Texas Instruments | /-3 A High-Efficiency PWM Power Driver (Rev. A) | Datasheet | Texas Instruments /-3 A High-Efficiency PWM Power Driver (Rev. A) Datasheet

Texas Instruments  /-3 A High-Efficiency PWM Power Driver (Rev. A) Datasheet
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SLOS389A – NOVEMBER 2001– REVISED MAY 2002
±
FEATURES
DESCRIPTION
D
D
D
D
D
±3-A Maximum Output Current
The DRV591 is a high-efficiency, high-current power
amplifier ideal for driving a wide variety of
thermoelectric cooler elements in systems powered
from 2.8 V to 5.5 V. PWM operation and low output
stage on-resistance significantly decrease power
dissipation in the amplifier.
D
D
D
D
Two Selectable Switching Frequencies
Low Supply Voltage Operation: 2.8 V to 5.5 V
High Efficiency Generates Less Heat
Over-Current and Thermal Protection
Fault Indicators for Over-Current, Thermal
and Under-Voltage Conditions
The DRV591 is internally protected against thermal and
current overloads. Logic-level fault indicators signal
when the junction temperature has reached
approximately 130°C to allow for system-level
shutdown before the amplifier’s internal thermal
shutdown circuitry activates. The fault indicators also
signal when an over-current event has occurred. If the
over-current circuitry is tripped, the DRV591
automatically resets (see application information
section for more details).
Internal or External Clock Sync
PWM Scheme Optimized for EMI
9×9 mm PowerPAD Quad Flatpack
APPLICATIONS
The PWM switching frequency may be set to 500 kHz
or 100 kHz depending on system requirements. To
eliminate external components, the gain is fixed at
approximately 2.3 V/V.
D Thermoelectric Cooler (TEC) Driver
D Laser Diode Biasing
VDD
OUT+
OUT+
PVDD
PVDD
PVDD
FREQ
INT/EXT
PGND
IN–
PGND
SHUTDOWN
OUT–
10 µH
FAULT1
FAULT0
10 µF
1 µF
To TEC or Laser
Diode Anode
OUT–
Shutdown Control
PGND
IN+
OUT–
1 kΩ
PGND
AREF
OUT–
1 kΩ
COSC
PVDD
1 µF
PGND
PVDD
220 pF
PGND
ROSC
PVDD
DC Control
Voltage
10 µH
OUT+
AGND (Connect to PowerPAD)
FAULT0
120 kΩ
AVDD
FAULT1
1 µF
OUT+
1 µF
10 µF
10 µF
To TEC or Laser
Diode Cathode
Please be aware that an important notice concerning availability, standard warranty, and use in critical applications of Texas Instruments
semiconductor products and disclaimers thereto appears at the end of this data sheet.
PowerPAD is a trademark of Texas Instruments.
! "#$ ! %#&'" ( $) (#" !
" !%$"" ! %$ *$ $! $+! ! #$ ! ! (( , -)
(#" %"$!!. ($! $"$!!'- "'#($ $! . '' %$ $!)
Copyright  2002, Texas Instruments Incorporated
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SLOS389A – NOVEMBER 2001– REVISED MAY 2002
This integrated circuit can be damaged by ESD. Texas
Instruments recommends that all integrated circuits be
handled with appropriate precautions. Failure to observe
proper handling and installation procedures can cause damage.
ESD damage can range from subtle performance degradation to
complete device failure. Precision integrated circuits may be more
susceptible to damage because very small parametric changes could
cause the device not to meet its published specifications.
ORDERING INFORMATION
TA
PowerPAD QUAD FLATPACK
(VFP)
DRV591VFP(1)
–40°C to 85°C
(1) This package is available taped and reeled. To order this
packaging option, add an R suffix to the part number (e.g.,
DRV591VFPR).
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
over operating free-air temperature range unless otherwise noted(1)
Supply voltage, AVDD, PVDD
Input voltage, VI
Output current, IO (FAULT0, FAULT1)
Continuous total power dissipation
DRV591
UNIT
–0.3 to 5.5
V
–0.3 to VDD + 0.3
V
1
mA
See Dissipation Rating Table
Operating free-air temperature range, TA
–40 to 85
°C
Operating junction temperature range, TJ
–40 to 150
°C
Storage temperature range, Tstg
–65 to 165
°C
(1) Stresses beyond those listed under “absolute maximum ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only, and
functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated under “recommended operating conditions” is not
implied. Exposure to absolute-maximum-rated conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
RECOMMENDED OPERATING CONDITIONS
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ÑÑ
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ÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑ
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ÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑ
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Ñ
ÑÑ
ÑÑÑ
Ñ
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ÑÑÑÑÑ
ÑÑÑ
MIN
Supply voltage, AVDD, PVDD
2.8
High-level input voltage, VIH
FREQ, INT/EXT, SHUTDOWN, COSC
Low-level input voltage, VIL
FREQ, INT/EXT, SHUTDOWN, COSC
Operating free-air temperature, TA
PACKAGE
ΘJA(1)
(°C/W)
ΘJC
(°C/W)
TA = 25°C
POWER RATING
VFP
29.4
1.2
4.1 W
(1) This data was taken using 2 oz trace and copper pad that is
soldered directly to a JEDEC standard 4-layer 3 in × 3 in PCB.
2
5.5
2
–40
PACKAGE DISSIPATION RATINGS
MAX UNIT
V
V
0.8
V
85
°C
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SLOS389A – NOVEMBER 2001– REVISED MAY 2002
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
over operating free-air temperature range unless otherwise noted
PARAMETER
TEST CONDITIONS
|VOO|
Output offset voltage (measured differentially)
|IIH|
High-level input current
|IIL|
Low-level input current
Vn
Integrated output noise voltage
VICM
Common mode voltage range
Common-mode
Av
Closed-loop voltage gain
VI = VDD/2,
VDD = 5.5V,
IO = 0 A
VI = VDD
VDD = 5.5V,
f = <1 Hz to 10 kHz
VI = 0 V
MIN
rDS(on)
DS( )
VDD = 5 V
VDD = 3.3 V
UNIT
100
mV
1
µA
1
µA
µV
1.2
3.8
1.2
2.1
2.1
2.34
2.6
60
IO = ±1 A,
IO = ±3 A,
Voltage output (measured differentially)
Drain source on-state
Drain-source
on state resistance
25
60
95
25
65
95
25
80
140
TA = 25°C
25
90
140
Low side
4.87
Sinking 200 µA
External clock frequency range
Iq
Quiescent current
Iq(SD)
Quiescent current in shutdown mode
Output resistance in shutdown
0.1
For 500 kHz operation
225
250
275
For 100 kHz operation
45
50
55
VDD = 5 V, No load or filter
VDD = 3.3 V, No load or filter
2
6.2
12
2
4.6
8
VDD = 5 V, SHUTDOWN = 0.8 V
SHUTDOWN = 0.8 V
0
0.1
50
2
1.7
2.8
1.6
2.6
Input impedance (IN+, IN–)
mΩ
V
kHz
mA
µA
kΩ
Power-off threshold
FAULT0 active
mΩ
A
Power-on threshold
Thermal trip point
V/V
V
4.61
3
Status flag output pins (FAULT0, FAULT1)
Fault active (open drain output)
V
kHz
rds(on) = 65 mΩ, VDD = 5 V
rds(on) = 65 mΩ, VDD = 5 V
High side
VDD = 5 V, IO = 4 A,
TA = 25°C
Low side
High side
VDD = 3.3 V, IO = 4 A,
Maximum continuous current output
ZI
MAX
14
40
Full power bandwidth
VO
TYP
V
V
130
°C
100
kΩ
PIN ASSIGNMENTS
FREQ
INT/EXT
PVDD
PVDD
PVDD
OUT+
OUT+
OUT+
VFP PACKAGE
(TOP VIEW)
32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25
1
24
2
23
22
3
4
PowerPAD
5
21
20
7
19
18
8
17
6
OUT+
PGND
PGND
PGND
PGND
PGND
PGND
OUT–
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
FAULT1
FAULT0
PVDD
PVDD
PVDD
OUT–
OUT–
OUT–
AVDD
AGND
ROSC
COSC
AREF
IN+
IN–
SHUTDOWN
3
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SLOS389A – NOVEMBER 2001– REVISED MAY 2002
Terminal Functions
TERMINAL
I/O
DESCRIPTION
NAME
NO.
AGND
2
AREF
5
O
Connect 1 µF capacitor to ground for AREF voltage filtering
AVDD
1
I
Analog power supply
COSC
4
I
Connect capacitor to ground to set oscillation frequency (220 pF for 500 kHz, 1 nF for 100 kHz) when the internal
oscillator is selected; connect clock signal when an external oscillator is used
FAULT0
10
O
Fault flag 0, low when active open drain output (see application information)
FAULT1
9
O
Fault flag 1, high when active open drain output (see application information)
FREQ
32
I
Selects 500 kHz switching frequency when a TTL logic low is applied to this terminal; selects 100 kHz switching
frequency when a TTL logic high is applied
IN–
7
I
Negative differential input
IN+
6
I
Positive differential input
INT/EXT
31
I
Selects the internal oscillator when a TTL logic high is applied to this terminal; selects the use of an external oscillator when a TTL logic low is applied to this terminal
OUT–
14, 15,
16, 17
O
Negative bridge-tied load (BTL) output (4 pins)
OUT+
24, 25,
26, 27
O
Positive bridge-tied load (BTL) output (4 pins)
PGND
18, 19,
20, 21,
22, 23
PVDD
11, 12,
13, 28,
29, 30
I
High-current power supply (6 pins)
ROSC
3
I
Connect 120-kΩ resistor to AGND to set oscillation frequency (either 500 kHz or 100 kHz). Not needed if an
external clock is used.
SHUTDOWN
8
I
Places the amplifier in shutdown mode when a TTL logic low is applied to this terminal; places the amplifier
in normal operation when a TTL logic high is applied
4
Analog ground
High-current ground (6 pins)
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SLOS389A – NOVEMBER 2001– REVISED MAY 2002
FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM
AVDD
AGND
AVDD
PVDD
IN–
R
+
_
2.34 × R
_
+
Gate
Drive
OUT–
_
+
_
+
+
_
PGND
PVDD
IN+
R
2.34 × R
+
_
OUT+
Gate
Drive
PGND
SHUTDOWN
INT/EXT
FREQ
COSC
ROSC
AREF
TTL
Input
Buffer
Biases
and
References
Ramp
Generator
Start-Up
Protection
Logic
Thermal
OC
Detect
VDDok
FAULT0
FAULT1
5
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SLOS389A – NOVEMBER 2001– REVISED MAY 2002
TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS
TABLE OF GRAPHS
FIGURE
Efficiency
rDS(on)
Iq
PSRR
vs Load resistance
2, 3
vs Supply voltage
4
vs Free-air temperature
5
vs Free-air temperature
6
Supply current
vs Supply voltage
7
Power supply rejection ratio
vs Frequency
Drain-source
Drain
source on-state
on state resistance
8, 9
Closed loop response
10, 11
vs Output voltage
IO
Maximum output current
VIO
Input offset voltage
vs Ambient temperature
Common-mode input voltage
TEST SET-UP FOR GRAPHS
The LC output filter used in Figures 2, 3, 8, and 9 is shown below.
L1
OUT+
C1
RL
L2
OUT–
C2
L1, L2 = 10 µH (part number: CDRH104R, manufacturer: Sumida)
C1, C2 = 10 µF (part number: ECJ-4YB1C106K, manufacturer: Panasonic)
Figure 1. LC Output Filter
6
12
13
14, 15
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SLOS389A – NOVEMBER 2001– REVISED MAY 2002
TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS
EFFICIENCY
vs
LOAD RESISTANCE
EFFICIENCY
vs
LOAD RESISTANCE
100
100
90
90
PO = 2 W
80
70
PO = 0.5 W
60
50
40
50
40
30
20
20
VDD = 5 V
fS = 500 kHz
PO = 0.25 W
60
30
10
VDD = 3.3 V
fS = 500 kHz
10
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
RL – Load Resistance – Ω
9
1
10
Figure 2
IO = 1 A
TA = 25°C
250
Total
150
Low Side
100
High Side
50
0
2.7
3.1
3.5
3.9
4.3
4.7
VDD – Supply Voltage – V
Figure 4
3
4
5
6
7
8
RL – Load Resistance – Ω
9
10
DRAIN-SOURCE ON-STATE RESISTANCE
vs
FREE-AIR TEMPERATURE
rDS(on) – Drain-Source On-State Resistance – mΩ
300
200
2
Figure 3
DRAIN-SOURCE ON-STATE RESISTANCE
vs
SUPPLY VOLTAGE
rDS(on) – Drain-Source On-State Resistance – mΩ
PO = 1 W
70
PO = 0.5 W
Efficiency – %
Efficiency – %
80
PO = 1 W
5.1
5.5
300
250
VDD = 5 V
IO = 1 A
VFP Package
200
Total
150
Low Side
100
High Side
50
0
–40
–15
10
35
60
TA – Free-Air Temperature – °C
85
Figure 5
7
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SLOS389A – NOVEMBER 2001– REVISED MAY 2002
TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS
SUPPLY CURRENT
vs
SUPPLY VOLTAGE
300
10
VDD = 3.3 V
IO = 1 A
VFP Package
250
No Load
9
8
Total
Iq – Supply Current – mA
rDS(on) – Drain-Source On-State Resistance – mΩ
DRAIN-SOURCE ON-STATE RESISTANCE
vs
FREE-AIR TEMPERATURE
200
150
Low Side
100
High Side
7
6
5
4
3
2
50
1
0
–40
–15
10
35
60
0
2.7
85
TA – Free-Air Temperature – °C
3.1
3.5
5.5
–20
VDD = 5 V
fS = 500 kHz
RL = 1 Ω
Vripple = 100 mVpp
PSRR – Power Supply Rejection Ratio – dB
PSRR – Power Supply Rejection Ratio – dB
5.1
POWER SUPPLY REJECTION RATIO
vs
FREQUENCY
–20
–40
–50
–60
–70
100
1k
10k
f – Frequency – Hz
Figure 8
8
4.7
Figure 7
POWER SUPPLY REJECTION RATIO
vs
FREQUENCY
–80
10
4.3
VDD – Supply Voltage – V
Figure 6
–30
3.9
100k
–30
VDD = 3.3 V
fS = 500 kHz
RL = 1 Ω
Vripple = 100 mVpp
–40
–50
–60
–70
–80
10
100
1k
10k
f – Frequency – Hz
Figure 9
100k
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SLOS389A – NOVEMBER 2001– REVISED MAY 2002
TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS
CLOSED LOOP RESPONSE
4
10
Phase
0
–10
3
–30
2
–40
Phase – °
Gain – V/V
–20
Gain
–50
1
–60
VDD = 5 V
No Load
–70
0
10
100
1k
10k
f – Frequency – Hz
–80
100k
Figure 10
CLOSED LOOP RESPONSE
10
4
0
Phase
–10
3
–30
2
–40
Phase – °
Gain – V/V
–20
Gain
–50
1
–60
VDD = 3.3 V
No Load
0
10
100
–70
1k
10k
f – Frequency – Hz
–80
100k
Figure 11
9
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SLOS389A – NOVEMBER 2001– REVISED MAY 2002
TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS
MAXIMUM OUTPUT CURRENT
vs
OUTPUT VOLTAGE
MAXIMUM OUTPUT CURRENT
vs
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE
3.5
3.5
I O – Maximum Output Current – A
I O – Maximum Output Current – A
3
TJ = 100°C
2.5
TJ = 85°C
2
TJ = 125°C
1.5
1
VDD = 5 V
TA = 25°C
VFP Package
0.5
0
0
1
2
3
VO – Output Voltage – V
4
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
TJ ≤ 125°C
VFP Package
0
–40 –30 –20 –10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
TA – Ambient Temperature – °C
5
Figure 12
Figure 13
INPUT OFFSET VOLTAGE
vs
COMMON-MODE INPUT VOLTAGE
INPUT OFFSET VOLTAGE
vs
COMMON-MODE INPUT VOLTAGE
10
19
8
VIO – Input Offset Voltage – mV
VIO – Input Offset Voltage – mV
9
20
VDD = 5 V
No Load
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1.2
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
1.6
2.0
2.4
2.8
3.2
VIC – Common-Mode Input Voltage – V
Figure 14
10
VDD = 3.3 V
No Load
3.6 3.8
10
1.2
1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0
VIC – Common-Mode Input Voltage – V
Figure 15
2.1
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SLOS389A – NOVEMBER 2001– REVISED MAY 2002
APPLICATION INFORMATION
VDD
OUT+
OUT+
OUT+
PVDD
PVDD
To TEC or Laser
Diode Anode
PGND
IN+
PGND
IN–
PGND
SHUTDOWN
OUT–
10 µF
OUT–
PGND
AREF
OUT–
Shutdown Control
COSC
OUT–
1 kΩ
PGND
PVDD
1 kΩ
PGND
ROSC
PVDD
1 µF
10 µH
OUT+
PVDD
220 pF
DC Control
Voltage
1 µF
AGND (Connect to PowerPAD)
FAULT1
120 kΩ
PVDD
FREQ
AVDD
FAULT0
1 µF
INT/EXT
10 µF
10 µH
FAULT1
FAULT0
To TEC or Laser
Diode Cathode
10 µF
1 µF
Figure 16. Typical Application Circuit
OUTPUT FILTER CONSIDERATIONS
TEC element manufacturers provide electrical
specifications for maximum dc current and maximum
output voltage for each particular element. The maximum
ripple current, however, is typically only recommended to
be less than 10% with no reference to the frequency
components of the current. The maximum temperature
differential across the element, which decreases as ripple
current increases, may be calculated with the following
equation:
DT +
1
ǒ1 ) N2Ǔ
DT max
designed for the worst-case conditions during operation,
which is typically when the differential output is at 50% duty
cycle. The following section serves as a starting point for
the design, and any calculations should be confirmed with
a prototype circuit in the lab.
Any filter should always be placed as close as possible to
the DRV591 to reduce EMI.
L
OUT+
C
(1)
TEC
R
L
OUT–
Where:
∆T = actual temperature differential
∆Tmax = maximum temperature differential
(specified by manufacturer)
N = ratio of ripple current to dc current
According to this relationship, a 10% ripple current
reduces the maximum temperature differential by 1%. An
LC network may be used to filter the current flowing to the
TEC to reduce the amount of ripple and, more importantly,
protect the rest of the system from any electromagnetic
interference (EMI).
C
Figure 17. LC Output Filter
OUT+
or
OUT–
L
C
TEC
R
FILTER COMPONENT SELECTION
The LC filter, which may be designed from two different
perspectives, both described below, helps estimate the
overall performance of the system. The filter should be
Figure 18. LC Half-Circuit Equivalent
(for DRV591 Only)
11
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SLOS389A – NOVEMBER 2001– REVISED MAY 2002
LC FILTER IN THE FREQUENCY DOMAIN
The transfer function for a 2nd order low-pass filter (Figures
17 and 18) is shown in equation (2):
H LP(jw) +
1
ǒ Ǔ
– ww
0
2
For relatively small capacitors (less than 22 µF) with very
low equivalent series resistance (ESR, less than 10 mΩ),
such as ceramic capacitors, the following equation (5) may
be used to estimate the ripple voltage on the capacitor due
to the change in charge:
(2)
ǒǓ
f
2
DV + p ǒ1–DǓ o
C
2
fs
jw
) 1 w )1
Q 0
fo +
For the DRV591, the differential output switching
frequency is typically selected to be 500 kHz. The resonant
frequency for the filter is typically chosen to be at least one
order of magnitude lower than the switching frequency.
Equation (2) may then be simplified to give the following
magnitude equation (3). These equations assume the use
of the filter in Figure 17.
fo +
ǒǓ
fs
fo
(3)
1
2p ǸLC
The average TEC element has a resistance of 1.5 Ω, so the
ripple current through the TEC is approximately 3.4 mA. At
the 3-A maximum output current of the DRV591, this 5.4
mA corresponds to 0.11% ripple current, causing less than
0.0001% reduction of the maximum temperature
differential of the TEC element (see equation 1).
LC FILTER IN THE TIME DOMAIN
The ripple current of an inductor may be calculated using
equation (4):
ǒVO–V TECǓDTs
(4)
L
D + duty cycle (0.5 worst case)
T s + 1ńfs + 1ń500 kHz
For VO = 5 V, VTEC = 2.5 V, and L = 10 µH, the inductor
ripple current is 250 mA. To calculate how much of that
ripple current flows through the TEC element, however,
the properties of the filter capacitor must be considered.
1
2p ǸLC
For larger capacitors (greater than 22 µF) with relatively
high ESR (greater than 100 mΩ), such as electrolytic
capacitors, the ESR dominates over the chargingdischarging of the capacitor. The following simple equation
(6) may be used to estimate the ripple voltage:
DV
If L=10 µH and C=10 µF, the cutoff frequency is 15.9 kHz,
which corresponds to –60 dB of attenuation at the 500 kHz
switching frequency. For VDD = 5 V, the amount of ripple
voltage at the TEC element is approximately 5 mV.
12
TEC
For L = 10 µH and C = 10 µF, the cutoff frequency, fo, is 15.9
kHz. For worst case duty cycle of 0.5 and VTEC=2.5 V, the
ripple voltage on the capacitors is 6.2 mV. The ripple
current may be calculated by dividing the ripple voltage by
the TEC resistance of 1.5 Ω, resulting in a ripple current
through the TEC element of 4.1 mA. Note that this is
similar to the value calculated using the frequency domain
approach.
f s + 500 kHz (DRV591 switching frequency)
DI +
L
V
f s + 500 kHz
w + DRV591 switching frequency
+ –40 log
(5)
D + duty cycle
w0 + 1
ǸLC
Q + quality factor
ŤH LPŤdB
2
C
+ DIL
R
(6)
ESR
DI L + inductor ripple current
R
ESR
+ filter capacitor ESR
For a 100 µF electrolytic capacitor, an ESR of 0.1 Ω is
common. If the 10 µH inductor is used, delivering 250 mA
of ripple current to the capacitor (as calculated above),
then the ripple voltage is 25 mV. This is over ten times that
of the 10 µF ceramic capacitor, as ceramic capacitors
typically have negligible ESR.
SWITCHING FREQUENCY CONFIGURATION:
OSCILLATOR COMPONENTS ROSC AND
COSC AND FREQ OPERATION
The onboard ramp generator requires an external resistor
and capacitor to set the oscillation frequency. The
frequency may be either 500 kHz or 100 kHz by selecting
the proper capacitor value and by holding the FREQ pin
either low (500 kHz) or high (100 kHz). Table 1 shows the
values required and FREQ pin configuration for each
switching frequency.
Table 1. Frequency Configuration Options
SWITCHING
FREQUENCY
ROSC
COSC
FREQ
500 kHz
120 kΩ
220 pF
LOW (GND)
100 kHz
120 kΩ
1 nF
HIGH (VDD)
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SLOS389A – NOVEMBER 2001– REVISED MAY 2002
For proper operation, the resistor ROSC should have 1%
tolerance while capacitor COSC should be a ceramic type
with 10% tolerance. Both components should be grounded
to AGND, which should be connected to PGND at a single
point, typically where power and ground are physically
connected to the printed-circuit board.
EXTERNAL CLOCKING OPERATION
To synchronize the switching to an external clock signal,
pull the INT/EXT terminal low, and drive the clock signal
into the COSC terminal. This clock signal must be from
10% to 90% duty cycle and meet the voltage requirements
specified in the electrical specifications table. Since the
DRV591 includes an internal frequency doubler, the
external clock signal must be approximately 250 kHz.
Deviations from the 250 kHz clock frequency are allowed
and are specified in the electrical characteristic table. The
resistor connected from ROSC to ground may be omitted
from the circuit in this mode of operation—the source is
disconnected internally.
INPUT CONFIGURATION: DIFFERENTIAL
AND SINGLE-ENDED
If a differential input is used, it should be biased around the
midrail of the DRV591 and must not exceed the
common-mode input range of the input stage (see the
operating characteristics at the beginning of the data
sheet).
The most common configuration employs a single-ended
input. The unused input should be tied to VDD/2, which
may be simply accomplished with a resistive voltage
divider. For the best performance, the resistor values
chosen should be at least 100 times lower than the input
resistance of the DRV591. This prevents the bias voltage
at the unused input from shifting when the signal input is
applied. A small ceramic capacitor should also be placed
from the input to ground to filter noise and keep the voltage
stable. An op amp configured as a buffer may also be used
to set the voltage at the unused input.
FIXED INTERNAL GAIN
The differential output voltage may be calculated using
equation (7):
V
O
+V
ǒ
Ǔ
–V
+ A v V IN)–V IN–
OUT) OUT–
(7)
AV is the voltage gain, which is fixed internally at 2.34 V/V.
The maximum and minimum ratings are provided in the
electrical specification table at the beginning of the data
sheet.
POWER SUPPLY DECOUPLING
To reduce the effects of high-frequency transients or
spikes, a small ceramic capacitor, typically 0.1 µF to 1 µF,
should be placed as close to each set of PVDD pins of the
DRV591 as possible. For bulk decoupling, a 10 µF to 100
µF tantalum or aluminum electrolytic capacitor should be
placed relatively close to the DRV591.
AREF CAPACITOR
The AREF terminal is the output of an internal mid-rail
voltage regulator used for the onboard oscillator and ramp
generator. The regulator may not be used to provide power
to any additional circuitry. A 1 µF ceramic capacitor must
be connected from AREF to AGND for stability (see
oscillator components above for AGND connection
information).
SHUTDOWN OPERATION
The DRV591 includes a shutdown mode that disables the
outputs and places the device in a low supply current state.
The SHUTDOWN pin may be controlled with a TTL logic
signal. When SHUTDOWN is held high, the device
operates normally. When SHUTDOWN is held low, the
device is placed in shutdown. The SHUTDOWN pin must
not be left floating. If the shutdown feature is unused, the
pin may be connected to VDD.
FAULT REPORTING
The DRV591 includes circuitry to sense three faults:
D Overcurrent
D Undervoltage
D Overtemperature
These three fault conditions are decoded via the FAULT1
and FAULT0 terminals. Internally, these are open-drain
outputs, so an external pull-up resistor of 5 kΩ or greater
is required.
Table 2. Fault Indicators
FAULT1
FAULT0
0
0
Overcurrent
0
1
Undervoltage
1
0
Overtemperature
1
1
Normal operation
The over-current fault is reported when the output current
exceeds four amps. As soon as the condition is sensed,
the over-current fault is set and the outputs go into a
high-impedance state for approximately 3 µs to 5 µs
(500 kHz operation). After 3 µs to 5 µs, the outputs are
re-enabled. If the over-current condition has ended, the
fault is cleared and the device resumes normal operation.
If the over-current condition still exists, the above
sequence repeats.
The under-voltage fault is reported when the operating
voltage is reduced below 2.8 V. This fault is not latched, so
as soon as the power-supply recovers, the fault is cleared
and normal operation resumes. During the under-voltage
condition, the outputs go into a high-impedance state
to prevent over-dissipation due to increased rDS(on).
13
www.ti.com
SLOS389A – NOVEMBER 2001– REVISED MAY 2002
The over-temperature fault is reported when the junction
temperature exceeds 130°C. The device continues
operating normally until the junction temperature reaches
190°C, at which point the IC is disabled to prevent
permanent damage from occurring. The system’s
controller must reduce the power demanded from the
DRV591 once the over-temperature flag is set, or else the
device switches off when it reaches 190°C. This fault is not
latched; once the junction temperature drops below
130°C, the fault is cleared, and normal operation resumes.
used to route the currents. Wide traces (100 mils)
should be used for PGND while narrow traces (15
mils) should be used for AGND.
2.
Power supply decoupling. A small 0.1 µF to 1 µF
ceramic capacitor should be placed as close to each
set of PVDD pins as possible, connecting from PVDD
to PGND. A 0.1 µF to 1 µF ceramic capacitor should
also be placed close to the AVDD pin, connecting from
AVDD to AGND. A bulk decoupling capacitor of at
least 10 µF, preferably ceramic, should be placed
close to the DRV591, from PVDD to PGND. If power
supply lines are long, additional decoupling may be
required.
3.
Power and output traces. The power and output
traces should be sized to handle the desired
maximum output current. The output traces should be
kept as short as possible to reduce EMI, i.e., the
output filter should be placed as close to the DRV591
outputs as possible.
4.
PowerPAD. The DRV591 in the Quad Flatpack
package uses TI’s PowerPAD technology to enhance
the thermal performance. The PowerPAD is
physically connected to the substrate of the DRV591
silicon, which is connected to AGND. The PowerPAD
ground connection should therefore be kept separate
from PGND as described above. The pad underneath
the AGND pin may be connected underneath the
device to the PowerPAD ground connection for ease
of routing. For additional information on PowerPAD
PCB layout, refer to the PowerPAD Thermally
Enhanced Package application note, TI literature
number SLMA002.
5.
Thermal performance. For proper thermal
performance, the PowerPAD must be soldered down
to a thermal land, as described in the PowerPAD
Thermally Enhanced Package application note, TI
literature number SLMA002. In addition, at high
current levels (greater than 2 A) or high ambient
temperatures (greater than 25°C), an internal plane
may be used for heat sinking. The vias under the
PowerPAD should make a solid connection, and the
plane should not be tied to ground except through the
PowerPAD connection, as described above.
POWER DISSIPATION AND MAXIMUM
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE
Though the DRV591 is much more efficient than traditional
linear solutions, the power drop across the on-resistance
of the output transistors does generate some heat in the
package, which may be calculated as shown in
equation (8):
P
DISS
ǒ OUTǓ
+ I
(8)
2
r
DS(on), total
For example, at the maximum output current of 3 A through
a total on-resistance of 130 mΩ (at TJ = 25°C), the power
dissipated in the package is 1.17 W.
Calculate the maximum ambient temperature using
equation (9):
ǒ
T A + TJ * θ JA
P
DISS
Ǔ
(9)
PRINTED-CIRCUIT BOARD (PCB) LAYOUT
CONSIDERATIONS
Since the DRV591 is a high-current switching device, a
few guidelines for the layout of the printed-circuit board
(PCB) must be considered:
1.
14
Grounding. Analog ground (AGND) and power
ground (PGND) must be kept separated, ideally back
to where the power supply physically connects to the
PCB, minimally back to the bulk decoupling capacitor
(10 µF ceramic minimum). Furthermore, the
PowerPAD ground connection should be made to
AGND, not PGND. Ground planes are not
recommended for AGND or PGND, traces should be
PACKAGE OPTION ADDENDUM
www.ti.com
13-May-2014
PACKAGING INFORMATION
Orderable Device
Status
(1)
Package Type Package Pins Package
Drawing
Qty
Eco Plan
Lead/Ball Finish
MSL Peak Temp
(2)
(6)
(3)
Op Temp (°C)
Device Marking
(4/5)
DRV591VFP
ACTIVE
HLQFP
VFP
32
250
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-3-260C-168 HR
-40 to 85
DRV591
DRV591VFPG4
ACTIVE
HLQFP
VFP
32
250
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-3-260C-168 HR
-40 to 85
DRV591
DRV591VFPR
ACTIVE
HLQFP
VFP
32
1000
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-3-260C-168 HR
DRV591
DRV591VFPRG4
ACTIVE
HLQFP
VFP
32
1000
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-3-260C-168 HR
DRV591
(1)
The marketing status values are defined as follows:
ACTIVE: Product device recommended for new designs.
LIFEBUY: TI has announced that the device will be discontinued, and a lifetime-buy period is in effect.
NRND: Not recommended for new designs. Device is in production to support existing customers, but TI does not recommend using this part in a new design.
PREVIEW: Device has been announced but is not in production. Samples may or may not be available.
OBSOLETE: TI has discontinued the production of the device.
(2)
Eco Plan - The planned eco-friendly classification: Pb-Free (RoHS), Pb-Free (RoHS Exempt), or Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) - please check http://www.ti.com/productcontent for the latest availability
information and additional product content details.
TBD: The Pb-Free/Green conversion plan has not been defined.
Pb-Free (RoHS): TI's terms "Lead-Free" or "Pb-Free" mean semiconductor products that are compatible with the current RoHS requirements for all 6 substances, including the requirement that
lead not exceed 0.1% by weight in homogeneous materials. Where designed to be soldered at high temperatures, TI Pb-Free products are suitable for use in specified lead-free processes.
Pb-Free (RoHS Exempt): This component has a RoHS exemption for either 1) lead-based flip-chip solder bumps used between the die and package, or 2) lead-based die adhesive used between
the die and leadframe. The component is otherwise considered Pb-Free (RoHS compatible) as defined above.
Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br): TI defines "Green" to mean Pb-Free (RoHS compatible), and free of Bromine (Br) and Antimony (Sb) based flame retardants (Br or Sb do not exceed 0.1% by weight
in homogeneous material)
(3)
MSL, Peak Temp. - The Moisture Sensitivity Level rating according to the JEDEC industry standard classifications, and peak solder temperature.
(4)
There may be additional marking, which relates to the logo, the lot trace code information, or the environmental category on the device.
(5)
Multiple Device Markings will be inside parentheses. Only one Device Marking contained in parentheses and separated by a "~" will appear on a device. If a line is indented then it is a continuation
of the previous line and the two combined represent the entire Device Marking for that device.
(6)
Lead/Ball Finish - Orderable Devices may have multiple material finish options. Finish options are separated by a vertical ruled line. Lead/Ball Finish values may wrap to two lines if the finish
value exceeds the maximum column width.
Addendum-Page 1
Samples
PACKAGE OPTION ADDENDUM
www.ti.com
13-May-2014
Important Information and Disclaimer:The information provided on this page represents TI's knowledge and belief as of the date that it is provided. TI bases its knowledge and belief on information
provided by third parties, and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of such information. Efforts are underway to better integrate information from third parties. TI has taken and
continues to take reasonable steps to provide representative and accurate information but may not have conducted destructive testing or chemical analysis on incoming materials and chemicals.
TI and TI suppliers consider certain information to be proprietary, and thus CAS numbers and other limited information may not be available for release.
In no event shall TI's liability arising out of such information exceed the total purchase price of the TI part(s) at issue in this document sold by TI to Customer on an annual basis.
Addendum-Page 2
PACKAGE MATERIALS INFORMATION
www.ti.com
31-May-2019
TAPE AND REEL INFORMATION
*All dimensions are nominal
Device
DRV591VFPR
Package Package Pins
Type Drawing
HLQFP
VFP
32
SPQ
Reel
Reel
A0
Diameter Width (mm)
(mm) W1 (mm)
1000
330.0
16.4
Pack Materials-Page 1
9.6
B0
(mm)
K0
(mm)
P1
(mm)
W
Pin1
(mm) Quadrant
9.6
1.9
12.0
16.0
Q2
PACKAGE MATERIALS INFORMATION
www.ti.com
31-May-2019
*All dimensions are nominal
Device
Package Type
Package Drawing
Pins
SPQ
Length (mm)
Width (mm)
Height (mm)
DRV591VFPR
HLQFP
VFP
32
1000
350.0
350.0
43.0
Pack Materials-Page 2
GENERIC PACKAGE VIEW
VFP 32
PowerPAD T M LQFP - 1.6 mm max height
PLASTIC QUAD FLATPACK
Images above are just a representation of the package family, actual package may vary.
Refer to the product data sheet for package details.
4200791/D
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