Texas Instruments | Common Sample Rate Selection For TLV320AIC12/13/14/15/20/21/24/25 Codecs | Application notes | Texas Instruments Common Sample Rate Selection For TLV320AIC12/13/14/15/20/21/24/25 Codecs Application notes

Texas Instruments Common Sample Rate Selection For TLV320AIC12/13/14/15/20/21/24/25 Codecs Application notes
Application Report
SLAA009 - April 2003
Common Sample Rate Selection for TLV320AIC12 /13 /14
/15 /20 /21 /24 /25 Codecs
Wendy X. Fang, Application Engineer
HIgh Performance Analog Group
ABSTRACT
This application report intends to help TI voice-band codec users to quickly and properly
select the commonly used master clock frequency (MCLK) and the corresponding frequency
dividers, M, N, and P, which is the first step for utilizing TI’s TLV320AIC12 /13 /14 /15 /20 /21
/24 /25 voice-band codecs.
Contents
1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2
Select Codec’s Master Clock Rate: fMCLK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1 Select fMCLK for Single Sample Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 Select fMCLK for Multiple Sample Rates Within a Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3 Select fMCLK for General Multiple Sample Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3
Select Sample Rate Dividers: M, N, and P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.1 Select Dividers Under Selectable fMCLK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.2 Select Dividers Under Nonselectable fMCLK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2
3
4
4
List of Tables
1 Considered Sample Frequencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2 fMCLK for Single Sample Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3 fMCLK for Multiple Sample Rates Within A Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4 fMCLK for 4000/8000/24000/11025/22050 Hz Sample Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5 fMCLK for Groups 1 and 2 Sample Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6 Frequency Dividers (M, N, and P) Selection for Group 1 Sample Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7 Frequency Dividers (M, N, and P) Selection for Group 2 Sample Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8 Frequency Dividers (M, N, and P) Selection for Group 3 Sample Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9 Frequency Dividers (M, N, and P) Selection for Multi-Group Sample Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10 Select M, N, and P With Given 50/80/100 MHz MCLK Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
3
4
5
5
6
6
7
7
8
Trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
1
SLAA009
1
Introduction
When applying TI’s voice-band codec, such as TLV320AIC12, TLV320AIC13, TLV320AIC14,
TLV320AIC15, TLV320AIC20, TLV320AIC21, TLV320AIC24, or TLV320AIC25, users are
required to select the proper master clock, denoted by MCLK. The three corresponding
frequency dividers, named M, N, and P, are selected to set the codec(s) to the desired ADC and
DAC sample rate(s), up to 26 kHz, for their applications.
The relationship among the sample rate (fFS), the MCLK frequency (fMCLK), and the dividers are
expressed by the equation:
f
FS
+
f
(16
MCLK
M N
(1)
P)
where fFS is equal to or slower than 26 kHz; fMCLK is equal or slower than 100 MHz; and M, N,
and P are integers and M = 1, 2, … 128, N = 1, 2, … 16, and P = 1, 2, … 8. There are a couple
of restrictions and requirements for the M, N, and P selections, depending on the codec’s modes
and operation conditions, summarized as the followings:
1. If the codec is running at the fine sampling mode, i.e.: P is not equal to 8, then the
following equation also must be satisfied:
f
10 MHz v MCLK v 25 MHz
P
2. Under the turbo mode of the codec, P should not be equal to 1.
(2)
3. If the codec’s internal FIR/IIR is bypassed, M is a multiple of 4, or M divides by 4.
Refer to the corresponding data sheet for details.
Providing several fast reference tables, this application report selected the MCLK frequency and
the M, N, P values for the most commonly used voice–band sample frequencies, listed in
Table 1. For convenience, these sample rates are grouped.
Table 1. Considered Sample Frequencies
GROUP
SAMPLE FREQUENCY
4000 Hz
8000 Hz
Group 1
Grou
16000 Hz
12000 Hz
Group 2
24000 Hz
11025 Hz
Group 3
2
22050 Hz
Select Codec’s Master Clock Rate: fMCLK
To select the codec’s master clock fMCLK, use equation 1 under the given or desired sample rate:
f
MCLK
+f
FS
16
M
N
P
(3)
Where the fFS denotes the given sample rate, and the integers M, N, and P are the frequency
dividers. Since there are so many choices of the MCLK frequency and the dividers for a given
fFS, this report presents some examples for the user’s convenience.
2
Common Sample Rate Selection for TLV320AIC12 /13 /14 /15 /20 /21 /24 /25 Codecs
SLAA009
2.1
Select fMCLK for Single Sample Rate
If the codec is expected to operate at one fixed sample frequency, we can obtain the accurate
sample rate by selecting the prospected MCLK frequency fMCLK from equation 3, for the desired
sample rate fFS. Depending on the choice on M, N, P, which is discussed later, the fMCLK can be
found. However using the proper fMCLK makes the M, N, P selection much simpler and more
accurate.
It is not necessary but safer to select fMCLK at the range of10 MHz to 100 MHz, and being
integer–dividable by (16 x 8 x 4), so that the codec(s) can operate at all possible codec
operation modes and working conditions whenever needed. Where, the integer 16 is used to
composite the 16 in equation 1; the 8 is needed for selecting the coarse (vs the fine) sample
frequency; and the 4 is needed when the FIR or IIR is bypassed.
Table 2 presents the equations that can be used to select the proper MCLK frequency fMCLK, for
these common used voice-band sample rates listed in Table 1.
Table 2. fMCLK for Single Sample Frequency
SAMPLE FREQUENCY
4000 Hz
8000 Hz
16000 Hz
12000 Hz
24000 Hz
MCLK FREQUENCY – fMCLK – EXPRESSION
fMCLK = 4000 × (16 × 8 × 4) × K = 2.048 MHz × K,
for K = 5, 6, 7, 8, … , 47, 48
fMCLK = 8000 × (16 × 8 × 4) × K = 4.096 MHz × K,
for K = 3, 4, 5, … , 23, 24
fMCLK = 16000 × (16 × 8 × 4) × K = 8.192 MHz × K,
for K = 2, 3, 4, … , 11, 12
MCLK FREQUENCY – fMCLK
10.24 MHz or
12.288 MHz or
14.336 MHz or
16.384 MHz or
…
96.256 MHz or 98.304 MHz
12.288 MHz or
16.384 MHz or
20.48 MHz or
…
94.208 MHz or 98.304 MHz
16.384 MHz or
24.576 MHz or
32.768 MHz or
…
90.112 MHz or 98.304 MHz
fMCLK = 12000 × (16 × 8 × 4) × K = 6.144 MHz × K,
for K = 2, 3, 4, … , 15, 16
12.288 MHz or
18.432 MHz or
24.576 MHz or
…
92.16 MHz or 98.304 MHz
fMCLK = 24000 × (16 × 8 × 4) × K = 12.288 MHz × K,
for K = 1, 2, 3, … , 7, 8
12.288 MHz or
24.576 MHz or
36.864 MHz or
…
86.016 MHz or 98.304 MHz
Common Sample Rate Selection for TLV320AIC12 /13 /14 /15 /20 /21 /24 /25 Codecs
3
SLAA009
Table 2. fMCLK for Single Sample Frequency (Continued)
SAMPLE FREQUENCY
2.2
MCLK FREQUENCY – fMCLK – EXPRESSION
11025 Hz
fMCLK = 11025 × (16 × 8 × 4) × K = 5.6448 MHz × K,
for K = 2, 3, 4, … , 16, 17
22050 Hz
fMCLK = 22050 × (16 × 8 × 4) × K = 11.2896 MHz × K,
for K = 1, 2, 3, … , 7, 8
MCLK FREQUENCY – fMCLK
11.2896 MHz or
16.9344 MHz or
22.5792 MHz or
…
90.3168 MHz or 95.9616 MHz
11.2896 MHz or
22.5792 MHz or
33.8688 MHz or
…
79.0272 MHz or 90.3168 MHz
Select fMCLK for Multiple Sample Rates Within a Group
Using the Table 2, the MCLK frequency for a given sample rate is obtained. There are many
possible choices. If more than one sample rate is required for the codec(s) to operate, many of
the frequencies for the MCLK may no longer be good. However, if the several desired sample
rates are in the same group, the MCLK selection can be very simple. Table 3 lists the MCLK
frequencies for multiple sample rates within a group.
Table 3. fMCLK for Multiple Sample Rates Within A Group
SAMPLE FREQUENCY
4000 Hz
8000 Hz
and
16000 Hz
12000 Hz
24000 Hz
11025 Hz
22050 Hz
2.3
MCLK FREQUENCY EXPRESSION
fMCLK = 16000 × (16 × 8 × 4) × K = 8.192 MHz × K,
for K = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, … , 11, 12
fMCLK = 24000 × (16 × 8 × 4) × K = 12.288 MHz × K,
for K = 1, 2, 3, 4, … , 7, 8
fMCLK = 22050 × (16 × 8 × 4) × K = 11.2896 MHz × K,
for K = 1, 2, 3, 4, … , 7, 8
MCLK FREQUENCY – fMCLK
16.384 MHz or
24.576 MHz or
32.768 MHz or
40.96 MHz or
49.152 MHz or
…
90.112 MHz or 98.304 MHz
12.288 MHz or
24.576 MHz or
36.864 MHz or
49.152 MHz or
…
86.016 MHz or 98.304 MHz
11.2896 MHz or
22.5792 MHz or
33.8688 MHz or
45.1584 MHz or
…
79.0272 MHz or 90.3168 MHz
Select fMCLK for General Multiple Sample Rates
When the desired sample rate fFS needs to be changed in different groups, the possible choices
for the fMCLK may be restricted for getting an fMCLK that is integer-dividable for all of the
fFS × 16 × 8 × 4.
Tables 4 to 5 give some of the MCLK frequencies that are used for the fMCLK selection under the
multiple common sample rates conditions. Note that in Table 4, there is not a single fMCLK that is
integer-dividable for all of the fFS × 16 × 8 × 4.
4
Common Sample Rate Selection for TLV320AIC12 /13 /14 /15 /20 /21 /24 /25 Codecs
SLAA009
Table 4. fMCLK for 4000/8000/24000/11025/22050 Hz Sample Rates
SAMPLE FREQUENCY
fFS
CORRESPONDING MCLK FREQUENCY (see Note 1)
fMCLK
4000 Hz
8000 Hz
12000 Hz
528 000 × (16) (see Note 1) = 56
448 MHz (see Note 2)
fMCLK = 3
3,528,000
56.448
24000 Hz
11025 Hz
22050 Hz
NOTES: 1. There is only one MCLK frequency, i.e.: 56.448 MHz, that is used for all 6 of the sample rates in Table 4 with proper integers M, N,
and P, which are discussed in the next section.
2. MCLK at 56.448 MHz for the Codec(s) may be not suitable for some of the modes. For example: at fFS = 8 kHz, set
M = 21, N = 7 and P = 3 when fMCLK = 56.448 MHz (since 56.448 M/(16 × 21 × 7 × 3) = 8K). Where P = 3 and the codec(s) is not
at the coarse mode.
Table 5. fMCLK for Groups 1 and 2 Sample Rates
SAMPLE FREQUENCY
MCLK FREQUENCY EXPRESSION
SELECTED fMCLK
4000 Hz
fMCLK = 1000 × 4 × 3 × 2 × 2 × ((16 × 8 × 4)) × K
= 48000 × (16 × 8 × 4) × K
= 24
24.576
576 MHz × K
for K = 1, 2, 3, 4
8000 Hz
16000 Hz
12000 Hz
24.576 MHz or
49 152 MHz
49.152
MH or
73 728 MHz or
73.728
98.304 MHz
24000 Hz
3
Select Sample Rate Dividers: M, N, and P
After the MCLK frequency is selected or given, the next step is to select the three frequency
dividers, or the M, N, and P as the data sheet named, so as to get the desired codec ADC/DAC
sample rate. By default, these dividers were preset at: M=16, N=6, and P=8 (coarse sampling) in
the TLV320AIC12/13/14/15/20/21/24/25 codecs at the power up. Therefore, the codec’s
power–up default sample rate is always known, given the MCLK frequency fMCLK.
The sample rates can be changed by software based on the application requirement after the
power up or on-the-fly, through configuring or reconfiguring the dividers: M, N, and/or P, which
are in the codec’s control register 4. Refer to the corresponding data sheet for details.
The parameter P, P = 1, 2, 3, …, 8, is related to the codec device’s internal digital phase-lock
loop (DPLL). When P=8 the DPLL is disabled and the device is working at the coarse sampling
mode. Otherwise, for P=1 to 7, the DPLL is enabled and the codec is working in the fine
sampling mode. For the current reversion of TLV320AIC12 /13 /14 /15 /20 /21 /24 /25 codecs,
the DPLL may not work properly if P=1 under the turbo mode. To be safe, use the coarse
sample mode and avoid using P=1 if the codec(s) are in the turbo mode.
With the known fMCLK and fFS, the product of M × N × P can be obtained, by equation 1 or:
M
N
P+f
ńf ń16
MCLK FS
(4)
Selecting the M, N, and P individually can be whatever you prefer, as long as:
1. Each of them is an integer at its range (M=1 to 128, N=1 to 16, and P = 1 to 8).
2. If at the fine sampling mode, P should satisfy equation 2.
Common Sample Rate Selection for TLV320AIC12 /13 /14 /15 /20 /21 /24 /25 Codecs
5
SLAA009
3. Do not use P=1 at the turbo mode.
4. If the FIR/IIR is bypassed, M is a multiple of 4 or M divides by 4.
3.1
Select Dividers Under Selectable fMCLK
The following Tables 6, 7, 8, and 9 list the M, N, and P for the Table 1 common sample
frequencies, where the fMCLK has been selected or selectable so that the theoretically exact
sample rate fFS can be obtained. There are many other MCLK frequencies and M, N, and P
values that may work, these tables show only some examples.
Table 6. Frequency Dividers (M, N, and P) Selection for Group 1 Sample Rates
SAMPLE FREQUENCY, fFS
MASTER CLOCK
FREQUENCY
fMCLK
M
N
P
M
N
P
M
N
P
16.384 MHz
16
2
8
16
1
8
4
2
8
24.576 MHz
16
3
8
8
3
8
4
3
8
32.768 MHz
16
4
8
16
2
8
16
1
8
40.960 MHz
16
5
8
8
5
8
4
5
8
49.152 MHz
16
6
8
16
3
8
4
6
8
56.448 MHz
42
7
3
21
7
3
57.344 MHz
16
7
8
8
7
8
4
7
8
65.536 MHz
16
8
8
16
4
8
16
2
8
73.728 MHz
16
9
8
8
9
8
4
9
8
81.920 MHz
16
10
8
16
5
8
4
10
8
90.112 MHz
16
11
8
8
11
8
4
11
8
98.304 MHz
16
12
8
16
6
8
16
3
8
4 kHz
8 kHz
16 kHz
Table 7. Frequency Dividers (M, N, and P) Selection for Group 2 Sample Rates
MASTER CLOCK
FREQUENCY
fMCLK
6
SAMPLE FREQUENCY fFS
12 kHz
24 kHz
M
N
P
M
N
P
12.288 MHz
8
1
8
4
1
8
24.576 MHz
16
1
8
4
2
8
36.864 MHz
8
3
8
4
3
8
49.152 MHz
16
2
8
4
4
8
56.448 MHz
14
7
3
7
7
3
61.440 MHz
8
5
8
4
5
8
73.728 MHz
16
3
8
4
6
8
86.016 MHz
8
7
8
4
7
8
98.304 MHz
16
4
8
16
2
8
Common Sample Rate Selection for TLV320AIC12 /13 /14 /15 /20 /21 /24 /25 Codecs
SLAA009
Table 8. Frequency Dividers (M, N, and P) Selection for Group 3 Sample Rates
SAMPLE FREQUENCY fFS
MASTER CLOCK
FREQUENCY
fMCLK
M
N
P
M
N
P
11.2896 MHz
8
1
8
4
1
8
22.5792 MHz
16
1
8
4
2
8
33.8688 MHz
8
3
8
4
3
8
45.1584 MHz
16
2
8
16
1
8
56.4880 MHz
8
5
8
4
5
8
67.7376 MHz
16
3
8
4
6
8
79.0272 MHz
8
7
8
4
7
8
90.3168 MHz
16
4
8
16
2
8
11.025 kHz
22.050 kHz
Table 9. Frequency Dividers (M, N, and P) Selection for
Multi-Group Sample Rates
SAMPLE FREQUENCY
FFS
3.2
MCLK FREQUENCY
fMCLK = 56.448 MHz
M
N
P
4000 Hz
42
7
3
8000 Hz
21
7
3
12000 Hz
14
7
3
24000 Hz
7
7
3
11025 Hz
8
5
8
22050 Hz
4
5
8
Select Dividers Under Nonselectable fMCLK
In real-world applications the MCLK frequency fMCLK is not always selectable. Or for multiple
sample rates systems, one fixed fMCLK can not divide (16 × fFS) for all of the multiple sample
rates. As a result, the fMCLK / fFS/16 = M × N × P, in equation 4, is often not an integer.
Example: Noninteger Product of M, N, and P. In Table 6, the integers M, N, and P do not
exist for fFS = 16 kHz if the MCLK frequency fMCLK is selected as 56.448 MHz, since
M × N × P = fMCLK /fFS /16 = 56448000 /16000 /16 = 220.5 is not an integer.
Certainly, the noninteger product can always be rounded to its nearest integer(s). In the above
example, we can approximate M × N × P to 220. However, the actual sample rate is not 16 kHz
but 16.036 kHz, which is about 0.23% off the desired. Note that, in the above example, we
should not use M x N x P = 221. Only integers 1, 13, and 17 can divide 221, but 13 and 17 are
outside the range of P (P = 1, 2, …, 8), which leaves one choice: P = 1. If P = 1, since fMCLK =
56.488 MHz, the requirement for fine sample mode or equation 2 is not satisfied.
Table 10 selected some common M, N, P dividers, under the fixed MCLK frequencies 50, 80, or
100 MHz, which are the common clock frequencies when using the clock from TI’s
TMS320C5402 or C5416 DSPs or their DSKs.
Common Sample Rate Selection for TLV320AIC12 /13 /14 /15 /20 /21 /24 /25 Codecs
7
SLAA009
Table 10. Select M, N, and P With Given 50/80/100 MHz MCLK Frequency
SAMPLE
FREQUENCY
fMCLK
4000 Hz
8000 Hz
16000 Hz
12000 Hz
24000 Hz
11025 Hz
22050 Hz
4
fMCLK = 50 MHz
fMCLK = 80 MHz
fMCLK = 100 MHz
M
N
P
Actual fFS
M
N
P
Actual fFS
M
N
P
Actual fFS
16
6
8
4069 Hz
52
3
8
4006 Hz
32
6
8
4096 Hz
14
7
8
3986 Hz
12
13
8
4006 Hz
28
7
8
3986 Hz
52
5
3
4006 Hz
50
5
5
4000 Hz
52
5
6
4006 Hz
16
3
8
8138 Hz
13
6
8
8013 Hz
16
6
8
8138 Hz
7
7
8
7972 Hz
79
1
8
7912 Hz
14
7
8
7972 Hz
26
5
3
8013 Hz
25
5
5
8000 Hz
26
5
6
8013 Hz
4
6
8
16276 Hz
13
3
8
16026 Hz
8
6
8
16276 Hz
5
5
8
15625 Hz
20
2
8
15625 Hz
10
5
8
15625 Hz
13
5
3
16026 Hz
13
6
4
16026 Hz
13
5
6
16026 Hz
16
2
8
12207 Hz
4
13
8
12019 Hz
16
4
8
12207 Hz
11
3
8
11837 Hz
12
7
5
11904 Hz
11
6
8
11837 Hz
13
5
4
12019 Hz
13
4
8
12019 Hz
52
2
5
12019 Hz
16
1
8
24414 Hz
13
2
8
24038 Hz
16
2
8
24414 Hz
17
1
8
22978 Hz
6
7
5
23810 Hz
33
1
8
23674 Hz
13
2
5
24038 Hz
4
13
4
24038 Hz
13
4
5
24038 Hz
7
5
8
11161 Hz
8
7
8
11161 Hz
14
5
8
11161 Hz
4
9
8
10851 Hz
19
3
8
10965 Hz
71
1
8
11004 Hz
47
2
3
11082 Hz
91
1
5
10989 Hz
9
9
7
11023 Hz
17
1
8
22978 Hz
4
7
8
22321 Hz
7
5
8
22321 Hz
3
6
8
21701 Hz
29
1
8
21552 Hz
4
9
8
21701 Hz
71
1
2
22007 Hz
57
1
4
21930 Hz
71
1
4
22007 Hz
References
1. TLV320AIC12, Low Power CMOS, 16-Bit, 26-KSPS CODEC With Smart Time Division
Multiplexed (SMARTDM) Serial Port, data manual (SLWS115)
2. TLV320AIC13, SMARTDM Low Power, Low Voltage, 1.1 V to 3,6 V I/O, 16-Bit, 26-KSPS
CODEC, data manual (SLWS139)
3. TLV320AIC14, Low Power CMOS, 16-Bit, 26-KSPS CODEC With Smart Time Division
Multiplexed (SMARTDM) Serial Port, data manual (SLWS140)
4. TLV320AIC15, SMARTDM Low Power, Low Voltage, 1.1 V to 3,6 V I/O, 16-Bit, 26-KSPS
CODEC, data manual (SLWS141)
5. TLV320AIC20, Low Power, High-Integrated Programmable 16-Bit 26-KSPS Dual Channel
Codec, data manual (SLWS363A)
6. TLV320AIC21, Low Power, Low Voltage, 1.1 V to 3,6 V I/O, High-Integrated Programmable
16-Bit 26-KSPS Dual Channel Codec, data manual (SLWS365A)
7. TLV320AIC24, Low Power, High-Integrated Programmable 16-Bit 26-KSPS Dual Channel
Codec, data manual (SLWS366A)
8. TLV320AIC25, Low Power, Low Voltage, 1.1 V to 3,6 V I/O, High-Integrated Programmable
16-Bit 26-KSPS Dual Channel Codec, data manual (SLWS367A)
8
Common Sample Rate Selection for TLV320AIC12 /13 /14 /15 /20 /21 /24 /25 Codecs
IMPORTANT NOTICE
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