Texas Instruments | Improving Machinery Vibration Analysis | Application notes | Texas Instruments Improving Machinery Vibration Analysis Application notes

Texas Instruments Improving Machinery Vibration Analysis Application notes
ADC121S021,DAC081S101,LM4140,LM7301,
LMP7711
Improving Machinery Vibration Analysis
Literature Number: SNAA122
SIGNAL PATH designer
SM
Tips, tricks, and techniques from the analog signal-path experts
No. 104
Machinery Monitoring
Feature Article ..........1-7
— By Walter Bacharowski, Applications Engineer
Telecommunications
Solution ..........................2
Machinery downtime during normal shift operations is very costly due to
lost production, but it is also avoidable. Preventative maintenance systems
are being used to improve the operating efficiency of machinery used in
factories, power plants, mining, and many other operations.
Industrial Diagnostics and
Factory Automation....4-5
Design Tools ..................8
Diagnostic electronics, used in newer preventative maintenance programs,
monitor the operating parameters of the machine. For example, a roller mill
may have several large electric motors and rollers, all of which have bearings,
a hydraulic pump, and a variety of hydraulic actuators. A preventative
maintenance system for this type of equipment could include electronic
monitoring equipment to measure bearing vibration and temperature,
hydraulic fluid pressure and temperature, and motor temperature.
Vibration analysis, which is the measurement of vibrations generated by
moving parts in the frequency range of 50 Hz to 10 kHz, can be used to
monitor the condition of bearings and other moving components. Ultrasonic
analysis, an extension of vibration analysis, uses higher frequencies in the
15 kHz to 40 kHz range. Changes are detected through spectral analysis of
the generated frequencies in the moving components due to wear or damage.
As parts wear, the magnitude of the vibrations and ultrasonic noise will
increase. An increase of about 12 dB indicates possible impending failure.
+5V
100 k⍀
100 k⍀
4.096V
4
B1
3
+24V
1,2
+
1 k⍀
1
6
0.1 µF
7,8
1 µF
3
4 SCLK
6
C1
CS
5 SDATA
To
µP
A5
2
180⍀
100 k⍀
100 k⍀
4.096V
330 pF
47 k⍀
3.57 k⍀
+5V
15 k⍀
Piezoelectric
Sensor
470 pF
10 k⍀
330 pF
330 pF
+5V
3.57 k⍀
15 k⍀
+
47 k⍀
470 pF
330 pF
+5V
3.57 k⍀
15 k⍀
+
A1
470 pF
–
40.2 k⍀
10 µF
10 k⍀
10 µF
A2
470 pF
–
40.2 k⍀
10 k⍀
+
A3
–
40.2 k⍀
10 µF
Figure 1. Vibration Analysis Signal Chain
NEXT ISSUE:
Lidar/Radar Design
6.65 k⍀ 80.6 k⍀
+
47 pF
A1, A2, A3, A4 = LMP7711
A5 = LM7301
B1 = LM4140CM-4.1
C1 = ADC121S021
A4
–
Signal-Path Solutions for Telecommunications
GPS Application
ADC128S052
VCC
LMP7712
OUT
+
-
X-AXIS
Monitor Board
Supplies
IN0
VREF
GND
Gyro Sensors
+V
LM4140
LMP7712
VCC
VREF
+
-
Y-AX IS
VIN
OUT
IN7
1.8V
IN6
2.5V
IN5
3.3V
IN4
5.0V
IN1
VREF
GND
CSB
V+
Temp VO
Sensor
FM
Signal
Digital
Signal
Processor
SCLK
IN2
DIN
LM20
DOUT
Sensitivity Meter
IN3
Precision Amplifiers
Product ID
Key Features
Typ Supply
Current
(mA)
Supply
Voltage
Range (V)
Max Input
Offset Voltage
(mV)
Unity Gain
Bandwidth
(MHz)
Low Input
Current CMOS
Design
LMP7712
Precision, low-noise RRO dual CMOS
1.15
1.8 to 5.5
0.15
17
-40 to +125
LMP7702
Precision, 12V RRIO dual CMOS
0.73
2.7 to 12
0.2
2.5
-40 to +125
LMP2012
90% power saving RRO performance amp
1.2
2.7 to 5.25
0.025
3
—
-40 to +125
Temp Range
(°C)
Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) ADCs for 8-Channel Applications
Throughput
Rate (kSPS)
Input Type
Max Power
5V/3V (mW)
Supply (V)
Max INL
(LBS)
Min SINAD
(dB)
Packaging
8
500
Single ended
12/8.3
2.7 to 5.25
±1.0
70
TSSOP-16
12
8
500 to 1000
Single ended
15.5/4.5
2.7 to 5.25
±1.2
70
TSSOP-16
12
8
200 to 500
Single ended
13/3.6
2.7 to 5.25
±1.0
70
TSSOP-16
ADC128S022
12
8
50 to 200
Single ended
11.5/3.3
2.7 to 5.25
±1.0
70
TSSOP-16
ADC108S102
10
8
500 to 1000
Single ended
13.6/4.2
2.7 to 5.25
±0.5
61.3
TSSOP-16
ADC108S052
10
8
200 to 500
Single ended
12.1/3.3
2.7 to 5.25
±0.4
61.3
TSSOP-16
ADC108S022
10
8
50 to 200
Single ended
10.5/2.8
2.7 to 5.25
±0.3
61.3
TSSOP-16
ADC088S102
8
8
500 to 1000
Single ended
11/3.6
2.7 to 5.25
±0.2
49.2
TSSOP-16
ADC088S052
8
8
200 to 500
Single ended
8.5/3
2.7 to 5.25
±0.2
49.2
TSSOP-16
ADC088S022
8
8
50 to 200
Single ended
7.8/2.2
2.7 to 5.25
±0.2
49.2
TSSOP-16
Product ID
Res
ADC78H90
12
ADC128S102
ADC128S052
# of
Inputs
2
Pin/Function
Compatible
SIGNAL PATH designer
Machinery Monitoring
This type of monitoring allows repairs to be made
before the component fails. In many cases, vibration analysis and ultrasonic analysis require two
different pieces of equipment. A single, cost-effective instrument that can monitor the complete frequency range would be useful. A schematic diagram of a vibration and ultrasonic analysis signal
chain is shown in Figure 1.
Normalized Amplitude
The piezoelectric sensor senses the vibrations and
ultrasonic noise generated by the bearings. The
piezoelectric element is buffered internally by a
MOSFET, which is driven by a constant current
source, amplifier A5, and is internally AC coupled
to the filter. Amplifiers A1, A2, and A3 implement
a gain of 41.9 dB in conjunction with a 6-pole lowpass filter. Amplifier A4 has a gain of 1 with a 2-pole
filter. The ADC121S021 Analog-to-Digital
Converter (ADC), which operates at a 200 kHz
sampling rate, digitizes the amplified and filtered
signal. The microprocessor’s software performs a
FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) on the data to obtain
the frequency and magnitude information. The pass
band of the circuitry shown is about 40 kHz. A
typical wide band vibration sensor has a transfer
function in the form of Figure 2.
In relation to the maximum signal frequency of
interest, 40 kHz in this case, the sampling rate is a
concern. To avoid aliasing frequencies higher then
the Nyquist rate, 1/2 the sampling frequency must
be filtered and reduced in amplitude to less then
1 LSB of the ADC. In this example, a 12-bit ADC
is being used with a 4.096V reference, which
results in a resolution of 1 mV as follows:
4 . 096 V
= 0 .001V
4096
To have a realizable filter in sampled data systems,
there must be some separation between the highest
frequency to be measured and the Nyquist frequency
of the ADC. The result is over sampling the signal,
but the filter can reduce or eliminate aliasing.
Figure 1 uses the ADC121S021, which is a 12-bit,
200k Samples Per Second (kSPS) ADC. When this
ADC is converting at 200 kSPS, the Nyquist
frequency will be 100 kHz. The output signal of the
sensor is about 8 mVP-P at 100 kHz and the gain
required to reduce this signal to less then 1 mVP-P is:
⎛ 0.001V ⎞
20 log ⎜
⎟ = −18 dB
⎝ 0.008 V ⎠
The difference between the 100 kHz and the 40 kHz
signal is:
log(100 kHz) – log(40 kHz) = 5 – 4.60 = 0.40 decade
At 40 kHz, the gain is:
0 dB
-3 dB
(
)
20 log 125 V V = 41.9 dB
The required filter roll off is:
Figure 2. Sensor Transfer Function
The low frequency will start to roll off around
30 Hz and will be relatively flat until a resonance
frequency occurs at 65 kHz, after which the response
falls rapidly. The peak-to-peak amplitude in the flat
band is about 32 mVP-P and will be amplified to 4
VP-P. The gain will be:
4.096 V
= 128
0.032
A gain of 125 will be used to provide some margin.
( −41.9 dB + ( −18 dB) ) = −149.8 dB
0.4 decade
decade
Or at least an 8-pole filter:
−149.8 dB
−20 dB
decade
decade
= 7.5 poles
pole
An amplifier can easily implement a 2-pole filter
with four amplifiers having a pass band gain of five
and another amplifier with a pass band gain of one.
3
Signal-Path Solutions for Industrial
Diagnostics and Factory Automation
Ultrasonic Receiver and Spectral Analyzer
Amplifier and
Band Pass Filter
Amplifier and
Band Pass Filter
LMP7711 Input Voltage Noise vs Frequency
100
VS = 1.8V
ADC
LMP7711
LMP7711
ADC121S051
Processor
DAC
DAC121S101
Voltage Noise (nV/ZX
Hz)
Ultrasonic
Transducer
Receiver
VS = 2.7V
VS = 5.5V
10
Mixer
Local Oscillator
VCO
1
LM4990
1
10
Audio Amplifier
100
1k
10k
100k
Frequency (Hz)
LMP7711 Features
LMP7701 Features
• Offset voltage, VOS, less than 150 µV for better
initial accuracy
• Offset voltage, VOS, less than 300 µV for better
initial accuracy
• Maximum TCVOS of 4 µV/°C ensures accuracy
from -40°C to 125°C
• Guaranteed 2.7V to 12V operation over -40°C to 125°C
• Low 1/f noise at 6.8 nV/ Hz at 1 kHz
• Ultra-low input bias current, 200 fA, for high
impedance sensor interfacing
• Ultra-low input bias current, 100 fA, for high
impedance sensor interfacing
• High PSRR (110 dB) ensures higher accuracy with
noisy supplies
• High CMRR (110 dB) ensures high accuracy over
a wide input range
Precision Op Amps
Key Features
Typ Supply
Current
(mA)
Supply
Voltage
Range (V)
Max Input
Offset
Voltage (mV)
Unity Gain
Bandwidth
(MHz)
LMP7711
Precision, low-noise RRO CMOS
1.15
1.8 to 5.5
0.15
17
-40 to +125
LMP7701
Precision, 12V RRIO CMOS
0.73
2.7 to 12
0.2
2.5
-40 to +125
LMV651
90% Power saving RRO performance amp
0.11
2.7 to 5.5
1.0
12
—
-40 to +125
LMV791
Low-noise, low IBIAS RRO
0.95
1.8 to 5.5
1.3
14
-40 to +125
LPV511
880 nA, Ultra-low power 12V RRIO
880 nA
2.7 to 12
3.0
0.027
—
-40 to +85
Product
ID
4
Low Input
Current
CMOS Design
Temp
Range
(°C)
Distance and Speed Measurement Application
LMP7711
LMP7711
ADC
Ultrasonic
Transducer
Receiver
Amplifier and
Band Pass Filter
Amplifier and
Band Pass Filter
LMV7219
ADC121S101
Comparator
Processor
DAC
DAC121S101
LMH6672
Ultrasonic
Transducer
Transmitter
LMV791
Driver
Buffer
Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) ADCs and DACs for Single-Channel Applications
• Guaranteed performance over sample rates
• Pin- and function-compatible family
• Excellent static and dynamic performance
• Extremely low power
• Miniature packages reduce board space
• Reference from supply
ADCs for Single-Channel Applications
Res
# of
Inputs
Input Type
Max Power
5V/3V (mW)
Supply (V)
Max INL
(LBS)
Min SINAD
(dB)
Packaging
ADC121S101
12
1
ADC121S051
12
1
500 to 1000
Single ended
16/4.5
2.7 to 5.25
±1.1
70
SOT23-6, LLP-6
200 to 500
Single ended
15.8/4.7
2.7 to 5.25
±1.0
70.3
ADC121S021
12
SOT23-6, LLP-6
1
50 to 200
Single ended
14.7/4.3
2.7 to 5.25
±1.0
70
ADC101S101
SOT23-6, LLP-6
10
1
500 to 1000
Single ended
16/4.5
2.7 to 5.25
±0.7
61
SOT23-6
ADC101S051
10
1
200 to 500
Single ended
13.7/4.3
2.7 to 5.25
±0.7
60.8
SOT23-6
ADC101S021
10
1
50 to 200
Single ended
12.6/4
2.7 to 5.25
±0.6
60.7
SOT23-6
ADC081S101
8
1
500 to 1000
Single ended
16/4.5
2.7 to 5.25
±0.3
49
SOT23-6
ADC081S051
8
1
200 to 500
Single ended
12.6/3.6
2.7 to 5.25
±0.3
49
SOT23-6
ADC081S021
8
1
50 to 200
Single ended
11.6/3.24
2.7 to 5.25
±0.3
49
SOT23-6
ADC121S625*
12
1
50 to 200
Differential
2.8
4.5 to 5.5
±1.0
68.5
MSOP-8
Product ID
Pin/Function Throughput
Compatible Rate (kSPS)
*Uses external reference
DACs for Single-Channel Applications
Res
# of
Inputs
DAC121S101
12
1
DAC101S101
10
DAC081S101
8
Product ID
Pin/Function Settling
Compatible Time (µs)
Input Type
Max Power
5V/3V (mW)*
Supply (V)
Max INL
(LBS)
Max DNL
(LBS)
Packaging
10
Single ended
1.5/0.7
2.7 to 5.5
±8.0
+1.0/-0.7
SOT23-6, MSOP-8
1
7.5
Single ended
1.6/0.7
2.7 to 5.5
±2.8
+0.35/-0.2
SOT23-6, MSOP-8
1
5
Single ended
1.6/0.7
2.7 to 5.5
±0.75
±0.1
SOT23-6, MSOP-8
*FSCLK = 20 MHz
5
SIGNAL PATH designer
Machinery Monitoring
Noise (dB)
9-Pole Low-Pass Filter
50
40
30
20
10
0
-10
-20
-30
-40
-50
-60
-70
-80
-90
-100
-110
-120
-130
-140
-150
100
Sampling
Frequency
Nyquist
Frequency
1k
10k
100k
1M
Frequency (Hz)
Figure 3. 9-Pole Low-Pass Filter
The filter’s pass band characteristic is a result of the
amplifier’s gain bandwidth and the placement of
the poles in the amplifier’s feedback. Each filter
stage can be considered as a non-inverting gain
stage of 5V/V with two poles. The gain bandwidth
of the amplifier required to keep the amplitude
error less then 1 LSB at 40 kHz can be calculated
as follows:
40 kHz ⴛ 5
= 12820 kHz = 12.8 MHz
0.0156
The denominator, 0.0156, in the previous calculation
is the effective bandwidth of an amplifier for 13-bit
accuracy given its -3 dB point. The LMP7711 precision amplifier, with 17 MHz gain bandwidth and
a typical offset voltage of 20 µV, is a good choice
for this type of application. The output of amplifier A3 is isolated from the switched capacitor input
of the ADC by the 180Ω resistor and the 470 pF
capacitor which adds an additional pole to the antialias filter. Figure 3 shows the estimated response of
the low-pass filter.
The ADC121S021 is a single-ended input, 12-bit,
200 kSPS converter with a Serial Peripheral Interface
6
(SPI). An LM4140ACM-4.1 precision voltage
reference is the ADC’s reference and biases the filter
amplifiers to half of the ADC’s input range. The
sensor’s output is an AC signal, and the mid-scale
offset level shifts the signal to the center of the
ADC’s range. The LM4140 is also the reference
voltage for the voltage controlled current source
using the LM7301, amplifier A4, a general purpose
32V amplifier. Internal to the sensor, a MOSFET
transistor buffers the piezoelectric sensor element.
The current source drives the MOSFET, which is
connected as a common source amplifier and is AC
coupled to the output terminal.
Another aspect of machine monitoring is the
measurement and analysis of hydraulic pressure
transients in hydraulic control systems. For example,
hydraulic hammer occurs when flow control valves
have a fast shutoff and the fluid momentum causes
a banging effect within the fluid system. Hydraulic
hammer can damage and cause premature failure of
hydraulic components and systems. These systems are
designed to safely absorb the hydraulic energy.
Figure 4 is a schematic of a hydraulic pressure
monitoring system.
The pressure sensor in this example is a resistive
bridge and the sensor’s output is a function of the
change in resistance and the voltage driving it. The
sensor used in Figure 3 has a sensitivity of
0.2 mV/V of bridge excitation voltage per PSI of
pressure. The DAC081S101 is an 8-bit DAC and
is used to change the voltage driving the bridge
which has the effect of a gain control for the
pressure measurement circuit. For example, if the
DAC’s output is programmed to 4V, then the
full-scale pressure is 25.6 PSI. With an output
voltage of 1V, the full-scale pressure is 102 PSI.
This signal chain can be used to monitor pressure
fluctuations as well as to conduct spectral analysis
of the pressure fluctuations. As in Figure 1, the
frequency response of the sensor and amplifier
must eliminate frequency components above the
Nyquist frequency. In this case, the frequency
response of the pressure sensor and the hydraulic
system naturally band limit the pressure signals to
about 3 kHz to 4 kHz. This reduces the filter
requirements of the amplifier circuits. This amplifier,
made up of A1 and A2, is the input stage of an
instrumentation amplifier and provides a differential
input and a differential output with a gain of
100V/V. The 200 pF capacitors provide a pole at
8 kHz for additional filtering. The amplifiers’
outputs are isolated from the switched capacitor
inputs of the ADC by the 180Ω resistors and the
470 pF capacitors.
In summary, the circuitry shown can be used to
implement a cost-effective, dedicated machine
monitoring system. I
View over 50 on-demand design focused seminars at
www.national.com/onlineseminar
4.096V
3
6 SYNC
VOUT 1
5 SCLK
C1
4 DOUT
+5V
120 pF
2
4
B1
3
+5V
3
4
1,2
7,8
6
0.1 µF
1 µF
5
+
1
A2
–
180⍀
2
100 k⍀
0.2 µF
2.048V
VREF
470 pF
1
2
8
7 SCLK
+IN
2.02 k⍀
AV = 100
+5V
6 DOUT
C2
3
5 CS
-IN
4
+5V
100 k⍀
470 pF
1
A1
+
4
0.2 µF
5
–
3
2
180⍀
A1, A2 = LMP7701
B1 = LM4140ACM-2.0
C1 = DAC081S101
C2 = ADC121S625
Pressure Sensor
0.2 mV/Volt/PSI
Figure 4. Hydraulic Pressure Monitoring System
7
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