Texas Instruments | VCA2612: Dual, Variable Gain Amplifier with Low Noise Preamp (Rev. C) | Datasheet | Texas Instruments VCA2612: Dual, Variable Gain Amplifier with Low Noise Preamp (Rev. C) Datasheet

Texas Instruments VCA2612: Dual, Variable Gain Amplifier with Low Noise Preamp (Rev. C) Datasheet
VCA
VCA2612
261
2
SBOS117C – SEPTEMBER 2000 – REVISED APRIL 2004
Dual, VARIABLE GAIN AMPLIFIER
with Low Noise Preamp
FEATURES
DESCRIPTION
● LOW NOISE PREAMP:
• Low Input Noise: 1.25nV/√Hz
• Active Termination Noise Reduction
• Switchable Termination Value
• 80MHz Bandwidth
• 5dB to 25dB Gain Range
• Differential Input /Output
● LOW NOISE VARIABLE GAIN AMPLIFIER:
• Low Noise VCA: 3.3nV/√Hz, Differential
Programming Optimizes Noise Figure
• 24dB to 45dB Gain
• 40MHz Bandwidth
• Differential Input /Output
● LOW CROSSTALK: 52dB at Max Gain, 5MHz
● HIGH-SPEED VARIABLE GAIN ADJUST
● SWITCHABLE EXTERNAL PROCESSING
The VCA2612 is a highly integrated, dual receive channel,
signal processing subsystem. Each channel of the product
consists of a low noise preamplifier (LNP) and a Variable
Gain Amplifier (VGA). The LNP circuit provides the necessary connections to implement Active Termination (AT), a
method of cable termination which results in up to 4.6dB
noise figure improvement. Different cable termination characteristics can be accommodated by utilizing the VCA2612’s
switchable LNA feedback pins. The LNP has the ability to
accept both differential and single-ended inputs, and generates a differential output signal. The LNP provides strappable
gains of 5dB, 17dB, 22dB, and 25dB.
The output of the LNP can be accessed externally for further
signal processing, or fed directly into the VGA. The VCA2612’s
VGA section consists of two parts: the Voltage Controlled
Attenuator (VCA) and the Programmable Gain Amplifier
(PGA). The gain and gain range of the PGA can be digitally
programmed. The combination of these two programmable
elements results in a variable gain ranging from 0dB up to a
maximum gain as defined by the user through external
connections. The output of the VGA can be used in either a
single-ended or differential mode to drive high-performance
Analog-to-Digital (A/D) converters.
APPLICATIONS
● ULTRASOUND SYSTEMS
● WIRELESS RECEIVERS
● TEST EQUIPMENT
The VCA2612 also features low crosstalk and outstanding
distortion performance. The combination of low noise and gain
range programmability make the VCA2612 a versatile building
block in a number of applications where noise performance is
critical. The VCA2612 is available in a TQFP-48 package.
Maximum Gain Select
FBSWCNTL
LNPOUTN
VCAINN
VCACNTL
MGS1 MGS2 MGS3
RF2
SWFB
RF1
FB
VCA2612
(1 of 2 Channels)
Analog
Control
Maximum Gain
Select
Voltage
Controlled
Attenuator
Programmable
Gain Amplifier
24 to 45dB
CF
Input
CC
LNPINP
LNP
Gain Set
VCAOUTN
LNPGS1
LNPGS2
Low Noise
Preamp
5dB to 25dB
LNPGS3
VCAOUTP
LNPINN
LNPOUTP
VCAINP
SEL
Please be aware that an important notice concerning availability, standard warranty, and use in critical applications of
Texas Instruments semiconductor products and disclaimers thereto appears at the end of this data sheet.
All trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
PRODUCTION DATA information is current as of publication date.
Products conform to specifications per the terms of Texas Instruments
standard warranty. Production processing does not necessarily include
testing of all parameters.
Copyright © 2000-2004, Texas Instruments Incorporated
www.ti.com
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS(1)
Power Supply (+VS) ............................................................................. +6V
Analog Input ............................................................. –0.3V to (+VS + 0.3V)
Logic Input ............................................................... –0.3V to (+VS + 0.3V)
Case Temperature ......................................................................... +100°C
Junction Temperature .................................................................... +150°C
Storage Temperature ...................................................... –40°C to +150°C
NOTE: (1) Stresses above these ratings may cause permanent damage.
Exposure to absolute maximum conditions for extended periods may degrade
device reliability.
ELECTROSTATIC
DISCHARGE SENSITIVITY
This integrated circuit can be damaged by ESD. Texas Instruments recommends that all integrated circuits be handled with
appropriate precautions. Failure to observe proper handling
and installation procedures can cause damage.
ESD damage can range from subtle performance degradation
to complete device failure. Precision integrated circuits may be
more susceptible to damage because very small parametric
changes could cause the device not to meet its published
specifications.
PACKAGE/ORDERING INFORMATION(1)
PRODUCT
PACKAGE-LEAD
PACKAGE
DESIGNATOR
PACKAGE
MARKING
ORDERING
NUMBER
TRANSPORT
MEDIA, QUANTITY
VCA2612Y
TQFP-48
PFB
VCA2612Y
"
"
"
"
VCA2612Y/250
VCA2612Y/2K
Tape and Reel, 250
Tape and Reel, 2000
NOTE: (1) For the most current package and ordering information, see the Package Option Addendum located at the end of this data sheet.
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
At TA = +25°C, VDDA = VDDB = VDDR = +5V, load resistance = 500Ω on each output to ground, MGS = 011, LNP = 22dB and fIN = 5MHz, unless otherwise noted.
The input to the preamp (LNP) is single-ended, and the output from the VCA is single-ended unless otherwise noted.
VCA2612Y
PARAMETER
PREAMPLIFIER
Input Resistance
Input Capacitance
Input Bias Current
CMRR
Maximum Input Voltage
Input Voltage Noise(1)
Input Current Noise
Noise Figure, RS = 75Ω, RIN = 75Ω(1)
Bandwidth
CONDITIONS
f = 1MHz, VCACNTL = 0.2V
Preamp Gain = +5dB
Preamp Gain = +25dB
Preamp Gain = +5dB
Preamp Gain = +25dB
Independent of Gain
RF = 550Ω, Preamp Gain = 22dB,
PGA Gain = 39dB
Gain = 22dB
PROGRAMMABLE VARIABLE GAIN AMPLIFIER
Peak Input Voltage
Differential
–3dB Bandwidth
Slew Rate
Output Signal Range
RL ≥ 500Ω Each Side to Ground
Output Impedance
f = 5MHz
Output Short-Circuit Current
Third Harmonic Distortion
f = 5MHz, VOUT = 1VPP, VCACNTL = 3.0V
Second Harmonic Distortion
f = 5MHz, VOUT = 1VPP, VCACNTL = 3.0V
IMD, Two-Tone
VOUT = 2VPP, f = 1MHz
VOUT = 2VPP, f = 10MHz
1dB Compression Point
f = 5MHz, Output Referred, Differential
Crosstalk
VOUT = 1VPP, f = 1MHz, Max Gain Both Channels
Group Delay Variation
1MHz < f < 10MHz, Full Gain Range
DC Output Level, VIN = 0
ACCURACY
Gain Slope
Gain Error
Output Offset Voltage
Total Gain
GAIN CONTROL INTERFACE
Input Voltage (VCACNTL) Range
Input Resistance
Response Time
POWER SUPPLY
Operating Temperature Range
Specified Operating Range
Power Dissipation
Thermal Resistance, θJA
MIN
–45
–45
TYP
MAX
600
15
1
50
1
112
3.5
1.25
0.35
6.2
kΩ
pF
nA
dB
VPP
mVPP
nV/√Hz
nV/√Hz
pA/√Hz
dB
80
MHz
2
40
300
2
1
±40
–71
–63
–80
–80
6
68
±2
2.5
VPP
MHz
V/µs
VPP
Ω
mA
dBc
dBc
dBc
dBc
VPP
dB
ns
V
10.9
VCACNTL = 0.2V
VCACNTL = 3.0V
18
47
–40
4.75
Operating, Both Channels
TQFP-48
±50
21
50
±1(2)
24
53
0.2 to 3.0
1
0.2
45dB Gain Change, MGS = 111
UNITS
5.0
410
56.5
dB/V
dB
mV
dB
dB
V
MΩ
µs
+85
5.25
495
°C
V
mW
°C/W
NOTE: (1) For preamp driving VGA. (2) Referenced to best fit dB-linear curve.
2
VCA2612
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SBOS117C
MGS1
MGS2
MGS3
VCAOUTPB
VCAOUTNB
GNDB
46
VCACNTL
VCAOUTPA
47
FBSWCNTL
VCAOUTNA
48
VCAINSEL
GNDA
PIN CONFIGURATION
45
44
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
VDDA
1
36 VDDB
NC
2
35 NC
NC
3
34 NC
VCAINNA
4
33 VCAINNB
32 VCAINPB
VCAINPA
5
LNPOUTNA
6
LNPOUTPA
7
30 LNPOUTPB
SWFBA
8
29 SWFBB
FBA
9
28 FBB
31 LNPOUTNB
VCA2612
18
19
VBIAS
VCM
20
21
22
23
24
LNPGS3B
17
LNPGS2B
16
LNPGS1B
15
GNDR
14
LNPINPB
13
VDDR
25 LNPINNB
LNPINPA
LNPINNA 12
LNPGS1A
26 COMP2B
LNPGS3A
27 COMP1B
COMP2A 11
LNPGS2A
COMP1A 10
PIN DESCRIPTIONS
PIN
DESIGNATOR
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
VDDA
NC
NC
VCAINNA
VCAINPA
LNPOUTNA
LNPOUTPA
SWFBA
FBA
COMP1A
COMP2A
LNPINNA
LNPGS3A
LNPGS2A
LNPGS1A
LNPINPA
VDDR
VBIAS
VCM
GNDR
LNPINPB
LNPGS1B
LNPGS2B
LNPGS3B
DESCRIPTION
PIN
DESIGNATOR
Channel A +Supply (+5V)
Do Not Connect
Do Not Connect
Channel A VCA Negative Input
Channel A VCA Positive Input
Channel A LNP Negative Output
Channel A LNP Positive Output
Channel A Switched Feedback Output
Channel A Feedback Output
Channel A Frequency Compensation 1
Channel A Frequency Compensation 2
Channel A LNP Inverting Input
Channel A LNP Gain Strap 3
Channel A LNP Gain Strap 2
Channel A LNP Gain Strap 1
Channel A LNP Noninverting Input
+Supply for Internal Reference (+5V)
0.01µF Bypass to Ground
0.01µF Bypass to Ground
Ground for Internal Reference
Channel B LNP Noninverting Input
Channel B LNP Gain Strap 1
Channel B LNP Gain Strap 2
Channel B LNP Gain Strap 3
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
LNPINNB
COMP2B
COMP1B
FBB
SWFBB
LNPOUTPB
LNPOUTNB
VCAINPB
VCAINNB
NC
NC
VDDB
GNDB
VCAOUTNB
VCAOUTPB
MGS3
MGS2
MGS1
VCACNTL
VCAINSEL
FBSWCNTL
VCAOUTPA
VCAOUTNA
GNDA
VCA2612
SBOS117C
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DESCRIPTION
Channel B LNP Inverting Input
Channel B Frequency Compensation 2
Channel B Frequency Compensation 1
Channel B Feedback Output
Channel B Switched Feedback Output
Channel B LNP Positive Output
Channel B LNP Negative Output
Channel B VCA Positive Input
Channel B VCA Negative Input
Do Not Connect
Do Not Connect
Channel B +Analog Supply (+5V)
Channel B Analog Ground
Channel B VCA Negative Output
Channel B VCA Positive Output
Maximum Gain Select 3 (LSB)
Maximum Gain Select 2
Maximum Gain Select 1 (MSB)
VCA Control Voltage
VCA Input Select, HI = External
Feedback Switch Control: HI = ON
Channel A VCA Positive Output
Channel A VCA Negative Output
Channel A Analog Ground
3
TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS
At TA = +25°C, VDDA = VDDB = VDDR = +5V, load resistance = 500Ω on each output to ground, MGS = 011, LNP = 22dB and fIN = 5MHz, unless otherwise noted.
The input to the preamp (LNP) is single-ended, and the output from the VCA is single-ended unless otherwise noted. This results in a 6dB reduction in signal
amplitude compared to differential operation.
GAIN ERROR vs TEMPERATURE
GAIN vs VCACNTL
65
2.0
MGS = 111
60
55
1.0
45
MGS = 100
40
35
MGS = 011
30
Gain Error (dB)
MGS = 101
50
Gain (dB)
1.5
MGS = 110
MGS = 001
20
0
–0.5
+85°C
–1.5
MGS = 000
15
+25°C
0.5
–1.0
MGS = 010
25
–2.0
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0
VCACNTL (V)
VCACNTL (V)
GAIN ERROR vs VCACNTL
GAIN ERROR vs VCACNTL
2.0
2.0
1.5
1.5
1MHz
1.0
1.0
10MHz
0.5
Gain Error (dB)
Gain Error (dB)
–40°C
0
–0.5
5MHz
MGS = 000
MGS = 011
0.5
0
–0.5
–1.0
–1.0
–1.5
–1.5
MGS = 111
–2.0
–2.0
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0
VCACNTL (V)
VCACNTL (V)
GAIN MATCH: CHA to CHB, VCACNTL = 0.2V
100
90
90
80
80
70
70
60
60
Units
Units
100
50
40
30
30
20
20
10
10
0
–0.5 –0.4 –0.3 –0.2 –0.1 0.0
0.1 0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
–0.5 –0.4 –0.3 –0.2 –0.1 0.0
Delta Gain (dB)
4
50
40
0
GAIN MATCH: CHA to CHB, VCACNTL = 3.0V
0.1 0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
Delta Gain (dB)
VCA2612
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SBOS117C
TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS (Cont.)
At TA = +25°C, VDDA = VDDB = VDDR = +5V, load resistance = 500Ω on each output to ground, MGS = 011, LNP = 22dB and fIN = 5MHz, unless otherwise noted.
The input to the preamp (LNP) is single-ended, and the output from the VCA is single-ended unless otherwise noted. This results in a 6dB reduction in signal
amplitude compared to differential operation.
GAIN vs FREQUENCY
(VCA and PGA, VCACNTL = 0.2V)
GAIN vs FREQUENCY
(Pre-Amp)
30
5.0
LNP = 25dB
25
3.0
2.0
Gain (dB)
20
Gain (dB)
MGS = 111
MGS = 100
MGS = 011
MGS = 000
4.0
LNP = 22dB
15
LNP = 17dB
10
1.0
0.0
–1.0
–2.0
–3.0
5
–4.0
LNP = 5dB
0
0.1
–5.0
1
10
0.1
100
1
10
Frequency (MHz)
Frequency (MHz)
GAIN vs FREQUENCY
(VCA and PGA, VCACNTL = 3.0V)
GAIN vs FREQUENCY
(VCACNTL = 3.0V)
45
60
LNP = 25dB
MGS = 111
40
LNP = 22dB
50
35
MGS = 100
30
40
Gain (dB)
Gain (dB)
100
25
MGS = 011
20
15
LNP = 17dB
30
LNP = 5dB
20
MGS = 000
10
10
5
0
0
0.1
1
10
100
0.1
1
Frequency (MHz)
GAIN vs FREQUENCY
(LNP = 22dB)
100
OUTPUT REFERRED NOISE vs VCACNTL
1800
60
VCACNTL = 3.0V
1600
RS= 50Ω
MGS = 111
50
1400
Noise (nV/√Hz)
VCACNTL = 1.6V
40
Gain (dB)
10
Frequency (MHz)
30
20
1200
1000
800
600
MGS = 011
400
10
200
VCACNTL = 0.2V
0
0
0.1
1
10
0 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0
100
VCACNTL (V)
Frequency (MHz)
VCA2612
SBOS117C
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5
TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS (Cont.)
At TA = +25°C, VDDA = VDDB = VDDR = +5V, load resistance = 500Ω on each output to ground, MGS = 011, LNP = 22dB and fIN = 5MHz, unless otherwise noted.
The input to the preamp (LNP) is single-ended, and the output from the VCA is single-ended unless otherwise noted. This results in a 6dB reduction in signal
amplitude compared to differential operation.
INPUT REFERRED NOISE vs VCACNTL
24
22
RS= 50Ω
20
18
16
MGS = 111
Noise (nV√Hz
Noise (nV/√Hz)
INPUT REFERRED NOISE vs RS
10.0
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
1.0
MGS = 011
0
0.1
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0
1
10
VCACNTL (V)
100
1000
RS (Ω)
NOISE FIGURE vs RS
(VCACNTL = 3.0V)
11
NOISE FIGURE vs VCACNTL
30
10
25
8
Noise Figure (dB)
Noise Figure (dB)
9
7
6
5
4
3
2
20
15
10
5
1
0
0
10
–45
100
1000
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0
RS (Ω)
VCACNTL (V)
LNP vs FREQUENCY
(Differential, 2VPP)
LNP vs FREQUENCY
(Single-Ended, 1VPP)
–45
–50
Harmonic Distortion (dBc)
Harmonic Distortion (dBc)
–50
–55
3rd Harmonic
–60
–65
–70
–75
–55
2nd Harmonic
–60
–65
–70
–75
3rd Harmonic
2nd Harmonic
–80
–80
0.1
1
10
100
0.1
Frequency (MHz)
6
1
10
100
Frequency (MHz)
VCA2612
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SBOS117C
TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS (Cont.)
At TA = +25°C, VDDA = VDDB = VDDR = +5V, load resistance = 500Ω on each output to ground, MGS = 011, LNP = 22dB and fIN = 5MHz, unless otherwise noted.
The input to the preamp (LNP) is single-ended, and the output from the VCA is single-ended unless otherwise noted. This results in a 6dB reduction in signal
amplitude compared to differential operation.
HARMONIC DISTORTION vs FREQUENCY
(Differential, 2VPP, MGS = 000)
–40
–50
–55
–60
–65
–70
–75
–80
–85
–55
–60
–65
–70
–75
–80
–90
0.1
–30
1
10
–45
1
Frequency (Hz)
HARMONIC DISTORTION vs FREQUENCY
(Differential, 2VPP, MGS = 111)
HARMONIC DISTORTION vs FREQUENCY
(Single-Ended, 1VPP, MGS = 000)
–40
–50
–55
–60
–65
–70
10
VCACNTL = 0.2V, H2
VCACNTL = 0.2V, H3
VCACNTL = 3.0V, H2
VCACNTL = 3.0V, H3
–45
Harmonic Distortion (dBc)
–40
0.1
Frequency (MHz)
VCACNTL = 0.2V, H2
VCACNTL = 0.2V, H3
VCACNTL = 3.0V, H2
VCACNTL = 3.0V, H3
–35
Harmonic Distortion (dBc)
–50
–85
–90
–50
–55
–60
–65
–70
–75
–80
–85
–75
–90
–80
0.1
–40
1
–55
1
Frequency (MHz)
Frequency (MHz)
HARMONIC DISTORTION vs FREQUENCY
(Single-Ended, 1VPP, MGS = 011)
HARMONIC DISTORTION vs FREQUENCY
(Single-Ended, 1VPP, MGS = 111)
–30
–60
–65
–70
–75
–80
–85
10
VCACNTL = 0.2V, H2
VCACNTL = 0.2V, H3
VCACNTL = 3.0V, H2
VCACNTL = 3.0V, H3
–35
Harmonic Distortion (dBc)
–50
0.1
10
VCACNTL = 0.2V, H2
VCACNTL = 0.2V, H3
VCACNTL = 3.0V, H2
VCACNTL = 3.0V, H3
–45
Harmonic Distortion (dBc)
VCACNTL = 0.2V, H2
VCACNTL = 0.2V, H3
VCACNTL = 3.0V, H2
VCACNTL = 3.0V, H3
–45
Harmonic Distortion (dBc)
Harmonic Distortion (dBc)
–40
VCACNTL = 0.2V, H2
VCACNTL = 0.2V, H3
VCACNTL = 3.0V, H2
VCACNTL = 3.0V, H3
–45
HARMONIC DISTORTION vs FREQUENCY
(Differential, 2VPP, MGS = 011)
–40
–45
–50
–55
–60
–65
–70
–75
–80
–90
–85
0.1
1
10
0.1
Frequency (MHz)
VCA2612
SBOS117C
1
10
Frequency (MHz)
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7
TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS (Cont.)
At TA = +25°C, VDDA = VDDB = VDDR = +5V, load resistance = 500Ω on each output to ground, MGS = 011, LNP = 22dB and fIN = 5MHz, unless otherwise noted.
The input to the preamp (LNP) is single-ended, and the output from the VCA is single-ended unless otherwise noted. This results in a 6dB reduction in signal
amplitude compared to differential operation.
HARMONIC DISTORTION vs VCACNTL
(Differential, 2VPP)
–45
–55
–60
–65
–70
–75
–55
–60
–65
–70
–75
–80
–80
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0
VCACNTL (V)
VCACNTL (V)
INTERMODULATION DISTORTION
(Differential, 2VPP, f = 10MHz)
INTERMODULATION DISTORTION
(Single-Ended, 1VPP, f = 10MHz)
–5
–5
–15
–15
–25
–25
–35
–35
Power (dBFS)
Power (dBFS)
MGS = 000, H2
MGS = 011, H2
MGS = 111, H2
MGS = 000, H3
MGS = 011, H3
MGS = 111, H3
–50
Harmonic Distortion (dBc)
Harmonic Distortion (dBc)
–45
MGS = 000, H2
MGS = 011, H2
MGS = 111, H2
MGS = 000, H3
MGS = 011, H3
MGS = 111, H3
–50
HARMONIC DISTORTION vs VCACNTL
(Single-Ended, 1VPP)
–45
–55
–65
–45
–55
–65
–75
–75
–85
–85
–95
–95
–105
–105
9.96
9.98
10
10.2
9.96
10.4
0
9.98
10
10.2
10.4
Frequency (MHz)
Frequency (MHz)
–1dB COMPRESSION vs VCACNTL
0
3rd-ORDER INTERCEPT vs VCACNTL
–5
–5
–10
–10
IP3 (dBm)
PIN (dBm)
–15
–15
–20
–25
–20
–25
–30
–35
–30
–40
–35
–45
–40
8
–50
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0
VCACNTL (V)
VCACNTL (V)
VCA2612
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SBOS117C
TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS (Cont.)
At TA = +25°C, VDDA = VDDB = VDDR = +5V, load resistance = 500Ω on each output to ground, MGS = 011, LNP = 22dB and fIN = 5MHz, unless otherwise noted.
The input to the preamp (LNP) is single-ended, and the output from the VCA is single-ended unless otherwise noted. This results in a 6dB reduction in signal
amplitude compared to differential operation.
OVERLOAD RECOVERY
(Differential, VCACNTL = 3.0V, MGS = 111)
PULSE RESPONSE (BURSTS)
(Differential, VCACNTL = 3.0V, MGS = 111)
Output
500mV/div
Output
1V/div
Input
1mV/div
Input
1mV/div
200ns/div
200ns/div
GAIN RESPONSE
(Differential, VCACNTL Pulsed, MGS = 111)
CROSS TALK vs FREQUENCY
(Single-Ended, 1Vp-p, MGS = 011)
0
Output
500mV/div
–10
Cross Talk (dB)
–20
Input
2V/div
VCACNTRL = 1.5V
–30
–40
–50
VCACNTRL = 0V
–60
–70
VCACNTRL = 3.0V
–80
–90
100ns/div
1
10
100
Frequency (MHz)
CMRR vs FREQUENCY
(LNP only)
0
0
–10
–10
–20
–20
–30
VCACNTL = 0.2V
–40
CMRR (dB)
CMRR (dB)
CMRR vs FREQUENCY
(VCA only)
VCACNTL = 1.4V
–50
–60
–30
–40
–50
–60
–70
–70
–80
VCACNTL = 3.0V
–90
0.1
1
–80
10
100
0.1
Frequency (MHz)
10
100
Frequency (MHz)
VCA2612
SBOS117C
1
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9
TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS (Cont.)
At TA = +25°C, VDDA = VDDB = VDDR = +5V, load resistance = 500Ω on each output to ground, MGS = 011, LNP = 22dB and fIN = 5MHz, unless otherwise noted.
The input to the preamp (LNP) is single-ended, and the output from the VCA is single-ended unless otherwise noted. This results in a 6dB reduction in signal
amplitude compared to differential operation.
GROUP DELAY vs FREQUENCY
ICC vs TEMPERATURE
80
79.5
Group Delay (ns)
ICC (mA)
79
78.5
78
77.5
77
76.5
76
–40
–25
–10
5
20
35
50
65
80
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
95
VCACNTL = 3.0V
VCACNTL = 0.2V
1
10
Temperature (°C)
100
Frequency (MHz)
PSRR vs FREQUENCY
–45
–40
–35
PSRR (dB)
–30
–25
–20
–15
–10
–5
0
5
10
10
100
1k
10k
100k
1M
10M
Frequency (Hz)
10
VCA2612
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SBOS117C
THEORY OF OPERATION
The VCA2612 is a dual-channel system consisting of three
primary blocks: a Low Noise Preamplifier (LNP), a Voltage
Controlled Attenuator (VCA), and a Programmable Gain
Amplifier (PGA). For greater system flexibility, an onboard
multiplexer is provided for the VCA inputs, selecting either
the LNP outputs or external signal inputs. Figure 1 shows a
simplified block diagram of the dual-channel system.
op amp. The VCM node shown in the drawing is the VCM
output (pin 19). Typical R and C values are shown, yielding
a high-pass time constant similar to that of the LNP. If a
different common-mode referencing method is used, it is
important that the common-mode level be within 10mV of the
VCM output for proper operation.
1kΩ
External
InA
Channel A
Input
LNP
VCA
PGA
To VCAIN
47nF
Input
Signal
Channel A
Output
1kΩ
VCM (+2.5V)
Channel B
Input
LNP
VCA
MGS
PGA
Channel B
Output
FIGURE 2. Recommended Circuit for Coupling an External
Signal into the VCA Inputs.
External
InB
FIGURE 1. Simplified Block Diagram of the VCA2612.
LNP—OVERVIEW
The LNP input may be connected to provide active-feedback
signal termination, achieving lower system noise performance than conventional passive shunt termination. Even
lower noise performance is obtained if signal termination is
not required. The unterminated LNP input impedance is
600kΩ. The LNP can process fully differential or singleended signals in each channel. Differential signal processing
results in significantly reduced 2nd-harmonic distortion and
improved rejection of common-mode and power supply noise.
The first gain stage of the LNP is AC-coupled into its output
buffer with a 44µs time constant (3.6kHz high-pass characteristic). The buffered LNP outputs are designed to drive the
succeeding VCA directly or, if desired, external loads as low
as 135Ω with minimal impact on signal distortion. The LNP
employs very low impedance local feedback to achieve
stable gain with the lowest possible noise and distortion.
Four pin-programmable gain settings are available: 5dB,
17dB, 22dB, and 25dB. Additional intermediate gains can be
programmed by adding trim resistors between the Gain Strap
programming pins.
VCA—OVERVIEW
The magnitude of the differential VCA input signal (from the
LNP or an external source) is reduced by a programmable
attenuation factor, set by the analog VCA Control Voltage
(VCACNTL) at pin 43. The maximum attenuation factor is
further programmable by using the three MGS bits (pins 4042). Figure 3 illustrates this dual-adjustable characteristic.
Internally, the signal is attenuated by having the analog
VCACNTL vary the channel resistance of a set of shuntconnected FET transistors. The MGS bits effectively adjust
the overall size of the shunt FET by switching parallel
components in or out under logic control. At any given
maximum gain setting, the analog variable gain characteristic is linear in dB as a function of the control voltage, and is
created as a piecewise approximation of an ideal dB-linear
transfer function. The VCA gain control circuitry is common
to both channels of the VCA2612.
0
VCA Attenuation (dB)
Analog
Control
VCA
Control
Maximum
Gain
Select
The common-mode DC level at the LNP output is nominally
2.5V, matching the input common-mode requirement of the
VCA for simple direct coupling. When external signals are
fed to the VCA, they should also be set up with a 2.5VDC
common-mode level. Figure 2 shows a circuit that demonstrates the recommended coupling method using an external
Minimum Attenuation
–24
Maximum Attenuation
–45
0
3.0V
Control Voltage
FIGURE 3. Swept Attenuator Characteristic.
VCA2612
SBOS117C
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11
PGA OVERVIEW AND OVERALL DEVICE
CHARACTERISTICS
The VCA2612 includes a built-in reference, common to both
channels, to supply a regulated voltage for critical areas of
the circuit. This reduces the susceptibility to power supply
variation, ripple, and noise. In addition, separate power
supply and ground connections are provided for each channel and for the reference circuitry, further reducing interchannel
cross-talk.
The differential output of the VCA attenuator is then amplified
by the PGA circuit block. This post-amplifier is programmed
by the same MGS bits that control the VCA attenuator,
yielding an overall swept-gain amplifier characteristic in which
the VCA • PGA gain varies from 0dB (unity) to a programmable peak gain of 24dB, 27dB, 30dB, 33dB, 36dB, 39dB,
42dB, or 45dB.
Further details regarding the design, operation and use of
each circuit block are provided in the following sections.
The GAIN vs VCACNTL curve on page 4 shows the composite
gain control characteristic of the entire VCA2612. Setting
VCACNTL to 3.0V causes the digital MGS gain control to step
in 3dB increments. Setting VCACNTL to 0V causes all the
MGS-controlled gain curves to converge at one point. The
gain at the convergence point is the LNP gain less 6dB,
because the measurement setup looks at only one side of
the differential PGA output, resulting in 6dB lower signal
amplitude.
LOW NOISE PREAMPLIFIER (LNP)—DETAIL
The LNP is designed to achieve a low noise figure, especially
when employing active termination. Figure 4 is a simplified
schematic of the LNP, illustrating the differential input and
output capability. The input stage employs low resistance
local feedback to achieve stable low noise, low distortion
performance with very high input impedance. Normally, low
noise circuits exhibit high power consumption due to the
large bias currents required in both input and output stages.
The LNP uses a patented technique that combines the input
and output stages such that they share the same bias
current. Transistors Q4 and Q5 amplify the signal at the gatesource input of Q4, the +IN side of the LNP. The signal is
further amplified by the Q1 and Q2 stage, and then by the final
Q3 and RL gain stage, which uses the same bias current as
the input devices Q4 and Q5. Devices Q6 through Q10 play the
same role for signals on the –IN side.
ADDITIONAL FEATURES—OVERVIEW
Overload protection stages are placed between the attenuator and the PGA, providing a symmetrically clipped output
whenever the input becomes large enough to overload the
PGA. A comparator senses the overload signal amplitude
and substitutes a fixed DC level to prevent undesirable
overload recovery effects. As with the previous stages, the
VCA is AC-coupled into the PGA. In this case, the coupling
time constant varies from 5µs at the highest gain (45dB) to
59µs at the lowest gain (25dB).
The differential gain of the LNP is given in Equation (1):
R 
Gain = 2 •  L 
 RS 
VDD
COMP2A
COMP1A
RL
93Ω
Q2
RL
93Ω
LNPOUTN
To Bias
Circuitry
Q9
LNPOUTP
Buffer
CCOMP
(External
Capacitor)
(1)
Buffer
Q3
Q8
RS1
105Ω
RW
RS2
34Ω
Q4
LNPINP
LNPGS1
RW
Q7
LNPINN
LNPGS2
RS3
17Ω
Q10
LNPGS3
Q1
To Bias
Circuitry
Q5
Q6
FIGURE 4. Schematic of the Low Noise Preamplifier (LNP).
12
VCA2612
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SBOS117C
where RL is the load resistor in the drains of Q3 and Q8, and
RS is the resistor connected between the sources of the input
transistors Q4 and Q7. The connections for various RS combinations are brought out to device pins LNPGS1, LNPGS2,
and LNPGS3 (pins 13-15 for channel A, 22-24 for channel B).
These Gain Strap pins allow the user to establish one of four
fixed LNP gain options as shown in Table I.
LNP PIN STRAPPING
LNP GAIN (dB)
LNPGS1, LNPGS2, LNPGS3 Connected Together
LNPGS1 Connected to LNPGS3
LNPGS1 Connected to LNPGS2
All Pins Open
25
22
17
5
It is also possible to create other gain settings by connecting
an external resistor between LNPGS1 on one side, and
LNPGS2 and/or LNPGS3 on the other. In that case, the
internal resistor values shown in Figure 4 should be combined with the external resistor to calculate the effective
value of RS for use in Equation (1). The resulting expression
for external resistor value is given in Equation (2).
2R S1RL + 2RFIXRL – Gain • R S1RFIX
Gain • R S1 – 2RL
NOISE (nV/√Hz)
(2)
where REXT is the externally selected resistor value needed
to achieve the desired gain setting, RS1 is the fixed parallel
resistor in Figure 4, and RFIX is the effective fixed value of the
remaining internal resistors: RS2, RS3, or (RS2 || RS3) depending on the pin connections.
Note that the best process and temperature stability will be
achieved by using the pre-programmed fixed gain options of
Table I, since the gain is then set entirely by internal resistor
ratios, which are typically accurate to ±0.5%, and track quite
well over process and temperature. When combining external resistors with the internal values to create an effective RS
value, note that the internal resistors have a typical temperature coefficient of +700ppm/°C and an absolute value tolerance of approximately ±5%, yielding somewhat less predictable and stable gain settings. With or without external resistors, the board layout should use short Gain Strap connections to minimize parasitic resistance and inductance effects.
The overall noise performance of the VCA2612 will vary as
a function of gain. Table II shows the typical input- and
output-referred noise densities of the entire VCA2612 for
maximum VCA and PGA gain; i.e., VCACNTL set to 3.0V and
all MGS bits set to 1. Note that the input-referred noise
values include the contribution of a 50Ω fixed source impedance, and are therefore somewhat larger than the intrinsic
input noise. As the LNP gain is reduced, the noise contribution from the VCA/PGA portion becomes more significant,
resulting in higher input-referred noise. However, the outputreferred noise, which is indicative of the overall SNR at that
gain setting, is reduced.
Input-Referred
Output-Referred
25
22
17
5
1.54
1.59
1.82
4.07
2260
1650
1060
597
The LNP is capable of generating a 2VPP differential signal.
The maximum signal at the LNP input is therefore 2VPP
divided by the LNP gain. An input signal greater than this
would exceed the linear range of the LNP, an especially
important consideration at low LNP gain settings.
ACTIVE FEEDBACK WITH THE LNP
One of the key features of the LNP architecture is the ability
to employ active-feedback termination to achieve superior
noise performance. Active feedback termination achieves a
lower noise figure than conventional shunt termination, essentially because no signal current is wasted in the termination resistor itself. Another way to understand this is as
follows: Consider first that the input source, at the far end of
the signal cable has a cable-matching source resistance of
RS. Using conventional shunt termination at the LNP input, a
second terminating resistor of value RS is connected to
ground. Therefore, the signal loss is 6dB due to the voltage
divider action of the series and shunt RS resistors. The
effective source resistance has been reduced by the same
factor of 2, but the noise contribution has been reduced by
only the √2, only a 3dB reduction. Therefore, the net theoretical SNR degradation is 3dB, assuming a noise-free amplifier
input. (In practice, the amplifier noise contribution will degrade both the unterminated and the terminated noise figures, somewhat reducing the distinction between them.)
See Figure 5 for an amplifier using active feedback. This
diagram appears very similar to a traditional inverting amplifier. However, the analysis is somewhat different because
the gain A in this case is not a very large open-loop op amp
gain; rather, it is the relatively low and controlled gain of the
LNP itself. Thus, the impedance at the inverting amplifier
terminal will be reduced by a finite amount, as given in the
familiar relationship of Equation (3):
RIN =
RF
(1 + A)
(3)
where RF is the feedback resistor (supplied externally between the LNPINP and FB terminals for each channel), A is
the user-selected gain of the LNP, and RIN is the resulting
amplifier input impedance with active feedback. In this case,
unlike the conventional termination above, both the signal
voltage and the RS noise are attenuated by the same factor
VCA2612
SBOS117C
LNP GAIN (dB)
TABLE II. Noise Performance for MGS = 111 and VCACNTL = 3.0V.
TABLE I. Pin Strappings of the LNP for Various Gains.
REXT =
To preserve the low noise performance of the LNP, the user
should take care to minimize resistance in the input lead. A
parasitic resistance of only 10Ω will contribute 0.4nV/√Hz.
www.ti.com
13
VCA NOISE = 3.8nV√Hz, LNP GAIN = 20dB
14
RF
LNP Noise
nV/√Hz
6.0E-10
8.0E-10
1.0E-09
1.2E-09
1.4E-09
1.6E-09
1.8E-09
2.0E-09
12
RS
Noise Figure (dB)
LNPIN
A
RIN
RIN =
RF
1+A
Active Feedback
= RS
10
8
6
4
2
RS
0
0
A
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
RS
Source Impedance (Ω)
FIGURE 7. Noise Figure for Conventional Termination.
Conventional Cable Termination
FIGURE 5. Configurations for Active Feedback and Conventional Cable Termination.
of two (6dB) before being re-amplified by the A gain setting.
This avoids the extra 3dB degradation due to the square-root
effect described above, the key advantage of the active
termination technique.
As mentioned above, the previous explanation ignored the
input noise contribution of the LNP itself. Also, the noise
contribution of the feedback resistor must be included for a
completely correct analysis. The curves given in Figures 6
and 7 allow the VCA2612 user to compare the achievable
noise figure for active and conventional termination methods.
The left-most set of data points in each graph give the results
for typical 50Ω cable termination, showing the worst noise
figure but also the greatest advantage of the active feedback
method.
A switch, controlled by the FBSWCNTL signal on pin 45,
enables the user to reduce the feedback resistance by
adding an additional parallel component, connected between the LNPINP and SWFB terminals. The two different
values of feedback resistance will result in two different
values of active-feedback input resistance. Thus, the activefeedback impedance can be optimized at two different LNP
gain settings. The switch is connected at the buffered output
of the LNP and has an ON resistance of approximately 1Ω.
When employing active feedback, the user should be careful
to avoid low-frequency instability or overload problems.
Figure 8 illustrates the various low-frequency time constants.
Referring again to the input resistance calculation of Equation (3), and considering that the gain term A falls off below
3.6kHz, it is evident that the effective LNP input impedance
will rise below 3.6kHz, with a DC limit of approximately RF.
To avoid interaction with the feedback pole/zero at low
frequencies, and to avoid the higher signal levels resulting
from the rising impedance characteristic, it is recommended
that the external RFCC time constant be set to about 5µs.
RF
VCA NOISE = 3.8nV√Hz, LNP GAIN = 20dB
9
LNP Noise
nV/√Hz
6.0E-10
8.0E-10
1.0E-09
1.2E-09
1.4E-09
1.6E-09
1.8E-09
2.0E-09
8
Noise Figure (dB)
7
6
5
4
3
VCM
CF
0.001µF
1MΩ
44pF
CC
Buffer
LNPOUTN
RS
2
44pF
LNPOUTP
1
0
0
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
900 1000
Source Impedance (Ω)
(VCA) LNP
FIGURE 6. Noise Figure for Active Termination.
14
Buffer
Gain
Stage
1MΩ
VCM
FIGURE 8. Low Frequency LNP Time Constants.
VCA2612
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SBOS117C
Achieving the best active feedback architecture is difficult
with conventional op amp circuit structures. The overall gain
A must be negative in order to close the feedback loop, the
input impedance must be high to maintain low current noise
and good gain accuracy, but the gain ratio must be set with
very low value resistors to maintain good voltage noise.
Using a two-amplifier configuration (noninverting for high
impedance plus inverting for negative feedback reasons)
results in excessive phase lag and stability problems when
the loop is closed. The VCA2612 uses a patented architecture that achieves these requirements, with the additional
benefits of low power dissipation and differential signal handling at both input and output.
For greatest flexibility and lowest noise, the user may wish to
shape the frequency response of the LNP. The COMP1 and
COMP2 pins for each channel (pins 10 and 11 for channel A,
pins 26 and 27 for channel B) correspond to the drains of Q3
and Q8 in Figure 4. A capacitor placed between these pins
will create a single-pole low-pass response, in which the
effective R of the RC time constant is approximately 186Ω.
COMPENSATION WHEN USING ACTIVE
FEEDBACK
associated with the input connection. Equation 4 relates the
bandwidth to the various impedances that are connected to
the LNP.
BW =
(A + 1) RI + RF
2pC(RI )(RF )
(4)
LNP OUTPUT BUFFER
The differential LNP output is buffered by wideband class AB
voltage followers which are designed to drive low impedance
loads. This is necessary to maintain LNP gain accuracy,
since the VCA input exhibits gain-dependent input impedance. The buffers are also useful when the LNP output is
brought out to drive external filters or other signal processing
circuitry. Good distortion performance is maintained with
buffer loads as low as 135Ω. As mentioned previously, the
buffer inputs are AC-coupled to the LNP outputs with a
3.6kHz high-pass characteristic, and the DC common-mode
level is maintained at the correct VCM for compatibility with
the VCA input.
VOLTAGE-CONTROLLED ATTENUATOR (VCA)—DETAIL
The typical open-loop gain versus frequency characteristic
for the LNP is shown in Figure 9. The –3dB bandwidth is
approximately 180MHz and the phase response is such that
when feedback is applied the LNP will exhibit a peaked
response or might even oscillate. One method for compensating for this undesirable behavior is to place a compensation capacitor at the input to the LNP, as shown in Figure 10.
This method is effective when the desired –3dB bandwidth is
much less than the open-loop bandwidth of the LNP. This
compensation technique also allows the total compensation
capacitor to include any stray or cable capacitance that is
–3dB Bandwidth
Gain
25dB
180MHz
FIGURE 9. Open-Loop Gain Characteristic of LNP.
The VCA is designed to have a dB-linear attenuation characteristic, i.e. the gain loss in dB is constant for each equal
increment of the VCA CNTL control voltage. See
Figure 11 for a diagram of the VCA. The attenuator is
essentially a variable voltage divider consisting of one series
input resistor, RS, and ten identical shunt FETs, placed in
parallel and controlled by sequentially activated clipping
amplifiers. Each clipping amplifier can be thought of as a
specialized voltage comparator with a soft transfer characteristic and well-controlled output limit voltages. The reference
voltages V1 through V10 are equally spaced over the 0V to
3.0V control voltage range. As the control voltage rises
through the input range of each clipping amplifier, the amplifier output will rise from 0V (FET completely ON) to VCM –VT
(FET nearly OFF ), where VCM is the common source voltage
and VT is the threshold voltage of the FET. As each FET
approaches its OFF state and the control voltage continues
to rise, the next clipping amplifier/FET combination takes
over for the next portion of the piecewise-linear attenuation
characteristic. Thus, low control voltages have most of the
FETs turned ON, while high control voltages have most
turned OFF. Each FET acts to decrease the shunt resistance
of the voltage divider formed by RS and the parallel FET
network.
The attenuator is comprised of two sections, with five parallel
clipping amplifier/FET combinations in each. Special reference circuitry is provided so that the (VCM –VT) limit voltage
will track temperature and IC process variations, minimizing
the effects on the attenuator control characteristic.
RF
RI
Input
C
A
Output
In addition to the analog VCACNTL gain setting input, the
attenuator architecture provides digitally programmable adjustment in eight steps, via the three Maximum Gain Setting
(MGS) bits. These adjust the maximum achievable gain
FIGURE 10. LNP with Compensation Capacitor.
VCA2612
SBOS117C
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15
Attenuator
Input
RS
A1 - A10 Attenuator Stages
Attenuator
Output
QS
Q1
VCM
A1
Q2
A2
C1
A3
C2
V1
Q3
A4
C3
V2
Q4
A5
C4
V3
V4
Control
Input
Q5
Q6
A6
C5
A7
C6
V5
Q7
V6
Q8
A8
C7
V7
Q9
A9
C8
Q10
A10
C9
V8
C10
V9
V10
C1 - C10 Clipping Amplifiers
0dB
–4.5dB
Attenuation Characteristic of Individual FETs
VCM-VT
0
V1
V2
V3
V4
V5
V6
V7
V8
V9
Characteristic of Attenuator Control Stage Output
V10
OVERALL CONTROL CHARACTERISTICS OF ATTENUATOR
0dB
–4.5dB
0.3V
Control Signal
3V
FIGURE 11. Piecewise Approximation to Logarithmic Control Characteristics.
(corresponding to minimum attenuation in the VCA, with
VCACNTL = 3.0V) in 3dB increments. This function is accomplished by providing multiple FET sub-elements for each of
the Q 1 to Q 10 FET shunt elements shown in
Figure 11. In the simplified diagram of Figure 12, each shunt
FET is shown as two sub-elements, QNA and QNB. Selector
16
switches, driven by the MGS bits, activate either or both of
the sub-element FETs to adjust the maximum RON and thus
achieve the stepped attenuation options.
The VCA can be used to process either differential or singleended signals. Fully differential operation will reduce 2ndharmonic distortion by about 10dB for full-scale signals.
VCA2612
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SBOS117C
RS
OUTPUT
INPUT
Q1A
Q1B
Q2A
Q2B
Q3A
Q3B
Q4A
Q4B
Q5A
Q5B
VCM
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
B1
B2
PROGRAMMABLE ATTENUATOR SECTION
FIGURE 12. Programmable Attenuator Section.
From VCA
Input impedance of the VCA will vary with gain setting, due
to the changing resistances of the programmable voltage
divider structure. At large attenuation factors (i.e., low gain
settings), the impedance will approach the series resistor
value of approximately 135Ω.
Output
PGA
Comparators
Gain = A
Selection
Logic
As with the LNP stage, the VCA output is AC-coupled into the
PGA. This means that the attenuation-dependent DC common-mode voltage will not propagate into the PGA, and so
the PGA’s DC output level will remain constant.
Finally, note that the VCACNTL input consists of FET gate
inputs. This provides very high impedance and ensures that
multiple VCA2612 devices may be connected in parallel with
no significant loading effects. The nominal voltage range for
the VCACNTL input spans from 0V to 3V. Over driving this
input (≤ 5V) does not affect the performance.
E = Maximum Peak Amplitude
–
E E
A A
FIGURE 13. Overload Protection Circuitry.
VCACNTL = 0.2V, DIFFERENTIAL, MGS = 100, (0dB)
OVERLOAD RECOVERY CIRCUITRY—DETAIL
1V/div
Output
Input
200ns/div
FIGURE 14. Overload Recovery Response For Minimum Gain.
VCACNTL = 3.0V, DIFFERENTIAL, MGS = 100, (36dB)
Output
1V/div
With a maximum overall gain of 70dB, the VCA2612 is prone
to signal overloading. Such a condition may occur in either
the LNP or the PGA depending on the various gain and
attenuation settings available. The LNP is designed to produce low-distortion outputs as large as 1VPP single-ended
(2VPP differential). Therefore the maximum input signal for
linear operation is 2VPP divided by the LNP differential gain
setting. Clamping circuits in the LNP ensure that larger input
amplitudes will exhibit symmetrical clipping and short recovery times. The VCA itself, being basically a voltage divider,
is intrinsically free of overload conditions. However, the PGA
post-amplifier is vulnerable to sudden overload, particularly
at high gain settings. Rapid overload recovery is essential in
many signal processing applications such as ultrasound
imaging. A special comparator circuit is provided at the PGA
input which detects overrange signals (detection level dependent on PGA gain setting). When the signal exceeds the
comparator input threshold, the VCA output is blocked and
an appropriate fixed DC level is substituted, providing fast
and clean overload recovery. The basic architecture is shown
in Figure 13. Both high and low overrange conditions are
sensed and corrected by this circuit.
Input
Figures 14 and 15 show typical overload recovery waveforms with MGS = 100, for VCA + PGA minimum gain (0dB)
and maximum gain (36dB), respectively. LNP gain is set to
25dB in both cases.
200ns/div
FIGURE 15. Overload Recovery Response For Maximum Gain.
VCA2612
SBOS117C
www.ti.com
17
INPUT OVERLOAD RECOVERY
that setting. Therefore, the VCA + PGA overall gain will always
be 0dB (unity) when the analog VCACNTL input is set to 0V
(= maximum attenuation). For VCACNTL = 3V (no attenuation),
the VCA + PGA gain will be controlled by the programmed PGA
gain (24dB to 45dB in 3dB steps).
One of the most important applications for the VCA2612 is
processing signals in an ultrasound system. The ultrasound
signal flow begins when a large signal is applied to a
transducer, which converts electrical energy to acoustic
energy. It is not uncommon for the amplitude of the electrical
signal that is applied to the transducer to be ±50V or greater.
To prevent damage, it is necessary to place a protection
circuit between the transducer and the VCA2612, as shown
in Figure 16. Care must be taken to prevent any signal from
turning the ESD diodes on. Turning on the ESD diodes
inside the VCA2612 could cause the input coupling capacitor (CC) to charge to the wrong value.
For clarity, the gain and attenuation factors are detailed in
Table III.
MGS
ATTENUATOR GAIN DIFFERENTIAL
SETTING VCACNTL = 0V to 3V
PGA GAIN
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111
VDD
CF
RF
–24dB to 0dB
–27dB to 0dB
–30dB to 0dB
–33dB to 0dB
–36dB to 0dB
–39dB to 0dB
–42dB to 0dB
–45dB to 0dB
24dB
27dB
30dB
33dB
36dB
39dB
42dB
45dB
ATTENUATOR +
DIFF. PGA GAIN
0dB to 24dB
0dB to 27dB
0dB to 30dB
0dB to 33dB
0dB to 36dB
0dB to 39dB
0dB to 42dB
0dB to 45dB
TABLE III. MGS Settings.
LNPINP
Protection
Network
LNP
The PGA architecture consists of a differential, programmable-gain voltage to current converter stage followed by
transimpedance amplifiers to create and buffer each side of
the differential output. The circuitry associated with the voltage
to current converter is similar to that previously described for
the LNP, with the addition of eight selectable PGA gain-setting
resistor combinations (controlled by the MGS bits) in place of
the fixed resistor network used in the LNP. Low input noise is
also a requirement of the PGA design due to the large amount
of signal attenuation which can be inserted between the LNP
and the PGA. At minimum VCA attenuation (used for small
input signals) the LNP noise dominates; at maximum VCA
attenuation (large input signals) the PGA noise dominates.
Note that if the PGA output is used single-ended, the apparent
gain will be 6dB lower.
LNPOUTN
ESD Diode
FIGURE 16. VCA2612 Diode Bridge Protection Circuit.
PGA POST-AMPLIFIER—DETAIL
Figure 17 shows a simplified circuit diagram of the PGA block.
As described previously, the PGA gain is programmed with
the same MGS bits which control the VCA maximum attenuation factor. Specifically, the PGA gain at each MGS setting is
the inverse (reciprocal) of the maximum VCA attenuation at
VDD
To Bias
Circuitry
Q1
RL
Q11
VCAOUTP
Q12
Q9
Q3
RL
VCAOUTN
Q8
VCM
RS1
VCM
Q13
RS2
Q4
+In
Q7
–In
Q14
Q2
Q10
Q5
Q6
To Bias
Circuitry
FIGURE 17. Simplified Block Diagram of the PGA Section Within the VCA2612.
18
VCA2612
www.ti.com
SBOS117C
PACKAGE OPTION ADDENDUM
www.ti.com
2-Aug-2017
PACKAGING INFORMATION
Orderable Device
Status
(1)
VCA2612Y/250
ACTIVE
Package Type Package Pins Package
Drawing
Qty
TQFP
PFB
48
250
Eco Plan
Lead/Ball Finish
MSL Peak Temp
(2)
(6)
(3)
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-2-260C-1 YEAR
Op Temp (°C)
Device Marking
(4/5)
-40 to 85
VCA2612Y
(1)
The marketing status values are defined as follows:
ACTIVE: Product device recommended for new designs.
LIFEBUY: TI has announced that the device will be discontinued, and a lifetime-buy period is in effect.
NRND: Not recommended for new designs. Device is in production to support existing customers, but TI does not recommend using this part in a new design.
PREVIEW: Device has been announced but is not in production. Samples may or may not be available.
OBSOLETE: TI has discontinued the production of the device.
(2)
RoHS: TI defines "RoHS" to mean semiconductor products that are compliant with the current EU RoHS requirements for all 10 RoHS substances, including the requirement that RoHS substance
do not exceed 0.1% by weight in homogeneous materials. Where designed to be soldered at high temperatures, "RoHS" products are suitable for use in specified lead-free processes. TI may
reference these types of products as "Pb-Free".
RoHS Exempt: TI defines "RoHS Exempt" to mean products that contain lead but are compliant with EU RoHS pursuant to a specific EU RoHS exemption.
Green: TI defines "Green" to mean the content of Chlorine (Cl) and Bromine (Br) based flame retardants meet JS709B low halogen requirements of <=1000ppm threshold. Antimony trioxide based
flame retardants must also meet the <=1000ppm threshold requirement.
(3)
MSL, Peak Temp. - The Moisture Sensitivity Level rating according to the JEDEC industry standard classifications, and peak solder temperature.
(4)
There may be additional marking, which relates to the logo, the lot trace code information, or the environmental category on the device.
(5)
Multiple Device Markings will be inside parentheses. Only one Device Marking contained in parentheses and separated by a "~" will appear on a device. If a line is indented then it is a continuation
of the previous line and the two combined represent the entire Device Marking for that device.
(6)
Lead/Ball Finish - Orderable Devices may have multiple material finish options. Finish options are separated by a vertical ruled line. Lead/Ball Finish values may wrap to two lines if the finish
value exceeds the maximum column width.
Important Information and Disclaimer:The information provided on this page represents TI's knowledge and belief as of the date that it is provided. TI bases its knowledge and belief on information
provided by third parties, and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of such information. Efforts are underway to better integrate information from third parties. TI has taken and
continues to take reasonable steps to provide representative and accurate information but may not have conducted destructive testing or chemical analysis on incoming materials and chemicals.
TI and TI suppliers consider certain information to be proprietary, and thus CAS numbers and other limited information may not be available for release.
In no event shall TI's liability arising out of such information exceed the total purchase price of the TI part(s) at issue in this document sold by TI to Customer on an annual basis.
Addendum-Page 1
Samples
PACKAGE MATERIALS INFORMATION
www.ti.com
21-May-2014
TAPE AND REEL INFORMATION
*All dimensions are nominal
Device
VCA2612Y/250
Package Package Pins
Type Drawing
TQFP
PFB
48
SPQ
250
Reel
Reel
A0
Diameter Width (mm)
(mm) W1 (mm)
330.0
16.4
Pack Materials-Page 1
9.6
B0
(mm)
K0
(mm)
P1
(mm)
W
Pin1
(mm) Quadrant
9.6
1.5
12.0
16.0
Q2
PACKAGE MATERIALS INFORMATION
www.ti.com
21-May-2014
*All dimensions are nominal
Device
Package Type
Package Drawing
Pins
SPQ
Length (mm)
Width (mm)
Height (mm)
VCA2612Y/250
TQFP
PFB
48
250
336.6
336.6
31.8
Pack Materials-Page 2
MECHANICAL DATA
MTQF019A – JANUARY 1995 – REVISED JANUARY 1998
PFB (S-PQFP-G48)
PLASTIC QUAD FLATPACK
0,27
0,17
0,50
36
0,08 M
25
37
24
48
13
0,13 NOM
1
12
5,50 TYP
7,20
SQ
6,80
9,20
SQ
8,80
Gage Plane
0,25
0,05 MIN
0°– 7°
1,05
0,95
Seating Plane
0,75
0,45
0,08
1,20 MAX
4073176 / B 10/96
NOTES: A. All linear dimensions are in millimeters.
B. This drawing is subject to change without notice.
C. Falls within JEDEC MS-026
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