Centered Earth Fixed Frame which is a
Cartesian frame centered at the ellipsoid origin
Antenna Height
Height of the pole or tripod above the station marker
Azimuth (1 ◊ 2)
Angle between true north and the baseline made between FROM and
TO stations
Azimuth (2 ◊ 1)
Angle between true north and the baseline made between TO and
FROM stations
Body Frame Acceleration - XYZ
Acceleration components in the vehicle body frame after removal of
gravity, Earth rotation and estimated sensor errors
Body Frame Velocity - XYZ
Velocity components in the vehicle body frame
Azimuth StdDev
Estimated error of the computed azimuth.
British-East, North
East and North coordinates in the British State Plane projection
C/A RMS
Root mean square of C/A code signal
Checksum (8-bit)
The absolute value calculated by using XOR, ADD, or NMEA
methodology on the 8 data bits of each character in the sentence;
decimal and hexadecimal formats may be selected (user will be
prompted for these options after the profile is created)
Combined Scale Factor
Scale factor used by surveyors. It applies the map scale factor
combined with the ellipsoidal height correction, which can be used to
scale distances on the ellipsoid to the earth’s surface.
Combined Standard Deviation
Combines east, north and up position standard deviations into one
value. Same value is written by Write Coordinates.
Computed Azimuth
Azimuth from base antenna to remote antenna in moving baseline
projects.
Convergence
Meridian convergence for the current location in the current map
projection
Corrected GPS Time
GPS time corrected for receiver clock bias
Course Over Ground (Track)
Direction of travel indicated by velocity vector.
Date
Date of the epoch or feature
Description
Description of the station or feature from the STA file
Distance Error (Azimuth)
Error in the computed baseline length in moving baseline projects.
Double Difference DOP
Double Difference DOP which is approximately equivalent to PDOP2
East, North, Height Fwd/Rev
Separations
Separations between the forward and reverse solution in the east, north
and height axes
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APPENDIX B Output Variables
Variable
Description
East, North, Height Fwd/Rev RMS
Root mean square of the separations between the forward and reverse
solution in the east, north and height axes
East, North, Up Standard Deviations
Estimated east, north and up position standard deviations in the local
level frame
East, North, Up Velocities
East, North and Up velocity components in the local level frame
East, North, Up Velocity Standard
Deviations
Estimated east, north up velocity standard deviations in the local level
frame
East, North, Up Offset Applied
When a 3-D offset is applied to camera event marks, this field can be
used to verify that the proper offset is applied. This offset is oriented to
local level that is, true-north.
ECEF Covariance Matrix
Estimated ECEF position covariance matrix
ECEF Vector XYZ
XYZ components of the vector between base and remote in the ECEF
frame
ECEF Velocity Covariance Matrix
Estimated ECEF velocity covariance matrix
ECEF XYZ Standard Deviations
Estimated ECEF position standard deviations in the XYZ axes
ECEF XYZ Velocities
XYZ velocity components in the ECEF frame
ECEF XYZ Velocity Standard
Deviations
Estimated ECEF velocity standard deviations in the XYZ axes
Ellipsoidal Height
Height above current ellipsoid; based on datum selected during
processing
Ellipsoidal Height Scale Factor
Used to scale distances on the ellipsoid to the earth’s surface.
End Time
End time of the static session
Error Ellipse Orientation
Orientation of the error ellipse (theta)
Error Ellipse Semi-Major
Estimated error along the semi-major axis of the error ellipse (a)
Error Ellipse Semi-Minor
Estimated error along the semi-minor axis of the error ellipse (b)
Extended Ambiguity Status
Indicates if KAR fixed the ambiguities
Field Separator
User can select what character separates each variable in a record
Float/Fixed Ambiguity Status
Indicates if carrier phase ambiguities have been fixed
Gauss Kruger-East, North
East and North coordinates in the Gauss Kruger projection
Geoidal Undulation
Height of the ellipsoid above or below the geoid
GPS Corrected Time
Exact time of measurement in the GPS time frame.
GPS Time/Date
Time of the epoch or feature; time format may be changed to user’s
preference
GPS Week Number
Week number for GPS data starting from January 4, 1980; Depending
in the format, this week number may or may not reset after 1023
Heading Angle
Negative yaw (see IMU angle definition).
Height Difference
Vertical height difference between stations
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APPENDIX B Output Variables
Variable
Description
Height Error Estimate
Estimated error along the vertical axis (dh)
Horizontal Distance
Horizontal distance on the ellipsoid between stations (geodesic)
Horizontal Standard Deviation
Estimated position standard deviation in the east and north axes of a
local level frame
Irish-East, North
East and North coordinates in the Irish State Plane projection
L1 Doppler RMS
Root mean square of L1 Doppler signal; useful for INS integration
L1 RMS
L1, or Iono-free root mean square
Lambert-East, North
East and North coordinates in the Lambert Conformal projection
Latitude
North/South geographic coordinate
Local Level Covariance Matrix
Estimated local level position covariance matrix; needs extended
output in GrafNav
Local Level Velocity Covariance
Matrix
Estimated local level velocity covariance matrix; needs extended
output in GrafNav
Local Level XYZ
Local level left hand side frame where the x axis is pointing east, the y
axis is pointing north and the z axis is pointing up; the frame is centered
at the master station
Local Plane XYZ
XYZ axes of a coordinate frame defined by two or more points (see
local plane options)
Local Time/Date
GPS time and date with time-zone offset applied
Longitude
East/West geographic coordinate
Map Scale Factor
Map projection scale computed for a location
Master File Name
Name of Master GPB file
Num BEIDOU Satellites
Number of BeiDou satellites
Num Fwd+Rev or Comb Baselines
Number of baselines used in the combined solution.
Num GALILEO Satellites
Number of Galileo satellites
Num GLONASS Satellites
Number of GLONASS satellites
Num GPS Satellites
Number of GPS satellites
Num QZSS Satellites
Number of QZSS satellites
Number of Satellites
Total number of GPS and GLONASS satellites
Orthometric Height
Height above the geoid (mean sea level height)
PDOP, HDOP, VDOP
Position dilution of precision, horizontal position dilution of precision
and vertical DOP. May be slightly different than values from other
sources due to the differential computation
Pitch Angle
IMU pitch angle (see IMU angle definition)
Project Name
Name of current project
Quality Number
Quality factor; 1 (best) to 6 (worst)
Relative Azimuth
Azimuth between current and previous feature or epoch.
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APPENDIX B Output Variables
Variable
Description
Relative Height Difference
Relative height difference between current and previous epochs or
features
Relative Horizontal Distance
Uncorrected horizontal distance on the ellipsoid between the current
and previous epochs. Multiply by Combined Scale Factor to bring to
mapping plane and surface
Relative Slope Distance
Free-air distance between neighboring epochs or features. Distance
between current and previous.
Remarks
Remarks of the station or feature from the STA file
Remote File Name
Name of Remote GPB file
Roll Angle
IMU roll angle (see IMU angle definition)
Roll, Pitch, Heading Separation
The difference between the combined solutions in terms of Roll, Pitch
and Heading.
Roll, Pitch, Heading StdDev
Estimated attitude accuracy.
Scale Factor
Horizontal distance ratio between the globe and the map distance for
the current point in the current map projection.
Selectable Grid
Allows user to enter a north and east value for a user defined grid. Grids
can be modified and added using the Grid Manager (see Tools Menu).
Sequence Number
Allows the user to number epochs in the data with a user defined start
and end sequence number, as well as, an incremental value.
Slope Distance
Free air distance between stations
Solution Type
Type of solution used. In GrafNav, possible solution types include SFCarrier, DF-Carrier, IonoFree, RelIono, CaOnly, SingPoint. In GrafNet,
FixedSoln, FloatSoln.
Standard Dev. (NO PPM)
Trace of the covariance matrix expressed as a standard deviation; no
distance dependent errors included.
Start Time
Start time of the static session.
State Plane-East, North
East and North coordinates in the US State Plane projection.
Static/Kinematic Status
Indicates if an epoch is static or kinematic.
Station Name
Name describing the station, feature or camera mark.
Surface Distance
Horizontal distance between the two stations on the surface (corrected
geodesic).
Sun Angle
Angle of the sun above the horizon.
Time Length
Time length of the static session.
TM-East, North
East and North coordinates in the Transverse Mercator projection.
Total Slope Distance
Spatial distance between two points.
Total Horizontal Distance
The shortest path between two points on the surface of a sphere (for
example, Great circle).
Transformed Grid
Allows for scaling, rotating and translating of a selectable grid.
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APPENDIX B Output Variables
Variable
Description
User Text String
String of text defined by user.
UTC Corrected Time
Same as UTC Time, but a correction for the receiver clock bias is
applied. This is the most precise time. Only applicable for epochs.
UTC Date
Date in UTC time.
UTC Time
Time which is available in various format. This is the epochs or feature
time offset from GPS seconds by the GPS-UTC time offset. This time
is uncorrected for the receiver clock bias.
UTM-East, North
East and North coordinates in the Universal Transverse Mercator
projection.
VSF Ellipsoidal Height
Ellipsoidal height corrected by the map scale factor.
VSF Orthometric Height
Orthometric height corrected by the map scale factor. Used in
photogrammetry applications to create an elevation that is more
compatible with measured ground coordinates.
XYZ Accelerometer Bias
This is the apparent output in acceleration when there is no input
acceleration present. It is computed by the GNSS/INS Kalman filter
and the effects may be sinusoidal or random.
XYZ Gyro Drift
This is the apparent change in angular rate over a period of time. It is
computed by the GNSS/INS Kalman filter and the effects are usually
random.
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APPENDIX C Antenna Measurements
Figure 7: Antenna Measurements
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Glossary
B
Baseline
Connection between two stations with one or more sessions. Normally, a session and a baseline can be considered the same. However, in some cases there may be more than one session per baseline. This is called a
duplicate session baseline and it is plotted yellow on the screen.
C
Check Point
A station with known coordinates, but these coordinates are only used as a check against GrafNet’s computed
coordinates.
Control Point
See Station or GCP.
G
Ground Control Point (GCP)
A reference station with known latitude, longitude and height coordinates. The user may also assign horizontal and
vertical standard deviations for these values. There can be horizontal, vertical or 3-D points, and there must
always be at least one 3-D point or else one horizontal and one vertical point per project.
O
Observation
A raw measurement file collected from a receiver set up over a stationary point. GrafNet only accepts GPB files
and, thus, other formats must be converted first. See the table Supported Data Formats for Post-Processing for supported formats. GrafNet also requires single frequency carrier phase data as a minimum, and accepts dual frequency if available. Users wishing to perform code-only processing should use GrafNav.
S
Session
Concurrent period of time between two observation files at two different stations. One of the two stations will be the
remote and the other will be the master. The arrow on the screen will be pointing from the master to the remote.
The direction is determined by GrafNet in order to form loop closures as well as to minimize the number of legs
from a control point. Each session will be processed individually and combined in either a network adjustment or
traverse solution. A session can have different statuses and colors depending on whether certain tests passed or
failed.
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Glossary
Station
A point where the GPS receiver was setup over and there might be multiple observation files for a single station.
However, one set of position values will be produced for each station as a final product of GrafNet. There are several types of stations.
T
Tie Point
Such a point may also be called a loop tie closure and is formed when two or more sessions point to it. Thus, there
is a redundant determination at this point.
Traverse Station
This is a point with no tie or control information. It might have two stations connected to it, but one is pointing to it
and the other is pointing from it.
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Glossary
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