Texas Instruments | PGA309 Noise Filtering (Rev. A) | Application notes | Texas Instruments PGA309 Noise Filtering (Rev. A) Application notes

Texas Instruments PGA309 Noise Filtering (Rev. A) Application notes
Application Report
SBOA110A – June 2005 – Revised November 2005
PGA309 Noise Filtering
Art Kay............................................................................................. High-Performance Linear Products
ABSTRACT
The PGA309 programmable gain amplifier generates three primary types of noise:
broadband noise, noise from the instrumentation amplifier auto-zero circuit, and noise
from the Coarse Offset auto-zero circuit. Noise at the PGA309 output can be reduced
by limiting the bandwidth with a simple filter. This application note describes how to
select the filter components in order to get the desired bandwidth, and how to
mathematically estimate the amount of output noise based on the circuit configuration.
Components that improve RFI and EMI immunity are also described.
Contents
1
Selecting Components for the Output Filter ..................................................... 2
2
Understanding the Noise Spectrum of Auto-Zero Amplifiers ................................. 3
3
Estimating PGA309 Noise Output for a Given Design......................................... 5
4
RFI and EMI ....................................................................................... 10
Appendix A
Measurement Results .................................................................. 11
List of Figures
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
A-1
A-2
A-3
A-4
A-5
A-6
A-7
A-8
A-9
A-10
A-11
A-12
A-13
A-14
A-15
A-16
PGA309 with Simple Single Post Filter .......................................................... 2
PGA309 Noise Spectrum .......................................................................... 4
PGA309 Noise Spectrum with Maximum Coarse Offset (–59mV) ........................... 5
PGA309 Noise Density (1kHz Filter Superimposed) ........................................... 6
Low-Pass Filter Brick Wall Filter Equivalents ................................................... 6
PGA309 Noise Density (10kHz Filter Superimposed) ......................................... 8
Broadband (White) Noise, Coarse Offset = 0V ................................................. 9
Noise with Maximum Coarse Offset ............................................................ 10
Noise Generated with Improperly Decoupled Digital Source ................................ 10
Noise with 100Hz Filter, No Coarse Offset .................................................... 11
Noise Measurement .............................................................................. 11
Noise with 100Hz Filter, Maximum Coarse Offset ............................................ 12
Noise Measurement .............................................................................. 12
Noise with 1kHz Filter, No Coarse Offset ...................................................... 13
Noise Measurement .............................................................................. 13
Noise with 1kHz Filter, Maximum Coarse Offset.............................................. 14
Noise Measurement .............................................................................. 14
Noise with 10kHz Filter, No Coarse Offset .................................................... 15
Noise Measurement .............................................................................. 15
Noise with 10kHz Filter, Maximum Coarse Offset ............................................ 16
Noise Measurement .............................................................................. 16
Noise with Maximum Bandwidth, No Coarse Offset .......................................... 17
Noise Measurement .............................................................................. 17
Noise with Maximum Bandwidth, Maximum Coarse Offset ................................. 18
Noise Measurement .............................................................................. 18
All trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
SBOA110A – June 2005 – Revised November 2005
PGA309 Noise Filtering
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Selecting Components for the Output Filter
1
Selecting Components for the Output Filter
The circuit shown in Figure 1 illustrates how the output amplifier can be used to create a simple single
pole filter. The capacitor CF in parallel with the internal feedback resistor RFO forms the filter. Table 1 lists
the values of RFO for different gain settings. Table 1 also lists the nearest standard capacitor value for CF
to obtain bandwidths of 100Hz, 1kHz, and 10kHz. The CF value required to obtain bandwidths not listed in
Table 1 can be calculated as shown in Example 1. In addition, this configuration allows for a 10nF
RFI/EMI capacitor, CL, to be directly between the output and ground of a module.
C3
0.01µF
C2
0.1µF
VSA
VSD
PGA309 Output Amplifier
SDA
SCL
Two−Wire
EEPROM
C1
0.01µF
Front End
PGA
VS
(Gain DAC)
Output
Amp
INT/EXT FB Select
RFO
Allows for other Output Amplifier
External Gain Settings
R ISO
100Ω
V OUT
V OUT FILT
RF B
100Ω
V FB
CL
10nF
GND
Output Gain Select
X2, X2.4, X3, X3.6, X4.5, X6, X9
RFO
CF
V SJ
VSA
V SA
Figure 1. PGA309 with Simple Single Post Filter
2
PGA309 Noise Filtering
SBOA110A – June 2005 – Revised November 2005
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Understanding the Noise Spectrum of Auto-Zero Amplifiers
Table 1. PGA309 Low Noise Filter Values at Different Gains
DESIRED BANDWIDTH
OUTPUT AMP GAIN
RFO (kΩ)
CF COMPUTED (F)
CF STANDARD
100Hz
2
18
8.842E–08
0.091µF
100Hz
2.4
21
7.579E–08
0.075µF
100Hz
3
24
6.631E–08
0.068µF
100Hz
3.6
26
6.121E–08
0.062µF
100Hz
4.5
28
5.684E–08
0.056µF
100Hz
6
30
5.305E–08
0.051µF
100Hz
9
32
4.974E–08
0.047µF
.
1kHz
2
18
8.842E–09
9100pF
1kHz
2.4
21
7.579E–09
7500pF
1kHz
3
24
6.631E–09
6800pF
1kHz
3.6
26
6.121E–09
6200pF
1kHz
4.5
28
5.684E–09
5600pF
1kHz
6
30
5.305E–09
5100pF
1kHz
9
32
4.974E–09
4700pF
10kHz
2
18
8.842E–10
910pF
10kHz
2.4
21
7.579E–10
750pF
10kHz
3
24
6.631E–10
680pF
10kHz
3.6
26
6.121E–10
620pF
10kHz
4.5
28
5.684E–10
560pF
10kHz
6
30
5.305E–10
510pF
10kHz
9
32
4.974E–10
470pF
Example 1. Calculation to Select CF Value
For this example, we want to design a circuit with a gain of 4.5 and a bandwidth of 3kHz. When the gain is
set to 4.5, the feedback resistor is equal to RFO = 28kΩ. The value of CF is computed as shown:
1
CF 2 BW RFO
(1)
1
CF 1.895nF
2 (3kHz) (28k)
(2)
Use a standard 2nF value resistor.
2
Understanding the Noise Spectrum of Auto-Zero Amplifiers
When considering the noise generated by the PGA309, it is important to keep in mind that it uses
auto-zero amplifiers in the programmable gain instrumentation amplifier (PGIA). The auto-zero technique
has some interesting effects on the noise spectrum of an amplifier. One beneficial effect of the auto-zero
architecture is that it eliminates 1/f noise (flicker noise). Typically, it accomplishes this at the cost of
increasing the overall broadband noise. For applications where the bandwidth can be limited, the overall
output noise will typically be lower for auto-zero topologies. Figure 2 illustrates the spectrum of the
PGA309 (with no 1/f noise).
SBOA110A – June 2005 – Revised November 2005
PGA309 Noise Filtering
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Understanding the Noise Spectrum of Auto-Zero Amplifiers
The cut frequency of the noise spectrum is
at the auto−zero frequency (approximately
7kHz). Also, there are noise components
are at the auto−zero frequency and its
harmonic.
INPUT VOLTAGE NOISE DENSITY
1
eND (µV/√Hz), RTI
Coarse Offset Adjust = 0mV
CLK_CFG = ’00’ (default)
0.1
0.01
1
10
100
1k
10k
100k
Frequency (Hz)
Referred to the input, the
noise spectral density is
210nV/√Hz.
After the corner frequency, the
noise spectrum drops to about
20nV/√Hz to 40nV/√Hz.
Figure 2. PGA309 Noise Spectrum
The auto-zero technique also shapes the noise spectrum in other ways. The noise spectrum for the
PGA309 is a flat 210nV/√Hz from 0Hz to approximately 8kHz. The corner frequency of the noise spectrum
is set by the auto-zero frequency. For the PGA309, the auto-zero frequency is between 7kHz and 8kHz.
After the corner frequency, the noise spectrum drops to about 20nV/√Hz to 40nV/√Hz. Typically, there will
be noise components at the auto-zero frequency and at harmonics of the auto-zero frequency. For an
auto-zero frequency of 8kHz, you will see noise components at 8kHz, 16kHz, 24kHz, 40kHz, 56kHz, and
at other harmonics in 8kHz multiples.
The PGA309 also has a Coarse Offset Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) that is used to compensate for
the large initial offset of the sensor. When the Coarse Offset is not being used, the noise is dominated by
the flat broadband (210nV/√Hz) noise, and the magnitude of the auto-zero clock harmonics is not a factor.
The Coarse Offset DAC, however, has a different auto-zero scheme that has feed-through which may
need to be considered. The Coarse Offset DAC has an auto-zero frequency that is half of the auto-zero
frequency of the PGIA (typically, 3.5kHz to 4kHz). Figure 3 shows the noise spectrum of the PGA309 with
the output of the Coarse Offset DAC set to maximum.
4
PGA309 Noise Filtering
SBOA110A – June 2005 – Revised November 2005
www.ti.com
Estimating PGA309 Noise Output for a Given Design
When the PGA309 coarse offset feature is
used, the noise components at the auto−zero
frequency and its harmonics may be larger.
The auto−zero frequency of the Coarse−Offset
DAC is 3.5kHz to 4kHz.
INPUT VOLTAGE NOISE DENSITY
eND (µV/√Hz), RTI
10
Coarse Offset Adjust = −59mV
VIN = +61mV
CLK_CFG = ’00’ (default)
1
0.1
0.01
1
10
100
1k
10k
50k
Frequency (Hz)
Figure 3. PGA309 Noise Spectrum with Maximum Coarse Offset (–59mV)
3
Estimating PGA309 Noise Output for a Given Design
The noise output on the PGA309 is a factor of gain, bandwidth, and amount of coarse offset used. To
minimize output noise, you should set your bandwidth to the smallest level that will work for your specific
application. Also, in many cases, it is possible to minimize the coarse offset by using the Zero DAC to
compensate for the large initial offset of the sensor. A good way of understanding the trade-off between
the Coarse Offset setting and Zero DAC is to use the PGA309 Gain Calculator software tool. This
calculator can be downloaded via the PGA309 product folder on the TI web site, under Software Tools. It
is described in detail in the PGA309EVM User's Guide.
The first step to determine the noise output of the PGA309 is to estimate the broadband noise of the
PGA309. In order to perform this calculation, you need to know the gain and bandwidth requirement for
the particular design. Then, you will calculate the output peak-to-peak noise. Section 3.1 reviews how to
compute the output peak-to-peak noise based on the broadband spectrum noise.
3.1
Computing the Output Peak-to-Peak Noise Based on the Broadband Spectrum
In general, the total root mean squared (RMS) noise referred to the input of an amplifier can be computed
by integrating the spectral noise density curve. In most cases, however, there are some simple formulas
that can be used to simplify this computation. Figure 4 shows the PGA309 noise spectral density with a
simple 1kHz filter superimposed on it. For this example, only the noise inside the 1kHz filter is integrated
to get the total noise. There are two regions of the graph that affect the result. The region from 0Hz to
1kHz is rectangular; consequently, it lends itself well to a simple formula (area = length x width). The
region beyond 1kHz depends on the type of filter used, and thus a table of correction factors Kn is
developed based on the filter type. The correction factor effectively converts the filter to a brick wall filter
so that the entire noise spectrum is rectangular (see Figure 5 and Table 2).
SBOA110A – June 2005 – Revised November 2005
PGA309 Noise Filtering
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Estimating PGA309 Noise Output for a Given Design
When the bandwidth is limited using a 1kHz
filter, only the noise inside the 1kHz bandwidth
is integrated to compute the output noise.
INPUT VOLTAGE NOISE DENSITY
1
eND (µV/√Hz), RTI
Coarse Offset Adjust = 0mV
CLK_CFG = ’00’ (default)
0.1
0.01
1
10
100
1k
10k
100k
Frequency (Hz)
The region from 0Hz to
1kHz can be integrated
using a simple calculation.
A correction factor (Kn) is used to
compute include the noise in the region
beyond 1kHz. The value of Kn depends
on the order of the filter being used. Our
example filter is first order and kn = 1.57.
Figure 4. PGA309 Noise Density (1kHz Filter Superimposed)
Noise BW
Small−Signal BW
0
Filter Attenuation (dB)
Skirt of
1−Pole Filter
Response
Skirt of
2−Pole Filter
Response
−20
Skirt of
3−Pole Filter
Response
−40
Brickwall
−80
0.1fP
10fP
fP f BF
Frequency (f)
Figure 5. Low-Pass Filter Brick Wall Filter Equivalents
6
PGA309 Noise Filtering
SBOA110A – June 2005 – Revised November 2005
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Estimating PGA309 Noise Output for a Given Design
Table 2. Conversion From Standard Filter to Brick Wall Filter
NUMBER OF POLES IN FILTER
Kn AC NOISE BANDWIDTH RATIO
1
1.57
2
1.22
3
1.16
4
1.13
5
1.12
Example 2 in Section 3.2 illustrates how the noise calculation is performed. It should be emphasized,
however, that the noise computed by integrating the spectral density curve is an RMS quantity. Most users
are interested in the peak-to-peak noise. This noise has a normal distribution, and therefore, the
peak-to-peak noise output can be estimated. Typically, the (RMS value x 6) is a good estimate of the
peak-to-peak distribution. This practice is used because there is a probability of 0.3% that the
peak-to-peak noise will exceed this level at a given instant in time. This factor is sometimes called the
crest factor. Some engineers use different crest factors depending on whether they want to be more or
less conservative with their estimates. Table 3 lists several crest factors and the associated probability
that the signal will have a larger amplitude at a given instant in time.
Table 3. Crest Factors Used to Convert RMS Noise to Peak-to-Peak Noise
PEAK-TO-PEAK AMPLITUDE
CREST FACTOR
PROBABILITY OF HAVING A LARGER AMPLITUDE (%)
2 × RMS
2
32
3 × RMS
3
13
4 × RMS
4
4.6
5 × RMS
5
1.2
6 × RMS
6
0.3
7 × RMS
7
0.05
SBOA110A – June 2005 – Revised November 2005
PGA309 Noise Filtering
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Estimating PGA309 Noise Output for a Given Design
3.2
Example 2: General Formulas for Computing Noise from a Broadband Source
V noise_broadband Gain Noise_Density BW K n
(3)
V noise_peak_to_peak 6 V noise_broadband
(4)
Where:
• Gain = Gain_of_PGIA × GAIN_DAC × Output_Amp_Gain
Gain is the total gain of the PGA309
• Noise Density = 210nV/√Hz from 0Hz to 8kHz
• BW = PGA309 Bandwidth. The bandwidth can be adjusted by using the appropriate value of CF as
discussed in Section 1.
• Kn = the brick wall filter multiplier to include the skirt effects of a low-pass filter. This factor is selected
from Table 2, based on the type of filter that is used in the particular application.
For our example design, we will choose:
Gain (128) (1.0) (9) 1152
(5)
This is the maximum gain for the PGA309 (worst-case noise).
BW 1.0kHz Typical bandwidth
(6)
K n 1.57 This value is used because CF forms a first−order filter.
(7)
The noise output is then calculated:
V
1152 210nV Hz (1.0kHz) (1.57) 29mV
noise_broadband
RMS
(8)
V noise_peak_to_peak 6 (0.029V RMS) 174mVPP
3.3
(9)
Computing the Output Peak-to-Peak Noise Using the Broadband Spectrum When
Bandwidth is Greater than Auto-Zero Frequency
The method described in Section 3.1 works well when the filter bandwidth is less than the auto-zero
frequency (7kHz and 8kHz). In cases where the bandwidth is greater than the auto-zero frequency, it
becomes more difficult to estimate the noise because the spectral noise density of the PGA309 begins to
roll off. (See Figure 6.) Table 4 lists measured results for several different configurations. These measured
results provide an approximation of expected noise for wide bandwidth configurations.
When the bandwidth is limited using a 10kHz
filter, the resultant noise calculation becomes
more complex because the noise roles off
before the filter.
INPUT VOLTAGE NOISE DENSITY
1
eND (µV/√Hz), RTI
Coarse Offset Adjust = 0mV
CLK_CFG = ’00’ (default)
0.1
0.01
1
10
100
1k
10k
100k
Frequency (Hz)
Figure 6. PGA309 Noise Density (10kHz Filter Superimposed)
8
PGA309 Noise Filtering
SBOA110A – June 2005 – Revised November 2005
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Estimating PGA309 Noise Output for a Given Design
Table 4. Summary of Measured Results (1)
(1)
(2)
(3)
3.4
FILTER
COARSE OFFSET
OUTPUT NOISE RMS
OUTPUT NOISE
CALCULATED
(Example 1)
100Hz
None
3.7mVRMS
2.88mVRMS
100Hz
Max (–48mV)
8.7mVRMS
1kHz
None
9mVRMS
1kHz
Max (–48mV)
12.5mVRMS
10kHz
None
17.8mVRMS
10kHz
Max (–48mV)
42.1mVRMS
252mVPP
None
None
26.3mVRMS
157mVPP
None
Max (–48mV)
65.3mVRMS
391mVPP
OUTPUT NOISE PEAK-TO-PEAK
(CALCULATED FROM RMS SCOPE) (2)
22mVPP
52mVPP
9.12mVRMS
54mVPP
29mVRMS (3)
106mVPP
75mVPP
All measurements made with Gain = 1125, VREF = 3.4V. For other gains, compute the output noise using this equation:
VNOISE = (Gain)(Measured_Output_Noise)/1125
Crest factor = 6.
Not accurate because of noise roll-off.
Effect on PGA309 Coarse Offset Auto-Zero Feed through on Noise
The PGA309 can compensate for the initial large offset of a sensor by using its Coarse Offset DAC. The
Coarse Offset DAC uses the auto-zero technique (its auto-zero frequency is 3.5kHz to 4kHz). For large
values of coarse offset, the auto-zero clock feed-through can be the dominant noise source. Since the
noise generated by the auto-zero feed-through is not broadband noise, there is no simple formula to
estimate this noise. The easiest way to get an approximate noise output for this effect is to examine the
measured results. (See Table 4.) Keep in mind that the measured results will include both the broadband
noise and the auto-zero feed-through. As a rule of thumb, the effects of auto-zero feed-through from
coarse offset can double the noise from the PGA309 when coarse offset is set to maximum.
3.5
What to Expect on an Oscilloscope
When the coarse offset is not used or set to a small level, broadband noise will dominate. This noise
appears to be a random signal (or white noise) on the oscilloscope. (See Figure 7.) When coarse offset is
set to a larger level, the auto-zero clock feed-through dominates. This signal looks like a noisy square
wave with a frequency of 3.5kHz to 4kHz; see Figure 8.
C1 RMS
26.3mV
50.0mV
5.00ms
Figure 7. Broadband (White) Noise, Coarse Offset = 0V
SBOA110A – June 2005 – Revised November 2005
PGA309 Noise Filtering
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RFI and EMI
250kS/s
50.0mV
C1 RMS
65.3mV
200µs
Figure 8. Noise with Maximum Coarse Offset
4
RFI and EMI
CL, RFB and RISO are used to prevent emission and reception RFI and EMI from the PGA309. These
components are especially important if the PGA309 is being connected via cable to a measurement
system. RFB and RISO also protect against incorrect wiring faults. C1, C2 and C3 are decoupling capacitors
that keep the digital signals used to communicate to the EEPROM out of the analog. Figure 9 illustrates
noise that you can see if you have not properly decoupled the PGA309; the noise glitches correspond to
the edges of the SCL signal.
50MS/s
Ch1PP
25.6mV
Ch1 Freq
19.05MHz
Low Res
20mV
1µs
Figure 9. Noise Generated with Improperly Decoupled Digital Source
10
PGA309 Noise Filtering
SBOA110A – June 2005 – Revised November 2005
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Appendix A
Appendix A Measurement Results
PGA309 WITH AND WITHOUT 1kHz FILTER
(Gain = 1152, Coarse Offset = 0mV)
Noise Spectral Density (V/√Hz)
0.001
No Filter
0.0001
0.00001
1k Filter
0.000001
1
10
100
1k
10k
Frequency (Hz)
Figure A-1. Noise with 100Hz Filter, No Coarse Offset
250kS/s
10.0mV
C1 RMS
3.74mV
200µs
Figure A-2. Noise Measurement
SBOA110A – June 2005 – Revised November 2005
Measurement Results
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Appendix A
PGA309 WITH AND WITHOUT 100Hz FILTER
(Gain = 1152, Coarse Offset = 48mV)
Noise Spectral Density (V/√Hz)
0.01
No Filter
0.001
0.0001
0.00001
100Hz
0.000001
1
10
100
1k
10k
Frequency (Hz)
Figure A-3. Noise with 100Hz Filter, Maximum Coarse Offset
250kS/s
10.0mV
C1 RMS
8.50mV
200µs
Figure A-4. Noise Measurement
12
Measurement Results
SBOA110A – June 2005 – Revised November 2005
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Appendix A
PGA309 WITH AND WITHOUT 1kHz FILTER
(Gain = 1152, Coarse Offset = 0mV)
Noise Spectral Density (V/√Hz)
0.001
No Filter
0.0001
0.00001
1k Filter
0.000001
1
10
100
1k
10k
Frequency (Hz)
Figure A-5. Noise with 1kHz Filter, No Coarse Offset
10.0kS/s
20.0mV
C1 RMS
8.92mV
5.00ms
Figure A-6. Noise Measurement
SBOA110A – June 2005 – Revised November 2005
Measurement Results
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Appendix A
PGA309 WITH AND WITHOUT 1kHz FILTER
(Gain = 1152, Coarse Offset = 48mV)
Noise Spectral Density (V/√Hz)
0.01
No Filter
0.001
0.0001
0.00001
1k Filter
0.000001
1
10
100
1k
10k
Frequency (Hz)
Figure A-7. Noise with 1kHz Filter, Maximum Coarse Offset
250kS/s
20.0mV
C1 RMS
11.16mV
200µs
Figure A-8. Noise Measurement
14
Measurement Results
SBOA110A – June 2005 – Revised November 2005
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Appendix A
PGA309 WITH AND WITHOUT 1kHz FILTER
(Gain = 1152, Coarse Offset = 0mV)
Noise Spectral Density (V/√Hz)
0.001
No Filter
0.0001
0.00001
10k No Coarse
0.000001
1
10
100
1k
10k
Frequency (Hz)
Figure A-9. Noise with 10kHz Filter, No Coarse Offset
10.0kS/s
50.0mV
C1 RMS
17.8mV
5.00ms
Figure A-10. Noise Measurement
SBOA110A – June 2005 – Revised November 2005
Measurement Results
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Appendix A
PGA309 WITH AND WITHOUT 10kHz FILTER
(Gain = 1152, Coarse Offset = 48mV)
Noise Spectral Density (V/√Hz)
0.01
No Filter
0.001
0.0001
0.00001
10k With Coarse
0.000001
1
10
100
1k
10k
Frequency (Hz)
Figure A-11. Noise with 10kHz Filter, Maximum Coarse Offset
250kS/s
50.0mV
C1 RMS
42.1mV
200µs
Figure A-12. Noise Measurement
16
Measurement Results
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Appendix A
PGA309 WITH MAX BANDWIDTH
(Gain = 1152, Coarse Offset = 0mV)
Noise Spectral Density (V/√Hz)
0.01
No Filter
0.001
0.0001
0.00001
0.000001
1
10
100
1k
10k
Frequency (Hz)
Figure A-13. Noise with Maximum Bandwidth, No Coarse Offset
C1 RMS
26.3mV
50.0mV
5.00ms
Figure A-14. Noise Measurement
SBOA110A – June 2005 – Revised November 2005
Measurement Results
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Appendix A
PGA309 WITH MAX BANDWIDTH
(Gain = 1152, Coarse Offset = 48mV)
Noise Spectral Density (V/√Hz)
0.01
No Filter
0.001
0.0001
0.00001
0.000001
1
10
100
1k
10k
Frequency (Hz)
Figure A-15. Noise with Maximum Bandwidth, Maximum Coarse Offset
250kS/s
50.0mV
C1 RMS
65.3mV
200µs
Figure A-16. Noise Measurement
18
Measurement Results
SBOA110A – June 2005 – Revised November 2005
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Resale of TI products or services with statements different from or beyond the parameters stated by TI for that
product or service voids all express and any implied warranties for the associated TI product or service and
is an unfair and deceptive business practice. TI is not responsible or liable for any such statements.
Following are URLs where you can obtain information on other Texas Instruments products and application
solutions:
Products
Applications
Amplifiers
amplifier.ti.com
Audio
www.ti.com/audio
Data Converters
dataconverter.ti.com
Automotive
www.ti.com/automotive
DSP
dsp.ti.com
Broadband
www.ti.com/broadband
Interface
interface.ti.com
Digital Control
www.ti.com/digitalcontrol
Logic
logic.ti.com
Military
www.ti.com/military
Power Mgmt
power.ti.com
Optical Networking
www.ti.com/opticalnetwork
Microcontrollers
microcontroller.ti.com
Security
www.ti.com/security
Telephony
www.ti.com/telephony
Video & Imaging
www.ti.com/video
Wireless
www.ti.com/wireless
Mailing Address:
Texas Instruments
Post Office Box 655303 Dallas, Texas 75265
Copyright  2005, Texas Instruments Incorporated
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