ADTRAN | TRACER 5045 | User manual | Adtran TRACER 5045 User Manual

Adtran TRACER 5045 User Manual
TRACER 5045
System Manual
612805045L1-1B
July 2004
12805045L1A
TRACER 5045 System (Plan A)
12805045L1B
TRACER 5045 System (Plan B)
Trademarks
TRACER 5045 System Manual
Trademarks
Any brand names and product names included in this manual are trademarks, registered trademarks, or
trade names of their respective holders.
TRACER® is a registered trademark of ADTRAN, Inc.
To the Holder of the Manual
The contents of this manual are current as of the date of publication. ADTRAN reserves the right to change
the contents without prior notice.
In no event will ADTRAN be liable for any special, incidental, or consequential damages or for
commercial losses even if ADTRAN has been advised thereof as a result of issue of this publication.
About this Manual
This manual provides a complete description of the TRACER 5045 system and system software. The
purpose of this manual is to provide the technician, system administrator, and manager with general and
specific information related to the planning, installation, operation, and maintenance of the
TRACER 5045. This manual is arranged so that needed information can be quickly and easily found.
901 Explorer Boulevard
P.O. Box 140000
Huntsville, AL 35814-4000
Phone: (256) 963-8000
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Printed in U.S.A.
2
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
612805045L1-1B
TRACER 5045 System Manual
Revision History
Revision History
Revision
Date
Description of Changes
A
March 2003
Initial release of manual.
B
July 2004
Update compliance information, add mounting information, update
menu screens.
Notes provide additional useful information.
Cautions signify information that could prevent service interruption.
Warnings provide information that could prevent damage to the equipment or
endangerment to human life.
612805045L1-1B
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
3
Safety Instructions
TRACER 5045 System Manual
Safety Instructions
When using your telephone equipment, please follow these basic safety precautions to reduce the risk of
fire, electrical shock, or personal injury:
1. Do not use this product near water, such as a bathtub, wash bowl, kitchen sink, laundry tub, in a
wet basement, or near a swimming pool.
2. Avoid using a telephone (other than a cordless-type) during an electrical storm. There is a remote
risk of shock from lightning.
3. Do not use the telephone to report a gas leak in the vicinity of the leak.
4. Use only the power cord, power supply, and/or batteries indicated in the manual. Do not dispose of
batteries in a fire. They may explode. Check with local codes for special disposal instructions.
Save These Important Safety Instructions
4
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
612805045L1-1B
TRACER 5045 System Manual
FCC-Required Information
FCC-Required Information
Federal Communications Commission Radio Frequency Interference Statement
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital device, pursuant
to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful
interference when the equipment is operated in a commercial environment. This equipment generates,
uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the
instruction manual, may cause harmful interference to radio frequencies. Operation of this equipment in a
residential area is likely to cause harmful interference in which case the user will be required to correct the
interference at his own expense.
Changes or modifications to this unit not expressly approved by the party responsible
for compliance could void the user’s authority to operate the equipment.
Radio Frequency Interface Statement
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for an intentional radiator, pursuant to
Part 15, Subpart C of the FCC Rules. This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency
energy. If not installed and used in accordance with the instructions, it may cause interference to radio
communications.
The limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against such interference in a residential situation.
However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation. If this equipment
does cause interference to radio or television reception, which can be determined by turning the equipment
on and off, the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of the following
measures:
•
•
•
•
Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna of the affected radio or television.
Increase the separation between the equipment and the affected receiver.
Connect the equipment and the affected receiver to power outlets on separate circuits.
Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
Changes or modifications not expressly approved by ADTRAN could void the user’s
authority to operate the equipment.
612805045L1-1B
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
5
FCC-Required Information
TRACER 5045 System Manual
FCC Output Power Restrictions
The FCC does not require licensing to implement this device. License-free operation in the industrial,
scientific, and medical band is documented in FCC Rules Part 15.247. It is the responsibility of the
individuals designing and implementing the radio system to ensure compliance with any pertinent FCC
Rules and Regulations. This device must be professionally installed.
Exposure to Radio Frequency Fields
The TRACER 5045 is designed to operate at 5.8 GHz with 100 mW maximum transmit power.
This level of RF energy is below the Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) levels specified in FCC OET
65:97-01. The installation of high gain antenna equipment in the system configuration may create the
opportunity for exposure to levels higher than recommended for the general population at a distance less
than 15 feet (4.6 meters) from the center of the antenna. The following precautions must be taken
during installation of this equipment:
Verify the antenna installation meets all regulations specified in the National Electric
Code (NEC) Article 810.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The installed antenna must not be located in a manner that allows exposure of the general population to
the direct beam path of the antenna at a distance less than 15 feet (4.6 meters). Installation on towers,
masts, or rooftops not accessible to the general population is recommended; or
Mount the antenna in a manner that prevents any personnel from entering the area within 15 feet
(4.6 meters) from the front of the antenna.
It is recommended that the installer place radio frequency hazard warnings signs on the barrier that
prevents access to the antenna.
Prior to installing the antenna to the TRACER 5045 output, make sure the power is adjusted to the
settings specified in section 2 of this manual.
During antenna installation, be sure that power to the TRACER equipment is turned off in order to
prevent any energy presence on the coaxial connector.
During installation and alignment of the antenna, do not stand in front of the antenna assembly.
During installation and alignment of the antenna, do not handle or touch the front of the antenna.
These simple precautions must be taken to prevent general population and installation personnel from
exposure to RF energy in excess of specified MPE levels.
6
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
612805045L1-1B
TRACER 5045 System Manual
Warranty and Customer Service
Warranty and Customer Service
ADTRAN will repair and return this product within the warranty period if it does not meet its published
specifications or fails while in service. Warranty information can be found at www.adtran.com/warranty.
Customer Service, Product Support Information, and Training
ADTRAN will replace or repair this product within the warranty period if it does not meet its published
specifications or fails while in service. Warranty information can be found at www.adtran.com/warranty.
A return material authorization (RMA) is required prior to returning equipment to ADTRAN. For service,
RMA requests, training, or more information, use the contact information given below.
Repair and Return
If you determine that a repair is needed, please contact our Customer and Product Service (CaPS)
department to have an RMA number issued. CaPS should also be contacted to obtain information
regarding equipment currently in house or possible fees associated with repair.
CaPS Department
(256) 963-8722
Identify the RMA number clearly on the package (below address), and return to the following address:
ADTRAN Customer and Product Service
901 Explorer Blvd. (East Tower)
Huntsville, Alabama 35806
RMA # _____________
Pre-Sales Inquiries and Applications Support
Your reseller should serve as the first point of contact for support. If additional pre-sales support is needed,
the ADTRAN Support web site provides a variety of support services such as a searchable knowledge
base, latest product documentation, application briefs, case studies, and a link to submit a question to an
Applications Engineer. All of this, and more, is available at:
http://support.adtran.com
When needed, further pre-sales assistance is available by calling our Applications Engineering
Department.
Applications Engineering (800) 615-1176
612805045L1-1B
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
7
Customer Service, Product Support Information, and Training
TRACER 5045 System Manual
Post-Sale Support
Your reseller should serve as the first point of contact for support. If additional support is needed, the
ADTRAN Support web site provides a variety of support services such as a searchable knowledge base,
updated firmware releases, latest product documentation, service request ticket generation and
trouble-shooting tools. All of this, and more, is available at:
http://support.adtran.com
When needed, further post-sales assistance is available by calling our Technical Support Center. Please
have your unit serial number available when you call.
Technical Support
(888) 4ADTRAN
Training
The Enterprise Network (EN) Technical Training Department offers training on our most popular
products. These courses include overviews on product features and functions while covering applications
of ADTRAN's product lines. ADTRAN provides a variety of training options, including customized
training and courses taught at our facilities or at your site. For more information about training, please
contact your Territory Manager or the Enterprise Training Coordinator.
8
Training Phone
(800) 615-1176, ext. 7500
Training Fax
(256) 963-6700
Training Email
training@adtran.com
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
612805045L1-1B
Table of Contents
Section 1
System Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Provides an overview of the TRACER 5045 system.
Section 2
Microwave Path Engineering Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Explains the basics of analyzing a wireless microwave link or path. The significant parameters
are defined, and several recommendations are offered.
Section 3
Engineering Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Provides information to assist network designers with incorporating the TRACER 5045 system
into their networks.
Section 4
Network Turnup Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Provides shipment contents list, grounding instructions, mounting options, and specifics of supplying power to the unit.
Section 5
User Interface Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Provides detailed descriptions of all menu options and configuration parameters available for
the TRACER 5045.
Section 6
Troubleshooting Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Provides helpful information for troubleshooting common configuration problems for the
TRACER 5045.
612805045L1-1B
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
9
Table of Contents
10
TRACER 5045 System Manual
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
612805045L1-1B
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
Provides an overview of the TRACER 5045 system.
CONTENTS
System Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Features and Benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Configuration and Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Operational . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Ethernet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
612805045L1-1B
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
11
Section 1 System Description
1.
TRACER 5045 System Manual
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
The ADTRAN TRACER 5045 is a wireless Ethernet switch used to transport 10/100BaseT/TX data at
45 Mbps in point-to-point applications for up to 25 miles on a line-of-sight path. As authorized under Part
15.247 of the FCC Rules, the TRACER 5045 operates license-free in the 5.8 GHz Industrial, Scientific,
and Medical (ISM) band. The ISM band requires no frequency coordination or licensing of end users.
The TRACER 5045 provides four dual speed 10/100BaseT/TX interfaces that operate with both half- and
full-duplex capability. Backpressure flow control is provided for full-duplex communication. Each port is
802.3 and 802.3u compliant.
For configuration and testing, the TRACER 5045 can control the remote system through a separate maintenance channel. Complete configuration and performance data is available through menus accessed using a
standard RS-232 terminal interface.
2.
FEATURES AND BENEFITS
The following is a brief list of the TRACER 5045 features and benefits:
Configuration and Management
•
•
Easy-to-use VT100 control port (RS-232 interface) for configuration and monitoring
Remote configuration of both ends of the wireless link, from each end of the link
Operational
•
•
•
•
•
Four port Layer 2 Ethernet switch and MAC bridging
No license required per FCC Rules Part 15.247
Frequency: 5.725 to 5.850 GHz
Point-to-point, up to 25 miles
1-U high unit for easy rack-mounting
Ethernet
•
•
•
12
Four 10BaseT/100BaseTX interfaces
IEEE 802.3 and 802.3u compliant
Backpressure flow control provided on all full-duplex interfaces
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
612805045L1-1B
MICROWAVE PATH ENGINEERING BASICS
Explains the basics of analyzing a wireless microwave link or path. The significant parameters are defined,
and several recommendations are offered.
CONTENTS
Line-of-Sight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Decibels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Calculating the Fade Margin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Receiver Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Antenna Gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Transmitted Power (PT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Carrier Wavelength (l) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Path Distance (d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
System Losses (L) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Path Loss (LP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Receiver Sensitivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Antenna Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Antenna Alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
TRACER RSSI Test Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Antenna Beam Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Fresnel Zones, Earth Curvature, and Antenna Heights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Other Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Path Availability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
FIGURES
Figure 1.
Figure 2.
Example Microwave Path with Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Typical Antenna Beam Pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
TABLES
Table 1.
Table 2.
Table 3.
Table 4.
Antenna Gain for Given Dish Diameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Typical Coaxial Loss for Common Cable Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Path Loss for Given Path Lengths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Minimum Antenna Height for Given Path Lengths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
612805045L1-1B
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
13
Section 2 Microwave Path Engineering Basics
1.
TRACER 5045 System Manual
LINE-OF-SIGHT
The TRACER 5045 system is designed for operation in the license-free 5.725 GHz to 5.850 GHz
industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) band. Radio wave propagation in this band exhibits microwave
characteristics which are ideally suited for point-to-point, line-of-sight communications. Line-of-sight
requires that the transmitting antenna and receiving antenna are able to “see” each other, and that the
straight-line path between the two antennas is free of obstructions such as buildings, trees, mountains, and
in longer paths, even the curvature of the earth. For maximum signal strength, the area around the visual
line-of-sight where microwave signals reflect (Fresnel zone) must also be free of obstructions. Fresnel
zones are discussed in more detail on page 20.
Terminology
2.
Point-to-Point
Wireless communication from a single site to another individual
site. Contrast with point-to-multipoint.
Line-of-Sight
An unobstructed, direct path exists between the transmitting and
the receiving antennas.
DECIBELS
Understanding the decibel (dB) format is key when discussing microwave path engineering because the
received signal power is often expressed in decibel format. In general, any quantity can be expressed in
decibels. If the quantity x is a power level (in Watts), the decibel equivalent is defined as
x dB = 10 ⋅ log 10 ( x )
(dB)
If the quantity x is referenced to a milliwatt (mW), then the decibel-milliwatt (dBm) is used instead of a
generic decibel.
x
x dBm = 10 ⋅ log 10 ⎛ -------------⎞
⎝ 1mW⎠
(dBm)
Using the decibel format simplifies power calculations by reducing multiplication and division operations
into addition and subtraction operations.
3.
CALCULATING THE FADE MARGIN
It is imperative to determine whether the proposed microwave path is suitable (at a
minimum) for ideal, nondistorted signals before attempting installation.
The fade margin (F ) is a value in decibels (dB) that represents the amount of signal reduction that can be
tolerated before the link exceeds the specified bit error rate (BER). Fade margin is simply the difference
between the available signal power at the receiver (PR ) and the receiver sensitivity (Psens ).
F = P R – P sens = PT + GT + GR - L - LP - Psens
14
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
(dB)
612805045L1-1B
TRACER 5045 System Manual
Section 2 Microwave Path Engineering Basics
where the variables in the equations are defined as
PR
PT
GT
GR
L
LP
received power (dBm)
transmitted power (adjustable up to 20 dBm maximum)
transmit antenna gain (decibels referenced to an isotropic source – dBi)
receive antenna gain (dBi)
other losses (RF coaxial cable, etc. – dB)
path loss (dB)
Higher levels of fade margin indicate stronger protection against signal fading and a more reliable link. For
most applications, 20 to 30 dB of fade margin should ensure a reliable link.
The following sections further discuss the necessary power calculations and their components.
4.
RECEIVER POWER
The viability of a particular microwave path is determined by the power of the transmitted microwave
signal, the transmit and receive antenna gain, distance, and accumulated system losses (such as RF coaxial
cable losses and path loss).
The equation relating received signal power to the other microwave parameters is
2
PT GT GR λ
P R = -----------------------------( 4π )2d2L
(Watts, W)
or (in decibel notation)
PR = PT + GT + GR - L - LP
(decibels referenced to a milliwatt, dBm)
where the variables in the equations are defined as
PR
PT
GT
GR
λ
d
L
LP
received power (dBm)
transmitted power (adjustable up to 20 dBm maximum)
transmit antenna gain (decibels referenced to an isotropic source – dBi)
receive antenna gain (dBi)
carrier wavelength (meters)
path distance (meters)
other losses (RF coaxial cable, etc. – dB)
path loss (dB)
When using decibel notation, all quantities must be individually converted to decibels
prior to performing addition and subtraction.
612805045L1-1B
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
15
Section 2 Microwave Path Engineering Basics
TRACER 5045 System Manual
Figure 1 illustrates a wireless link configuration containing all the parameters necessary for the power
budget analysis.
λ
GT
GR
d, LP
L
L
PT
PR
Figure 1. Example Microwave Path with Parameters
The following sections further discuss the power budget analysis and its components.
Antenna Gain
Actual transmit and receive antenna gain values depend strictly upon the physical characteristics of the
antennas installed for each link. In other words, the size of the dish determines the antenna gain. Using a
parabolic dish antenna results in the best performance. Antenna gains are specified in terms of decibels of
gain referenced to an isotropic source (dBi). An isotropic source is a hypothetical antenna having equal
radiation in all directions. Typical antenna gains are listed in Table 1; however, dish manufacturers can
provide gains for specific types of antennas.
Table 1. Antenna Gain for Given Dish Diameters
Dish Diameter
(in feet)
Gain at 5.8 GHz
(in dBi)
2
28.5
4
34.2
6
37.5
8
40.7
10
42.5
12
44.2
Transmitted Power (PT)
The FCC specifies the maximum transmitter power used for antennae of a given gain. FCC Rules Part 15,
Subpart 247 allow for a maximum power of 1 Watt (30 dBm) into antennae of a gain less than or equal to
6 dBi. Since the TRACER 5045 maximum transmit power is 100 milliwatts, there is no reduction in
transmitter output power required for antennae gains greater than 6 dBi.
16
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
612805045L1-1B
TRACER 5045 System Manual
Section 2 Microwave Path Engineering Basics
Carrier Wavelength (λ)
The carrier wavelength is the physical wavelength of the main RF carrier being used for communication,
and is usually approximated at the center frequency of the band (which is 5787.5 MHz for the
TRACER 5045). The carrier wavelength calculations follow:
λ = c / f (meters)
where
c = speed of light (in meters)
f = frequency (in Hz)
resulting in the following carrier wavelength:
λ = 3.00 x 10¯8 / 5787.5 x 10 5
= 0.0518 m or 5.18 cm
Path Distance (d)
The path distance is simply the physical distance between the transmit and receive antennas. For the
TRACER 5045, these distances can range up to 30 miles.
System Losses (L)
System losses are defined by RF coaxial cable loss, connector losses, and losses added from any additional
lightning protection devices for the power budget analysis. Coaxial cable is required to attach the
TRACER 5045 to the antenna. The length of the cable varies from a few feet to hundreds of feet,
depending upon your application and the proximity of the TRACER 5045 to the antenna. Various grades
of coaxial cable will work sufficiently well for connecting the TRACER 5045 unit to the antenna. A
low-loss coaxial cable will minimize cable losses.
One end of the coaxial cable requires an N-type male connector (plug) to mate with the TRACER 5045
unit. The other end of the coaxial cable requires a connector compatible with the antenna chosen for the
installation (usually an N-type male connector). Additionally, ADTRAN recommends that the outdoor
connector on the coaxial cable be weatherproofed to prevent corrosion and electrical shorting.
In areas where lightning strikes are frequent, a lightning arrestor should be installed
directly on the antenna coaxial cable. Installing lightning arrestors helps protect the
RF electronics in the downstream path from damaging voltages and currents
(including the TRACER 5045 unit).
612805045L1-1B
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
17
Section 2 Microwave Path Engineering Basics
TRACER 5045 System Manual
Table 2 gives typical loss figures for some of the more common coaxial cable types (per 100 feet).
Table 2. Typical Coaxial Loss for Common Cable Types
Cable Type
5.8 GHz Loss/100 ft (in dB)
RG58
N/A
RG8 (air)
N/A
RG8 (foam)
N/A
1/4” Coax
11.36
3/8” Coax
9.65
1/2” Coax
6.49
5/8” Coax
4.90
7/8” Coax
N/A
1 1/4” Coax
N/A
1 5/8” Coax
N/A
5.8 GHz Elliptical Waveguide
1.23
Path Loss (LP)
Path loss is the estimated attenuation between the transmit and receive antennas caused by signal
separation and scattering. The path loss is considered basic transmission loss over the microwave link. The
following expression calculates path loss:
4 π df 2
4πd 2
L P = ⎛ ----------⎞ = ⎛ ------------⎞
⎝ λ ⎠
⎝ c ⎠
(dB)
where
f
λ
d
c
carrier frequency (Hz)
carrier wavelength (c / f) (meters)
path distance (meters)
speed of light, free-space (meters)
or
L P = 96.6 + 20 ⋅ log 10 ( d ) + 20·log
10
(f)
(dB)
where d is expressed in miles and f in GHz
Path loss, as shown here, increases rapidly as either the path length increases or the carrier wavelength
decreases (which happens as the carrier frequency increases). Therefore, longer microwave paths naturally
experience more path loss than shorter paths. Likewise, higher frequency microwave communication
experiences more path loss than lower frequency microwave communication.
18
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
612805045L1-1B
TRACER 5045 System Manual
Section 2 Microwave Path Engineering Basics
Table 3 lists path loss values for various path lengths for the TRACER 5045 5.8 GHz system. Values not
listed in the table can be interpolated from those listed.
Table 3. Path Loss for Given Path Lengths
5.
Path Length
(miles)
Path Loss
(dB)
1
112
2
118
3
121
4
124
5
126
10
132
15
135
20
138
25
140
30
141
35
143
RECEIVER SENSITIVITY
Receiver sensitivity is a value expressed in decibels referenced to one milliwatt (dBm) that corresponds to
the minimum amount of signal power needed at the receiver to achieve a given bit error rate (BER).
Receiver sensitivity is usually a negative number of decibels, and smaller receiver sensitivity (higher
quantity negative number) is better for a given BER. Several factors affect receiver sensitivity, including
the data bandwidth of the wireless link and the amount of additional signal degradation introduced in the
receiver electronics. The receiver sensitivity of the TRACER 5045 is -78 dBm at 10-6 BER.
6.
ANTENNA INFORMATION
The overall wireless system is directly affected by the antenna selection and installation, discussed in the
following sections.
Verify the antenna installation meets all regulations specified in the National Electric
Code (NEC) Article 810.
Antenna Alignment
With line-of-sight microwave communications, optimum system performance requires that the
transmitting and receiving antennas are properly aligned. This ensures maximum received signal power at
each receiver. Antenna alignment must be achieved in both azimuth (along a horizontal plane) and
elevation (along a vertical plane). By ensuring maximum received signal strength, a received signal
strength indicator (RSSI) helps the equipment installer to determine when alignment is maximized.
612805045L1-1B
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
19
Section 2 Microwave Path Engineering Basics
TRACER 5045 System Manual
TRACER RSSI Test Points
RSSI for the TRACER 5045 system is provided through the VT100 terminal menus accessed through the
RS-232 interface, and it is presented as a series of bars indicating signal strength. More bars means more
RSSI, which ensures more received signal strength and better link performance.
If both the local and remote end of the system are operational, the remote TRACER 5045 receive power
can be viewed from the local TRACER 5045 VT100 terminal menu interface.
An RSSI test point, located on the front panel, provides a DC voltage level (relative to the GND test point)
that corresponds to the amount of signal being received from the far end's transmitter. The voltage at this
test point can vary from approximately 0 to 5 VDC. An RSSI calibration sheet is shipped with the system
to provide the installer a cross-reference between actual received signal level (in dBm) and RSSI voltage.
This sheet is useful for verifying link budget calculations and ensuring proper equipment installation.
Antenna Beam Patterns
Directly related to the subject of antenna alignment is the topic of antenna beam patterns. Antennas used
with the TRACER 5045 system have a particular beam shape determined in part by the physical
construction and geometry of the antenna. The antenna beam patterns are characterized by a dominant
main lobe, which is the preferred lobe to use for point-to-point communications, and several side lobes, as
shown in Figure 2. When setting up a microwave link, antenna alignment is nothing more than steering the
main lobes of both antennas until the main lobe of one transmitter is centered on the receiving element of
the receiving antenna.
main lobe
side lobes
Figure 2. Typical Antenna Beam Pattern
Antennas are also designed to radiate RF energy efficiently for a specific range of frequencies. Please
consult the data sheet for your particular antenna make and model to ensure that it is specified to operate in
the 5725 MHz to 5850 MHz frequency band for the TRACER 5045 system.
Fresnel Zones, Earth Curvature, and Antenna Heights
Fresnel zones correspond to regions in the microwave path where reflections of the intended signal occur
and combine in both constructive and destructive manners with the main signal, thereby either enhancing
or reducing the net power at the receiver.
In general, the odd numbered Fresnel zones (1, 3, 5, ...) add constructively at the receiver, while the even
20
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
612805045L1-1B
TRACER 5045 System Manual
Section 2 Microwave Path Engineering Basics
numbered Fresnel zones (2, 4, 6, ...) add destructively at the receiver.
The first Fresnel zone corresponds to the main lobe, 60% of which must be free of physical obstructions
for the path calculations to be valid. Since the main lobe contains the vast majority of the microwave
energy, this zone is typically used to determine proper antenna heights when placing antennas on towers or
buildings.
The curvature of the Earth becomes a legitimate obstruction for path lengths of 7 miles or greater, and must
also be accounted for when determining minimum antenna heights.
The aggregate expression for minimum antenna height that incorporates both the 60% first Fresnel zone
and the Earth’s curvature is given by
2
d
h = 72.1 ----- + 0.125d
4f
(feet)
where f is in GHz and d is in miles.
Table 4 tabulates minimum antenna heights for given path lengths.
Table 4. Minimum Antenna Height for Given Path Lengths
Path Length
(miles)
2
4
6
8
10
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
612805045L1-1B
Min. Antenna Height
(ft)
22
32
41
50
60
81
92
104
117
131
145
161
177
194
213
232
252
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
21
Section 2 Microwave Path Engineering Basics
7.
TRACER 5045 System Manual
OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
Path Availability
The path availability of a wireless link is a metric that expresses the fractional amount of time a link is
available over some fixed amount of time, and depends on several factors. Path availability is expressed as
A = [ 1 – ( 2.5 × 10
–6
3
– F ⁄ 10
)abfd ( 10
) ] × 100%
(%)
where the parameters are
a
b
f
d
F
terrain factor
climate factor
carrier frequency (GHz)
path length (miles)
fade margin (dB)
Terrain Factor (a)
The terrain factor is a quantity that compensates the link availability for different types of terrain.
Generally speaking, the more smooth an area's terrain is, the less availability a wireless link running over
that terrain will have, primarily due to multipath reflections. In contrast, secondary microwave signals will
be randomly dispersed over rough terrain, and will not interfere with the main signal lobe as badly as in the
smooth terrain case. The terrain factor values normally used are listed below:
Terrain
Terrain Factor
Description
Smooth
4
water, flat desert
Average
1
moderate roughness
Mountainous
1/4
very rough, mountainous
Climate Factor (b)
The climate factor is a quantity that compensates the link availability for different types of climates
(weather). In general, microwave links operating in areas with high humidity will have less availability
than those in arid areas, primarily because water is a dispersive mechanism to microwave energy, and
causes the main signal lobe to refract and disperse away from the receiver location. The climate factor
values normally used are listed below:
22
Climate
Climate Factor
Description
Very Dry
1/8
desert regions
Temperate
1/4
mainland, interior region
Humid
1/2
humid and coastal regions
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
612805045L1-1B
ENGINEERING GUIDELINES
Provides information to assist network designers with incorporating the TRACER 5045 system into their
networks.
CONTENTS
Equipment Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Power Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Reviewing the Front Panel Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
RSSI Monitoring Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Front Panel LEDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Reviewing the TRACER 5045 Rear Panel Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
RS-232 Connection (DB-25) — Terminal Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
RS-232 Connection (Modem Use) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
10/100BaseT/TX Connections (RJ-48C). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Alarm Contacts (Plug-In Terminal Block) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
DC Power Connection (Plug-In Terminal Block) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Fuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Antenna Interface (N-Type connector) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
At-A-Glance Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
FIGURES
Figure 1.
Figure 2.
TRACER 5045 Front Panel Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
TRACER 5045 Rear Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
TABLES
Table 1.
Table 2.
Table 3.
Table 4.
Table 5.
Table 6.
Table 7.
Table 8.
Table 9.
Table 10.
Table 11.
TRACER 5045 Front Panel Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
TRACER 5045 LEDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Rear Panel Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
RS-232 Connection Pinout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
TRACER 5045 (DCE) to Terminal (DTE) Diagram (DB-25) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
TRACER 5045 (DCE) to Personal Computer (DB-9) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
TRACER 5045 (DCE) to Modem (DCE - DB-25) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
10/100BaseT/Tx Interface Pinout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Alarm Contact Connector Pinout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
DC Power Connector Example Pinout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
At-A-Glance Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
612805045L1-1B
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
23
Section 3 Engineering Guidelines
1.
TRACER 5045 System Manual
EQUIPMENT DIMENSIONS
The TRACER 5045 unit is 17.22” W, 9.34” D, and 1.72” H, weighs 7 lbs, and can be used in rackmount
configurations.
2.
POWER REQUIREMENTS
The TRACER 5045 system has a maximum power consumption of 23 W and a maximum current draw of
1.1 A (at 21 VDC).
3.
REVIEWING THE FRONT PANEL DESIGN
The front panel contains an RSSI monitoring interface, a GND interface for reference with RSSI, and status
LEDs to provide visual information about the TRACER 5045 system. Figure 1 identifies the various
bantam interfaces and the LEDs.
Status LEDs
LAN
1
2
3
WAN
PLAN
RF
4
TRACER 5045
RSSI
GND
RSSI
GND
Figure 1. TRACER 5045 Front Panel Layout
RSSI Monitoring Interface
The RSSI voltage is a function of the signal strength at the receiver and is used to measure the received
signal strength. RSSI varies from approximately 0 to 5 VDC. An RSSI calibration sheet is shipped with the
system to provide the installer a cross-reference between actual received signal level (in dBm) and RSSI
voltage. This sheet is useful for verifying link budget calculations and ensuring proper equipment
installation.
Front Panel LEDs
With the TRACER 5045 powered-on, the front panel LEDs provide visual information about the status of
the TRACER 5045 system. Table 1 provides a brief description of the front panel features, and Table 2 on
page 25 provides detailed information about the LEDs.
Table 1. TRACER 5045 Front Panel Description
Feature
Description
RSSI Interface
DC voltage indicating strength of the received signal at the antenna
GND Interface
Ground reference for the RSSI interface
Status LEDs
Status information about the system
24
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
612805045L1-1B
TRACER 5045 System Manual
Section 3 Engineering Guidelines
Table 2. TRACER 5045 LEDs
For these LEDs...
This color light...
Indicates that...
Green (solid)
the TRACER 5045 is connected to a power source.
Off
the TRACER 5045 is not currently powered up.
Amber (solid)
there is an active test being performed by the system.
Green
there is a valid 10/100BaseT/TX link.
Amber (blinks with activity)
there is data activity (transmit or receive data) on the
10/100BaseT/TX LAN interface.
Green
there is a valid wireless link.
Amber (blinks with activity)
there is data activity (transmit or receive data) over the wireless
link.
Green (solid)
the TRACER 5045 is transmitting on Frequency Plan A.
Off
the TRACER 5045 is not transmitting on Frequency Plan A.
Green (solid)
the TRACER 5045 is transmitting on Frequency Plan B.
Off
the TRACER 5045 is not transmitting on Frequency Plan B.
RF LOW
Red (solid)
the RSSI level is below suggested minimum threshold
(approximately 10 dBm above the minimum receive sensitivity).
RF DOWN
Red (solid)
there is a communication problem between the local and remote
TRACER 5045 systems.
PWR
TST
LAN (1–4)
WAN
PLAN A
PLAN B
4.
REVIEWING THE TRACER 5045 REAR PANEL DESIGN
Figure 2 identifies the features of the TRACER 5045 rear panel, and Table 3 on page 26 provides a brief
description of each interface.
E
DC Power
Connection
A
RS-232 Interface
(VT100 Terminal)
1
LNK
2
ACT LNK
3
ACT LNK
G
Antenna
Connector
4
ACT LNK
ACT
10/100 BASE - T/ TX
B
Test
C
Ethernet
Interfaces
D
Alarm
Contacts
F
Fuse
H
Ground
Lug
Figure 2. TRACER 5045 Rear Panel
612805045L1-1B
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
25
Section 3 Engineering Guidelines
TRACER 5045 System Manual
Table 3. Rear Panel Description1
Name
Connector
Description
A
RS-232
DB-25 (female)
VT100 terminal (or PC with terminal emulation software)
connection
B
Test
1/4” bantam
Factory test connection
C
10/100BaseT/TX
RJ-48C
10/100BaseT/TX Ethernet interfaces for LAN connections
D
Alarm
Terminal block
External alarm monitoring system connection
E
DC Power
Terminal block
21-60 VDC power source connection
F
Fuse
N/A
2 A, 250 V, 2 inch slow-blo fuse
G
Antenna
N-Type
Antenna feedline cable connection
H
Ground Lug
N/A
Earth ground connection
1
Detailed discussions (including pinouts) of rear panel components (where applicable) follow the table.
RS-232 Connection (DB-25) — Terminal Use
The RS-232 connector provides a female DB-25 terminal connection (wired as a DCE interface), which is
used for terminal access to the TRACER 5045 system. The RS-232 port provides the following functions:
•
•
Accepts RS-232/EIA-232 input from a PC or terminal for controlling the TRACER 5045 system
Operates at 9600 bps
Table 4 shows the pinout. Wiring diagrams for connecting to the RS-232 connector (for various
applications) are provided following the pinout, in Tables 5 through 7.
Table 4. RS-232 Connection Pinout
26
PIN
NAME
DESCRIPTION
1, 7
GND
Ground
2
TX
Transmit
3
RX
Receive
4
RTS
Request To Send
5
CTS
Clear To Send
6
DSR
Data Set Ready (Modem Control Only)
8
CD
Carrier Detect
9-19
—
Unused
20
DTR
Data Terminal Ready (Modem Control Only)
21
—
Unused
22
RI
Ring Indicator
23-25
—
Unused
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
612805045L1-1B
TRACER 5045 System Manual
Section 3 Engineering Guidelines
Table 5. TRACER 5045 (DCE) to Terminal (DTE) Diagram (DB-25)
PIN
NAME
PIN
NAME
2
TX
3
TX
3
RX
2
RX
4
RTS
4
RTS
5
CTS
5
CTS
6
DSR
6
DSR
7
GND
7
GND
Table 6. TRACER 5045 (DCE) to Personal Computer (DB-9)
PIN
NAME
PIN
NAME
2
TX
3
TX
3
RX
2
RX
4
RTS
7
RTS
5
CTS
8
CTS
6
DSR
6
DSR
7
GND
5
GND
RS-232 Connection (Modem Use)
Modem controls, discussed in Section 5, User Interface Guide, enable or disable modem control through
the RS-232 interface. When this option is enabled from a standard terminal connection, all RS-232
communications cease until a modem with a null modem adapter is attached between the TRACER 5045
and the data modem. Configure the data modem for AUTO ANSWER and 9600 BPS. When the user
connects via the modem to the TRACER 5045 unit, communications via the RS-232 port resume. If a user
accidentally enables modem control from a terminal and disrupts the RS-232 communication, pressing
<Ctrl + Z> three times will temporarily disable the modem control option (until the system is reset) and
will access the system configuration to disable modem control.
The TRACER 5045 must be interfaced to a modem via an RS-232 null modem adapter or cable. The null
modem converts Clear To Send (CTS) and Data Set Ready (DSR) into Ready To Send (RTS) and Data
Terminal Ready (DTR), respectively. These signals indicate (to most modems) that a valid DTE terminal
device is present. The null modem interface must route Carrier Detect (CD) on pin 8 directly from the
modem. When using the RS-232 interface for modem control, the modem must source CD only when
actually connected to a carrier.
When MODEM CONNECTION is selected in the menu system, the TRACER 5045 will de-assert DTR and
DSR for a time greater than 20 msec. The null modem consequently drops DTR and RTS at the modem
interface, signaling the modem to hang up the line. If password functionality is enabled in the TRACER
5045, selecting MODEM CONNECTION resets the TRACER 5045 to the password entry screen.
Hangup-on-DTR-drop may need to be explicitly enabled on some modems.
612805045L1-1B
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
27
Section 3 Engineering Guidelines
TRACER 5045 System Manual
Table 7 contains the wiring diagram needed for connecting the TRACER 5045 RS-232 interface to a
modem using the null modem adapter.
The null modem interface must route Carrier Detect (CD) on pin 8 directly from the
modem. When using the RS-232 interface for modem control, the modem must source CD
only when actually connected to a carrier.
Table 7. TRACER 5045 (DCE) to Modem (DCE - DB-25)
PIN
NAME
PIN
NAME
2
TX
3
RX
3
RX
2
TX
4
RTS
5
CTS
5
CTS
4
RTS
6
DSR
20
DTR
7
GND
7
GND
8
CD
8
CD
10/100BaseT/TX Connections (RJ-48C)
The physical Ethernet interfaces are provided by four RJ-48C jacks that deliver 10/100BaseT/TX
interfaces for LAN connectivity. Each port has a green LINK LED to indicate a valid link and an amber
ACT LED that blinks with data activity on the interface.
Table 8. 10/100BaseT/Tx Interface Pinout
PIN
NAME
DESCRIPTION
1
TX1
Transmit positive
2
TX2
Transmit negative
3
RX1
Receive positive
4,5
6
7, 8
—
RX2
—
Unused
Receive negative
Unused
Alarm Contacts (Plug-In Terminal Block)
An RF link down condition is indicated with both normally open (NO) and normally closed (NC) alarm
contacts on the rear panel of the TRACER 5045 system. In normal operation, the NC contact is electrically
connected to the common contact (COM) and the NO contact is isolated. When the RF link drops, the NC
contact becomes isolated and the NO is electrically connected to COM. This allows RF down conditions to
be reported to external alarm monitoring systems. Table 9 on page 29 provides the Alarm Contact pinout.
28
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
612805045L1-1B
TRACER 5045 System Manual
Section 3 Engineering Guidelines
Table 9. Alarm Contact Connector Pinout
PIN
NAME
DESCRIPTION
1
COM
2
NO
Normally-Open Contact
3
NC
Normally-Closed Contact
Common Contact
DC Power Connection (Plug-In Terminal Block)
The TRACER 5045 can operate from a supply between 21 and 60 VDC, with either polarity referenced to
ground, and consumes less than 23 W. Power supplies should be able to provide up to 24 W at the selected
voltage. Current required (in Amps) is determined by dividing the power consumed (in Watts) by the
applied voltage (in Volts). For example, at 48 V, TRACER 5045 would draw approximately 0.48 A
(23 W/48 V).
The positive (+) terminal of the DC power connection must be connected to the most positive voltage rail,
while the negative (–) terminal must be connected to the most negative voltage rail. For example, a +24 V
source should be delivered to the TRACER 5045 by connecting +24 V to the positive (+) terminal of the
TRACER 5045 power terminal block and ground (the most negative voltage) to the TRACER 5045 negative
(–) terminal. Alternately, a -48 V supply should be delivered to the TRACER 5045 by connecting ground
(the most positive voltage) to the positive (+) terminal of the TRACER 5045 power terminal block and -48V
to the negative (–) terminal.
If the power supply voltages are incorrectly connected to the TRACER 5045 system,
the fuse will blow.
Table 10. DC Power Connector Example Pinout
PIN
NAME
+ Voltage (+24 VDC)
– Voltage (-48 VDC)
1
+
+ Voltage
Ground (GND)
2
-
Ground (GND)
– Voltage
Fuse
The fuse holder, accessible from the rear panel of the TRACER 5045, accepts a generic 2 A, 250 V, 2-inch
slow-blo fuse.
Antenna Interface (N-Type connector)
The ANTENNA interface (N-Type connector) connects to the customer-supplied antenna using standard
antenna feedline cable. When determining the cable specifications for your application, refer to Section 2,
Microwave Path Engineering Basics (System Losses (L) on page 17) for a discussion on cable length and
loss factors.
5.
AT-A-GLANCE SPECIFICATIONS
Table 11 on page 30 contains a list of specifications for the TRACER 5045 system.
612805045L1-1B
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
29
Section 3 Engineering Guidelines
TRACER 5045 System Manual
Table 11. At-A-Glance Specifications
Hardware
Description
Specification
Transmitter
Output Power
+20 dBm, max
Frequency Range
5725 to 5850 MHz
Receive Level, Minimum
-78 dBm
Receive Level, Maximum
-30 dBm
Receive Level, Nominal
-55 dBm
Plan A
Tx 5.747 GHz, Rx 5.827 GHz
Plan B
Tx 5.827 GHz, Rx 5.747 GHz
Receiver
Frequency Plan
10/100BaseT/TX Interfaces
Connection
four RJ-48C jacks with auto MDI/MDIX crossover
Flow Control
backpressure flow control on all full-duplex interfaces
Panel
Alarm LEDs
Diagnostics
RF link diagnostics and error history, transmit and
receive packets history
Test Points
RSSI and Ground (GND)
Alarms
Normally Open (NO) and Normally Closed (NC)
VT100 Terminal
Menu Driven User Interface, Control of the Remote
End, Optional Password Protection, Event History,
Ethernet Statistics
User Interface
VT100 Terminal Interface
Data Rate
9600 bps
Data Bits
8
Parity
None
Stop Bits
1
Terminal Emulation
VT100
Mechanical and Environmental
30
Operating Temperature
-25° C to 65° C
Size
17.22” W x 9.34” D x 1.72” H
Humidity
95%, Non-condensing
Weight
7 lbs
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
612805045L1-1B
TRACER 5045 System Manual
Section 3 Engineering Guidelines
Table 11. At-A-Glance Specifications (Continued)
Hardware
Description
Specification
Power
612805045L1-1B
Input Voltage
21 to 60 VDC, either polarity referenced to ground
Power Consumption
< 23 W
Connector
2 pin terminal block (DC)
Fuse
2 A, 250 V slow-blo fuse (2-inch)
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
31
Section 3 Engineering Guidelines
32
TRACER 5045 System Manual
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
612805045L1-1B
NETWORK TURNUP PROCEDURE
Provides shipment contents list, grounding instructions, mounting options, and specifics of supplying
power to the unit.
CONTENTS
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Tools Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Unpack and Inspect the System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Contents of ADTRAN Shipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Customer Provides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Channel Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Grounding Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Supplying Power to the Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Mounting Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Connecting the Ethernet Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
FIGURES
Figure 1.
Figure 2.
Figure 3.
5.8 GHz Bandwidth Division. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
19-inch Rackmount Illustration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
23-inch Rackmount Illustration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
612805045L1-1B
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
33
Section 4 Network Turnup Procedure
1.
TRACER 5045 System Manual
INTRODUCTION
This section discusses TRACER 5045 system installation.
Changes or modifications not expressly approved by ADTRAN could void the user’s
authority to operate the equipment.
2.
TOOLS REQUIRED
The tools required for TRACER 5045 installation are:
•
•
VT100 terminal or PC with terminal emulation software
RS-232 (DB-25 male for TRACER 5045) cable for connecting to terminal
To prevent electrical shock, do not install equipment in a wet location or during a
lightning storm.
3.
UNPACK AND INSPECT THE SYSTEM
This system MUST be installed by qualified service personnel in a Restricted Access
Location.
Each TRACER 5045 is shipped in its own cardboard shipping carton. Open each carton carefully and
avoid deep penetration into the carton with sharp objects.
After unpacking the unit, inspect it for possible shipping damage. If the equipment has been damaged in
transit, immediately file a claim with the carrier; then contact ADTRAN Customer Service (see Customer
Service, Product Support Information, and Training information in the front of this manual).
Contents of ADTRAN Shipment
Your ADTRAN shipment includes the following items:
•
•
34
TRACER 5045 Unit
TRACER 5045 Documentation CD
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
612805045L1-1B
TRACER 5045 System Manual
Section 4 Network Turnup Procedure
Customer Provides
The following items are necessary for the installation of the TRACER 5045 system and are not provided
by ADTRAN:
•
•
•
•
4.
21 to 60 VDC power source (or AC adapter available from ADTRAN P/N 1280650L1), either polarity
referenced to ground
Antenna and mounting hardware
Antenna feedline cable
Ethernet cables
CHANNEL SELECTION
The FCC has allocated 125 MHz of spectrum in the 5.8 GHz band where the TRACER 5045 operates.
Figure 1 illustrates the bandwidth division.
5725 MHz
A
B
5747
5827
5850 MHz
Figure 1. 5.8 GHz Bandwidth Division
To designate the utilization of the ISM bandwidth, there are two different channel plans, labeled A and B.
The letter of each channel plan setting is preset by the factory and refers to the physical configuration of
the diplexer filter inside the chassis. The channel plan (A or B) refers to which half of the band the radio
transmits in. For example, a Plan A radio will transmit in Channel A and receive in Channel B. A Plan B
radio will transmit in channel B and receive in Channel A. The transmitter at one end of the link must
transmit in the lower portion of the spectrum and receive in the upper portion. Consequently, the receiver
at the other end must receive in the lower portion and transmit in the upper portion.
The letter of the channel plan (A or B) must be different on both ends. The channel plan of the unit may be
changed in the field, if necessary, by rewiring the internal diplexer. Contact ADTRAN Technical Support
for more information on this procedure.
5.
GROUNDING INSTRUCTIONS
The following paragraphs provide grounding instruction information from the Underwriters’ Laboratory
UL 60950 Standard for Safety of Information Technology Equipment Including Electrical Business
Equipment, of December, 2000.
An equipment grounding conductor that is not smaller in size than the ungrounded branch-circuit supply
conductors is to be installed as part of the circuit that supplies the product or system. Bare, covered, or
insulated grounding conductors are acceptable. Individually covered or insulated equipment grounding
conductors shall have a continuous outer finish that is either green, or green with one or more yellow
stripes. The equipment grounding conductor is to be connected to ground at the service equipment.
612805045L1-1B
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
35
Section 4 Network Turnup Procedure
TRACER 5045 System Manual
The attachment-plug receptacles in the vicinity of the product or system are all to be of a grounding type,
and the equipment grounding conductors serving these receptacles are to be connected to earth ground at
the service equipment.
A supplementary equipment grounding conductor shall be installed between the product or system and
ground that is in addition to the equipment grounding conductor in the power supply cord.
The supplementary equipment grounding conductor shall not be smaller in size than the ungrounded
branch-circuit supply conductors. The supplementary equipment grounding conductor shall be connected
to the product at the terminal provided, and shall be connected to ground in a manner that will retain the
ground connection when the product is unplugged from the receptacle. The connection to ground of the
supplementary equipment grounding conductor shall be in compliance with the rules for terminating
bonding jumpers at Part K or Article 250 of the National Electrical Code, ANSI/NFPA 70. Termination of
the supplementary equipment grounding conductor is permitted to be made to building steel, to a metal
electrical raceway system, or to any grounded item that is permanently and reliably connected to the
electrical service equipment ground.
The supplemental grounding conductor shall be connected to the equipment using a number 8 ring terminal
and should be fastened to the grounding lug provided on the rear panel of the equipment. The ring terminal
should be installed using the appropriate crimping tool (AMP P/N 59250 T-EAD Crimping Tool or
equivalent.)
The supplemental equipment grounding terminal is located on the rear panel of the
TRACER 5045.
•
•
•
•
6.
This unit shall be installed in accordance with Article 400 and 364.8 of the NEC NFPA
70 when installed outside of a Restricted Access Location (i.e., central office, behind a
locked door, service personnel only area).
Power to the TRACER 5045 DC system must be from a reliably grounded
21-60 VDC source which is electrically isolated from the AC source.
The branch circuit overcurrent protection shall be a fuse or circuit breaker rated
minimum 60 VDC, maximum 10A.
A readily accessible disconnect device that is suitably approved and rated shall be
incorporated in the field wiring.
SUPPLYING POWER TO THE UNIT
The TRACER 5045 can operate from a supply between 21 and 60 VDC, with either polarity referenced to
ground. Power supplies should be able to provide up to 24 Watts at the selected voltage. A dual pin
terminal plug accepts power at the rear panel of the unit, providing a + and - polarity reference point.
Adapters for this plug are available (P/N 1175043L2) and are furnished with the unit and optional power
supply (P/N 1280650L1).
36
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
612805045L1-1B
TRACER 5045 System Manual
7.
Section 4 Network Turnup Procedure
MOUNTING OPTIONS
Install the TRACER 5045 in a location that requires minimal antenna feedline length (the loss in this cable
directly affects overall system performance). The TRACER 5045 is designed to be mounted in a rack. If
multiple units are installed in one location, one half inch of spacing is recommended above and below the
unit.
The TRACER 5045 systems are 1U high, rack-mountable units which can be installed into 19- or 23-inch
equipment racks using the supplied rackmount brackets (3265498@B). Follow these steps to mount the
TRACER 5045 into a rack:
Instructions for Rackmounting the TRACER 5045
1
Position the TRACER 5045 in a stationary equipment rack. This unit takes up 1U of
space. To allow proper grounding, scrape the paint from the rack around the
mounting holes where the TRACER 5045 will be positioned.
2
Have someone else hold the unit in position as you install two mounting bolts
through the unit’s brackets and into the equipment rack using a #2 Phillips
screwdriver.
Be careful not to upset the stability of the equipment mounting rack when installing this
product.
LAN
1
2
WAN
3
4
TRACER 5045
ER
AC
TR
06
42
Figure 2. 19-inch Rackmount Illustration
612805045L1-1B
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
37
Section 4 Network Turnup Procedure
TRACER 5045 System Manual
LAN
1
2
WAN
3
4
TRACER 5045
ER
AC
TR
06
42
Figure 3. 23-inch Rackmount Illustration
8.
CONNECTING THE ETHERNET INTERFACES
The physical Ethernet interfaces are provided using four RJ-48C jacks. Ethernet cables are not supplied
with your shipment. Connect any standard Ethernet device to one of the switch ports located on the rear of
the unit.
38
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
612805045L1-1B
USER INTERFACE GUIDE
Provides detailed descriptions of all menu options and configuration parameters available for the
TRACER 5045.
This section of ADTRAN’s TRACER 5045 System Manual is designed for use by network administrators
and others who will configure and provision the system. It contains information about navigating the
VT100 user interface, configuration information, and menu descriptions.
CONTENTS
Navigating the Terminal Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Terminal Menu Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Navigating using the Keyboard Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Terminal Menu and System Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Password Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Menu Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
>TRACER System Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
>Main Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
>TRACER System Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
>TRACER Link Performance History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
>Ethernet Switch Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
FIGURES
Figure 1.
Figure 2.
Figure 3.
Figure 4.
Figure 5.
Figure 6.
Main Menu Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TRACER 5045 System Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TRACER 5045 Main Menu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TRACER 5045 System Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TRACER Link Performance History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ethernet Switch Status. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
612805045L1-1B
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
40
42
44
45
47
48
39
Section 5 User Interface Guide
1.
TRACER 5045 System Manual
NAVIGATING THE TERMINAL MENU
The TRACER 5045 menu system can be accessed with a VT100 compatible terminal that is connected to
the RS-232 port (located on the back of the unit) and set to 9600 bits per second, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit, and
no parity. Flow control on the serial interface should be configured to NONE for proper operation. Once a
terminal is connected, press <Ctrl + L> to refresh the current screen. If password access has been enabled,
the ENTER PASSWORD message displays at the bottom of the TRACER 5045 System Status menu.
All TRACER 5045 systems are shipped factory default with password protection disabled.
Terminal Menu Window
The TRACER 5045 uses a series of menu pages and a single Main Menu page to access its many features.
The Main Menu page (see Figure 1) provides a link to all available configuration/status pages.
After connecting a VT100 terminal to the TRACER 5045, press <Ctrl + L> to redraw the
current screen.
Figure 1. Main Menu Screen
40
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
612805045L1-1B
TRACER 5045 System Manual
Section 5 User Interface Guide
Navigating using the Keyboard Keys
You can use various keystrokes to move through the terminal menu, to manage a terminal menu session,
and to configure the system.
Moving Through the Menus
To do this...
Press this key...
Refresh the screen
<Ctrl + L>
Move up to select items
Up Arrow
Move down to select items
Down Arrow
Edit a selected menu item
Enter
Scroll through configuration parameters for a menu item
Cancel an edit
Spacebar
Left/Right Arrows
P or N (Prev/Next)
Escape
Return to Main Menu page
M
Access the TRACER 5045 Status page
0
Access the STRACER 5045 System Configuration Menu
1
Display the TRACER 5045 Link Performance History
2
Display the TRACER 5045 Ethernet Switch Status page
3
2.
TERMINAL MENU AND SYSTEM CONTROL
Password Protection
The TRACER 5045 provides optional password protection of the terminal interface. If enabled, a password
prompt is presented at power-up, reboot, modem logout, or after ten minutes of inactivity on the terminal.
The password is enabled and defined via the System Configuration menu.
All TRACER 5045 systems are shipped factory default with password protection disabled.
3.
MENU DESCRIPTIONS
The remainder of this section describes the TRACER 5045 menus and submenus.
The menu structure of the TRACER 5045 system is depicted below as follows:
> MENU PAGE
> MENU PAGE > MENU SELECTION
> MENU PAGE > MENU SELECTION > SUB-MENU
612805045L1-1B
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
41
Section 5 User Interface Guide
TRACER 5045 System Manual
>TRACER SYSTEM STATUS
Figure 2 shows the TRACER 5045 System Status menu page. The status of major system components for
both sides of the TRACER link are displayed, but no configuration can be performed from this view.
A
Elapsed
Time
B
D
Contact
Information
Ethernet
Status
F
E
Local
Tracer
STATUS
Remote
TRACER
Status
G
C
G
RF Status
Frequency
Plan
Frequency
Plan
H
H
Rx Quality
Rx Quality
I
I
Rx Power
Rx Power
J
J
Tx Power
Tx Power
K
Navigation Reminder
Figure 2. TRACER 5045 System Status
A. Elapsed Time
The top of the TRACER 5045 System Status menu page displays the elapsed time the TRACER 5045
system has been operational since the last power reset.
B. Contact Information
The ADTRAN technical Support toll-free contact number is located directly beneath the elapsed time
display at the top of the TRACER 5045 System Status menu page.
C. RF Status
A graphical indicator of the TRACER RF links is located beneath the Technical Support contact
number. The status of the received radio link is indicated as RF UP or RF DOWN for each direction.
This RF status display corresponds to the RF DOWN LED on the front of the unit.
D. Ethernet Status
A visual status of the current configuration for each 10/100BaseT/TX Ethernet interface (for both the
local and remote TRACER systems) is provided on the TRACER 5045 System Status menu page. The
current operational speed of each Ethernet interface (10BT or 100BT) indicates whether the interface is
10BaseT or 100BaseTX. A blank line next to the port number indicates there is no active Ethernet link
42
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
612805045L1-1B
TRACER 5045 System Manual
Section 5 User Interface Guide
on the interface. A separate Ethernet status page is accessible from the Main Menu to provide detailed
Ethernet information.
E. Remote TRACER Status
The right portion of the TRACER 5045 System Status menu page reports the status of the remote
TRACER 5045 (the system across the wireless link from the active terminal). If the RF link is down in
either direction, DATA NOT AVAILABLE is displayed in place of the remote system status information.
F. Local TRACER Status
The left portion of the TRACER 5045 System Status menu page reports the status of the local
TRACER 5045 (the system where the active terminal is attached).
G. Frequency Plan
Displays the frequency plan (A or B) for the TRACER 5045 unit. For an operational TRACER 5045
system, you should have one A and one B frequency plan.
H. Rx Quality
Displays an indicator of receive signal quality that is not necessarily related to receive signal level (for
both the local and remote units) using a series of symbols (#). The more symbols displayed, the better
the signal quality. This indicator is related to signal-to-noise ratio and features a colon (:) marker to
indicate 10-6 bit error rate. This indicator is useful as a diagnostic tool to help identify interference, as
the system may have high receive signal level and poor signal quality in situations where interference
is an issue.
I. Rx Power
Displays the approximate receiver levels (for both the local and remote units) using a series of symbols
(#). The more symbols (#) displayed, the stronger the signal. If the link is down in either direction and
remote end data is unavailable, DATA NOT AVAILABLE is displayed in place of the symbols (#).
J. Tx Power
Displays the approximate transmitter levels (for both the local and remote units) using a series of
symbols (#). The more symbols (#) displayed, the stronger the signal. If the link is down in either
direction and remote end data is unavailable, DATA NOT AVAILABLE is displayed in place of the symbols
(#).
K. Navigation Reminders
Displays system navigation reminders. For more details on system navigation, refer to Navigating the
Terminal Menu on page 40.
612805045L1-1B
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
43
Section 5 User Interface Guide
TRACER 5045 System Manual
>MAIN MENU
The TRACER 5045 Main Menu page provides access to all other configuration/status pages.
Figure 3 shows the TRACER 5045 Main Menu page.
Figure 3. TRACER 5045 Main Menu
From the keyboard, use the up and down arrow keys to scroll through the available pages, or enter the
number or letter of the selected page (to highlight the menu page) and press <Enter>.
Press <m> from any menu in the TRACER 5045 VT100 menu structure to access the
TRACER 5045 Main Menu page.
44
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
612805045L1-1B
TRACER 5045 System Manual
Section 5 User Interface Guide
>TRACER SYSTEM CONFIGURATION
Figure 4 shows the TRACER 5045 System Configuration menu page. System configuration parameters for
both the local and remote TRACER 5045 units are available through this menu page.
Figure 4. TRACER 5045 System Configuration
Press <1> from any menu in the TRACER 5045 VT100 menu structure to access the
TRACER System Configuration menu page.
>TRACER SYSTEM CONFIGURATION > RX POWER
Displays the approximate receiver levels (for both the local and remote units) using a series of symbols (#).
The more symbols (#) displayed, the stronger the signal. If the link is down in either direction and remote
end data is unavailable, DATA NOT AVAILABLE displays in place of the symbols (#). This parameter is
display only.
>TRACER SYSTEM CONFIGURATION > TX POWER
Allows the transmitter levels (for both the local and remote units) to be adjusted. The current transmitter
level is displayed using a series of symbols (#). The more symbols (#) displayed, the stronger the signal. If
the link is down and remote end data is unavailable, DATA NOT AVAILABLE displays in place of the symbols
(#).
Reducing the transmitter power of the remote TRACER 5045 could cause the RF link to
drop, requiring a technician to increase the transmit power using the menu system at the
remote site.
612805045L1-1B
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
45
Section 5 User Interface Guide
TRACER 5045 System Manual
>TRACER SYSTEM CONFIGURATION > SITE NAME
Provides a user-defined alphanumeric description (up to 25 characters) for the TRACER 5045 system.
>TRACER SYSTEM CONFIGURATION > MODEM CONTROL
Configures the modem control leads on the RS-232 port (terminal interface located on the rear panel of the
unit). Set MODEM CONTROL to ENABLED when connecting the unit to a modem (using a null modem
adapter). Setting MODEM CONTROL to DISABLED prevents the TRACER 5045 from monitoring DCD and
enables data to be sent to the VT100 continuously. MODEM CONTROL must be set to DISABLED when the
VT100 terminal is in use. The TRACER 5045 comes factory programmed with MODEM CONTROL set to
DISABLED.
Press <Ctrl+Z> three times from the terminal interface to disable MODEM CONTROL when
the modem control leads are active.
>TRACER SYSTEM CONFIGURATION > MODEM CONNECTION (LOGOUT)
Causes the TRACER 5045 to de-assert Clear To Send (CTS) and DSR for a time greater than 20 msec.
This signals the modem to disconnect the analog connection. Hangup-On-DTR-Drop may need to be
explicitly enabled on some modems. If PASSWORD PROTECTION is ENABLED, this menu also causes the unit
to close the current session and return to the TRACER System Status menu page and wait for password
input.
>TRACER SYSTEM CONFIGURATION > PASSWORD ENABLE
Configures password protection for the VT100 terminal interface. Password protection for the
TRACER 5045 requires password input from the TRACER 5045 System Status menu page when
connecting to the unit. When configured for password protection, the TRACER 5045 closes any terminal
session that remains inactive for more than 10 minutes. The TRACER 5045 comes factory programmed
with PASSWORD ENABLE set to DISABLED.
>TRACER SYSTEM CONFIGURATION > PASSWORD
Sets the password for password protection of the TRACER 5045 VT100 terminal interface. Enter up to 8
alphanumeric characters. The system password is case sensitive.
The default password for the TRACER 5045 is tracer.
>TRACER SYSTEM CONFIGURATION > PERFORMANCE STATS (CLEAR)
Resets all system error counters for the TRACER 5045.
46
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
612805045L1-1B
TRACER 5045 System Manual
Section 5 User Interface Guide
>TRACER LINK PERFORMANCE HISTORY
Figure 5 shows the TRACER 5045 Link Performance History menu page, which displays detailed error
statistics and minimum received signal level for the RF link (from both the local and remote TRACER 5045
units) in 15-minute and 24-hour increments.
7
Days
24
Hours
Figure 5. TRACER Link Performance History
The minimum received signal level (MIN RSL) represents the minimum value of received signal level in a
24-hour or 15-minute increment and is displayed as a numerical value from 0 to 255 with 0 corresponding to
0 V of RSSI and 255 corresponding to 5 V RSSI.
The minimum receive signal level is recorded to aid in troubleshooting problem RF links.
Radio links with high MIN RSL numbers and intermittent performance are probably
experiencing interference, while links with low MIN RSL numbers have improperly
engineered paths or excess system losses. A system with MIN RSL numbers varying widely
indicates an intermittent installation problem such as loose connectors, damaged coax or
lightning arrestors, or water contaminated feedlines.
Link errors (LNK ERR) represent errored seconds across the wireless link, and are generally an indication of
path or interference problems.
The link error count and minimum received signal level for the most recent 24 hours are recorded in
15-minute increments and displayed on the right side of the page. The left side of the page displays the
24-hour totals for the most recent 7 days.
Press <N> to view the next 8 hours worth of 15-minute totals and <P> to view the
previous 8 hours.
Press <2> from any menu in the TRACER 5045 VT100 menu structure to access the
TRACER Link Performance History menu page.
612805045L1-1B
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
47
Section 5 User Interface Guide
TRACER 5045 System Manual
>ETHERNET SWITCH STATUS
Figure 6 shows the Ethernet Switch Status menu page, which displays transmit and receive data statistics
for the Ethernet interfaces (from both the local and remote TRACER 5045 units).
Figure 6. Ethernet Switch Status
>ETHERNET SWITCH STATUS > TX PACKETS
Displays a counter of all data packets transmitted out the local and remote TRACER Ethernet interfaces.
Use this data as an indicator for how many packets are being transmitted between the four Ethernet
interfaces.
>ETHERNET SWITCH STATUS > TX PACKETS DROPPED
Displays a counter of all transmit data packets that were unable to be transmitted out the individual
Ethernet interfaces (for both the local and remote TRACER units). Use this data as an indicator of
congestion on the Ethernet network segments.
>ETHERNET SWITCH STATUS > RX PACKETS
Displays a counter of all data packets received on the local and remote TRACER Ethernet interfaces. Use
this data as an indicator for how many packets are being received on the four Ethernet interfaces versus
being received over the wireless link.
>ETHERNET SWITCH STATUS > RX PACKETS DROPPED
Displays a counter of all received data packets that were unable to be processed due to congestion inside
the TRACER 5045 bridge (for both the local and remote TRACER 5045 units). Use this data as an
indicator of congestion inside the TRACER 5045 bridge.
48
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
612805045L1-1B
TRACER 5045 System Manual
Section 5 User Interface Guide
>ETHERNET SWITCH STATUS > RX PACKET ERRORS
Displays a counter of all received data packets that are greater than or equal to 64 bytes in length and have
either an FCS error or an alignment error (for both the local and remote TRACER units).
612805045L1-1B
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
49
Section 5 User Interface Guide
50
TRACER 5045 System Manual
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
612805045L1-1B
TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE
Provides helpful information for troubleshooting common configuration problems for the TRACER 5045.
CONTENTS
Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
LED Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
PWR LED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
TST LED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
RF DOWN LED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
RF LOW LED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
LAN LEDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
RF Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Step-by-Step Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Installing/Troubleshooting the TRACER Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Installing/Configuring Ethernet Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
612805045L1-1B
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
51
Section 6 Troubleshooting Guide
1.
TRACER 5045 System Manual
OVERVIEW
This troubleshooting guide provides recommended actions for various conditions of the TRACER 5045
system. The status LEDs (located on the front panel of the unit) provide information to help determine the
necessary troubleshooting action. This guide contains recommended actions for resolving possible
problems indicated by the status LEDs.
2.
LED INDICATORS
PWR LED
If the PWR LED is not ON and solid green, the TRACER 5045 is not receiving adequate DC power.
Recommended Actions:
1. Verify that the power source is delivering between 21 and 60 VDC.
2. Check the polarity of the power connection (referenced to ground) of both the TRACER 5045 unit and
the power source.
3. Check the internal fuse. The fuse is accessed from the rear panel of the unit. If this fuse is open,
replace with a 2 A, 250 V (2-inch) slow-blo fuse.
TST LED
The TST LED will blink once (amber) during power-up to indicate a self-test is in progress. If the TST
LED is blinking or remains ON after 10 seconds, the TRACER 5045 unit has failed the self-test. This is an
internal failure, and ADTRAN technical support should be contacted.
RF DOWN LED
If the RF DOWN LED is ON (solid red), there is a problem with the RF receive path from the remote
TRACER 5045.
Recommended Actions:
1. Verify that one end of the link is configured as Plan A and the other end as Plan B.
2. Measure the RSSI voltage and consult the RSSI calibration sheet included with the unit. If the voltage
level corresponds to a received signal power level that agrees with the calculated receive signal level,
proceed with Step 7.
3. Check the RF coaxial cable connection.
4. Verify that the antenna polarization is the same at both ends of the RF signal transmit and receive
path.
5. Verify the RF signal path is clear.
6. Check the integrity of the lightning arrestors.
7. Check for possible interference at both ends of the link. If necessary, change polarization and/or
bandplans at both ends.
52
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
612805045L1-1B
TRACER 5045 System Manual
Section 6 Troubleshooting Guide
RF LOW LED
If the RF LOW LED is ON (solid red), the received signal is approaching 0 V of RSSI. This condition is
typically indicative of a path or installation problem.
Recommended Actions:
1. Verify the far-end transmitter power setting is the value that the link planning budget allows.
2. Check all coaxial cable connectors for solid connections. Check for water and corrosion around any of
the connectors. If water is apparent in the coaxial connectors, replace the coaxial cable and the
connectors, making sure to properly weatherproof the replacements.
3. Verify the RF signal path by verifying the antenna alignment.
4. Check the integrity of lightning arrestors.
LAN LEDs
If the LAN LED is OFF, the TRACER 5045 is not able to detect an active Ethernet link on the particular
10/100BaseT/TX interface.
Recommended Actions:
1. Check all Ethernet cable connections to verify they are properly plugged in (making sure the tab on the
connector snaps into place).
2. Connect the 10/100BaseT/TX interface to a “known good” Ethernet port to verify the TRACER port is
functioning properly.
3. Try another Ethernet cable.
3.
RF ERRORS
RF errors can range from a nonviable microwave path to loose RF connectors.
Nonviable path conditions could be caused by physical obstructions such as buildings, moutainous terrain,
trees, etc., as well as other physical limitations such as excessive path distances and in-band RF interference.
These types of errors are remedied by performing a detailed line-of-site microwave path study to determine
whether a microwave link is feasible for the terrain and environment under consideration.
If after performing a microwave path study the system is still not operational, ensure that the antennas are
properly aligned. Note that alignment must be achieved in both elevation and azimuth for optimal link
performance. The TRACER 5045 can be used to aid in antenna alignment by looking at the RX POWER “fuel
gauge” on the System Status or System Option menu pages or by measuring the DC voltage (relative to
ground) at the RSSI front panel test jack. Optimal antenna alignment is achieved by peaking the front panel
RSSI voltage or the Rx Power “fuel gauge” on the TRACER 5045 terminal display. Consult the ADTRAN
TRACER Data Sheet included with the unit to verify that the actual receive signal level agrees with the
calculated receive signal.
An RSSI test point, located on the front panel, provides a DC voltage level (relative to the GND test point)
that corresponds to the amount of signal being received from the far end's transmitter. The voltage at this test
point can vary from approximately 0 to 5 VDC. An RSSI calibration sheet is shipped with the system to
provide the installer a cross-reference between actual received signal level (in dBm) and RSSI voltage. This
sheet is useful for verifying link budget calculations and ensuring proper equipment installation.
612805045L1-1B
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
53
Section 6 Troubleshooting Guide
4.
TRACER 5045 System Manual
STEP-BY-STEP TROUBLESHOOTING
The logical troubleshooting flow presented in this section can be used to set up your TRACER 5045
system, and also to diagnose a previously installed system. Please contact ADTRAN Technical support at
any stage during installation and/or troubleshooting if you require assistance.
5.
INSTALLING/TROUBLESHOOTING THE TRACER HARDWARE
1. Perform a detailed path profile and link budget for each TRACER 5045 microwave link. A
thorough path study can be used to estimate signal power budgets, fade margins at each receiver,
identity potential line-of-site obstacles, properly size antenna dishes, and determine minimum
antenna dish heights above the earth.
ADTRAN provides a wireless link planning tool on our website. This link budget tool is
constructed as an easy to use spreadsheet with dropdown menus so that the user can
quickly change any of the link parameters (antenna size, coaxial cable type and length,
frequency band, link distance, etc.) and instantly see how the microwave path availability
is affected. This tool is available at www.adtran.com/wireless and can be used online or
downloaded for standalone use.
2. Set up all of the TRACER hardware on a workbench. ADTRAN recommends that the actual
cables used in the permanent installation be used in the workbench setup. A rigorous workbench
“simulation” of the link will help alleviate and avoid time-consuming errors.
3. Examine the PLAN A and PLAN B LEDs on the front panel of each unit. These LEDs indicate the
frequency plan for each TRACER 5045 unit. The frequency plan (Plan A, Plan B) LED should be
the opposite on the TRACER 5045 units.
4. Attach the RF coaxial cables to be used in the permanent installation to the N-type connectors on
the back of the TRACER 5045 unit. Attach the other end of the coaxial cable(s) to an RF power
meter or spectrum analyzer, if either is available. The power measured by the meter/analyzer will
be the RF power available at the input of the antenna. The TRACER 5045 unit is programmed at
the factory to output approximately 100 mW (20 dBm) of RF power. The actual power level
measured by the meter/analyzer will be less than 100 mW due to RF losses through the coaxial
cable, and is a function of the cable type and length being used. In any event, the power level at the
output of the coaxial cable should be a significant fraction of 100 mW. A power meter/analyzer
reading that is not on the order of at least tens-of-milliwatts could be an indication of any
combination of unsuitable RF cable or faulty or unreasonably long coaxial cable.
5. Resolve all RF coaxial cabling errors before proceeding.
6. Attach the RF coaxial cables to a high-quality attenuator, if possible. If you do not have an
attenuator, attach the coaxial cables to the antennas to be used in the permanent installation. If the
installation antennas are not available, small, inexpensive dipole or patch antennas can be used for
verification purposes. If an adjustable attenuator is being used, dial in the amount of attenuation
that corresponds to the path loss value expected for the microwave link in which the TRACER
hardware will be installed. The path loss value can be calculated from a knowledge of the path
length, or provided by a path study. Remember to subtract both antenna gain values from the
attenuator level if these values have not already been accounted for.
7. After setting up the RF pieces, examine the RF DOWN LED on the front panel of each
TRACER 5045 unit. If the RF DOWN LED is illuminated (red), the corresponding TRACER 5045
is not receiving a suitable RF signal from the other TRACER 5045 unit. In this case, the receiving
TRACER 5045 is either receiving a very weak signal, or no signal at all. If the RF DOWN LED is
54
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
612805045L1-1B
TRACER 5045 System Manual
Section 6 Troubleshooting Guide
not illuminated, then the TRACER 5045 units are receiving a suitable RF signal. Suitable RF
power levels for low error rate communication will range from -30 dBm to -78 dBm measured at
the N-type connector input on the TRACER 5045 unit.
8. Resolve any signal level issues before proceeding.
9. Examine the RF LOW LED on the front panel of each TRACER 5045. If this LED is illuminated,
then the TRACER 5045 is receiving a relatively weak signal; however, if the RF DOWN LED is
not illuminated, then the received signal is being suitably processed by the TRACER 5045 system.
If you are receiving a weak signal (RF LOW is ON), please verify that the weak signal is not being
caused by a faulty cable, an insufficiently tightened cable, or some other installation-related
problem. Also, make sure an unreasonably large attenuation value has not been selected if you are
using an attenuator on a workbench setup.
Use the tables in Section 2, Microwave Path Engineering Basics, of this manual to select the
proper free-space attenuation value (in dB) based on the estimated length of the microwave path.
Remember to subtract both antenna gains (local and remote) from the attenuator setting.
10. Connect a computer (or Ethernet test equipment) to the TRACER 5045 Ethernet interfaces.
Perform a “ping” from one test station across the wireless link to another test station connected to
the remote TRACER 5045. This will verify the data path between the test equipment and the
TRACER 5045 unit.
Installing/Configuring Ethernet Hardware
1. If possible, attach any or all of the intended Ethernet hardware to the TRACER 5045 units using
the same workbench setup. This step offers the perfect opportunity to configure your Ethernet
hardware for proper functioning with the TRACER hardware.
2. To significantly reduce the probability of an unsuccessful field installation, resolve any remaining
Ethernet equipment-to-TRACER 5045 configuration issues before field installation.
612805045L1-1B
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
55
Section 6 Troubleshooting Guide
56
TRACER 5045 System Manual
© 2004 ADTRAN, Inc.
612805045L1-1B
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertising