ADTRAN | TRACER 1xT1 | User manual | Adtran TRACER 1xT1 User Manual

Adtran TRACER 1xT1 User Manual
61280004L1-1A-1A
PAGE I
TRACER USER’S MANUAL
PAGE II
61280004L1-1A-1A
61280004L1-1A-1A
PAGE III
INSTALLATION
CONTENTS
PAGE
SECTION 1
TRACER DESCRIPTION ..................................................... 1
INTRODUCTION .............................................................. 1
APPLICATIONS ............................................................... 2
SPREAD SPECTRUM ........................................................ 2
CHANNEL SELECTION ................................................. 3
FORWARD ERROR CORRECTION .................................... 4
E1 OPERATION ....................................................... 4
TRACER SYSTEM CONFIGURATION .................................. 6
Baseband Processor or BBP ........................................ 6
VT-100 RS-232 Interface ............................................. 8
Alarm Contacts ............................................................. 8
IF Signal ....................................................................... 8
AC/DC Power ................................................................ 9
Controls and Indicators ............................................... 9
Radio Frequency Convertor or RFC ........................... 11
Antenna Selection ...................................................... 13
SECTION 2
INSTALLATION .............................................................. 15
UNPACK, INSPECT ........................................................ 15
RACK-MOUNTED RFC CONFIGURATION ......................... 15
MAST-MOUNTED RFC CONFIGURATION ......................... 15
INSTALLATION .............................................................. 16
LOCATION AND MOUNTING ......................................... 16
POWER REQUIREMENTS ........................................... 16
GROUNDING ......................................................... 16
E1 INTERFACE ...................................................... 18
LINK PLANNING ........................................................... 19
SETTING THE TRANSMITTER POWER ................................... 22
SETTING THE RFC FREQUENCY PLAN ................................ 23
CONNECTING THE BBP AND THE RFC .............................. 24
APPLYING POWER ........................................................ 25
AUTOMATIC BBP FREQUENCY PLAN .................................. 25
PAGE IV
61280004L1-1A-1A
SPREADING CODE ........................................................ 25
CO-LOCATING MULTIPLE 2.4 GHZ SYSTEMS ....................... 25
ANTENNA ALIGNMENT .................................................... 26
RF LOW ................................................................... 27
REMOTE BERT .......................................................... 27
ALARM CONTACTS ........................................................ 27
SECTION 3
SECTION 4
SECTION 5
OPERATION ................................................................29
VT-100 USER INTERFACE ............................................. 29
RS-232 INTERFACE .................................................... 29
CABLE CONNECTIONS .................................................... 29
PASSWORD ................................................................30
MAIN MENU SELECTIONS ............................................... 31
TROUBLESHOOTING ....................................................... 37
GENERAL .................................................................. 37
PROBLEM DESCRIPTIONS AND RECOMMENDED ACTIONS ........... 38
TROUBLESHOOTING USING THE FRONT PANEL INDICATORS ..... 38
TROUBLESHOOTING USING THE VT-100 USER INTERFACE .. 44
SPECIFICATIONS ........................................................... 49
RF TRANSMITTER ........................................................ 49
RF RECEIVER ............................................................. 49
FREQUENCY PLANS ....................................................... 49
SPREAD SPECTRUM DATA PUMP ...................................... 49
E1 INTERFACE SPECIFICATIONS ........................................ 50
USER INTERFACE ......................................................... 50
RS-232 TERMINAL INTERFACE ........................................ 50
MECHANICAL & ENVIRONMENTAL ....................................... 50
POWER ..................................................................... 51
GLOSSARY
............................................................................. 55
APPENDIX A CABLE CONNECTIONS ................................................... A-1
61280004L1-1A-1A
PAGE V
PAGE VI
61280004L1-1A-1A
61280004L1-1A
PAGE 1
SECTION 1
TRACER DESCRIPTION
INTRODUCTION
The Single E1 version of Tracer provides single E1 transport via a
2.4 GHz, direct sequence, spread spectrum microwave link. The
transmitter output power is 20 dBm maximum while the receiver
sensitivity is -91 dBm or better. System performance is determined,
in part, by the engineering of the microwave link. Each Tracer
radio is comprised of two components - the baseband processor
and the radio frequency converter (RFC). The E1 interface (G.703,
G.704 compliant) is provided on the back of the baseband
processor, which is mountable in a 515 mm rack. The radio
frequency converter is rackmountable adjacent to the baseband
processor or mastmountable in a weatherproof enclosure, located
up to 110 meters apart, using RG-8 style coax. A single coaxial
cable connects the baseband processor (via a Type N connector)
to the RFC and another coaxial cable connects the RFC to the
antenna (via a Type N connector).
PAGE 2
SECTION 1
61280004L1-1A
APPLICATIONS
Any application that would typically use metallic E1 as a transport
can use the Tracer instead. The figure below illustrates a typical
application.
Antenna
Antenna
RF Cable
IF Cable
Rackmount RFC
VT-100
RS-232
Terminal
TRACER
Baseband
Processor
E1
E1 Equipment
E1, Mastmounted RFC
RF Cable
TRACER
Baseband
Processor
Rackmount RFC
E1
E1 Equipment
E1, Rackmounted RFC
Figure 1-1. Typical Application
The Tracer can be used in any application requiring that data be
shared at a high rate of speed. In addition to telephony
applications, Tracer can be used in data communications such as
inter-networking, video conferencing, and telemetry.
SPREAD SPECTRUM
Spread spectrum is a form of communication in which the
bandwidth of a message signal is intentionally increased or
“spread.” There are two methods of spreading -- frequency
hopping and direct sequence. Tracer employs direct sequence
spread spectrum.
61280004L1-1A
PAGE 3
TRACER DESCRIPTION
DIRECT SEQUENCE
A direct sequence transmitter spreads the signal by mixing the
data with the output of a pseudorandom number generator which
changes state at a rate higher than the data rate. This rate is called
the “chipping” rate. The Tracer chipping rate is twelve times the
data rate.
CODING
Many different pseudorandom sequences exist. The sequences
are called pseudorandom because, although they appear noiselike, they are determinant and repeat after a specific number of
chips. The longer a code is, the better correlation characteristics
it possesses. These traits allow multiple spread spectrum systems
to operate in the presence of one another with minimal interference
if they are operating with different sequences. The Tracer allows
the selection of one of ten different 120-bit long sequences.
CHANNEL SELECTION
There is 83.5 MHz of spectrum in the 2.4 GHz band in which
Tracer operates. A Tracer system fully uses the available bandwidth
-- transmitting in one half and receiving in the other. The figure
below illustrates the bandwidth division.
2400 MHz
2441 MHz
2483.5 MHz
Figure 1-2. Bandwidth Division
PAGE 4
SECTION 1
61280004L1-1A
The transmitter at one end of a link will transmit in the lower half
of the spectrum. Consequently the receiver at the other end will
receive in the lower half of the band and transmit in the upper
half. Thus, a system will operate in one of two frequency plans - transmit in the upper and receive in the lower or vice versa.
These two plans are called Plan A and Plan B. One end of a path
will be on Plan A and the other will be on Plan B. Shipment of a
link will consist of an A and a B unless specified otherwise.
FORWARD ERROR CORRECTION
With the addition of overhead data, error detection and correction
capability can be added to a data stream. Error correction can be
accomplished by allowing the receiver to request the retransmission of an errored block once detected. The Tracer, on
the other hand, implements forward error correction (FEC) which
adds enough overhead data for the receiver to detect and correct
errors in the data stream. This capability comes at the cost of
bandwidth. The addition of FEC decreases the required signalto-noise (S/N) ratio by approximately 5.5␣ dB to achieve a given
bit error rate (BER).
E1 INTERFACE
The E1 interface conforms to the ITU G.703 and G.704
electrical and signaling interface recommendations. Two
interfacing configurations are allowed - a pair of BNC coaxial
connectors or a 15 pin sub-D connector and RJ48 connector.
The coaxial connection provides a 75Ω unbalanced connection.
The shield of the TX coaxial connection is attached to earth
ground. A strap is provided to optionally connect the shield of
the RX coaxial connection to ground as described in G.703.
The 15 pin sub-D and RJ48 connection provides a 120Ω
balanced connection.
61280004L1-1A
PAGE 5
TRACER DESCRIPTION
Tracer SYSTEM CONFIGURATION
A Tracer system is composed of three major subsystems -- a
baseband processor, a radio frequency convertor, and an antenna.
The following section describes the system components.
BASEBAND PROCESSOR OR BBP
The baseband processor or BBP is a 1-U, 515 mm rackmountable
unit. This unit provides the system electrical interfaces, user
controls and indicators, and performs the spread spectrum
processing for the system. The front panel provides all of the
electrical interface points -- E1 interface, VT-100 compatible
terminal, alarm contacts, IF signal, and DC power (from facility
or optional AC adapter).
The BBP front and rear panels are illustrated in the figures below.
TRACER
E1
TEST
POWER
FREQ
ALM
SYSTEM
LBK
PLAN A
RF LOW
CVCRC
PLAN B
LINK DOWN
LOS/OOF
Figure 1-3. BBP
IF
E1
G.703
RS232
MAJ
MIN
DC POWER
75 OHM
TX
RX
NO COM NC NO COMNC
Figure 1-4. BBP Rear Panel
PAGE 6
SECTION 1
61280004L1-1A
A block diagram of the BBP is shown in the figure below.
µ
Σ
Figure 1-5. BBP Block Diagram
VT-100 RS-232 INTERFACE
An RS-232 interface is provided via a 25-pin D connector for
attaching a VT-100 compatible terminal. The active signals used
on this interface are listed below
Signal Name
Pin Number
Source
Receive Data ................... 2 ................ Terminal/Modem
Transmit Data ................. 3 ................ Tracer
Request to Send .............. 4 ................ Terminal/Modem
Clear to Send .................. 5 ................ Tracer
Data Set Ready ................ 6 ................ Tracer
Signal Ground ................ 7
61280004L1-1A
PAGE 7
TRACER DESCRIPTION
The management system allows the E1 interface to be provisioned.
The line code can be selected as AMI or HDB3. The signaling can
be selected as channel associated signaling (CAS) or common
channel signaling (CCS). Alarm conditions can also be monitored.
The management system will report the following alarms on the
E1 interface:
•
•
•
•
•
Loss of signal
Bipolar violation
CRC error
Framing error
Remote alarm
A seven-day error history of the E1 interface and radio link is also
provided. Fifteen-minute histories are provided for the most recent
eight hours of operation.
The status of the microwave link can also be monitored from the
management system. The transmitter power setting as well as an
indication of the received microwave signal level are provided.
ALARM CONTACTS
Two classes of alarm, MAJOR and MINOR, are provided. A MAJOR
alarm is signaled if, for any reason, the microwave path is not
operational. A MINOR alarm is signaled when the data path is
operating, but impaired. A minor alarm will be activated when an
alarm is sensed on the E1 interface or when the received RF signal
level falls below approximately -80 dBm. Both normally-open and
normally-closed contacts are provided for each alarm class. Access
is provided by a six-position terminal strip on the front of the
baseband processor.
IF SIGNAL
The Type N Connector provides the interface point between the
baseband processor and the radio frequency converter (RFC). This
connection provides the signal, power, and configuration
information to the RFC. A coaxial cable (ADTRAN part number
3125RF027@A) is provided for connecting the BBP to the RFC
for the rackmount model. Cable for connecting the BBP to a
mastmount RFC must be provided by the customer after the length
of the cable has been determined.
PAGE 8
SECTION 1
61280004L1-1A
AC/DC POWER
The unit receives power via one of two connectors. Power for the
entire system is provided by these interfaces. The 3 pin circular
DIN connector is provided to connect an ADTRAN supplied
desktop AC adapter providing 24 volts DC. The three-pin terminal
block allows the connection of any DC power source providing
between 21 and 60 volts DC. The power consumption of the entire
system is approximately 30 watts.
CONTROLS AND INDICATORS
The system may be configured via the front panel, which is
accessible behind a drop-down panel on the right half of the BBP.
The front panel is illustrated in the figures below.
TRACER
E1
TEST
POWER
ALM
FREQ
SYSTEM
LBK
PLAN A
RF LOW
CVCRC
PLAN B
LINK DOWN
LOS/OOF
Figure 1-6. BBP Front Panel with Door Closed
Figure 1-7. BBP Front Panel with Door Open
61280004L1-1A
PAGE 9
TRACER DESCRIPTION
As a rule, a green LED indicates a good situation, a red LED
indicates an error situation, and a yellow LED indicates a
configuration option. LEDs indicating overall system integrity are
listed below.
Self Test ........................ Blinking red if the self-test has completed
and failed; Solid red if self-test is in progress
or did not complete
Power ........................... Green if DC voltage is applied
The LEDs associated with the E1 interface are listed below.
CV/CRC ....................... Red if the incoming E1 stream contains code
violations, or a CRC error
LOS/OOF ..................... Red if there is no signal present at the E1
interface or if framing synchronization is
lost
Loopback ..................... Solid yellow if the E1 interface is in local
line loopback. Blinking yellow if the E1
interface is in link loopback.
ALM ............................. Solid red if an AIS is detected at the
incoming E1, blinking red if a remote alarm
signal is found
The functions of the LEDs which relate system configuration
information are listed below.
Frequency Plan A ........ Yellow if frequency plan A is selected
Frequency Plan B ........ Yellow if frequency plan B is selected
Remote Test Active ...... Yellow if the remote test is active
Remote Test Fail .......... Red if the remote test failed
The LEDs that indicate error conditions in the spread spectrum
data pump and RFC are listed below. All of these LEDs are visible
through the front panel. Any one of these LEDs indicates and
error condition that precludes system operation.
Link Down ................... Red if the RF link is not operational
E1 interface will transmit AIS on the
affected E1 to indicate an error
RF Low ........................ Red if the received RF carrier level is
below -80 dBm.
PAGE 10
SECTION 1
61280004L1-1A
The controls available from the control panel are listed below.
Name
Function
Reset ............................ Reset the system
LBK .............................. Toggles E1 between normal and local line
loopback modes
CRC4 ON .................... Affects the E1 Performance Monitoring
characteristics.
ES (errored second) is one or more CRC4
errors or Loss of Frame.
SES (severely errored second) is more
than one Loss of Frame, one or more Loss
of Receive Signal or more than 805 CRC4
errors.
CRC4 OFF ................... Affects the E1 Performance Monitoring
characteristics.
ES (errored second) is one or more BPV
(bipolar violations) for an AMI
configured circuit or one or more Code
Errors for an HBD3 configured circuit.
SES (severely errored second) is Loss of
Signal or Frame, 805 or more BPV
(bipolar violations) or Code Errors.
CAS .............................. Selects Channel Associated Signalling
CCS .............................. Selects Common Channel Signalling
HDB3 ........................... Selects HDB3 Line Coding
AMI .............................. Selects AMI Line Coding
Remote Test ................. Initiate a remote test across the RF link
The monitor points provided on the front panel of the system are
described below.
EYE I ............................ Demodulated received baseband output
EYE Q .......................... Demodulated received baseband output
EYE CLK ...................... Recovered clock for observing EYE pattern
RSSI ............................. DC voltage indicating strength of the
received signal at the antenna
+5 ................................. System 5 volts
-5 .................................. System -5 volts
+12 ............................... System +12 volts
-12 ................................ System -12 volts
RF PWR ....................... DC voltage supplying RF power
GND ............................ System ground
61280004L1-1A
PAGE 11
TRACER DESCRIPTION
NON-VOLATILE MEMORY
The Tracer system contains non-volatile memory to retain certain
configuration settings. These settings include:
Frequency plan
Chipping code (if set from VT-100)
Password
Password enabling
Site name
E1 line coding (if set from VT-100)
E1 framing (if set from VT-100)
BUILT-IN TESTS
The Tracer has several features to aid in site setup and later
debugging. These diagnostics include E1 loopbacks and a link
test with BERT (Bit Error Rate Test) data. A link test is performed
by pressing the test button. The remote unit will then send a
pseudorandom data pattern and the local end will compute a BER.
After the conclusion of the test, the remote end will automatically
be instructed to terminate the pattern generation. If any bit errors
are introduced, the Remote Test Fail LED will illuminate.
PAGE 12
SECTION 1
61280004L1-1A
RADIO FREQUENCY CONVERTER OR RFC
The radio frequency converter (RFC) provides the radio frequency
(RF) interface between the baseband processor and the antenna.
The RFC is partitioned, functionally, into two major components
- the transmitter and the receiver.
The major connections illustrated are transmit signal, receive
signal, and the IF signal connection.
The RFC unit is enclosed in a metal enclosure approximately
26.7cm x 14cm x 2.5cm and is mounted in a 515 mm
rackmountable housing or mastmountable, weatherproof
enclosure. The RFC is illustrated below.
RSSI
GND TX-PW
R
RX
IF
TX
Figure 1-8. RFC Module
Three SMA connectors, located on the RFC module, provide RF
and IF connection points. A test point is provided for monitoring
the received signal strength indicator (RSSI). The voltage (relative
to the GND test point) present on this test point represents the
level of the received signal. This signal is used to align the antenna
when installing the system and to verify the link is performing as
designed. Another test point is provided to monitor the transmitter
output power during system configuration. The only connections
that must be made in the field are a coax connection between the
baseband processor and the RFC and a coax connection between
the RFC and the antenna. These connections require male, type
N coax connectors.
The IF connector provides the connection between the baseband
processor and the rackmounted or mastmounted RFC. (An 8” IF
cable [ADTRAN part # 3125RF027@A] is provided for rackmount
systems). The TO ANTENNA connection provides the connection
between the RFC and the antenna.
61280004L1-1A
PAGE 13
TRACER DESCRIPTION
RX
SAW
2018
2058
LPF
Splitter
333
AGC
IF
TX
PA
Splitter
2321
2281
RF1
AGC
RF2
Figure 1-9. RFC Block Diagram
The RFC module is enclosed in either an ETSI-compliant
rackmount housing, or a weather-tight enclosure suitable for
mastmounting near the antenna for enhanced system performance.
The RFC mastmount and rackmount housings are illustrated
below.
Figure 1-10. Front and Rear of Rackmount RFC Housing
Holes
for Mounting Bracket
Mounting Clearances
Housing Assembly and Guide
WARNING
Figure 1-11. Mastmount RFC Housing
PAGE 14
61280004L1-1A
ANTENNA SELECTION
Tracer is intended to be coupled with an antenna that is directional
(thus providing signal gain). There are several reasons for this
requirement:
• Tracer operates in point-to-point applications so omnidirectional
antennas cannot be used.
• The low power transmitter is intended to be used with a highgain antenna for long links.
• Directional antennas minimize the interference that a site is
susceptible to and also minimizes the site’s interference to other
sites.
The antenna requirements are listed below.
Minimum gain ............. 15 dBi
Minimum return loss .. 15 dB
Connector .................... N-type
Impedance ................... 50 Ω
61280004L1-1A
PAGE 15
SECTION 2
INSTALLATION
UNPACK, INSPECT
Carefully inspect the Tracer for any shipping damages. If damage
is suspected, file a claim immediately with the carrier then contact
ADTRAN Customer Service. If possible, keep the original shipping
container for use in shipping the Tracer back for repair or for
verification of damage during shipment.
Before beginning installation, verify that all of the following
components are present.
RACKMOUNTED RFC CONFIGURATION:
Provided by ADTRAN -• Baseband processor
• Rackmounted RFC
• BBP to RFC IF interconnect cable
Provided by customer -• Antenna feedline cable
• Antenna and mounting hardware
• VT-100 terminal and RS-232 interface cable (optional)
• 21 to 60 volt DC power source (available from ADTRAN), either
polarity referenced to ground
MASTMOUNTED RFC CONFIGURATION:
Provided by ADTRAN -• Baseband processor
• Mastmounted RFC
PAGE 16
61280004L1-1A
SECTION 2
Provided by customer -• E1 interface cables
• Antenna feedline cable
• Antenna and mounting hardware
• BBP to mastmounted RFC IF interconnect cable
• VT-100 terminal and RS-232 interface cable (optional)
• 21 to 56 volt DC power source (available from ADTRAN), either
polarity referenced to ground
INSTALLATION
LOCATION AND MOUNTING
Install the Tracer in a location that requires minimal antenna
feedline length (the loss in this cable directly affects overall system
performance). The BBP is designed to be mounted in a rack, above
the RFC. Although no space is needed between the units, certain
regulations may require at least 19.05 mm (.75") of space above
and below the BBP.
POWER REQUIREMENTS
The Tracer can operate from a supply between 21 and 56 volts
DC, with either polarity referenced to ground, and consumes 30
watts. Amperage is determined by dividing the wattage (30) by
the input voltage (i.e., 30 watts/48 volts = .625 amps),
61280004L1-1A
PAGE 17
INSTALLATION
GROUNDING
The following grounding instructions are derived from the
Underwriters’ Laboratory UL 1459 Standard for Safety: Telephone
Equipment dated September 20, 1993.
An equipment grounding conductor that is no smaller in size
than the ungrounded branch-circuit supply conductors is to
be installed as part of the circuit that supplies the product or
system. Bare, covered, or insulated grounding conductors are
acceptable. Individually covered or insulated equipment
grounding conductors shall have a continuous outer finish that
is either green, or green with one or more yellow stripes. The
equipment grounding conductor is to be connected to ground
at the service equipment.
The attachment-plug receptacles in the vicinity of the product
or system are all to be of a grounding type, and the equipment
grounding conductors serving these receptacles are to be
connected to earth ground at the service equipment.
A supplementary equipment grounding conductor shall be
installed between the product or system and ground that is in
addition to the equipment grounding conductor in the power
supply cord.
The supplementary equipment grounding conductor shall not
be smaller in size than the undergrounded branch-circuit supply
conductors. The supplementary equipment grounding
conductor shall be connected to the product at the terminal
provided, and shall be connected to ground in a manner that
will retain the ground connection when the product is
unplugged from the receptacle. The connection to ground of
the supplementary equipment grounding conductor shall be
in compliance with the rules for terminating bonding jumpers
at Part K or Article 250 of the National Electrical Code, ANSI/
NFPA 70. Termination of the supplementary equipment
grounding conductor is permitted to be made to building steel,
to a metal electrical raceway system, or to any grounded item
that is permanently and reliably connected to the electrical
service equipment ground.
Bare, covered, or insulated grounding conductors are
acceptable. A covered or insulated grounding conductor shall
have a continuous outer finish that is either green, or green
with one or more yellow stripes.
PAGE 18
61280004L1-1A
SECTION 2
The supplemental equipment grounding terminals are located on
the rear of the BBP adjacent to the power connectors and on the
rear of the rackmounted RFC. The mastmounted RFC has a
ground lug mounted on the installation bracket.
E1 INTERFACE
The E1 interface conforms to the ITU G.703 and G.704 electrical
and signaling interface recommendations. Two interfacing
configurations are available:
• A 75Ω unbalanced BNC coaxial connector.
• A 120Ω balanced 15 pin connector / RJ 48 with the pinouts shown
below.
15 Pin
Pin
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Function
E1 Out ring
Frame ground
E1 In ring
Frame ground
N.C.
N.C.
N.C.
N.C.
E1 Out tip
N.C.
E1 In tip
N.C.
N.C.
N.C.
N.C.
RJ-48
Pin
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Function
E1 Out ring
E1 Out tip
N.C.
E1 In ring
E1 In tip
N.C.
N.C.
N.C.
61280004L1-1A
PAGE 19
INSTALLATION
The BNC configuration interface provides a 75Ω unbalanced
connection. The shield of the OUT coaxial connection is attached
to earth ground. A jumper is provided to optionally connect the
shield of the INPUT coaxial connection to ground as described in
G.703. This jumper is located on the inside of the E1 interface
board, between the two BNC connectors. The E1 module must
be removed to access this option.
The 15-pin / RJ-48 configuration interface provides a 120Ω
balanced connection.
Three loopback functions are provided for diagnostic capability.
The local line loopback loops the incoming E1 signal back out at
the E1 framer. The remote link loopback loops the E1 data back
to the local end from the remote end. This allows a BERT to be
run across the microwave link and back. The local link loopback
allows the local unit to loop E1 data back towards the remote
end. The available loopback functions are illustrated below.
E1
y,,y y,,y
1
2
Local
RF Link
3
E1
Remote
Figure 2-1. E1 Loopback Locations
PAGE 20
61280004L1-1A
SECTION 2
LINK PLANNING
IMPORTANT
The appropriate transmitter power must be
calculated as part of the link planning.
The factors that must be taken into account when planning a link
are optimal received signal level, transmitter power, antenna
feedline loss (each end), antenna gain (each end), free space path
loss, and required fade margin.
IMPORTANT
The optimal signal level for the receiver is -60 dBm.
ANTENNA FEEDLINE LOSS
Feedline loss is a function of feedline type and length. Feedline
loss per 30.48 meters for several types of coax at IF and RF
frequencies is detailed in the table below. The IF loss applies to
BBP/RFC interconnection, and the RF loss applies to RFC/antenna
interconnection. Cable manufacturers’ specifications may vary.
IF Loss/30.48 m
RF Loss/30.48 m
Cable
(in dB)
(in dB)
RG58 ......................... 5.7 ................................ 80
RG8 (air) ................... 2.7 ................................ 20
RG8 (foam) ................. 2 ................................... 9
1
/4" Waveguide ......... 1.42 .............................. 5.91
3
/8" Waveguide ......... 1.25 .............................. 5.76
1
/2" Waveguide ......... 0.81 .............................. 3.83
7
/8" Waveguide ......... 0.44 ............................... 2.2
1 1/4" Waveguide ...... 0.33 .............................. 1.62
1 5/8" Waveguide ...... 0.27 .............................. 1.41
61280004L1-1A
PAGE 21
INSTALLATION
ANTENNA GAIN
Best performance will result from the use of a parabolic dish
antenna. Antenna gain is determined by the size of the dish, with
typical figures detailed below. Dish manufacturers will be able to
supply gains for other types of antenna.
Dish Diameter
Gain
(in cm)
(in dBi)
60 ..................... 21
120 .................... 27
180 .................... 31
243 .................... 33
304 .................... 35
365 .................... 37
PATH LOSS
The free space path loss is given by
Loss(dB) = 96.6 + 20 log10f + 20log10D * 1.609344
where
D is distance in kilometers
f is operating frequency in GHz
A tabulation of various path loss is given below.
Link Distance
(in km)
Path Loss
(in dB)
1 ........................... 108
2 ........................... 115
3 ........................... 118
4 ........................... 121
5 ........................... 122
6 ........................... 124
7 ........................... 125
8 ........................... 127
9 ........................... 128
10 ......................... 128
11 ......................... 129
12 ......................... 130
Link Distance
(in km)
Path Loss
(in dB)
13 ......................... 131
14 ......................... 131
15 ......................... 132
16 ......................... 133
17 ......................... 133
18 ......................... 134
19 ......................... 134
20 ......................... 135
21 ......................... 135
22 ......................... 135
23 ......................... 136
24 ......................... 136
PAGE 22
61280004L1-1A
INSTALLATION
PATH AVAILABILITY
The availability of a path can be expressed by:
availability = (1 - C x T x 2.5 x 10-6 x f x (D x 1.609344)3 x 10-F/10) x 100%
where
C is the climate factor
T is the terrain factor
f is the frequency in GHz
D is the path length in kilometers
F is the fade margin in dB
Climate factors are given below.
Climate
Climate
Factor
Very Dry .............. 1/8
Temperate ............ 1/4
Humid ................. 1/2
Terrain factors are listed below
Terrain
Terrain
Factor
Smooth .................... 4
Average .................... 1
Mountainous ........... 1/4
The nominal received signal level is -60 dBm. For help in link
planning, use the path loss calculation worksheet below.
- 91 dBm
Minimum Signal Power
+ _______
Transmitter Feedline Loss
- _______
Transmitter Antenna Gain
+ _______
Path Loss
- _______
Receiver Antenna Gain
+ _______
Receiver Feedline Loss
+ _______
Required Fade Margin
= _______
(dBm) Transmitter Power Setting
61280004L1-1A
PAGE 23
SECTION 2
SETTING THE TRANSMITTER POWER
The transmitter power is set by way of a two-position, momentary
toggle switch on the front panel of the BBP or via the configuration
page of the VT-100 interface. The RFC must be attached by way
of the IF cable during this operation. Attach an RF power meter
to the N-type antenna connector on the RFC, and adjust the power
by way of the potentiometer or VT-100 until the desired
transmitter power is obtained. For convenience, the transmitter
power adjustment should be made before the RFC is installed on
the mast.
SETTING THE RFC FREQUENCY PLAN
The frequency plan designates on which frequencies the Tracer
transmits and receives. Plan A corresponds to a transmitting (Tx)
frequency of 2421 MHz and a receive (Rx) frequency of 2462 MHz.
Plan B corresponds to a Tx frequency of 2462 MHz and a Rx
frequency of 2421 MHz. Shipment of a link consists of one RFC
set to Plan A and the other set to Plan B unless specified otherwise.
The RFC plan can, however, be changed in the field if required.
This procedure involves configuring the RFC interconnect cables.
For rackmounted systems, do the following to reconfigure the
RFC interconnect:
1. Remove the four screws which retain the RFC cover and remove
the cover.
2421
Anten
PLAN
na
A
2462
2. The RF unit may be identified by following the connection from
the port labelled “IF” on the rear of the RFC. This connection
terminates at the RF unit. The diplexer may be identified by
following the connection from the “Antenna” port on the rear
of the RFC. This connection terminates at the diplexer,
illustrated in the figure below.
Figure 2-2. Diplexer
PAGE 24
61280004L1-1A
INSTALLATION
3. Unscrew the cable assemblies from the ports labelled “Tx” and
“Rx” on the RFC, and the ports labelled “2421” and “2462” (or
“J1” and “J2” on some models) on the diplexer, depending on
the frequency Plan (Plan A or Plan B).
4. Unscrew the cable assembly from the port labelled “Antenna”
on the diplexer.
5. Remove the four screws from the bottom of the RFC that hold
the diplexer in place.
6. Turn the diplexer over revealing the opposite frequency plan
(from Plan A to Plan B, or vice versa).
7. Realign the diplexer with the screw holes and replace the four
screws that attach it to the bottom of the RFC.
8. Reattach the loose cable assembly (from step 4) to the port
labelled “Antenna” on the diplexer.
9. Reattach the cable assemblies from the ports labelled “Tx” and
“Rx” on the RFC, and the ports labelled “2421” and “2462” (or
“J1” and “J2” on some models) on the diplexer. Cable
connections should be aligned to each other as follows.
Plan A
Tx = 2421
Rx = 2462
Plan B
Tx = 2462
Rx = 2421
10. Replace and secure the RFC cover.
For mastmounted systems, do the following to reconfigure the
RFC interconnect:
1. Remove the lid of the mast RFC.
2. Disconnect the three cables attached to the diplexer. The
diplexer may be identified by following the antenna connector
to the middle connector of the diplexer. Leave the cables in
the same positions.
3. Remove the two screws securing the diplexer and rotate the
diplexer to reveal the opposite frequency plan label.
4. Reinstall the two screws and reattach the cables in the same
positions.
5. Reinstall the lid of the mast RFC.
61280004L1-1A
PAGE 25
SECTION 2
CONNECTING THE BBP AND THE RFC
The BBP and the RFC are connected by an IF cable, either supplied
by ADTRAN (for rackmount assembly) or by the customer (for
mastmount assembly). This single connection provides everything
the RFC requires. The cable assembly attaches to the ports labeled
“IF” on the BBP and the RFC.
APPLYING POWER
If the ADTRAN-supplied tabletop power source is used, simply
plug it into the circular receptacle located in the “DC Power” area
on the rear of the BBP. If a source of 21 to 60 volts DC (30 watts),
either polarity referenced to ground, is available, it may be attached
to the terminal block located on the rear of the BBP. The positive
lead should be attached to the “+” side of the block and the negative
lead should be attached to the “-” side of the block.
CAUTION
Power sources must not be attached to both the
circular connector and the terminal blocks at the
same time or damage will occur.
AUTOMATIC BBP FREQUENCY PLAN
Upon the initial application of power, the BBP will default to the
factory-preset Frequency Plan, or to the Frequency Plan
determined by the cable configuration of the RFC. The LED will
indicate which frequency plan is active. On subsequent reboots,
such as after a loss of power, the BBP will default to the most
recently-used Plan setting.
SPREADING CODE
The spreading code for each end must be the same. The choice of
operating code is selectable by the operator or the installer. Tracer
is shipped in a matched (default) configuration.
PAGE 26
61280004L1-1A
INSTALLATION
CO-LOCATING MULTIPLE 2.4 GHZ SYSTEMS
When multiple 2.4 GHz transmitters are to be co-located (installed
in the same equipment room or on the same tower), it is advised
to set all systems as follows:
1.
2.
3.
If more than one 2.4 GHz system is transmitting from the same
location, set the antenna polarity of one system horizontal and
the other system(s) vertical. (The antennas should be marked
as to which mounting position is vertical or horizontal.) This
will provide approximately 30 dB of isolation between the
different antennas.
If more than one Tracer system is installed, set the co-located
transmitters to the same frequency plan (example: Plan A,
Tx=2421; or Plan B, Tx=2462) and set each to a different
spreading code. This keeps the transmitters on the additional
system(s) from interfering with the co-located receiver(s).
If the systems are from different manufacturers, set the transmit
frequencies as close as possible with different spreading codes.
Other manufacturers may not use the exact frequency plans as
the Tracer system, but keeping the frequencies close will reduce
the probability of the transmitter(s) interfering with the colocated receiver(s).
This equipment is authorized under CFR 47 Part 15.247. With
this authorization by the FCC, this equipment shall not be colocated with a similar transmitter that transmits identical
information.
ANTENNA ALIGNMENT
After the transmitter power for each end has been adjusted and
the BBP and RFC have been installed and connected, the antenna
should be connected to the RFC via the feedline. The antennas
should be aimed toward one another as precisely as possible and
the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) voltage measured.
The RSSI voltage is a function of the signal strength at the receiver
and is used to measure the received signal strength. RSSI varies
approximately from 0 to 4 volts, with 0 volts corresponding to a
weaker received signal and 4 volts corresponding to a stronger
received signal.
61280004L1-1A
SECTION 2
PAGE 27
RF LOW
The “RF Low” LED indicates that the received signal is within
10dB of the minimum received signal strength (-80 dBm). If this
indicator is on, the link performance may be marginal. The
antennas should be peaked in azimuth and elevation until the
desired signal level is achieved. RSSI may be monitored on either
the RF unit or the front of the BBP. If the received signal is too
strong and RSSI reaches a maximum such that the peak cannot be
discerned, then the transmitter on the far end should be turned
down.
At this point the radio link should be operational. Proper operation
can be determined by the status of the “LINK DOWN” LED. If
this LED is on, the link is not operational. If this LED is not on,
the link is operating. Certain types of interference can cause one
end of a path to operate and the other end to fail. In some instances,
this may be corrected by swapping the frequency plan at each
end, thus avoiding the interference if it is stronger at one end
than the other. Changing the spreading code at each end may
also allow interference to be mitigated.
REMOTE BERT
The Tracer includes a Bit Error Rate Tester (BERT) to verify that
the installed system is operating correctly. When the “Remote
Test” button is pushed on the local BBP, the remote end will send
a BERT pattern for approximately ten seconds. The “Remote TST”
indicator will turn yellow and remain on for the duration of the
test. If no bit errors are detected, the “Remote TST” indicator will
turn off. If any bit errors are detected, the “Remote Fail” indicator
will turn red. This test should be run after the radio link has been
aligned. If the test fails, refer to Section 4, “Troubleshooting,” for
guidance.
PAGE 28
61280004L1-1A
INSTALLATION
ALARM CONTACTS
Two classes of alarm, MAJOR and MINOR, are provided. A
MAJOR alarm is signaled when the microwave path is not
operational. A MINOR alarm is activated when any of the
following conditions are detected at one of the E1 interfaces:
Loss of Signal
Code Violation
CRC error
Framing Error
Remote Error
Both normally-open and normally-closed contacts are provided
for each alarm class. Access is provided by a six-position
terminal strip on the baseband processor.
61280004L1-1A
PAGE 29
SECTION 3
OPERATION
VT-100 USER INTERFACE
The Tracer may be accessed with a VT-100 compatible terminal
set to 9600 bits per second, 8 data bits, and no parity, connected
to the RS-232 port on the back of the unit. Once a terminal is
connected, pressing the ESC key will present the System Status
screen. If password access has been enabled, then press “Enter”
or “Return” in order to see the “Enter Password:” message. Tracer
is shipped with password protection disabled.
RS-232 INTERFACE
The Tracer has an RS-232 interface for system management via an
attached VT-100 terminal, personal computer, or modem. The
RS-232 port is configured as a DCE with the following pin
assignments:
Signal
Pin
Name
Number
Direction
TXD .................. 2 ............... To Tracer
RXD .................. 3 ............... From Tracer
RTS ................... 4 ............... To Tracer
CTS ................... 5 ............... From Tracer
DSR .................. 6 ............... From Tracer
Ground ............. 7
CABLE CONNECTIONS
The cable connections required for various configurations are
detailed in Appendix A of this manual.
PAGE 30
61280004L1-1A
SECTION 3
PASSWORD
Tracer provides optional password protection of the terminal
interface. If enabled, a password prompt is presented at powerup, reboot, or after thirty minutes of inactivity on the terminal.
The default configuration is “No password.” Password protection
is enabled via the configuration menu. The password is also set
via the configuration menu.
If the password is forgotten, physical access to Tracer is required
to access the terminal interface. The password may be bypassed
by holding in the LPBK button while the system is rebooted. This
will bring up the terminal interface and allow the password to be
changed or disabled via the configuration screen.
CAUTION
This procedure is service-affecting.
MAIN MENU SELECTIONS
SYSTEM STATUS PAGE
This page displays the status of major system components. This
is a status screen only; no configurations can be performed. More
detailed information can be obtained by way of the Main Menu.
Current System Status
Elapsed Time 00:06:07
----ADTRAN Technical Support - 256/963-8716
----| C | / ->>---->>---->>--->[RF UP]>---->>---->>---->>- \ | C |
E1 ===| S |#(-)#| S |=== E1
| U | \ ---<<----<<----<<--[RF UP]-<<----<<----<<----< / | U |
--------Local Tracer
Remote Tracer
Freq Plan A
Freq Plan B
Tx Pwr Rx Pwr
Tx Pwr Rx Pwr
Max [ ]
[X] Nominal
Max [ ]
[X] Nominal
[ ]
[X]
[ ]
[X]
[ ]
[X]
Site: Adtran
[ ]
[X]
[ ]
[X]
[ ]
[X]
[X]
[X]
RFC Link Up:
Yes
[X]
[X]
[X]
[X]
Code Sync:
Yes
[X]
[X]
[X]
[X]
Carrier Sync: Yes
[X]
[X]
[X]
[X]
E1 Link Sync: Yes
[X]
[X]
[X]
[X]
Chipping Code: 9
[X]
[X]
[X]
[X]
[X]
[X]
Min [X]
[X] Min
Min [X]
[X] Min
==============================================================================
Press 'm' - Main menu:
Figure 3-1. Current System Status Page
61280004L1-1A
PAGE 31
OPERATION
The upper portion of the screen indicates how long the system
has been running since the last reset operation. The “E1” label
will be highlighted if any error conditions exist on that E1 interface.
The status of the radio link is indicated as Up or Down. The left
portion of the screen reports the status of the local system (the
system to which the terminal is attached); the right portion reports
the status of the remote system. The approximate transmitter
and receiver signal levels are shown via the “fuel gauges.” If the
link is down and remote end data is unavailable, the fuel gauges
will show “-” instead of “x.” The RFC Link, Code Sync, Carrier
Sync, and E1 Link status will all report “yes” if the link is
operational. Chipping code indicates the code to which the system
is set. At any point in the VT-100 menu structure, press the
Escape key to return to this screen.
MAIN MENU PAGE
Pressing “M” on any screen will take the user to the Main Menu,
from which the subsequent screens can be accessed.
TRACER Main Menu, Rev: A
Site: Adtran
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
E1 Status Page
Link Performance History
E1 Performance History
Alarm Page
Test Menu
Configuration Menu
Remote Access
========================================================================
Press ESC for System Status:
Figure 3-2. Main Menu Page
PAGE 32
61280004L1-1A
SECTION 3
E1 STATUS PAGE
The status of the E1 interface is displayed on this screen. This is
a status screen only.
TRACER E1 Status Menu
Site: Adtran
Loop/Normal State
Rx Remote Alarm
Rx Carrier Loss
Rx Loss of Sync
Error Detection
Signaling
Line Code
Normal
No
No
No
CRC4 Enabled (*)
CCS (*)
HDB3 (*)
(*) Indicates last set by front panel. Otherwise last set
by terminal.
==============================================================================
Press 'm' - Main menu:
Figure 3-3. E1 Status Page
LINK PERFORMANCE HISTORY
This screen presents detailed error statistics for the RF link. The
data is presented as RFCL (Radio Frequency Converter Link) and
LINK (RF Link) representing seconds out of service for each. The
RFCL represents the communications channel between the BBP
and RFC via the IF interconnect cable. The counts for the most
recent 24 hours are recorded in 15-minute increments. Twentyfour-hour totals are recorded for the most recent days.
24 Hour Registers
-RFCL--LINK-00000 00000
-1: ----- -----2: ----- -----3: ----- -----4: ----- -----5: ----- -----6: ----- -----7: ----- -----
TRACER Link Performance History
Site: Adtran
15 Minute Registers
-RFCL-LINK--------RFCL-LINK<-- Current -->
000 000
- 1: 000 000
-17: --- --- 2: --- ---18: --- --- 3: --- ---19: --- --- 4: --- ---20: --- --- 5: --- ---21: --- --- 6: --- ---22: --- --- 7: --- ---23: --- --- 8: --- ---24: --- --- 9: --- ---25: --- ---10: --- ---26: --- ---11: --- ---27: --- ---12: --- ---28: --- ---13: --- ---29: --- ---14: --- ---30: --- ---15: --- ---31: --- ---16: --- ---32: --- ---
========================================================================
Press 'm' - Main menu, 'p' - Prev pg, 'n' - Next pg:
Figure 3-4. Link Performance History Page
61280004L1-1A
PAGE 33
OPERATION
E1 PERFORMANCE HISTORY PAGE
This screen presents detailed error statistics for E1. The data is
presented as Errored Seconds and Severely Errored Seconds. The
counts for the most recent 24 hours are recorded in 15-minute
increments. Twenty-four-hour totals are recorded for the most
recent days.
24 Hour Registers
---ES---SES-00000 00000
-1: ----- -----2: ----- -----3: ----- -----4: ----- -----5: ----- -----6: ----- -----7: ----- -----
TRACER E1 Performance History
Site: Adtran
15 Minute Registers
--ES-SES-----------ES-SES<-- Current -->
000 000
- 1: 000 000
-17: --- --- 2: --- ---18: --- --- 3: --- ---19: --- ----- 4: --- ---20: --- --- 5: --- ---21: --- --- 6: --- ---22: --- --- 7: --- ---23: --- --- 8: --- ---24: --- --- 9: --- ---25: --- ---10: --- ---26: --- ---11: --- ---27: --- ---12: --- ---28: --- ---13: --- ---29: --- ---14: --- ---30: --- ---15: --- ---31: --- ---16: --- ---32: --- ---
==============================================================================
Press 'm' - Main menu, 'p' - Prev pg, 'n' - Next pg:
Figure 3-5. E1 Performance History Page
PAGE 34
61280004L1-1A
SECTION 3
ALARM PAGE
This screen presents alarm information for the system. The E1
alarm is described in the chapter entitled “Troubleshooting.” If
any of the E1 alarms are active, a minor alarm will be indicated at
the alarm contacts. The RF link alarm will be activated when
communication between the BBP and the RFC has failed. Code
Sync, Carrier Sync, and Link Sync alarms indicate that various
portions of the spread spectrum data pump are not operating. Any
of these alarms will cause a major alarm to be activated at the
alarm contacts. An RX Remote Alarm is an indication alarm from
the receive portion of the circuit to indicate that a failure has
occurred in the receive direction. RX Carrier Loss and RX Loss of
Sync indicate the E1 has lost sync.
TRACER Alarm Page
Site: Adtran
Code Sync Alarm
Carrier Sync Alarm
Link Sync Alarm
Off
Off
Off
Rx Remote Alarm
Rx Carrier Loss
Rx Loss of Sync
Off
Off
Off
==============================================================================
Press 'm' - Main menu:
Figure 3-6. Alarm Page
61280004L1-1A
PAGE 35
OPERATION
TEST MENU
This screen allows each E1 to be put into loopback mode.
TRACER Test Menu
Site: Adtran
1) Local E1 Line Loopback
2) Local E1 Link Loopback
3) Remote E1 Link Loopback
==============================================================================
Press 'm' - Main menu:
Figure 3-7. Test Menu
Each menu selection is described below:
1. Loops the local E1 interface towards the local customer
equipment.
2. Loops the local E1 interface towards the remote customer
equipment, over the RF link.
3. Loops the remote E1 interface towards the local customer
equipment, over the RF link.
E1
y,,y y
,,y
1
2
Local
RF Link
3
E1
Remote
Figure 3-8. E1 Loopback Locations
PAGE 36
SECTION 3
61280004L1-1A
This screen allows all system configurations to be performed.
TRACER Configuration Menu
Site: Adtran
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
E1 Signaling
E1 Line Code
E1 CRC Detection
Set Chipping Code
Set TX Power
Set Freq Plan
Reset all statistics
Enable/Disable Password
Change Password
Change Site ID
==============================================================================
Press 'm' - Main menu:
Figure 3-9. Configuration Menu
The menu selections are described below.
E1 Framing allows each E1 to be configured for CAS or CS framing.
E1 Line Code allows each E1 to be configured for AMI or HDB3.
E1 CRC Detection enables or disables CRC4 detection.
Set Chipping Code allows the chipping code to be selected. Each
end of the link must be configured for the same chipping code.
Set Tx Power allows the transmitter power to be adjusted.
Set Freq Plan manually allows the frequency plan to be set to A or
B. One end of a link must be set to A and the other set to B.
This function is automatically set when the BBP is attached to
the corresponding RFC.
Reset All Statistics resets all Performance History counters and
timers.
Enable/Disable Password enables or disables the Password feature.
Change Password allow the user to change the password.
Change Site ID allows a unique text identifier for each radio,
displayed at the top of each page.
61280004L1-1A
PAGE 37
OPERATION
REMOTE ACCESS
This allows access to the remote radio via the RF communications
link. When accessed, the user will be able to identify remote mode
by each screen titled "Remote." The remote menus are accessed
via a 2400 bps link causing screen refresh to be slower than local
mode. All pages are displayed as if the user were connected to the
VT-100 terminal at the remote end of the link. Every screen that
can be accessed at the local radio can be accessed at the remote
radio via this option.
Remote Current System Status
Elapsed Time 00:21:13
----ADTRAN Technical Support - 256/963-8716
----| C | / ->>---->>---->>--->[RF UP]>---->>---->>---->>- \ | C |
E1 ===| S |#(-)#| S |=== E1
| U | \ -<<----<<----<<----[RF UP]<----<<----<<----<<- / | U |
--------Local Tracer
Remote Tracer
Freq Plan A
Freq Plan B
Tx Pwr Rx Pwr
Tx Pwr Rx Pwr
Max [ ]
[X] Nominal
Max [ ]
[X] Nominal
[ ]
[X]
[ ]
[X]
[ ]
[X]
Site: Adtran
[ ]
[X]
[ ]
[X]
[ ]
[X]
[X]
[X]
RFC Link Up:
Yes
[X]
[X]
[X]
[X]
Code Sync:
Yes
[X]
[X]
[X]
[X]
Carrier Sync: Yes
[X]
[X]
[X]
[X]
E1 Link Sync: Yes
[X]
[X]
[X]
[X]
Chipping Code: 9
[X]
[X]
[X]
[X]
[X]
[X]
Min [X]
[X] Min
Min [X]
[X] Min
==============================================================================
Press 'm' - Main menu, '~' to exit remote mode:
Figure 3-10. Remote Current System Status
PAGE 38
61280004L1-1A
61280004L1-1A
PAGE 39
SECTION 4
TROUBLESHOOTING
GENERAL
If you experience a problem with the Tracer system, check to
ensure that all connectors, coaxial cables, antennas and T1s are
all properly connected; and that the system configuration ensures
proper transmit and receive levels for the RF equipment. Then, if
the problem persists, follow the actions recommended in this
section. For further assistance, call ADTRAN Technical Support
at (256)␣ 963-8716.
NOTE
Each Tracer is completely system-tested and all
specifications verified prior to shipment. Most
problems on a new link tend to have installationrelated solutions, but in some cases, the equipment
may be at fault.
PAGE 40
SECTION 4
61280004L1-1A
PROBLEM DESCRIPTIONS AND RECOMMENDED ACTIONS
Each problem described below is followed by a list of Possible
Causes, each of which is followed by a number (or numbers)
corresponding to a Recommended Action (or Actions).
IMPORTANT
If problems persist after you have followed the
Recommended Actions, contact ADTRAN Technical
Support at (800) 726-8663.
TROUBLESHOOTING USING THE FRONT PANEL INDICATORS
“LINK ERROR” LIGHT IS LIT, OR LINK IS DOWN
This alarm will activate when the RF link is not operational.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
RECOMMENDED ACTION
(SEE LIST BELOW)
• The RF link is down. .................................................................... 1-10
• The RX power is below the -91 dbm threshold. .................... 1-4,7-10
• The far-end transmitter is off, or is transmitting
low power ................................................................................ 1-4,7-10
• The RF path is not aligned. ....................................................... 1,2,10
• Water is in the antenna feedhorn or connectors. ........................... 1,4
• Both units are set to the same frequency. ..................................... 5,10
• Both units are not set to the same PN code. ..................................... 6
• The connection between the BBP and the RFC
is faulty. ...................................................................................... 1,7-10
• The connection between the RFC and the
antenna is faulty. ........................................................................ 1,7-10
• The BBP or RFC is faulty. ................................................................. 10
RECOMMENDED ACTIONS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Check the RX power using the VT-100 user interface or RSSI voltage.
Check the far-end transmitter for operation and proper transmit
power.
Check the RF path using a spectrum analyzer or RSSI voltages for
proper alignment. Have path professionally re-aligned and check
system path engineering.
Check the antenna feedhorn and all outdoor connections for water.
61280004L1-1A
PAGE 41
TROUBLESHOOTING
Change the frequency of one radio through the VT-100 user interface
or front panel button.
6. Set both units to the same PN code.
7. Check all connections between the BBP, the RFC, and the antenna.
8. Check the IF and RF cables for shorts.
9. Check the connections inside the mast-mount or rack-mount RFC.
10. Replace the RFC.
5.
“LBK” IS LIT
This alarm will activate when a software or manual T1 loopback
has been established.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
RECOMMENDED ACTION
(SEE LIST BELOW)
• A loopback has been commanded from the
VT-100 user interface. .................................................................... 1,2
• The “LBK” button has been pressed. .............................................. 1,2
RECOMMENDED ACTIONS:
1.
2.
Through the VT-100 user interface, deactivate the loopback in the
Loopback Menu.
Press the “LBK” button to deactivate the loopback.
NO “POWER” LIGHT
POSSIBLE CAUSE
•
•
•
•
RECOMMENDED ACTION
(SEE LIST BELOW)
DC voltage is not applied. ........................................................... 1,2,4
The polarity of the power connection is reversed. ............................ 2
The AC transformer is not functioning properly. .......................... 3,4
The AC transformer is not connected to the DC
jack on the BBP, or not connected to AC outlet. ............................ 3,4
RECOMMENDED ACTIONS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Verify that the DC voltage is between 21-56 VDC (±).
Verify that negative voltage is applied to the negative terminal, and
positive voltage applied to the positive terminal.
Verify that the “Power” light is lit on the AC transformer.
Verify that the AC transformer is connected to an AC power cord
on the transformer, and connected to the DC jack on the BBP. Verify
PAGE 42
SECTION 4
61280004L1-1A
that the AC power cord is connected to an AC outlet. Verify that the
AC outlet has proper AC voltage present.
“TEST”
LIGHT IS LIT OR BLINKING
The test alarm will remain on (solid) during power-up, indicating
a self-test is in progress. The light will flash or remain on (solid) if
the self-test fails.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
RECOMMENDED ACTION
(SEE LIST BELOW)
• One-flash interval indicates a RAM test failure. ............................... 1
• Two-flash interval indicates the T1-C mux failed
internal test. ....................................................................................... 1
• Three-flash interval indicates the E1 framer failed. .......................... 1
• Five-flash interval indicates a DSP failure. ........................................ 1
• On (solid) indicates a faulty internal component. ............................ 1
RECOMMENDED ACTIONS:
1.
Replace the BBP or the RFC.
“TST” LIGHT IS LIT AFTER PRESSING “REMOTE TEST” BUTTON
The Remote Test light will activate during a remote test in progress.
The Remote Test performs a 10-second bit error rate test (BERT)
over the RF link to the far-end.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
RECOMMENDED ACTION
(SEE LIST BELOW)
• A Remote Test has been activated from the front
panel “Remote Test” button or the VT-100 user
interface. ............................................................................................. 1
RECOMMENDED ACTIONS:
1.
Allow the remote test to complete. If the Remote Test Fail light does
not activate, the remote test passed. If the Remote Test Fail light
activates, see section on FAIL light is lit after pressing Remote Test
button.
61280004L1-1A
PAGE 43
TROUBLESHOOTING
“FAIL” LIGHT IS LIT AFTER PRESSING “REMOTE TEST” BUTTON
The Remote Fail light will activate after a Remote Test has failed.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
RECOMMENDED ACTION
(SEE LIST BELOW)
• The 10-second BERT has failed over the RF link to
the far-end. ......................................................................................... 1
• The RX power may be below or near the -91 dbm
threshold. ........................................................................................... 1
RECOMMENDED ACTIONS:
1.
Check the RX power level using the VT-100 user interface or the
RSSI DC voltage test points. Verify the RX power is between -55 &
-91 dbm.
“RF LOW”
LIGHT IS ON
This alarm will activate if the RX power is below -80␣ dbm.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
RECOMMENDED ACTION
(SEE LIST BELOW)
• The RX power is below -80 dBm. ............................................. 1-5,7,8
• The far-end transmitter is off, or is transmitting low
power. ........................................................................................ 2-5,7,8
• The RF path is not aligned. ............................................................ 3,8
• Water is in the antenna feedhorn or connectors. ........................... 4,8
RECOMMENDED ACTIONS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Verify the RX power is between -55 & -91 dBm using the VT-100
user interface or RSSI DC voltage test points.
Check the far-end transmitter for operation and proper transmit
power.
Check the RF path using a spectrum analyzer or RSSI voltages for
proper alignment. Have path professionally re-aligned and check
system path engineering.
Check the antenna feedhorn and all outdoor connections for water.
Check all connections between the BBP, the RFC, and the antenna.
Check the IF and RF cables for shorts.
Check the connections inside the mast-mount or rack-mount RFC.
Replace the RFC.
PAGE 44
SECTION 4
61280004L1-1A
TROUBLESHOOTING USING THE VT-100 USER INTERFACE
This section provides information for troubleshooting the Alarm
Menu on the VT-100 user interface. The conditions present in the
Alarm Menu are software indications and should match the front
panel LED indications.
RF LINK ALARM OR CODE SYNC ALARM
The RF Link Alarm will activate when the link is down or not
operational.
The Code Sync Alarm will activate when data synchronization
has not been achieved between the RF link.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
RECOMMENDED ACTION
(SEE LIST BELOW)
• The RF link is down. .................................................................... 1-10
• The RX power is below the -91 dbm threshold. .................... 1-4,7-10
• The far-end transmitter is off, or is transmitting
low power. ............................................................................... 1-4,7-10
• The RF path is not aligned. ....................................................... 1,3,10
• Water is in the antenna feedhorn or connectors. ........................... 1,4
• Both units are set to the same frequency. ..................................... 5,10
• Both units are not set to the same PN code. ..................................... 6
• The connection between the BBP and the RFC is faulty. .......... 1,7-10
• The connection between the RFC and the antenna is faulty. ... 1,7-10
• The BBP or RFC is faulty. ................................................................. 10
RECOMMENDED ACTIONS:
Check the RX power using the VT-100 user interface or RSSI voltage.
Check the far-end transmitter for operation and proper transmit
power.
3. Check the RF path using a spectrum analyzer or RSSI voltages for
proper alignment. Have path professionally re-aligned and check
system path engineering.
4. Check the antenna feedhorn and all outdoor connections for water.
5. Change the frequency of one radio through the VT-100 user interface
or front panel button.
6. Set both units to the same PN code.
7. Check all connections between the BBP, the RFC, and the antenna.
8. Check the IF and RF cables for shorts.
9. Check connections inside the mast-mount or rack-mount RFC.
10. Replace the RFC.
1.
2.
61280004L1-1A
PAGE 45
TROUBLESHOOTING
CARRIER SYNC ALARM OR T1 MUX FRAMER ALARM
The Carrier Sync alarm will activate when frequency
synchronization has not been achieved between the RF link.
The T1 Mux Framer alarm will activate when synchronization
between the T1 mux on each radio has not been achieved.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
RECOMMENDED ACTION
(SEE LIST BELOW)
• The RF link is down. .................................................................... 1-10
• The RX power is below the -91 dbm threshold. .................... 1-4,7-10
• The far-end transmitter is off, or is transmitting
low power. ............................................................................... 1-4,7-10
• The RF path is not aligned. ....................................................... 1,3,10
• Water is in the antenna feedhorn or connectors. ........................... 1,4
• Both units are set to the same frequency. ..................................... 5,10
• Both units are not set to the same PN code. ..................................... 6
• The connection between the BBP and the RFC is
faulty. .......................................................................................... 1,7-10
• The connection between the RFC and the antenna is
faulty. .......................................................................................... 1,7-10
• The BBP or RFC is faulty. ................................................................. 10
RECOMMENDED ACTIONS:
Check the RX power using the VT-100 user interface or RSSI voltage
(refer to RSSI voltage chart)
2. Check the far-end transmitter for operation and proper transmit
power.
3. Check the RF path using a spectrum analyzer or RSSI voltages for
proper alignment. Have path professionally re-aligned and check
system path engineering.
4. Check the antenna feedhorn and all outdoor connections for water.
5. Change the frequency of one radio through the VT-100 user interface
or front panel button.
6. Set both units to the same PN code.
7. Check all connections between the BBP, the RFC, and the antenna.
8. Check the IF and RF cables for shorts.
9. Check connections inside the mast-mount or rack-mount RFC.
10. Replace the RFC.
1.
PAGE 46
61280004L1-1A
SECTION 4
E1 ALARMS
The following definitions of E1 alarms apply to Tracer.
Local Alarm is caused by a locally detected facility failure.
Remote Alarm is an alarm received at the receive portion of the
circuit to indicate that a failure has occurred in the receive
direction.
ALM indicates one of two main problems. First, if a solid red line
it indicates a local failure with the E1 signal (Usually the incoming
E1 line on the back of the Tracer). A blinking light on the ALM
indicates there is a problem on a remote E1(A machine sending
an E1 to the Tracer is connected to has a local failure). When a
unit has a local failure it sends out a signal on the E1 lines going
out from it saying there is a failure.
• When 192 consecutive zeroes are detected at the E1 interface
the ALM LED will light. The remote Tracer will transmit an
AIS on the effected E1 to indicate an error.
• When an E1 interface receives a Remote Alarm the ALM
LED will blink. The Tracer at the remote end will pass the
Remote Alarm though on the effected E1.
• When an E1 interface receives an AIS the ALM LED will
light continuously. The remote E1 will transmit the AIS
signal.
CV/CRC is a light that will blink when there is a Code
Violation(CV -- related to Bipolar Violations usually) or a CRC4
error on the incoming E1. E1's can have a crc error checking
signal mixed in the signalling bits. First thing they should do if
this comes on, however, is to be sure that the E1's connected to
the Tracer really do have the CRC4 signalling bits turned on. If
there is any question about this then CRC4 checking on the dip
switches should be turned off, which will simply ignore any CRC
bits.
LOS is a Loss Of Signal, meaning the Tracer is receiving no E1
signal on the E1 RX port. OOF means Out Of Frame error, meaning
we have lost framing synch.
When the RF link is down an AIS will be transmitted on the E1.
No E1 alarm LEDs will be lit in this situation, but the LINK DOWN
LED will illuminate.
61280004L1-1A
PAGE 47
TROUBLESHOOTING
Alarm Indication Signal (AIS) An unframed all ones signal that
replaces the normal traffic signal when a maintenance alarm
indication has been activated. Its purpose is to notify facilities at
the receive end of a circuit that a local alarm has occurred upstream
in the circuit.
PAGE 48
61280004L1-1A
61280004L1-1A
PAGE 49
SECTION 5
SPECIFICATIONS
This section lists the specifications for the Tracer system.
RF TRANSMITTER
Output Power .............. +20 dBm, maximum
Frequency Range ......... 2400 -2483.5 MHz
Channel Bandwidth .... 40 MHz (Two Channels)
RF RECEIVER
Receive Level Range .......... -30 to -91 dBm (10-6 BER minimum)
Receive Level (nominal) ... -60 dBm
FREQUENCY PLAN
Plan A .......................... TX=2.422 GHz, RX=2.462 GHz
Plan B ........................... TX=2.462 GHz, RX=2.422 GHz
SPREAD SPECTRUM DATA PUMP
Modulation .................. DQPSK
Spreading Method ....... Direct Sequence
Code Length ................ 120 bits
Processing Gain ........... >12 dB
Number of Codes ........ 10
Chipping Rate ............. 12
PAGE 50
61280004L1-1A
SECTION 5
E1 INTERFACE SPECIFICATION
Electrical ...................... G.703
Framing ....................... G.704 CRC-4, CAS, CCS
Jitter ............................. G.823
Line Code .................... AMI, HDB3
Data Rate ..................... 2.048 Mbps
Mechanical .................. 75Ω unbalanced -- BNC
120Ω balanced -- DB 15 / RJ-48
Alarms ......................... loss of signal, code violation, CRC error,
framing error, remote alarm
Loopbacks ................... local line, remote link, local link
USER INTERFACE
Panel ............................ Alarm LEDs, Configuration Switches,
Monitor Jacks
Diagnostics .................. E1 Loopback, Remote Test with built in
BERT
Test Points ................... RSSI, System Voltages, QPSK Constellation
Alarms ......................... Major normally open
Major normally closed
Minor normally open
Minor normally closed
ASCII Terminal ............ Menu-Driven User Interface, Control of the
Remote End, Password Protected
(Optional), Event History
RS-232 TERMINAL INTERFACE
Data Rate ..................... 9600 bps
Data Bits ...................... 8
Parity ........................... None
Stop Bits ....................... 1
Terminal Emulation .... VT-100
61280004L1-1A
PAGE 51
SPECIFICATIONS
MECHANICAL & ENVIRONMENTAL
Baseband Processor
Operating Temperature -25°C to +65°C
Size .............................. 42.4cm x 4.4cm x 29.2cm
Humidity ..................... 95%, Non-condensing
Weight ......................... 2.7 kg
Rack RFC
Operating Temperature -40°C to +65°C
Size .............................. 42.4cm x 4.4cm x 29.2cm
Humidity ..................... 95%, Non-condensing
Weight ......................... 4.8 kg
Mast RFC
Operating Temperature -40°C to +65°C
Size .............................. 22.5 cm diameter x 52.5 cm
Humidity ..................... 100%
Weight ......................... 8.1 kg
POWER
Input Voltage ............... 21 to 60 volts DC
100 to 220 volts AC, 50 or 60 Hz (with optional AC adapter)
Power Consumption ... 30 watts
Connector .................... 3 pin DIN (AC adapter)
3 pin screw clamp terminal block (DC)
PAGE 52
61280004L1-1A
61280004L1-1A
PAGE 53
GLOSSARY
ACRONYMS USED IN THIS MANUAL
AMI ..............
BER ..............
BBP ..............
CAS ..............
CCS ..............
CRC .............
DCE .............
DTE .............
FAS ..............
FCC .............
FEC ..............
HDB3 ...........
IF .................
ISM ..............
LBK ..............
QPSK ...........
RF ................
RFC ..............
RFCL ...........
RSSI .............
Rx ................
Tx ................
Alternate Mark Inversion
Bit error rate
Baseband Processor
Channel associated signaling
Common channel signaling
Cyclic Redundancy Check
Data Communications Equipment
Data Terminal Equipment
Frame Alignment Signal
Federal Communications Commission
Forward error correction
High-density bipolar of order 3
Intermediate Frequency
Industrial, Scientific, and Medical
Loopback
Quadrature Phase Shift Keying
Radio frequency
Radio frequency converter
Radio frequency converter link (IF cable)
Received signal strength indicator
Receive
Transmit
PAGE 54
61280004L1-1A
61280004L1-1A
PAGE A - 1
CABLE CONNECTIONS
APPENDIX A
CABLE CONNECTIONS
The cable connections required for various configurations are
detailed below.
TERMINAL CONNECTION (DB25)
Tracer (DCE)
Number
Name
2 ............... TXD
3 ............... RXD
4 ................ RTS
5 ................ CTS
6 ................ DSR
7 ............. Ground
Terminal (DTE)
Number
Name
2 ............... TXD
3 ............... RXD
4 ............... RTS
5 ............... CTS
6 ............... DSR
7 ............ Ground
PERSONAL COMPUTER CONNECTION (DB9)
Tracer (DCE)
Number
Name
2 ............... TXD
3 ............... RXD
4 ................ RTS
5 ................ CTS
6 ................ DSR
7 ............. Ground
Computer (DTE)
Number
Name
3 ............... TXD
2 ............... RXD
7 ............... RTS
8 ............... CTS
6 ............... DSR
5 ............ Ground
PAGE A - 2
61280004L1-1A
APPENDIX A
MODEM CONNECTION (DB25)
Tracer (DCE)
Number
Name
Modem (DCE)
Number
Name
2 ............... TXD
3 ............... RXD
3 ............... RXD
4 ................ RTS
5 ................ CTS
6 ................ DSR
7 ............. Ground
2 ............... TXD
5 ............... CTS
4 ............... RTS
20 .............. DTR
7Ground
E1 NETWORK INTERFACE
15 Pin
Pin
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Function
E1 Out ring
Frame ground
E1 In ring
Frame ground
N.C.
N.C.
N.C.
N.C.
E1 Out tip
N.C.
E1 In tip
N.C.
N.C.
N.C.
N.C.
RJ48
Pin
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Function
E1 Out ring
E1 Out tip
N.C.
E1 In ring
E1 In tip
N.C.
N.C.
N.C.
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertising