Texas Instruments | INA186-Q1 Automotive, 40-V Current Sense Amplifier for Cost-Sensitive Systems | Datasheet | Texas Instruments INA186-Q1 Automotive, 40-V Current Sense Amplifier for Cost-Sensitive Systems Datasheet

Texas Instruments INA186-Q1 Automotive, 40-V Current Sense Amplifier for Cost-Sensitive Systems Datasheet
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INA186-Q1
SBOS386 – MAY 2019
INA186-Q1 Automotive, 40-V Current Sense Amplifier for Cost-Sensitive Systems
1 Features
3 Description
•
The INA186-Q1 is an automotive, bidirectional, lowpower, voltage-output, current-sense amplifier (also
called a current-shunt monitor). This device is
commonly used for monitoring systems directly
connected to an automotive 12-V battery. The
INA186-Q1 can sense drops across shunts at
common-mode voltages from –0.2 V to +40 V,
independent of the supply voltage. In addition, the
input pins have an absolute maximum voltage of 42V.
1
•
•
•
•
•
•
AEC-Q100 qualified for automotive applications:
– Temperature grade 1: –40°C to +125°C, TA
Wide common-mode voltage range, VCM:
–0.2 V to +40 V with survivability up to 42 V
(Recommended for automotive 12-V battery
applications)
Low input bias currents, IIB: 500 pA (typ)
Low power:
– Low supply voltage, VS: 1.7 V to 5.5 V
– Low quiescent current, IQ: 48 µA (typ)
Accuracy:
– Gain error, EG: ±1% (max)
– Gain drift: 10 ppm/°C (max)
– Offset voltage, VOS: ±50 μV (max)
– Offset drift: 0.5 μV/°C (max)
Bidirectional current sensing capability
Gain options:
– INA186A1-Q1: 25 V/V
– INA186A2-Q1: 50 V/V
– INA186A3-Q1: 100 V/V
– INA186A4-Q1: 200 V/V
– INA186A5-Q1: 500 V/V
The INA186-Q1 operates from a single 1.7-V to 5.5-V
power supply, and draws a maximum of 90 μA of
supply current. Five fixed gain options are available:
25 V/V, 50 V/V, 100 V/V, 200 V/V, or 500 V/V. The
device is specified over the operating temperature
range of –40°C to +125°C, and offered in an SC70
package.
Device Information(1)
PART NUMBER
INA186-Q1
2 Applications
•
•
•
•
•
The low input bias current of the INA186-Q1 permits
the use of larger current-sense resistors, thus
providing accurate current measurements in the
microamp range. The low offset voltage of the zerodrift architecture extends the dynamic range of the
current measurement. This feature allows for smaller
sense resistors with lower power loss, while still
providing accurate current measurements.
PACKAGE
SC70 (6)
BODY SIZE (NOM)
2.00 mm × 1.25 mm
(1) For all available packages, see the package option addendum
at the end of the datasheet.
Body control module (BCM)
Telematics control unit
Emergency call (eCall)
12-V battery management system (BMS)
Automotive head unit
Typical Application
Supply Voltage
1.7 V to 5.5 V
Bus Voltage
±0.2 V to +40 V
RSENSE
CBYPASS
0.1 …F
LOAD
0.5 nA
(typ)
0.5 nA
(typ)
VS
IN±
INA186-Q1
OUT
ADC
Microcontroller
IN+
GND
REF
1
An IMPORTANT NOTICE at the end of this data sheet addresses availability, warranty, changes, use in safety-critical applications,
intellectual property matters and other important disclaimers. PRODUCTION DATA.
INA186-Q1
SBOS386 – MAY 2019
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Table of Contents
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Features ..................................................................
Applications ...........................................................
Description .............................................................
Revision History.....................................................
Pin Configuration and Functions .........................
Specifications.........................................................
1
1
1
2
3
4
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
4
4
4
4
5
6
Absolute Maximum Ratings ......................................
ESD Ratings..............................................................
Recommended Operating Conditions.......................
Thermal Information ..................................................
Electrical Characteristics...........................................
Typical Characteristics ..............................................
7.4 Device Functional Modes........................................ 13
8
Application and Implementation ........................ 16
8.1 Application Information............................................ 16
8.2 Typical Applications ................................................ 21
9 Power Supply Recommendations...................... 23
10 Layout................................................................... 23
10.1 Layout Guidelines ................................................. 23
10.2 Layout Example .................................................... 23
11 Device and Documentation Support ................. 24
11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
11.6
Detailed Description ............................................ 10
7.1 Overview ................................................................. 10
7.2 Functional Block Diagram ....................................... 10
7.3 Feature Description................................................. 11
Documentation Support ........................................
Receiving Notification of Documentation Updates
Community Resources..........................................
Trademarks ...........................................................
Electrostatic Discharge Caution ............................
Glossary ................................................................
24
24
24
24
24
24
12 Mechanical, Packaging, and Orderable
Information ........................................................... 24
4 Revision History
2
DATE
REVISION
NOTES
May 2019
*
Initial release.
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5 Pin Configuration and Functions
DCK Package
6-Pin SC70
Top View
REF
1
6
OUT
GND
2
5
IN±
VS
3
4
IN+
Not to scale
Pin Functions
PIN
NAME
NO.
TYPE
DESCRIPTION
GND
2
Analog
Ground
IN–
5
Analog input
Current-sense amplifier negative input. For high-side applications, connect to load side of
sense resistor. For low-side applications, connect to ground side of sense resistor.
IN+
4
Analog input
Current-sense amplifier positive input. For high-side applications, connect to bus voltage side
of sense resistor. For low-side applications, connect to load side of sense resistor.
OUT
6
Analog output
OUT pin. This pin provides an analog voltage output that is the gained up voltage difference
from the IN+ to the IN– pins, and is offset by the voltage applied to the REF pin.
REF
1
Analog input
VS
3
Analog
Reference input. Enables bidirectional current sensing with an externally applied voltage.
Power supply, 1.7 V to 5.5 V
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6 Specifications
6.1 Absolute Maximum Ratings
over operating free-air temperature range (unless otherwise noted) (1)
MIN
VS
Supply voltage
6
Differential (VIN+) – (VIN–)
Analog inputs, VIN+, VIN– (2)
REF, OUT
VIN+, VIN–, with respect to GND (3)
(3)
–42
42
GND – 0.3
42
GND – 0.3
(VS) + 0.3
Input current into any pin (3)
TA
Operating temperature
TJ
Junction temperature
Tstg
Storage temperature
(1)
(2)
(3)
MAX
–55
–65
UNIT
V
V
V
5
mA
150
°C
150
°C
150
°C
Stresses beyond those listed under Absolute Maximum Ratings may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings
only, which do not imply functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated under Recommended
Operating Conditions. Exposure to absolute-maximum-rated conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
VIN+ and VIN– are the voltages at the IN+ and IN– pins, respectively.
Input voltage at any pin may exceed the voltage shown if the current at that pin is limited to 5 mA.
6.2 ESD Ratings
VALUE
V(ESD)
(1)
Electrostatic discharge
Human-body model (HBM), per AEC Q100-002 (1)
HBM ESD Classification Level 2
±3000
Charged-device model (CDM), per AEC Q100-011
CDM ESD Classification Level C6
±1000
UNIT
V
AEC Q100-002 indicates that HBM stressing shall be in accordance with the ANSI/ESDA/JEDEC JS-001 specification.
6.3 Recommended Operating Conditions
over operating free-air temperature range (unless otherwise noted)
MIN
NOM
MAX
UNIT
VCM
Common-mode input range
GND – 0.2
40
V
VIN+, VIN–
Input pin voltage range
GND – 0.2
40
V
VS
Operating supply voltage
1.7
5.5
V
VREF
Reference pin voltage range
GND
VS
V
TA
Operating free-air temperature
–40
125
°C
6.4 Thermal Information
INA186-Q1
THERMAL METRIC (1)
DCK (SC70)
UNIT
6 PINS
RqJA
Junction-to-ambient thermal resistance
170.7
°C/W
RqJC(top)
Junction-to-case (top) thermal resistance
132.7
°C/W
RqJB
Junction-to-board thermal resistance
65.3
°C/W
YJT
Junction-to-top characterization parameter
45.7
°C/W
YJB
Junction-to-board characterization parameter
65.2
°C/W
RqJC(bot)
Junction-to-case (bottom) thermal resistance
N/A
°C/W
(1)
4
For more information about traditional and new thermal metrics, see the Semiconductor and IC Package Thermal Metrics application
report.
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6.5 Electrical Characteristics
at TA = 25°C, VSENSE = VIN+ – VIN–, VS = 1.8 V to 5.0 V, VIN+ = 12 V, and VREF = VS / 2 (unless otherwise noted)
PARAMETER
CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
120
150
MAX
UNIT
INPUT
CMRR
Common-mode
rejection ratio
VSENSE = 0 mV, VIN+ = –0.1 V to 40 V, TA = –40°C to +125°C
(1)
VOS
Offset voltage, RTI
dVOS/dT
Offset drift, RTI
VS = 1.8 V, VSENSE = 0 mV
VSENSE = 0 mV, TA = –40°C to +125°C
PSRR
Power-supply
rejection ratio, RTI
VSENSE = 0 mV, VS = 1.7 V to 5.5 V
IIB
Input bias current
IIO
Input offset current
dB
–3
±50
µV
0.05
0.5
µV/°C
–1
±10
µV/V
VSENSE = 0 mV
0.5
3
VSENSE = 0 mV
±0.07
nA
nA
OUTPUT
G
Gain
A1 devices
25
A2 devices
50
A3 devices
100
A4 devices
200
A5 devices
EG
RVRR
V/V
500
Gain error
VOUT = 0.1 V to VS – 0.1 V
Gain error drift
TA = –40°C to +125°C
Nonlinearity error
VOUT = 0.1 V to VS – 0.1 V
Reference voltage
rejection ratio
VREF = 100 mV to VS – 100 mV,
TA = –40°C to +125°C
Maximum capacitive
load
No sustained oscillation
–0.04%
±1%
2
10
ppm/°C
±10
µV/V
±0.01%
±2
1
nF
VOLTAGE OUTPUT
VSP
Swing to VS powersupply rail
VS = 1.8 V, RL = 10 kΩ to GND, TA = –40°C to +125°C
(VS) – 20
(VS) – 40
mV
VSN
Swing to GND
VS = 1.8 V, RL = 10 kΩ to GND, TA = –40°C to +125°C,
VSENSE = –10 mV, VREF = 0 V
(VGND) + 0.05
(VGND) + 1
mV
VZL
Zero current output
voltage
VS = 1.8 V, RL = 10 kΩ to GND,
TA = –40°C to +125°C, VSENSE = 0 mV,
VREF = 0 V
(VGND) + 2
(VGND) + 10
mV
FREQUENCY RESPONSE
BW
Bandwidth
A1 devices, CLOAD = 10 pF
45
A2 devices, CLOAD = 10 pF
37
A3 devices, CLOAD = 10 pF
35
A4 devices, CLOAD = 10 pF
33
kHz
A5 devices, CLOAD = 10 pF
27
SR
Slew rate
VS = 5.0 V, VOUT = 0.5 V to 4.5 V
0.3
V/µs
tS
Settling time
From current step to within 1% of final value
30
µs
75
nV/√Hz
NOISE, RTI (1)
Voltage noise density
POWER SUPPLY
IQ
Quiescent current
(1)
RTI = referred-to-input.
VS = 1.8 V, VSENSE = 0 mV
VS = 1.8 V, VSENSE = 0 mV, TA = –40°C to +125°C
48
65
µA
90
µA
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6.6 Typical Characteristics
at TA = 25°C, VSENSE = VIN+ – VIN-, VS = 1.8 V to 5.0 V, VIN+ = 12 V, VREF = VS / 2, and for all gain options (unless otherwise
noted)
60
Power-Supply Rejection Ratio (dB)
140
50
Gain (dB)
40
30
20
10
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
0
-10
-20
10
100
1k
10k
Frequency (Hz)
100k
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
10
1M
100
1k
10k
Frequency (Hz)
D019
VS = 5 V
D020
Figure 2. Power-Supply Rejection Ratio vs Frequency
Vs
160
140
-40°C
25°C
125°C
Vs-0.4
100
80
Vs-0.8
Y
120
Output Swing (V)
Common-Mode Rejection Ratio (dB)
1M
VS = 5 V
Figure 1. Gain vs Frequency
GND+0.8
GND+0.4
60
GND
40
10
100
1k
10k
Frequency (Hz)
100k
0
1M
1
2
3
D021
4
5
6
7
Output Current (mA)
8
9
10
11
D010
VS = 1.8 V
A3 devices
Figure 4. Output Voltage Swing vs Output Current
Figure 3. Common-Mode Rejection Ratio vs Frequency
Vs
0.25
-40°C
25°C
125°C
0.2
0.15
Input Bias Current (nA)
Vs-1
Vs-2
Y
Output Swing (V)
100k
GND+2
0.1
0.05
0
-0.05
-0.1
-0.15
GND+1
-0.2
GND
0
5
10
15
20
25
Output Current (mA)
30
35
-0.25
0
D009
VS = 5.0 V
10
15
20
25
30
Common-Mode Voltage (V)
35
40
D024
VS = 5.0 V
Figure 5. Output Voltage Swing vs Output Current
6
5
Figure 6. Input Bias Current vs Common-Mode Voltage
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Typical Characteristics (continued)
at TA = 25°C, VSENSE = VIN+ – VIN-, VS = 1.8 V to 5.0 V, VIN+ = 12 V, VREF = VS / 2, and for all gain options (unless otherwise
noted)
80
70
VS = 1.8 V
VS = 3.3 V
VS = 5 V
70
VS = 1.8 V
VS = 5 V
65
Quiescent Current (PA)
Quiescent Current (PA)
75
65
60
55
50
45
60
55
50
45
40
35
-50
-25
0
25
50
75
Temperature (qC)
100
125
40
-5
150
0
D027
5
10
15
20
25
30
Common-Mode Voltage (V)
35
40
D029
VS = 5.0 V
Figure 7. Quiescent Current vs Temperature
Figure 8. Quiescent Current vs Common Mode Voltage
80
70
60
Referred-to-Input
Voltage Noise (0.5 PV/div)
Input-Referred Voltage Noise (nV/—Hz)
100
50
40
30
20
10
10
100
1k
Frequency (Hz)
10k
Time (1 s/div)
100k
D031
D030
A3 devices
A3 devices
Figure 10. 0.1-Hz to 10-Hz Voltage Noise (Referred-To-Input)
VCM
VOUT
VOUT (100mV/div)
Input Voltage
5 mV/div
Common-Mode Voltage (10 V/div)
Output Voltage
500 mV/div
Figure 9. Input-Referred Voltage Noise vs Frequency
Time (20 Ps/div)
Time (250 Ps/div)
D032
D033
VS = 5.0 V, A3 devices
A3 devices
Figure 11. Step Response (10-mVPP Input Step)
Figure 12. Common-Mode Voltage Transient Response
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Typical Characteristics (continued)
at TA = 25°C, VSENSE = VIN+ – VIN-, VS = 1.8 V to 5.0 V, VIN+ = 12 V, VREF = VS / 2, and for all gain options (unless otherwise
noted)
Non-inverting Input
Output
Voltage (2 V/div)
Voltage (2 V/div)
Inverting Input
Output
0V
0V
Time (250 Ps/div)
Time (250 Ps/div)
D035
D034
A3 devices
VS = 5.0 V, A3 devices
Figure 13. Inverting Differential Input Overload
Figure 14. Noninverting Differential Input Overload
Voltage (1 V/div)
Supply Voltage
Output Voltage
Voltage (1V/div)
Supply Voltage
Output Voltage
0V
0V
Time (10 Ps/div)
Time (100 Ps/div)
D036
D037
VS = 5.0 V, A3 devices
VS = 5.0 V, A3 devices
Figure 15. Start-Up Response
Figure 16. Brownout Recovery
100
25
IBP
IBN
80
IBP
IBN
15
Input Bias Current (nA)
Input Bias Current (nA)
60
40
20
0
-20
-40
-60
5
-5
-15
-80
-100
-110 -90
-70
-50 -30 -10 10 30 50
Differential Input Voltage (mV)
70
90
110
D039
VS = 5.0 V, VREF = 2.5 V, A1 devices
Figure 17. IB+ and IB– vs Differential Input Voltage
8
-25
-60
-40
-20
0
20
Differential Input Voltage (mV)
40
60
D047
VS = 5.0 V, VREF = 2.5 V, A2, A3, A4, A5 devices
Figure 18. IB+ and IB– vs Differential Input Voltage
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Typical Characteristics (continued)
at TA = 25°C, VSENSE = VIN+ – VIN-, VS = 1.8 V to 5.0 V, VIN+ = 12 V, VREF = VS / 2, and for all gain options (unless otherwise
noted)
5000
A5
Output Impedance (:)
1000
A4
A1
100
A2
A3
10
Gain Variants
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
1
0.1
10
100
1k
10k
100k
Frequency (Hz)
1M
10M
D050
VS = 5.0 V, VCM = 0 V
Figure 19. Output Impedance vs Frequency
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7 Detailed Description
7.1 Overview
The INA186-Q1 is a low bias current, low offset, 40-V common-mode, current-sensing amplifier. The INA186-Q1
is a specially designed, current-sensing amplifier that accurately measures voltages developed across currentsensing resistors on common-mode voltages that far exceed the supply voltage. Current is measured on input
voltage rails as high as 40 V at VIN+ and VIN–, with a supply voltage, VS, as low as 1.7 V. The INA186-Q1 is
intended for use in both low-side and high-side current-sensing configurations where high accuracy and low
current consumption are required.
7.2 Functional Block Diagram
VS
INA186-Q1
IN+
+
±
±
+
±
OUT
+
IN±
REF
GND
10
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7.3 Feature Description
7.3.1 Precision Current Measurement
The INA186-Q1 allows for accurate current measurements over a wide dynamic range. The high accuracy of the
device is attributable to the low gain error and offset specifications. The offset voltage of the INA186-Q1 is less
than ±50 µV. In this case, the low offset improves the accuracy at light loads when VIN+ approaches VIN–. Another
advantage of low offset is the ability to use a lower-value shunt resistor that reduces the power loss in the
current-sense circuit, and improves the power efficiency of the end application.
The maximum gain error of the INA186-Q1 is specified at ±1%. As the sensed voltage becomes much larger
than the offset voltage, the gain error becomes the dominant source of error in the current-sense measurement.
When the device monitors currents near the full-scale output range, the total measurement error approaches the
value of the gain error.
7.3.2 Low Input Bias Current
The INA186-Q1 is different from many current-sense amplifiers because this device offers very low input bias
current. The low input bias current of the INA186-Q1 has three primary benefits.
The first benefit is the reduction of the current consumed by the device. Classical current-sense amplifier
topologies typically consume tens of microamps of current at the inputs. For these amplifiers, the input current is
the result of the resistor network that sets the gain and additional current to bias the input amplifier. To reduce
the bias current to near zero, the INA186-Q1 uses a capacitively coupled amplifier on the input stage, followed
by a difference amplifier on the output stage.
The second benefit of low bias current is the ability to use input filters to reject high-frequency noise before the
signal is amplified. In a traditional current-sense amplifier, the addition of input filters comes at the cost of
reduced accuracy. However, as a result of the low bias currents, input filters have little effect on the
measurement accuracy of the INA186-Q1.
The third benefit of low bias current is the ability to use a larger current-sense resistor. This ability allows the
device to accurately monitor currents as low as 1 µA.
7.3.3 Low Quiescent Current
The device features low quiescent current (IQ), while still providing sufficient small-signal bandwidth to be usable
in most applications. The quiescent current of the INA186-Q1 is only 48 µA (typ), while providing a small-signal
bandwidth of 35 kHz in a gain of 100. The low IQ and good bandwidth allow the device to be used in many
portable electronic systems without excessive drain on the battery.
7.3.4 Bidirectional Current Monitoring
INA186-Q1 devices can sense current flow through a sense resistor in both directions. The bidirectional currentsensing capability is achieved by applying a voltage at the REF pin to offset the output voltage. A positive
differential voltage sensed at the inputs results in an output voltage that is greater than the applied reference
voltage. Likewise, a negative differential voltage at the inputs results in output voltage that is less than the
applied reference voltage. The output voltage of the current-sense amplifier is shown in Equation 1.
VOUT
I LOAD u RSENSE u GAIN
VREF
where
•
•
•
•
ILOAD is the load current to be monitored.
RSENSE is the current-sense resistor.
GAIN is the gain option of the selected device.
VREF is the voltage applied to the REF pin.
(1)
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Feature Description (continued)
7.3.5 High-Side and Low-Side Current Sensing
The INA186-Q1 supports input common-mode voltages from –0.2 V to +40 V. Because of the internal topology,
the common-mode range is not restricted by the power-supply voltage (VS). The ability to operate with commonmode voltages greater or less than VS allows the INA186-Q1 to be used in high-side and low-side currentsensing applications, as shown in Figure 20.
Bus Suppl y
up to +40 V
IN+
High-Side Se nsing
Commo n-mode volta ge (VCM )
is b us-voltage depen dent.
R SENS E
IN±
LOA D
IN+
R SENS E
Low-Side Se nsing
Commo n-mode volta ge (VCM )
is a lwa ys n ear groun d a nd is
isolated fro m bus-voltage sp ikes.
IN±
Figure 20. High-Side and Low-Side Sensing Connections
7.3.6 High Common-Mode Rejection
The INA186-Q1 uses a capacitively coupled amplifier on the front end. Therefore, dc common-mode voltages are
blocked from downstream circuits, resulting in very high common-mode rejection. Typically, the common-mode
rejection of the INA186-Q1 is approximately 150 dB. The ability to reject changes in the dc common-mode
voltage allows the INA186-Q1 to monitor both high-voltage and low-voltage rail currents with very little change in
the offset voltage.
7.3.7 Rail-to-Rail Output Swing
The INA186-Q1 allows linear current-sensing operation with the output close to the supply rail and ground. The
maximum specified output swing to the positive rail is VS – 40 mV, and the maximum specified output swing to
GND is only GND + 1 mV. The close-to-rail output swing is useful to maximize the usable output range,
particularly when operating the device from a 1.8-V supply.
12
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7.4 Device Functional Modes
7.4.1 Normal Operation
The INA186-Q1 is in normal operation when the following conditions are met:
• The power-supply voltage (VS) is between 1.7 V and 5.5 V.
• The common-mode voltage (VCM) is within the specified range of –0.2 V to +40 V.
• The maximum differential input signal times the gain plus VREF is less than the positive swing voltage VSP.
• The minimum differential input signal times the gain plus VREF is greater than the zero load swing to GND, VZL
(see the Rail-to-Rail Output Swing section).
During normal operation, this device produces an output voltage that is the amplified representation of the
difference voltage from IN+ to IN– plus the voltage applied to the REF pin.
7.4.2 Unidirectional Mode
This device can be configured to monitor current flowing in one direction (unidirectional) or in both directions
(bidirectional) depending on how the REF pin is connected. The most common case is unidirectional where the
output is set to ground when no current is flowing by connecting the REF pin to ground, as shown in Figure 21.
When the current flows from the bus supply to the load, the input voltage from IN+ to IN– increases and causes
the output voltage at the OUT pin to increase.
Bus Voltage
up to 40 V
RSENSE
Load
VS
1.7 V to 5.5 V
CBYPASS
0.1 µF
ISENSE
VS
INA186-Q1
IN±
Capacitively
Coupled
Amplifier
±
OUT
VOUT
+
REF
IN+
GND
Figure 21. Typical Unidirectional Application
The linear range of the output stage is limited by how close the output voltage can approach ground under zero
input conditions. The zero current output voltage of the INA186-Q1 is very small and for most unidirectional
applications the REF pin is simply grounded. However, if the measured current multiplied by the current sense
resistor and device gain is less than the zero current output voltage, then bias the REF pin to a convenient value
above the zero current output voltage to get the output into the linear range of the device. To limit common-mode
rejection errors, buffer the reference voltage connected to the REF pin.
A less-frequently used output biasing method is to connect the REF pin to the power-supply voltage, VS. This
method results in the output voltage saturating at 40 mV less than the supply voltage when no differential input
voltage is present. This method is similar to the output saturated low condition with no differential input voltage
when the REF pin is connected to ground. The output voltage in this configuration only responds to currents that
develop negative differential input voltage relative to the device IN– pin. Under these conditions, when the
negative differential input signal increases, the output voltage moves downward from the saturated supply
voltage. The voltage applied to the REF pin must not exceed VS.
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Device Functional Modes (continued)
Another use for the REF pin in unidirectional operation is to level shift the output voltage. Figure 22 shows an
application where the device ground is set to a negative voltage so currents biased to negative supplies, as seen
in optical networking cards, can be measured. The GND of the INA186-Q1 can be set to negative voltages, as
long as the inputs do not violate the common-mode range specification and the voltage difference between VS
and GND does not exceed 5.5 V. In this example, the output of the INA186-Q1 is fed into a positive-biased
analog-to-digital converter (ADC). By grounding the REF pin, the voltages at the output will be positive and not
damage the ADC. To make sure the output voltage never goes negative, the supply sequencing must be the
positive supply first, followed by the negative supply.
+ 1.8 V
-3.3 V
CBYPASS
0.1 µF
RSENSE
Load
VS
INA186-Q1
IN-
Capacitively
Coupled
Amplifier
±
OUT
ADC
+
REF
IN+
GND
- 3.3 V
Figure 22. Using the REF Pin to Level-Shift Output Voltage
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Device Functional Modes (continued)
7.4.3 Bidirectional Mode
The INA186-Q1 is a bidirectional current-sense amplifier capable of measuring currents through a resistive shunt
in two directions. This bidirectional monitoring is common in applications that include charging and discharging
operations where the current flowing through the resistor can change directions.
Bus Voltage
up to 40 V
VS
1.7 V to 5.5 V
RSENSE
Load
CBYPASS
0.1 µF
ISENSE
VS
INA186-Q1
IN±
Reference
Voltage
Capacitively
Coupled
Amplifier
±
OUT
VOUT
+
REF
IN+
GND
+
±
Figure 23. Bidirectional Application
The ability to measure this current flowing in both directions is achieved by applying a voltage to the REF pin, as
shown in Figure 23. The voltage applied to REF (VREF) sets the output state that corresponds to the zero-input
level state. The output then responds by increasing above VREF for positive differential signals (relative to the IN–
pin) and responds by decreasing below VREF for negative differential signals. This reference voltage applied to
the REF pin can be set anywhere between 0 V to VS. For bidirectional applications, VREF is typically set at VS/2
for equal signal range in both current directions. In some cases, VREF is set at a voltage other than VS/2; for
example, when the bidirectional current and corresponding output signal do not need to be symmetrical.
7.4.4 Input Differential Overload
If the differential input voltage (VIN+ – VIN–) times gain exceeds the voltage swing specification, the INA186-Q1
drives its output as close as possible to the positive supply or ground, and does not provide accurate
measurement of the differential input voltage. If this input overload occurs during normal circuit operation, then
reduce the value of the shunt resistor or use a lower-gain version with the chosen sense resistor to avoid this
mode of operation. If a differential overload occurs in a time-limited fault event, then the output of the INA186-Q1
returns to the expected value approximately 80 µs after the fault condition is removed.
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8 Application and Implementation
NOTE
Information in the following applications sections is not part of the TI component
specification, and TI does not warrant its accuracy or completeness. TI’s customers are
responsible for determining suitability of components for their purposes. Customers should
validate and test their design implementation to confirm system functionality.
8.1 Application Information
The INA186-Q1 amplifies the voltage developed across a current-sensing resistor as current flows through the
resistor to the load or ground. The high common-mode rejection of the INA186-Q1 makes it usable over a wide
range of voltage rails while still maintaining an accurate current measurement.
8.1.1 Basic Connections
Figure 24 shows the basic connections of the INA186-Q1. Place the device as close as possible to the current
sense resistor and connect the input pins (IN+ and IN–) to the current sense resistor through kelvin connections.
Supply Voltage
1.7 V to 5.5 V
Bus Voltage
±0.2 V to +40 V
RSENSE
CBYPASS
0.1 …F
LOAD
0.5 nA
(typ)
0.5 nA
(typ)
VS
IN±
INA186-Q1
OUT
ADC
Microcontroller
IN+
GND
REF
NOTE: To help eliminate ground offset errors between the device and the analog-to-digital converter (ADC), connect
the REF pin to the ADC reference input. When driving SAR ADCs, filter or buffer the output of the INA186-Q1 before
connecting directly to the ADC.
Figure 24. Basic Connections
16
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Application Information (continued)
8.1.2 RSENSE and Device Gain Selection
The accuracy of any current-sense amplifier is maximized by choosing the current-sense resistor to be as large
as possible. A large sense resistor maximizes the differential input signal for a given amount of current flow and
reduces the error contribution of the offset voltage. However, there are practical limits as to how large the
current-sense resistor can be in a given application because of the resistor size and maximum allowable power
dissipation. Equation 2 gives the maximum value for the current-sense resistor for a given power dissipation
budget:
PDMAX
RSENSE
IMAX2
where:
•
•
PDMAX is the maximum allowable power dissipation in RSENSE.
IMAX is the maximum current that will flow through RSENSE.
(2)
An additional limitation on the size of the current-sense resistor and device gain is due to the power-supply
voltage, VS, and device swing-to-rail limitations. In order to make sure that the current-sense signal is properly
passed to the output, both positive and negative output swing limitations must be examined. Equation 3 provides
the maximum values of RSENSE and GAIN to keep the device from exceeding the positive swing limitation.
IMAX u RSENSE u GAIN < VSP VREF
where:
•
•
•
•
IMAX is the maximum current that will flow through RSENSE.
GAIN is the gain of the current-sense amplifier.
VSP is the positive output swing as specified in the data sheet.
VREF is the externally applied voltage on the REF pin.
(3)
To avoid positive output swing limitations when selecting the value of RSENSE, there is always a trade-off between
the value of the sense resistor and the gain of the device under consideration. If the sense resistor selected for
the maximum power dissipation is too large, then it is possible to select a lower-gain device in order to avoid
positive swing limitations.
The negative swing limitation places a limit on how small the sense resistor value can be for a given application.
Equation 4 provides the limit on the minimum value of the sense resistor.
IMIN u RSENSE u GAIN > VSN VREF
where:
•
•
•
•
IMIN is the minimum current that will flow through RSENSE.
GAIN is the gain of the current-sense amplifier.
VSN is the negative output swing of the device (see the Rail-to-Rail Output Swing section).
VREF is the externally applied voltage on the REF pin.
(4)
In addition to adjusting RSENSE and the device gain, the voltage applied to the REF pin can be slightly increased
above GND to avoid negative swing limitations.
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Application Information (continued)
8.1.3 Signal Conditioning
When performing accurate current measurements in noisy environments, the current-sensing signal is often
filtered. The INA186-Q1 features low input bias currents. Therefore, adding a differential mode filter to the input
without sacrificing the current-sense accuracy is possible. Filtering at the input is advantageous because this
action attenuates differential noise before the signal is amplified. Figure 25 provides an example of how to use a
filter on the input pins of the device.
Bus Voltage
up to 40 V
VS
1.7 V to 5.5 V
CBYPASS
0.1 µF
RSENSE
Load
Capacitively Coupled
Amplifier
IN±
RF
f3dB
1
4SRFCF
CF
VS
INA186-Q1
±
RDIFF
OUT
VOUT
+
RF
REF
IN+
GND
Figure 25. Filter at the Input Pins
The differential input impedance (RDIFF) shown in Figure 25 limits the maximum value for RF. The value of RDIFF
is a function of the device temperature, as shown in Figure 26.
6
A1
A2, A3, A4, A5
Input Impedance (M:)
5
4
3
2
1
-50
-25
0
25
50
75
Temperature (qC)
100
125
150
D115
Figure 26. Differential Input Impedance vs Temperature
18
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Application Information (continued)
As the voltage drop across the sense resistor (VSENSE) increases, the amount of voltage dropped across the input
filter resistors (RF) also increases. The increased voltage drop results in additional gain error. The error caused
by these resistors is calculated by the resistor divider equation shown in Equation 5.
Error(%)
§
RDIFF
¨1
¨ RSENSE RDIFF
©
2 u RF
·
¸ u 100
¸
¹
where:
•
•
RDIFF is the differential input impedance.
RF is the added value of the series filter resistance.
(5)
The input stage of the INA186-Q1 uses a capacitive feedback amplifier topology in order to achieve high dc
precision. As a result, periodic high-frequency shunt voltage (or current) transients of significant amplitude (10
mV or greater) and duration (hundreds of nanoseconds or greater) may be amplified by the INA186-Q1, even
though the transients are greater than the device bandwidth. Use a differential input filter in these applications to
minimize disturbances at the INA186-Q1 output.
The high input impedance and low bias current of the INA186-Q1 provide flexibility in the input filter design
without impacting the accuracy of current measurement. For example, set RF = 100 Ω and CF = 22 nF to achieve
a low-pass filter corner frequency of 36.2 kHz. These filter values significantly attenuate most unwanted highfrequency signals at the input without severely impacting the current sensing bandwidth or precision. If a lower
corner frequency is desired, increase the value of CF.
Filtering the input filters out differential noise across the sense resistor. If high-frequency, common-mode noise is
a concern, add an RC filter from the OUT pin to ground. The RC filter helps filter out both differential and
common mode noise, as well as internally generated noise from the device. The value for the resistance of the
RC filter is limited by the impedance of the load. Any current drawn by the load manifests as an external voltage
drop from the INA186-Q1 OUT pin to the load input. To select the optimal values for the output filter, use
Figure 19 and see the Closed-Loop Analysis of Load-Induced Amplifier Stability Issues Using ZOUT application
report
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Application Information (continued)
8.1.4 Common-Mode Voltage Transients
With a small amount of additional circuitry, the INA186-Q1 can be used in circuits subject to transients that
exceed the absolute maximum voltage ratings. The most simple way to protect the inputs from negative
transients is to add resistors in series with the IN– and IN+ pins. Use resistors that are 1 kΩ or less, and limit the
current in the ESD structures to less than 5 mA. For example, using 1-kΩ resistors in series with the INA186-Q1
allows voltages as low as –5 V, while limiting the ESD current to less than 5 mA. If protection from high-voltage
or more-negative, common-voltage transients is needed, use the circuits shown in Figure 27 and Figure 28.
When implementing these circuits, use only Zener diodes or Zener-type transient absorbers (sometimes referred
to as transzorbs); any other type of transient absorber has an unacceptable time delay. Start by adding a pair of
resistors as a working impedance for the Zener diode, as shown in Figure 27. Keep these resistors as small as
possible; most often, use around 100 Ω. Larger values can be used with an effect on gain that is discussed in the
Signal Conditioning section. This circuit limits only short-term transients; therefore, many applications are
satisfied with a 100-Ω resistor along with conventional Zener diodes of the lowest acceptable power rating. This
combination uses the least amount of board space. These diodes can be found in packages as small as
SOT-523 or SOD-523.
Bus Voltage
up to 40 V
VS
1.7 V to 5.5 V
CBYPASS
0.1 µF
RSENSE
Load
VS
RPROTECT
INA186-Q1
IN±
< 1 k:
Capacitively
Coupled
Amplifier
±
OUT
VOUT
+
RPROTECT
REF
IN+
< 1 k:
GND
Figure 27. Transient Protection Using Dual Zener Diodes
In the event that low-power Zener diodes do not have sufficient transient absorption capability, a higher-power
transzorb must be used. The most package-efficient solution involves using a single transzorb and back-to-back
diodes between the device inputs, as shown in Figure 28. The most space-efficient solutions are dual, seriesconnected diodes in a single SOT-523 or SOD-523 package. In either of the examples shown in Figure 27 and
Figure 28, the total board area required by the INA186-Q1 with all protective components is less than that of an
SO-8 package, and only slightly greater than that of an VSSOP-8 package.
Bus Voltage
up to 40 V
VS
1.7 V to 5.5 V
CBYPASS
0.1 µF
RSENSE
Load
VS
RPROTECT
INA186-Q1
IN±
< 1 k:
Capacitively
Coupled
Amplifier
Transorb
±
OUT
VOUT
+
RPROTECT
REF
IN+
< 1 k:
GND
Figure 28. Transient Protection Using a Single Transzorb and Input Clamps
For more information, see the Current Shunt Monitor With Transient Robustness reference design.
20
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8.2 Typical Applications
The low input bias current of the INA186-Q1 allows accurate monitoring of small-value currents. To accurately
monitor currents in the microamp range, increase the value of the sense resistor to increase the sense voltage
so that the error introduced by the offset voltage is small. The circuit configuration for monitoring low-value
currents is shown in Figure 29. As a result of the differential input impedance of the INA186-Q1, limit the value of
RSENSE to 1 kΩ or less for best accuracy.
RSENSE ” 1 kO
12 V
5V
LOAD
0.1 F
VS
IN±
OUT
INA186-Q1
IN+
REF
GND
Figure 29. Microamp Current Measurement
8.2.1 Design Requirements
The design requirements for the circuit shown in Figure 29 are listed in Table 1.
Table 1. Design Parameters
DESIGN PARAMETER
EXAMPLE VALUE
Power-supply voltage (VS)
5V
Bus supply rail (VCM)
12 V
Minimum sense current (IMIN)
1 µA
Maximum sense current (IMAX)
150 µA
Device gain (GAIN)
25 V/V
Reference voltage (VREF)
0V
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8.2.2 Detailed Design Procedure
The maximum value of the current-sense resistor is calculated based on choice of gain, value of the maximum
current the be sensed (IMAX), and the power supply voltage (VS). When operating at the maximum current, the
output voltage must not exceed the positive output swing specification, VSP. Using Equation 6, for the given
design parameters the maximum value for RSENSE is calculated to be 1.321 kΩ.
VSP
RSENSE <
IMAX u GAIN
(6)
However, because this value exceeds the maximum recommended value for RSENSE, a resistance value of 1 kΩ
must be used. When operating at the minimum current value, IMIN the output voltage must be greater than the
swing to GND (VSN), specification. For this example, the output voltage at the minimum current is calculated
using Equation 7 to be 25 mV, which is greater than the value for VSN.
VOUTMIN IMIN u RSENSE u GAIN
(7)
8.2.3 Application Curve
Figure 30 shows the output of the device under the conditions given in Table 1 and with RSENSE = 1 kΩ.
4
3.5
Output Voltage (V)
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0
25
50
75
100
Input Current (µA)
125
150
D031
Figure 30. Typical Application DC Transfer Function
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9 Power Supply Recommendations
The input circuitry of the INA186-Q1 accurately measures beyond the power-supply voltage, VS. For example, VS
can be 5 V, whereas the bus supply voltage at IN+ and IN– can be as high as 40 V. However, the output voltage
range of the OUT pin is limited by the voltage on the VS pin. The INA186-Q1 also withstands the full differential
input signal range up to 40 V at the IN+ and IN– input pins, regardless of whether the device has power applied
at the VS pin. There is no sequencing requirement for VS and VIN+ or VIN–.
10 Layout
10.1 Layout Guidelines
•
•
•
Connect the input pins to the sensing resistor using a Kelvin or 4-wire connection. This connection technique
makes sure that only the current-sensing resistor impedance is detected between the input pins. Poor routing
of the current-sensing resistor commonly results in additional resistance present between the input pins.
Given the very low ohmic value of the current resistor, any additional high-current carrying impedance can
cause significant measurement errors.
Place the power-supply bypass capacitor as close as possible to the device power supply and ground pins.
The recommended value of this bypass capacitor is 0.1 µF. Additional decoupling capacitance can be added
to compensate for noisy or high-impedance power supplies.
When routing the connections from the current-sense resistor to the device, keep the trace lengths as short
as possible. The input filter capacitor CF should be placed as close as possible to the input pins of the device.
10.2 Layout Example
Current Sense
Output
Connect REF to GND for
Unidirectional Measurement
or to External Reference for
Bidirectional Measurement
Note: RF and CF are optional in low
noise/ripple environments
VIA to Ground Plane
Supply Voltage
(1.7 V to 5.5 V)
REF
1
GND
2
VS
3
INA186-Q1
6
OUT
5
IN-
4
IN+
CF
RF
RSHUNT
CBYPASS
RF
VIA to Ground Plane
Figure 31. Recommended Layout for SC70 (DCK) Package
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11 Device and Documentation Support
11.1 Documentation Support
11.1.1 Related Documentation
For related documentation see the following: Texas Instruments, INA186EVM user's guide
11.2 Receiving Notification of Documentation Updates
To receive notification of documentation updates, navigate to the device product folder on ti.com. In the upper
right corner, click on Alert me to register and receive a weekly digest of any product information that has
changed. For change details, review the revision history included in any revised document.
11.3 Community Resources
The following links connect to TI community resources. Linked contents are provided "AS IS" by the respective
contributors. They do not constitute TI specifications and do not necessarily reflect TI's views; see TI's Terms of
Use.
TI E2E™ Online Community TI's Engineer-to-Engineer (E2E) Community. Created to foster collaboration
among engineers. At e2e.ti.com, you can ask questions, share knowledge, explore ideas and help
solve problems with fellow engineers.
Design Support TI's Design Support Quickly find helpful E2E forums along with design support tools and
contact information for technical support.
11.4 Trademarks
E2E is a trademark of Texas Instruments.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
11.5 Electrostatic Discharge Caution
This integrated circuit can be damaged by ESD. Texas Instruments recommends that all integrated circuits be handled with
appropriate precautions. Failure to observe proper handling and installation procedures can cause damage.
ESD damage can range from subtle performance degradation to complete device failure. Precision integrated circuits may be more
susceptible to damage because very small parametric changes could cause the device not to meet its published specifications.
11.6 Glossary
SLYZ022 — TI Glossary.
This glossary lists and explains terms, acronyms, and definitions.
12 Mechanical, Packaging, and Orderable Information
The following pages include mechanical, packaging, and orderable information. This information is the most
current data available for the designated devices. This data is subject to change without notice and revision of
this document. For browser-based versions of this data sheet, refer to the left-hand navigation.
24
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PACKAGE OPTION ADDENDUM
www.ti.com
24-Jul-2019
PACKAGING INFORMATION
Orderable Device
Status
(1)
Package Type Package Pins Package
Drawing
Qty
Eco Plan
Lead/Ball Finish
MSL Peak Temp
(2)
(6)
(3)
Op Temp (°C)
Device Marking
(4/5)
INA186A1QDCKRQ1
ACTIVE
SC70
DCK
6
3000
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-2-260C-1 YEAR
-40 to 125
1EX
INA186A2QDCKRQ1
ACTIVE
SC70
DCK
6
3000
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-2-260C-1 YEAR
-40 to 125
1EZ
INA186A3QDCKRQ1
ACTIVE
SC70
DCK
6
3000
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-2-260C-1 YEAR
-40 to 125
1F1
INA186A4QDCKRQ1
ACTIVE
SC70
DCK
6
3000
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-2-260C-1 YEAR
-40 to 125
1F2
INA186A5QDCKRQ1
ACTIVE
SC70
DCK
6
3000
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-2-260C-1 YEAR
-40 to 125
1F3
(1)
The marketing status values are defined as follows:
ACTIVE: Product device recommended for new designs.
LIFEBUY: TI has announced that the device will be discontinued, and a lifetime-buy period is in effect.
NRND: Not recommended for new designs. Device is in production to support existing customers, but TI does not recommend using this part in a new design.
PREVIEW: Device has been announced but is not in production. Samples may or may not be available.
OBSOLETE: TI has discontinued the production of the device.
(2)
RoHS: TI defines "RoHS" to mean semiconductor products that are compliant with the current EU RoHS requirements for all 10 RoHS substances, including the requirement that RoHS substance
do not exceed 0.1% by weight in homogeneous materials. Where designed to be soldered at high temperatures, "RoHS" products are suitable for use in specified lead-free processes. TI may
reference these types of products as "Pb-Free".
RoHS Exempt: TI defines "RoHS Exempt" to mean products that contain lead but are compliant with EU RoHS pursuant to a specific EU RoHS exemption.
Green: TI defines "Green" to mean the content of Chlorine (Cl) and Bromine (Br) based flame retardants meet JS709B low halogen requirements of <=1000ppm threshold. Antimony trioxide based
flame retardants must also meet the <=1000ppm threshold requirement.
(3)
MSL, Peak Temp. - The Moisture Sensitivity Level rating according to the JEDEC industry standard classifications, and peak solder temperature.
(4)
There may be additional marking, which relates to the logo, the lot trace code information, or the environmental category on the device.
(5)
Multiple Device Markings will be inside parentheses. Only one Device Marking contained in parentheses and separated by a "~" will appear on a device. If a line is indented then it is a continuation
of the previous line and the two combined represent the entire Device Marking for that device.
(6)
Lead/Ball Finish - Orderable Devices may have multiple material finish options. Finish options are separated by a vertical ruled line. Lead/Ball Finish values may wrap to two lines if the finish
value exceeds the maximum column width.
Addendum-Page 1
Samples
PACKAGE OPTION ADDENDUM
www.ti.com
24-Jul-2019
Important Information and Disclaimer:The information provided on this page represents TI's knowledge and belief as of the date that it is provided. TI bases its knowledge and belief on information
provided by third parties, and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of such information. Efforts are underway to better integrate information from third parties. TI has taken and
continues to take reasonable steps to provide representative and accurate information but may not have conducted destructive testing or chemical analysis on incoming materials and chemicals.
TI and TI suppliers consider certain information to be proprietary, and thus CAS numbers and other limited information may not be available for release.
In no event shall TI's liability arising out of such information exceed the total purchase price of the TI part(s) at issue in this document sold by TI to Customer on an annual basis.
OTHER QUALIFIED VERSIONS OF INA186-Q1 :
• Catalog: INA186
NOTE: Qualified Version Definitions:
• Catalog - TI's standard catalog product
Addendum-Page 2
PACKAGE MATERIALS INFORMATION
www.ti.com
25-Jul-2019
TAPE AND REEL INFORMATION
*All dimensions are nominal
Device
Package Package Pins
Type Drawing
SPQ
Reel
Reel
A0
Diameter Width (mm)
(mm) W1 (mm)
B0
(mm)
K0
(mm)
P1
(mm)
W
Pin1
(mm) Quadrant
INA186A1QDCKRQ1
SC70
DCK
6
3000
180.0
8.4
2.47
2.3
1.25
4.0
8.0
Q3
INA186A2QDCKRQ1
SC70
DCK
6
3000
180.0
8.4
2.47
2.3
1.25
4.0
8.0
Q3
INA186A3QDCKRQ1
SC70
DCK
6
3000
180.0
8.4
2.47
2.3
1.25
4.0
8.0
Q3
INA186A4QDCKRQ1
SC70
DCK
6
3000
180.0
8.4
2.47
2.3
1.25
4.0
8.0
Q3
INA186A5QDCKRQ1
SC70
DCK
6
3000
180.0
8.4
2.47
2.3
1.25
4.0
8.0
Q3
Pack Materials-Page 1
PACKAGE MATERIALS INFORMATION
www.ti.com
25-Jul-2019
*All dimensions are nominal
Device
Package Type
Package Drawing
Pins
SPQ
Length (mm)
Width (mm)
Height (mm)
INA186A1QDCKRQ1
SC70
DCK
6
3000
213.0
191.0
35.0
INA186A2QDCKRQ1
SC70
DCK
6
3000
213.0
191.0
35.0
INA186A3QDCKRQ1
SC70
DCK
6
3000
213.0
191.0
35.0
INA186A4QDCKRQ1
SC70
DCK
6
3000
213.0
191.0
35.0
INA186A5QDCKRQ1
SC70
DCK
6
3000
213.0
191.0
35.0
Pack Materials-Page 2
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IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR NON-INFRINGEMENT OF THIRD
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These resources are intended for skilled developers designing with TI products. You are solely responsible for (1) selecting the appropriate
TI products for your application, (2) designing, validating and testing your application, and (3) ensuring your application meets applicable
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Copyright © 2019, Texas Instruments Incorporated
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