Texas Instruments | Interface Circuits for TIA/EIA-644 (LVDS) (Rev. B) | Application notes | Texas Instruments Interface Circuits for TIA/EIA-644 (LVDS) (Rev. B) Application notes

Texas Instruments Interface Circuits for TIA/EIA-644 (LVDS) (Rev. B) Application notes
 Design Notes
September 2002
Mixed-Signal Products
SLLA038B
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Contents
General Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Electrical Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Driver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Receiver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Supply Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
2
4
5
Interconnections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Characteristic Impedance of Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transmission Distance vs Signaling Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Line Termination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Skew, Balance, and ISI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
6
6
7
8
8
Noise Immunity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Fail-Safe Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Radiated Emissions and Susceptibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Electrostatic Discharge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Eye Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Setting Up the Eye Pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Taking Measurements From Eye Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
List of Figures
1 Typical Connection With LVDS Drivers and Receivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2 Driver and Receiver Electrical Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3 Typical PCB Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
4 Typical Application Circuit Schematic for the SN65LVDS31 and SN65LVDS3487 Driver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
5 Typical Application Circuit Schematic for the SN65LVDS32 and SN65LVDS3486 Receiver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
6 Point-to-Point Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
7 Multidrop Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
8 Typical Transmission Distance vs Signaling Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
9 Differential Termination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
10 Open-Circuit Fail Safe of the LVDS Receiver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
11 Signal Distortion Using Eye Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
12 Eye Pattern Oscilloscope Trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
13 Measuring Signal Transmission Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
iii
iv
SLLA038A
Interface Circuits for TIA/EIA-644 (LVDS)
ABSTRACT
This design note provides information concerning the designing of TIA/EIA-644 interface
circuits. The TIA/EIA-644 standard is discussed including electrical characteristics,
interconnections, line termination, and noise immunity. Finally, eye patterns are used to
measure the effects of signal distortion, noise, signal attenuation, and the resultant
intersymbol interference (ISI) in a data transmission system.
General Information
TIA/EIA-644, otherwise known as LVDS, is a signaling method used for
high-speed, low-power transmission of binary data over copper. This signaling
technique uses lower output-voltage levels than the 5-V differential standards
(such as TIA/EIA-422) to reduce power consumption, increase switching speed,
and allow operation with a 3.3-V supply rail. The LVDS current-mode drivers
create a differential voltage (247 mV to 454 mV) across a 100-Ω load. The LVDS
receivers detect signals as low as ±100 mV with as much as ±1-V ground noise.
TI offers LVDS receivers capable of recovering data over a common mode range
from –4 V to 5 V, which allows up to 3 V of ground noise. These receivers are
designated SN65LVDS33 and SN65LVDS34. The standard specifies a
theoretical maximum of 1.923 Gbit/s.
The intended application of this signaling technique is for baseband data
transmission over controlled impedance media of approximately 100 Ω, where
the transmission media may be printed-circuit board (PCB) traces, backplanes,
or cables. The ultimate rate and distance of data transfer is dependent upon the
attenuation characteristics of the media and the noise coupling from the
environment.
Figure 1 shows a typical connection with LVDS drivers and receivers. The data
inputs to the quad driver are received at the interface of the PCB traces from the
host controller. The data inputs consist of up to n+1 bits of information and a
transmit (Tx) clock. The data and clock signals are then transmitted differentially
to the interface of the quad driver outputs, to the interconnecting traces, and to
the host PCB connector. The signals then propagate from the interface of the host
PCB connector to the cable connector to the balanced interconnecting media. At
the plug on the other end of the cable, the signals pass through the cable plug,
the target connector interface, and then to the target PCB traces. The LVDS
signal path ends at the interface of the target PCB traces and the termination
circuit. An additional interface is located at the points where the PCB traces to the
quad receiver inputs are connected. The outputs of the receiver interface to the
target PCB traces and then on to the receiving controller.
1
Host
Host
Controller
Power
Balanced Interconnect
Power
Target
DBn
DBn
DBn–1
DBn–1
DBn–2
DBn–2
DBn–3
DBn–3
DB2
DB2
DB1
DB1
DB0
DB0
TX Clock
RX Clock
SN65LVDS31
Indicates twisting of the conductors.
Target
Controller
SN65LVDS32
Indicates the line-termination circuit.
Figure 1. Typical Connection With LVDS Drivers and Receivers
Electrical Characteristics
Driver
The LVDS driver produces a differential voltage across a 100-Ω load in the range
of 247 mV to 454 mV with a typical offset voltage of 1.2 V relative to ground (see
Figure 2). Most drivers are commonly implemented as current-mode devices,
which allow power consumption to be virtually independent of frequency. These
two characteristics, low voltage swings and constant current, allow LVDS drivers
to operate at higher data rates and lower power dissipation.
2
SLLA038B
2.4 V
100 mV
Receiver
Sensitivity Levels
–100 mV
Common-Mode
Voltage
2.2 V
2V
247 – 454 mV
Common-Mode
Voltage
1.2 V
± 1 V Ground Noise
0.4 V
DRIVER OUTPUT LEVELS
100 mV
Receiver
Sensitivity Levels
–100 mV
Common-Mode
Voltage
0.2 V
0V
RECEIVER INPUT LEVELS
Figure 2. Driver and Receiver Electrical Characteristics
Unused Pins — Unused data input pins to the LVDS driver should be left open
circuited, with the exception of the enabling pins. All inputs to the LVDS driver are
internally pulled down to ground with approximately 300-kΩ resistance. If the
enable pins are not driven, they can be connected directly to VCC or GND. If there
is a need for a pullup or pulldown resistor, then a resistance of no more than 10 kΩ
is recommended.
Board Traces — All board traces from the host controller to the driver and from
the driver to the connector should be as short as possible and matched in length.
The overall length of any trace between the controller and driver should be kept
to less than 5 cm and the lengths of all the traces to the controller should be
matched to within 1 cm of each other with a 4-mA output buffer on the controller.
Longer lengths are possible with higher current output buffers. The length of each
trace between the driver outputs and the connector should be matched to within
5 mm of each other. Usually, this requires mitering the traces. If the PCB trace is
more than 2 cm in length between the driver output pins and the connector, the
PCB must be constructed to maintain a controlled differential impedance near
100 Ω (see Figure 3).
Interface Circuits for TIA/EIA-644 (LVDS)
3
0,30
LAYER 1 (Signal)
0,36
0,30
0,30
0,36
0,30
ÎÎ ÎÎ ÎÎÎÎ ÎÎ ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
1,2
0,22 TYP.
Single Pair
LAYER 2 (Ground)
ÎÎÎÎÎÎ ÎÎ ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
ÎÎÎÎÎÎ ÎÎ ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
Not Recommended
LAYER 3 (Signal)
LAYER 4 (Signal)
Not Recommended
NOTES: A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
K.
All fabrication items must meet or exceed best industry practice.
Laminate material: copper-clad FR-4
Copper weight: 1 oz. start
Finished board thickness: 0.032 (± 0.010) inch
Dielectric thickness to be symmetrical between all layers (± 0.005 inch)
Maximum warp and twist: 0.001 inch per inch
Circuitry on outer layers to be tin-lead plated (60/40), plated to 300 µin (minimum)
Soldermask both sides per artwork: green enthone
Copper plating to be 0.001 inch (minimum) in plated-through holes
Soldermask over bare copper with tin-lead hot-air leveling
Dimensions are shown in millimeters
Figure 3. Typical PCB Construction
Receiver
The recommended voltage applied to the receiver is between ground and 2.4 V
with a common mode range of 0.05 V to 2.35 V. The receiver has a sensitivity level
of ±100 mV to correctly assume the intended binary state (see Figure 2). The
LVDS interconnecting media must be matched with the 100-Ω termination
resistor located at the inputs of the receiver. Please see the Line Termination
section of this document.
Unused Pins — The receiver data input pins should be left open if not being
used. The receiver has a fail-safe feature that takes the outputs to a known state
when the receiver inputs are left open (more on the fail-safe feature later in this
document). The enable pins must be actively driven or connected directly to VCC
or GND through no more than a 10-kΩ resistance. There is no internal pullup or
pulldown or resistance provided at the enable pins.
Board Traces — All board traces from the connector to the receiver and from the
receiver to the controller should be as short as possible and matched in length.
The length of each trace between the connector and the receiver input should be
matched to within 5 mm of each other; this may require mitering the traces. If the
distance between the connector and the receiver input pins is more than 2 cm,
the PCB must be constructed to maintain a controlled differential impedance near
100 Ω (see Figure 3). No run between the receiver outputs and the receiving
controller should be more than 5 cm long, and runs should not be more than 1 cm
from each other.
4
SLLA038B
Supply Voltage
Since the standard does not specify power-supply voltages and the driver output
characteristics are independent of power supply, the supply voltage may be 5 V,
3.3 V or even lower. It is recommended that two Z5U ceramic, mica, or
polystyrene dielectric chip capacitors be placed between VCC and the ground
plane for the driver and the receiver. The capacitor should be as close as possible
to the device pin. Refer to Figure 4 and Figure 5.
1
2
ZO = 100 Ω
3
VCC
4
5
1A
VCC
1Y
4A
1Z
4Y
G
4Z
2Z
G
16
3.3 V
0.1 µF
(see Note A)
15
0.001 µF
(see Note A)
14
ZO = 100 Ω
13
12
See Note B
ZO = 100 Ω
6
7
8
2Y
3Z
2A
3Y
GND
3A
11
ZO = 100 Ω
10
9
NOTES: A. Place a 0.1-µF and a 0.001-µF Z5U ceramic, mica, or polystyrene dielectric, 0805 size, chip capacitor between VCC and the ground
plane. The capacitors should be located as close as possible to the device terminals.
B. Unused enable inputs should be tied to VCC or GND as appropriate.
Figure 4. Typical Application Circuit Schematic for the SN65LVDS31 and SN65LVDS3487 Driver
1
1B
VCC
16
0.1 µF
(see Note A)
100 Ω
2
3
VCC 4
5
6
1A
4B
2Y
4Y
G
2A
100 Ω
7
4A
3Y
2B
3A
GND
3B
0.001 µF
(see Note A)
15
1Y
G
3.3 V
14
100 Ω
(see Note B)
13
12
11
See Note C
10
100 Ω
8
9
NOTES: A. Place a 0.1-µF and a 0.001-µF Z5U ceramic, mica, or polystyrene dielectric, 0805 size, chip capacitor between VCC and the ground
plane. The capacitors should be located as close as possible to the device terminals.
B. The termination resistance value should match the nominal characteristic impedance of the transmission media with ±10%.
C. Unused enable inputs should be tied to VCC or GND as appropriate.
Figure 5. Typical Application Circuit Schematic for the SN65LVDS32 and SN65LVDS3486
Receiver
Interface Circuits for TIA/EIA-644 (LVDS)
5
A ground plane is highly recommended, if not mandatory. A power plane is
recommended, but if not used, sharing of supply traces with other components
should be held to a minimum. A power or ground plane can further reduce
possible feedback at very high data rates if used to separate input signal traces
and output signal traces.
Interconnections
Configurations
Point-to-point is the most common configuration for LVDS since signal quality is
superior and it is the easiest to implement (see Figure 6).
D
T
R
Figure 6. Point-to-Point Configuration
Multidrop configuration is attainable with LVDS, but many things must be taken
into consideration, such as the stub length, the location of the receivers, and the
terminating resistor. In a multidrop configuration, the stub lengths must be as
short as possible and the terminating resistor must be connected only at the
receiver located on the furthest end of the interconnect (see Figure 7).
R
D
T
R
R
R
Figure 7. Multidrop Configuration
NOTE: Multipoint configuration can be achieved in LVDS with
M-LVDS devices. TIA/EIA-644 interface circuits do not support a
multipoint configuration, where more than one driver resides on
a bus segment. These buses require the use of M-LVDS as
specified in TIA/EIA-899.
Characteristic Impedance of Media
The balanced interconnecting media of LVDS is not specified in the standard and
therefore may be PCB traces, backplanes, or cables. At any cut point in the
interconnect, the differential characteristic impedance must be 90 Ω to 132 Ω.
6
SLLA038B
For cables, it is recommended to use polyethylene, polypropylene, or Teflon
insulation in either round or flat cables and uniform distance between the
conductors in a signal pair. Belden #9807 is an example of round cable and
Belden #9V28010 is an example of flat cable. The twisting of the signal pairs is
recommended but not mandatory.
Transmission Distance vs Signaling Rates
LVDS surpasses the signaling rates of existing standards like TIA/EIA-422, -485
and -232. To attain high speed, LVDS uses very low voltage swings, typically
350 mV. This low voltage swing allows data to be switched very quickly at
signaling rates up to 1.923 Gbit/s. Excluding very short distances, the restriction
of the maximum signaling rate is the transmission media.
Figure 8 shows a typical plot of the transmission distance vs. signaling rates. The
simplest way to determine the affects of random noise, jitter, attenuation, and
dispersion on a transmission line is with the use of eye patterns. Eye patterns are
useful in measuring the amount of jitter versus the unit interval to establish the
data-rate versus cable-length curves. The Eye Patterns section of this document
explains how to use eye patterns.
Transmission Distance – m
100
TRANSMISSION DISTANCE
vs
SIGNALING RATE
30% Jitter
(see Note A)
10
5% Jitter
(see Note A)
1
24 AWG UTP 96 Ω
(PVC Dielectric)
0.1
10
100
1000
Signaling Rate – Mbit/s
NOTE A: This parameter is the percentage of distortion of the unit
interval (UI) with a pseudorandom data pattern.
Figure 8. Typical Transmission Distance vs Signaling Rates
Teflon is a trademark of E.I. Du Pont.
Interface Circuits for TIA/EIA-644 (LVDS)
7
Line Termination
Termination at the far end of the interconnect from the transmitter is mandatory.
The termination resistor should be located within 2 cm of the LVDS receiver.
Choose a termination resistor that best matches the differential impedance of the
transmission line; ideally, it would be between 90 Ω to 132 Ω . A thick-film leadless
(0603 or 0805) chip resistor is recommended. The termination schematic
diagram is shown in Figure 8.
Texas Instruments also offers LVDS receivers with integrated termination. The
devices designated by LVDT (T denotes termination) offer an integrated
termination on the receiver inputs. They have improved signal quality and lower
bit error rates because the integrated termination is closer to the receivers inputs
than what is possible with discrete solutions. In addition, the integrated
termination feature allows designers to save board space by eliminating the need
for a terminating resistor.
To Transmitter
90 Ω < ZO < 132 Ω
RT, 100 Ω,
± 5%, 1/20 W
Figure 9. Differential Termination
Skew, Balance, and ISI
Skew in differential signaling is the phase difference between the signals. Skew
can be reduced by matching the electrical lengths between traces and using a
good quality manufactured cable. The propagation delay difference between
signal pairs in good quality manufactured cables can range from 40 ps/m to
120 ps/m (specified by the vendor). A lower number is better.
To keep the transmission media balanced, the distance and insulation between
the signal and return conductors in a pair should be uniform, and any parasitic
loading (capacitance) must be applied in equal amounts to each line.
Intersymbol interference (ISI) in a data transmission system is the effect of
neighboring pulses in a pulse train spilling over into adjacent pulses. This forces
a reduction in the allowable permitted pulse rate for a given line length in order
to maintain adequate distinction between adjacent pulses. To determine the
effects of signal distortion, noise, and signal attenuation on ISI in a data
transmission system, the eye pattern is used. The eye pattern is obtained by
applying a random nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) code down the transmission line
under test. In LVDS, the maximum recommended cable length for non-encoded
NRZ signaling is when the 10%-to-90% rise time of the signal at the termination
t
is t t ui . For information on how to set up eye patterns refer to the Eye Patterns
R
2
section of this document.
8
SLLA038B
Noise Immunity
Fail-Safe Operation
One of the most common problems with differential signaling applications is how
the system responds when the differential input voltage is between –100 mV and
100 mV within its input common-mode voltage, meaning there is little or no
differential voltage present at the signal pair. This situation occurs when there is
little or no input current to the receiver from the data line itself, known as an open
circuit. This is due to the driver being in a high-impedance state or the cable being
disconnected. The output logic state of most differential receivers is
indeterminate when this condition exists.
TI’s LVDS receivers handle the open-input circuit situation differently. For
example, when the system is in open-circuit, the SN65LVDS32 receiver pulls
each line of the signal pair to a high-level (near VCC), through 300-kΩ resistors
as shown in Figure 10. The fail-safe feature uses an AND gate with input voltage
threshold at about 2.3 V to detect this condition and force the output to a
high-level, regardless of the differential input voltage. It is under this condition that
the output of the SN65LVDS32 is forced high with less than a 100 mV differential
input voltage magnitude. The presence of the termination resistor, Rt, does not
affect the fail-safe function as long as it is connected as shown in Figure 10. Other
termination schemes may allow a dc current to ground that could defeat the pullup
currents from the receiver and the fail-safe feature.
VCC
300 kΩ
300 kΩ
A
Rt
Y
B
VIT ≈ 2.3 V
Figure 10. Open-Circuit Fail Safe of the LVDS Receiver
Radiated Emissions and Susceptibility
LVDS uses differential signaling, which is less susceptible to noise than
single-ended transmission. A differential transmission involves using two
signal-carrying wires between the driver and the receiver. Any noise induced on
one of the lines is also induced on the other. The receiver is concerned only with
the difference between these two signals. Therefore, noise coupled onto the two
wires appears as common-mode noise and is rejected by the receiver.
LVDS low-voltage signaling and differential data-transmission scheme reduces
electromagnetic interference (EMI). Since LVDS uses low-voltage signaling, the
switching currents are much lower than CMOS/TTL and there is less radiation of
EMI. Of greater importance, the balanced differential lines have equal but
opposite currents, so most of the concentric magnetic field lines tend to cancel
and most of the electric fields tend to couple.
Interface Circuits for TIA/EIA-644 (LVDS)
9
To further reduce EMI it is suggested that the signal traces be as close to each
other as possible and matched in length. Furthermore, only one path should exist
for return current between the host controller and the target controller PCBs.
Shielding also is an effective way to reduce EMI. If an overall shield is desired,
use a short pigtail crimped to the shield end at each connector and then brought
through a separate connector pin to a ground, located as close to the connector
as possible. If individual shielding of the signal pairs is needed, use the same
terminating technique as for the overall shield.
To reduce noise, unused pins in connectors as well as unused wires in cables
should be single-point grounded at the connector. Unused wires should be
grounded at alternate ends. Galvanic isolation is another technique used to
reduce noise in interface systems. Galvanic isolation is provided by means of
optocoupler/optoisolators. For LVDS applications, the use of any optocoupler
reduces the bandwidth and, therefore, the corresponding maximum data rate.
Electrostatic Discharge
Like many electronic parts, LVDS is sensitive to electrostatic discharge (ESD)
and some precautions must be taken when handling them. To avoid ESD, it is
advisable that exposed connectors have pins recessed from the shell to prevent
casual contact and discharges. It also is a good idea to have the ground pins
longer than the signal pins in order to make the ground connection first and
equalize the ground potentials before signal connections.
Eye Patterns
To measure the effects of signal distortion, noise, and signal attenuation, and the
resultant intersymbol interference (ISI) in a data transmission system, the eye
pattern is used. ISI is the effect of neighboring pulses in a pulse train interfering
with preceding or succeeding pulses. It forces a reduction in the signaling rate for
a given line length in order to maintain adequate distinction between adjacent
pulses. The eye pattern is displayed on an oscilloscope, with the term eye coming
from the appearance of the trace on the CRT.
Setting Up the Eye Pattern
The eye pattern is obtained by applying a pseudo-random nonreturn-to-zero
(NRZ) code down the transmission line under test. This represents nearly all
possible pulse combinations. The signal at the receiving end of the line is
connected to the vertical amplifier of an oscilloscope, with the scope triggered
using the synchronization clock to the NRZ code generator on a separate trace
(see Figure 11).
10
SLLA038B
Formation of Eye Pattern
Clock Input
Nonreturn Zero
Random Code
1 to 0 Transition
+
+
=
=
0 to 1 Transition
Eye Pattern
Driver Output
Receiver Input
Figure 11. Signal Distortion Using Eye Patterns
Over any one unit interval, the pseudo-random code generator should produce
a combination of signals. The resulting signals then can be viewed on the
oscilloscope over a one-unit interval; each unit interval should resemble an eye
similar to that shown in Figure 12. For differential transmission, both signals at
the end of the transmission line should be applied to separate amplifiers on the
oscilloscope and then summed using the summation facility on the oscilloscope.
TRACE 1
Clock Input to Random
NRZ Code Generator
Trigger on Clock Input
TRACE 2
Output at Receiver End
of Transmission Line
For Differential Signals,
Use Invert and Trace Add
Function on Inverting and
Noninverting Signals
Figure 12. Eye Pattern Oscilloscope Trace
Taking Measurements From Eye Patterns
Before considering actual measurements, the first key indicator on the
performance of the transmission system can be seen by simply looking at the eye
pattern. The openness of the eye is an indication of the quality of the transmitted
signal and an indication of the noise and distortion tolerance of the system.
Interface Circuits for TIA/EIA-644 (LVDS)
11
For actual measurements, the decision points of the transceiver should be
superimposed on the eye pattern. The vertical distance between the decision
points and the signal trace is an approximate indication of the noise margin of the
system. The horizontal appearance of the eye can be used to determine the
maximum time jitter of the system. The maximum allowable jitter is dependent on
the timing accuracy of the receiving circuitry. A conservative guide used by cable
manufacturers to determine signaling rate versus line-length curves is no more
than 5% jitter. Where percent jitter is defined as the ratio of threshold crossing
skew to unit interval as shown in Figure 13. Jitter is caused by a number of
factors, including signal frequency, noise, and crosstalk. Noise frequency can
modulate the transmitted signal, for example 50-Hz hum or noise from other
low-frequency sources. It also should be noted that threshold misalignment can
cause severe problems with the received signal, reducing the detected pulse
width considerably.
Unit Interval
Receiver
Threshold
Threshold Crossing Skew
% Jitter +
Threshold Crossing Skew
Unit Interval
100%
Figure 13. Measuring Signal Transmission Quality
References
1. Introduction to M-LVDS (TIA/EIA-899), literature number SLLA108
2. Performance of LVDS With Different Cables, literature number SLLA053
3. Low-Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS) Design Notes, literature number
SLLA014
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SLLA038B
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