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Texas Instruments Using Comparators in Reverse Current Applications (Rev. A) Application notes
Application Report
SNOAA23A – January 2019 – Revised June 2019
Using Comparators in Reverse Current Applications
Paul Grohe
ABSTRACT
This application report describes how to implement Reverse Current Protection (RCP) using a comparator
and a P-Channel or N-Channel MOSFET. Reverse Current Protection is a crucial protection scheme in
load sharing applications where a disturbance in the source or the load can cause undesired current to
flow back into the source supply from the load. This document presents a discrete alternative solution to
protect against reverse current for cost-constrained systems.
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Contents
Introduction ...................................................................................................................
Definition of Reverse Current ..............................................................................................
Traditional Methods for Preventing Reverse Voltage ...................................................................
Reverse Current Protection Using MOSFET and a Comparator ......................................................
P-Channel Reverse Current Protection Circuit ..........................................................................
P-Channel Reverse Current Protection With Overvotlage Protection ................................................
ORing MOSFET Controller .................................................................................................
References ...................................................................................................................
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7
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List of Figures
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2
3
4
5
6
7
8
.....................................................
Simplified P-Channel Reverse Voltage Protection ......................................................................
Simplified N-Channel MOSFET Reverse Voltage Protection Circuit..................................................
Simplified Operational Theory..............................................................................................
N-Channel Reverse Current Schematic with Oscillator.................................................................
P-Channel Reverse Current Schematic ..................................................................................
Adding Overvoltage Protection Using SHDN Pin ........................................................................
N-Channel OR'ing MOSFET Controller Example........................................................................
Simple Diode Reverse Voltage and Reverse Current Protection
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Trademarks
All trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
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1
Introduction
1
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Introduction
As modern industrial applications continue to incorporate more and more electronics into their systems,
they must also include more protection from various supply faults. Simple reverse voltage protection can
be added using several schemes involving diodes and MOSFETS, but they do not protect against reverse
current flow. Reverse current protection is important in distributed, redundant, or hot-swap power supply
applications where the loads could potentially force current back into the main bus voltage.
2
Definition of Reverse Current
Reverse current is where the load attempts to force current back into the power source.
Such instances can occur when the power supply source is suddenly reduced or completely lost, and the
load supply bypass capacitors or batteries attempt to force current back into the power source when first
connected. Reverse current can also occur when the load tries to force voltage back into the main supply
bus, such as back-EMF from an inductive circuit or motor, or a failed battery charging circuit.
3
Traditional Methods for Preventing Reverse Voltage
There are several methods commonly implemented to protect against reverse voltage. The following
sections briefly describes the various schemes.
3.1
Diodes
The simplest form of reverse voltage and reverse current protection is a diode in series with the supply rail
to block the current from flowing back towards the source, as shown in Figure 1.
The drawback of this technique is the power loss due to the forward voltage drop of the diode (up to 1 V
or more under load). The losses increase as the load currents increase. A Schottky diode can be used to
minimize losses due to the lower forward voltage, but is generally more expensive than a standard diode.
Diode protection is used where load currents are under 1 Amp and a slight voltage loss is tolerable.
or
+
VBATT
VLOAD
Figure 1. Simple Diode Reverse Voltage and Reverse Current Protection
3.2
MOSFETS
MOSFETS are commonly used to provide reverse voltage protection. The low Drain Source resistence
(RDSON) when the MOSFET is conducting, can be as low as a few milli-Ohms, which reduces the voltage
drop to negligible levels and results in negligible power losses.
The intrinsic parallel body diode provides the simple diode protection previously described, until the proper
VGS has been reached and the MOSFET channel starts to conduct with it's low on resistence.
To cause MOSFET channel to conduct, the gate voltage must be brought several volts beyond the source
voltage. The direction of the gate voltage depends on the polarity of the MOSFET used.
2
Using Comparators in Reverse Current Applications
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3.2.1
P-Channel MOSFETS
Intrinsic
Body Diode
D
S
G
+
VBATT
VLOAD
Figure 2. Simplified P-Channel Reverse Voltage Protection
The P-Channel MOSFET requires the gate voltage to be lower (more negative) than the source voltage.
This makes for the easiest implementation as the gate can simply be pulled below VBATT using a pulldown
resistor. Figure 2 shows the basic P-Channel circuit. As the supply voltage increases, so does the VGS
voltage, turning on the MOSFET.
If the supply voltage goes negative (below ground), the Gate becomes more positive than the Source, and
the MOSFET turns off. The intrinsic body diode also becomes reverse biased and blocks the reverse
current.
The Zener and gate pulldown resistor play two functions. The MOSFET has a specified maximum gate-tosource (VGS) voltage, usually in the range of 5 V to 20 V. The Zener prevents damage to the gate by
clamping the VGS voltage to a safe level and the resistor limits the current.
When the input voltage is reversed, the Zener is forward-biased and clamps the VGS to a diode drop to
ensure the MOSFET does not start conducting.
The single P-MOSFET circuit, as shown in Figure 2, does not protect against over or under voltage
conditions. Even if the gate voltage is controlled, the body diode allows current to pass around the
MOSFET. A second MOSFET, with the body diode the opposite the first MOSFET (connected Source to
Source), is commonly used to provide true power-off functionality. Still, it does not protect against reverse
current flow while the MOSFETS are conducting (current is bi-directional when conducting).
However, despite the Simple circuit, the P-Channel MOSFET tends to have higher I2R losses, higher cost,
and physically larger and slower than comparable N-Channel devices. P-Channels tend to be used with
load currents up to 5 Amp.
3.2.2
N-Channel MOSFETS
The N-Channel MOSFET requires the gate voltage to be higher (more positive) than the Source voltage.
This requires the Gate voltage to be higher than the incoming VBATT voltage to cause the MOSFET to
conduct. The circuit complexity is increased due to the need for a second supply higher than VBATT.
If a higher voltage is not available, a charge-pump can be added to generate the greater-than-VBATT gate
voltage required to turn on the MOSFET.
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Reverse Current Protection Using MOSFET and a Comparator
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VBATT + 5V
G
S
D
Intrinsic
Body Diode
+
VBATT
Charge
Pump
VLOAD
Figure 3. Simplified N-Channel MOSFET Reverse Voltage Protection Circuit
When VBATT is positive, the charge pumps protection diode is forward biased, and the charge pump
generates the gate voltage, turning on the MOSFET. If VBATT is reversed, the charge pump blocking diode
is reverse and does not conduct. The charge pump does not operate and the gate voltage is not applied.
With no gate voltage, the MOSFET does not conduct. The MOSFETS Intrinsic body diode is also reverse
biased and no current flows to the load.
The single N-MOSFET circuit, as shown, also does not protect against over or under voltage conditions.
Even if the gate voltage is controlled, the body diode allows current to pass around the MOSFET. A
second MOSFET, with the body diode the opposite the first MOSFET (connected Drain to Drain), is
commonly used to provide true power-off functionality.
4
Reverse Current Protection Using MOSFET and a Comparator
The problem with the simple MOSFET based reverse voltage circuits previously described is they do not
protect against reverse current. Once the MOSFET is conducing, current flow is bi-directional through the
MOSFET.
A MOSFET may be used to protect against reverse current in conjunction with a comparator. Both the PChannel and N-Channel circuits work on the same basic principle, where a comparator monitors the
voltage across the Source and Drain terminals of the MOSFET (monitoring VDS) to determine the direction
of the current. These circuits can also protect against reverse voltage.
MOSFET
³2II´
VBATT
Intrinsic
Body Diode
Source
Drain
³2Q´
VLOAD
RDS(ON)
Gate
+
Load
Battery
Figure 4. Simplified Operational Theory
4
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When the current is flowing from the battery (VBATT) to the load (VLOAD), the battery voltage is higher than
the load voltage due to voltage drop across the MOSFET caused by either the RDS(ON) or the intrinsic body
diode forward voltage drop. The comparator detects this voltage and turns "on" the MOSFET so that the
load current is now flowing through the low loss RDS(ON) path.
In a reverse current condition, VLOAD is higher than VBATT. The comparator detects this and drives the gate
to set VGS = 0 to turn "off" the MOSFET (non-conducting). The body diode is reverse biased and blocks
current flow.
For a P-Channel MOSFET, the gate must be driven at least 4 V or more below the battery voltage to turn
"on" the MOSFET.
For a N-Channel MOSFET, the gate must be driven 4 V or more above the battery voltage to turn "on" the
MOSFET. If a higher voltage is not available in the system, a charge pump is usually required to generate
a voltage higher than the battery voltage to provide the necessary positive gate drive voltage.
4.1
Minimum Reverse Current
There is a minimum amount of reverse current that is needed to trip the comparator. To detect this
reverse current, a voltage must be dropped across the MOSFET (VMEAS).
When the MOSFET is off, VGS is in the -600 mV to -1 V range due to the forward voltage drop (VF) of the
MOSFET body diode. Response to this large voltage is immediate.
However, with the MOSFET "on" (conducting), the current required to create the trip voltage is much
greater. The trip voltage drop required across the MOSFET RDS(ON) is the comparator offset voltage plus
half of the hysteresis.
The maximum offset voltage of the TLV1805 is 5 mV with a typical hysteresis of 14 mV. The trip voltage
can be calculated from:
VTRIP = VOS(max) + ( VHYST / 2) = 5 mV + 7 mV = 12 mV
(1)
The actual current trip point depends on the MOSFET RDS(ON) and VGS drive level. Assuming the MOSFET
has a 22 mΩ on resistance, the trip current is found from:
ITRIP = VTRIP / RDS(ON) = 12 mV / 22 mΩ = 545 mA
4.2
(2)
Calculating Actual Reverse Current Trip Point
The actual trip point is influenced by several factors, including the RDS(ON) of the MOSFET, and the offset
voltage (VOS) and hysteresis (VHYST) of the comparator.
IRTRIP = (VOS + (VHYST / 2)) / RDS(ON)
4.3
(3)
N-Channel Reverse Current Protection Circuit
To turn "on" the N-Channel MOSFET, the MOSFET gate must be brought to a voltage higher than VBATT. If
a higher voltage is not available, a charge pump circuit is required to provide the comparator with a supply
voltage above VBATT.
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Reverse Current Protection Using MOSFET and a Comparator
J1
External Clock
Input
Clock
Select
EXT
Charge
Pump
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R2
Comparator
Supply Clamp
10 NŸ
R1
C1
U1
TLV1805-Q1
220 Ÿ
INT
100V
1µF
Z1
15 V
D1
BAS70-04
C2
35V
1µF
VBATT_NCH
D2
BAS70-04
GND
4
6
±
1
+
5
2
R3
Q1
SQ4850EY
N-Channel
47 Ÿ
G
R4
100 NŸ
VLOAD_OUT_NCH
S
Input
Protection
D3
SMAJ28CA
3
D
Internal Oscillator Output ± 40kHz
C6
50V
0.22µF
Oscillator Supply
C7
50V
0.22µF
R6
56 NŸ
C4
50V
0.22µF
R7
56 NŸ
R5
56 NŸ
3
4
R8
56 NŸ
C5
1nF
±
+
Oscillator
Circuit
JP1
Short
D4
DB2430100L
GND
6
1
2 U2
5
TLV1805-Q1
Figure 5. N-Channel Reverse Current Schematic with Oscillator
C1, D1, R1, and C2 form the charge pump. The AC drive signal is applied through C1. The result is a
voltage across C2 that is approximately equal to the peak-to-peak amplitude of the AC waveform, minus
700 mV from the two Schottky diode drops. If a 12 Vpp square wave is applied to the C1 input, 11.3 V is
generated across C2. This voltage is on top of the VBATT voltage, so the total voltage seen from the R1-C2
junction to ground is 23.3 V. This provides the needed voltage above VBATT to power the comparator and
drive the MOSFET gate.
An external oscillator source may be used, such as the gate drive output of a switcher, system clock or
any available clock source in the 1 kHz to 10 MHz range. The charge pump should ideally be fed by a 50
percent duty cycle square wave source of 5 Vpp or more. Because the input capacitor C1 of the chargepump effectively AC-couples the input, the oscillator may be ground referenced.
R1 limits the peak oscillator current. R1 and Z1 form the comparator supply clamp to limit the gate drive to
prevent exceeding the VGS(MAX) of the MOSFET during an overvoltage event. R1 must be sized to dissipate
any expected overvoltage when Z1 starts clamping and limit the maximum AC current.
D2 and R2 clamp the input when VBATT drops below VLOAD (as in a supply reversal).
D3, C6, and C7 form the input protection network. D3 is a 28 V bi-bi-directional TVS that starts clamping
at ±33 V. C6 and C7 are series connected filter capacitors that are mounted at right-angles to each other.
This is a safety precaution common in Automotive and high reliability designs using ceramic SMT
capacitors to prevent shorting the supply bus if one of the capacitors fail shorted. Mounting the capacitors
at right angles increases the odds that one of the capacitors survives if the board is stressed.
The output diode D4 is used to "anchor" the output during light or floating loads. At light or no loads (less
than reverse current threshold), there is a possibility the MOSFET could turn on due to the comparator
offset voltage. The diode provides enough of a negative leakage to turn the MOSFET off.
4.3.1
N-Channel Oscillator Circuit
The oscillation frequency is determined by R5 and C5. The default configuration oscillates around 40 kHz
(depending on RC component tolerances). For further information on selecting these RC values, see the
Engineers Cookbook Circuit entitled Relaxation Oscillator Circuit (SNOA998). Note that R5 presents an
AC load to the oscillator output, and must be sized appropriately to minimize the peak charging currents of
C5 (use large resistors and small capacitors).
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The output amplitude is roughly equivalent to the VLOAD voltage minus the TLV1805 output saturation
(approximately 300 mV). With a maximum supply voltage of 40 V for the TLV1805, the oscillator circuit is
capable of generating up to 39 Vpp.
The TLV1805 oscillator typically starts oscillating when VLOAD reaches 2.8 V, though full specified operation
does not occur until 3.3 V.
5
P-Channel Reverse Current Protection Circuit
Figure 6 shows the P-Channel circuit. In order to turn "on" the P-Channel MOSFET, the Gate must be
brought to a voltage 4.5 V or lower than VBATT . To accomplish this, the comparators Inverting input is tied
to the battery side of the MOSFET to set the output low during forward current.
R2
Q1
SQJ459EP
P-Channel
VBATT_PCH
D1
SMAJ28CA
GND
4
C2
50V
0.22µF
C3
50V
0.22µF
VLOAD_OUT_PCH
S
D
Input
Protection
47 Ÿ
R3
100 NŸ
G
R1
10 NŸ
3
D2
BAT64
U1
TLV1805
6
1
+
±
5
2
D3
15 V
C1
25V
10µF
D5
DB2430100L
GND
D4
BAT64
R4
560 Ÿ
Figure 6. P-Channel Reverse Current Schematic
This design implements a "floating ground" topology, consisting of D3, D4, and R4, to allow for clamping
the comparator supply voltage so that the output swing does not exceed the VGS(MAX) of the MOSFET.
During a reverse voltage or supply drop, D4 also prevents C1 from discharging and allow some standby
time to keep the comparator powered during the event.
During "normal" forward current operation, the quiescent current of the comparator circuit flows through
D4 and R4. D3 provides the clamping during an overvoltage event.
R4 is sized to allow for minimum voltage drop during "normal" operation, but also to allow for dissipation
during input overvoltage events. R4 sees the applied battery voltage minus the D3 Zener voltage during
an overvoltage event. Because the comparator supply voltage is clamped by D3, the maximum battery
voltage is determined by the power dissipated by R4 and the VDS(MAX) of the MOSFET.
Assuming a maximum overvoltage input of 24 V, the maximum power dissipation of R4 can be calculated
from:
VR4(MAX) = VBATT(MAX) - VZD3 = 24 V - 15 V = 9 V
PR4(MAX) = VR4(MAX)2 / R4 = 9 V2 / 560 Ω = 145 mW
(4)
(5)
Assuming the minimum 2x safety factor is used, R4 must be a minimum of a ½ Watt resistor.
R2 limits the gate current if there are any transients and must be a low value to allow the peak currents
needed to drive the MOSFET gate capacitance. R3 provides the pulldown needed when the comparator
output goes high-Z during power-off to ensure the gate is pulled to zero volts to turn off the MOSFET.
R1 and D2 clamp the input voltage when the VBATT input go below the floating ground Voltage (such as in
a battery reversal). A bonus feature is that during a reverse battery voltage condition, D2 and R1 pull the
floating ground down towards the negative potential, providing power to the comparator during reverse
voltage.
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P-Channel Reverse Current Protection With Overvotlage Protection
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The output clamp diode D5 is used to anchor the output during light or floating loads. At light or no loads,
there is a possibility the MOSFET could turn on due to the comparator offset voltage. The diode provides
enough of a negative leakage to turn the MOSFET off.
If shutdown of the comparator circuit is desired, a transistor or MOSFET switch can be placed between
the ground end of R4 and ground. The MOSFET is in body diode mode when the comparator is disabled.
6
P-Channel Reverse Current Protection With Overvotlage Protection
The SHDN pin can be used to add overvoltage Protection (OVP) by adding a second MOSFET, zener
diode, and resistor, as shown in Figure 7.
G
VBATT
R2
100 NŸ
Q1
P-Channel
R3
22 Ÿ
S
D
4
R1
3
U1
TLV1805
6
1
+
±
10 NŸ
5
G
Q2
P-Channel
S
VLOAD_OUT
D
C1
50V
1µF
2
ZD1
13 V
GND
GND
Shutdown when > 1.35V
RPD
13.7 NŸ
Figure 7. Adding Overvoltage Protection Using SHDN Pin
When the SHDN pin is pulled 1.8 V above V-, the comparator is placed in shutdown. During shutdown, the
comparator output goes Hi-Z and R2 pulls the gate and source together to turn off the MOSFET (VGS = 0
V).
RPD pulls the SHDN pin low while the Zener diode is not conducting (< VZ). When ZD1 reaches its
breakdown voltage and starts conducting, it pulls RPD up to a voltage calculated to place >1.8 V on the
shutdown pin.
The Zener diode ZD1 must be chosen so that the breakdown voltage (VB) is 1.8 V below the desired
overvoltage point. The Zener must have low sub-threshold leakage and a sharp knee, such as the low
power 1N47xx or BZD series.
The pulldown resistor RPD must be chosen to create 1.8 V at the desired Zener diode current (usually
100 µA to 1 mA) at the Zener breakdown voltage. Actual resistor value should be verified on the bench
due to differences in actual Zener diode threshold voltages.
If a 14.3 V overvoltage trip point (OVP) is desired, the Zener Diode voltage is 12.5 V. A 100 µA Zener
current was chosen. The required Zener diode breakdown voltage is determined from:
VB = VOV - 1.8 V = 14 .3 V - 1.8 V = 12.5 V
RPD = 1.8 V / 100 µA = 18 kΩ
(6)
(7)
Resistor RPD may be split into two resistors to create a voltage divider if more precise trip points are
needed, or a more convenient Zener voltage is desired. Series voltage references can also be used if
more accuracy is desired. A second resistor in series with the Zener or reference can extend the
breakdown voltage.
The maximum voltage allowed on the Shutdown pin is 5.5 V, so make sure the highest VBATT voltage does
not exceed 5.5 V.
8
Using Comparators in Reverse Current Applications
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ORing MOSFET Controller
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Note that the above circuit, as shown for simplicity, does not protect against reverse voltage. Reverse
clamping diodes would be needed on the -IN, SHDN and Load Output. Also make sure VBATT does not
exceed the VGS(MAX) of the MOSFET.
7
ORing MOSFET Controller
The previous reverse current circuits may be combined to create an OR'ing supply controller, utilizing
either the P-Channel or N-Channel topologies.
For the previous P-Channel circuit, if no negative input voltages are possible, and the input voltage is
below the VGS(MAX) of the MOSFET, then the "floating ground" may be eliminated. To eliminate the floating
ground, D3, D4, and R4 may be eliminated (and the D2 anode, U1 pins 2 and 5, and C1 can be directly
grounded).
For the N-Channel circuit, the oscillator drive can be shared between the channels, or eliminated if a
higher system voltage is available to provide the higher voltage.
Charge Pump
Gate
Drive
+
+
TLV1805
SD
-
Q1
Power
Supply
#1
Charge Pump
System
Power
Gate
Drive
+
+
TLV1805
SD
-
Q2
Power
Supply
#2
Figure 8. N-Channel OR'ing MOSFET Controller Example
8
References
•
•
•
•
•
•
Texas Instruments, TLV1805 40V, Rail-to-Rail Input, Push-Pull Output, High Voltage Comparator
Datasheet (SNOSD50)
Texas Instruments, 40V, microPower, Push-Pull Automotive High Voltage Comparator with Shutdown
Datasheet (SNOSD52)
TLV1805-Q1 Comparator Based Discreet Reverse Current Protection Circuit Evaluation Module,
http://www.ti.com/tool/TLV1805EVMQ1
Texas Instruments, TLV1805-Q1EVM Users Manual
Texas Instruments, Relaxation Oscillator Circuit Cookbook Circuit (SNOA998)
Texas Instruments, Reverse Current Protection Using MOSFET and Comparator to Minimize Power
Dissipation Application Report (SNOA971)
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Revision History
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Revision History
NOTE: Page numbers for previous revisions may differ from page numbers in the current version.
Changes from Original (January 2019) to A Revision .................................................................................................... Page
•
•
10
Edited application report for clarity. ..................................................................................................... 1
Removed text in Calculating Actual Reverse Current Trip Point section........................................................... 5
Revision History
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