Texas Instruments | Analog Front End Imaging 1Q 2011 (Rev. B) | Selection guides | Texas Instruments Analog Front End Imaging 1Q 2011 (Rev. B) Selection guides

Texas Instruments Analog Front End Imaging 1Q 2011 (Rev. B) Selection guides
Analog Front End
Imaging Guide
www.ti.com
1Q 2011
Analog Front End Imaging Guide
➔ Analog Front Ends – Imaging
TI Covers the Image Capture Spectrum
TI’s product line covers a broad spectrum of image capture applications with diverse
requirements. Portfolio offerings, application support, product quality and manufacturing excellence allow you to customize imaging systems for specific applications
with confidence. TI’s imaging products are optimized to work together, yet also allow
you to mix-and-match with third-party components when required. Use the guides
and information featured in this brochure to make the best selections for your needs.
Image Sensor:
Converts photons to electrons stored
in the pixel
• CCD output requires correlated double
sampling (CDS)
• CMOS output requires sample and hold
(S/H)
Image Sensor
CCD or CMOS
Analog e-Packets
DSP/
DaVinci ™
and
Sitara™
SoC
AFE/ADC
Digital Bits
Image sensor and imaging AFE/ADC
Photo Flash
CCD or CMOS
Image Sensor
Lens
+
Motors
AFE
CCD
Vertical
Driver
CCD
Timing
Generator
DSP/
DaVinci
and
Sitara SoC
Imaging AFE/ADC:
Conditions and digitizes sensor
output
• Samples and conditions the sensor
output (CDS or S/H)
• Digitizes the signal for DSP
• Optional AFE sensor support functions
Provides CMOS-level timing signals
for sensor operation
Provides voltage level-shifting for
CCD vertical drivers
Typical imaging block diagram
TI’s AFE supports a wide variety of third-party CCD image sensors from VGA through 14MP. The Imaging AFE accepts
the analog sensor output, provides signal conditioning and digitizes the signal in the ADC. The digitized signal is easily
interfaced to a broad range of DSPs, including TI’s DaVinci™ and Sitara™ processors with integrated image pipe for
enhanced video and image processing.
Analog Front End Imaging Guide
Texas Instruments 1Q 2011
Image Sensors
➔ Selecting an Image Sensor
TI offers a number of different image sensors. Many are optimized to support specific applications. Selecting the correct image
sensor depends on several variables: resolution, responsivity, dynamic range, output characteristics and speed.
Image Sensor Selection Guidelines
Selection Criteria
Description
Guidelines
Resolution
Number of pixels determines the quantity of detail(s) that will be resolved.
For an area array: number of rows x the number of pixel columns.
For a linear array: number of pixels in a row
Responsivity
Ability of a pixel to convert a photon signal to an electrical signal: mV/lux or mV/watt.
For constant sensor area: larger pixels capture more photons
and show higher responsivity while smaller pixels provide more
resolution.
Dynamic Range
Ability to capture bright and dark elements of a scene SNR = 20 log (maximum
signal/noise).
30dB for useable image quality, 40dB for better image quality,
+45dB for best image quality.
Output
Output type and number: CCDs use CDS, CMOS use S/H.
Match type and number of sensor output channels to AFE number
input type.
Speed
Rate at which pixels are read units = MHz or MSPS.
Area sensor = resolution x frame rate, linear sensor = resolution
x line rate.
Brochure Legend
Example: Sensor Selection for Security Application
Resolution: select desired number of pixels
Code
Description
Pixel number:
Horizontal pixels
x
Vertical pixels
=
Total pixels
ADC
Analog-to-Digital Converter
For NTSC:
658
x
496
=
326 Kpixels
AFE
Analog Front-End
Your application:
____________
x
__________
=
_________
CCD
Charge-Coupled Device
CDS
Correlated Double Sampling
Responsivity: select desired response to light
Your application:
Fair
Good
Better
Best
CMOS
Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor
CMOS with
integrated ADC
CCD with RBG filters
CCD with CMYG
filters or CMOS
sensor with
external AFE
Black and white CCD
dB
Decibels
DSP
Digital Signal Processor
EMCCD
Electron Multiplier CCD
____________
__________
_________
___________
FS
Full Scale
NTSC
Analog television standard established by
the National Television System Committee
SNR
Signal-to-Noise Ratio
SoC
System on Chip
WDR
Wide Dynamic Range
x
Times, or to multiply by
Dynamic Range: select desired range of response
Your application:
Fair
Good
Better
Best
CMOS with
integrated ADC
CCD with
10- to 12-bit AFE
CCD with 14-bit
AFE, or CMOS with
external AFE
CCD with16-bit AFE
____________
__________
_________
___________
Speed: calculate the data output rate
Pixel number:
Horizontal pixels
x
Vertical pixels
x
Frame rate
=
Pixels/S (MHz)
For NTSC:
658
x
496
x
60
=
20MSPS
Your application:
____________
x
__________
x
________
=
___________
Analog Front End Imaging Guide
Texas Instruments 1Q 2011
Image Sensors
➔ Selecting the Correct Imaging AFE
TI designs different AFEs optimized for particular applications. To select the correct AFE, several properties must be identified:
AFE-input channels, sensor output type (CCD or CMOS), pixel samples per second, number of bits output, SNR and gain.
Imaging AFE Selection Guidelines
Selection Criteria
Description
Guidelines
AFE channels
Analog inputs to AFE(s).
Total number of AFE channels must equal total number of sensor outputs.
Any combination of single-channel and multi-channel AFEs may be used.
Sample rate (MSPS)
Sampling rate for each AFE channel in terms of pixelsper-second.
Area sensors: MSPS ~ sensor resolution (in MP) x frame rate (fps).
Linear sensors: MSPS ~ pixel resolution x line rate.
Bits output
The bits output is based on the number of bits desired
in the final result.
TAFE bits = number of bits desired in final application +2 to 4-bits.
SNR
Signal-to-noise ratio.
AFE SNR = sensor SNR +6 to 10dB.
If sensor SNR not known, then AFE SNR = sensor DR + 10dB.
Gain
Amplify input signal to use entire ADC range.
Highest AFE gain = AFE FS/smallest expected sensor output signal (white).
Example: AFE Selection for Security Application
Quality Assurance
Resolution: select desired number of pixels
Pixel number:
Horizontal pixels
x
Vertical pixels
x
Frame rate
=
Pixels/S (MHz)
For NTSC:
658
x
496
x
60
=
20MSPS
Your application:
____________
x
__________
x
__________
=
_________
Bits output: select desired response to light
Bits output:
Bits in final image after processing
+ 2 to 4-bits
=
ADC output bits
For NTSC:
8
+ 2 to 4
=
10 to 12-bits
Your application:
_______________
+ 2 to 4
=
____________
SNR: required SNR for the AFE
SNR:
Sensor SNR or dynamic range
+ 6 to 10dB
=
AFE SNR(dB)
For CCD sensor:
60dB
+ 6 to 10dB
=
66 to 70dB
Your application:
_______________
+ 6 to 10dB
____________
__________
Gain: calculate the minimum gain required
Minimum gain:
AFE full-scale input
Minimum sensor
output for white
=
For example:
1.0V FS input
0.1V
=
10V/V or 20dB
Your application:
_______________
____________
=
_____ V/V or 20 Log (V/V)
Analog Front End Imaging Guide
TI recognizes the importance of
advancing industry standards and is
committed to working on regulatory
as well as U.S. and international
voluntary standards. As an active
member of numerous global industry
associations and with a strong
commitment to the environment,
TI has emerged as a leader with
its Lead (Pb)-Free programs. An
initiative begun in the 1980s to find
alternative materials for products
has resulted in the majority of TI
products being available Pb-Free
and green.
For all your Lead (Pb)-Free
questions, visit www.ti.com/quality
Gain(dB)
Texas Instruments 1Q 2011
Analog Front End Imaging Guide
➔ Selection Tables
PhotoFlash Capacitor Chargers
Peak
Current
(A)
Power
Switch
(V)
IGBT
Driver
Over
Voltage
Shutdown
Thermal
Monitor
X
VCC
VMIN
VMAX
Peak Current
(A) (min)
TPS65520A
5
1.8
12
0.95
1.8
50
X
X
TPS65560
TPS65561
TPS61050
LED Driver
3
3
5.5
1.6
1.6
2.5
12
12
5.5
0.9
1.1
—
1.8
2.2
1.2
50
50
X
X
X
X
Device
Thermal
Shutdown
Package
Price*
4.95
X
10-MSOPPowerPAD™
16-QFN
16-QFN
16-QFN
10-SON,
12-DSBGA
X
X
X
0.85
0.95
1.90
AFE and Support Chips
Device
AFE
TG
VD
SNR
(dB)
Bits
Out
MSPS
(MHz)
Pd
(mW)
VS
(V)
DNL
(±LSB)
INL
(±LSB)
Gain (dB)
Package
Price*
Single Ch., 12b, 36MSPS
Single Ch., 10b,
36MSPS, 2 8-Bit DACs
Single Ch., 12b,
36MSPS, 2 8-Bit DACs
Single Ch., 16b,
36MSPS, 2 8-Bit DACs
Single Ch., 14b, 50MSPS
X
X
—
—
—
—
78
78
12
10
36
36
85
86
2.7 to 3.3
2.7 to 3.3
0.5
0.5
2
0.5
–9 to 35
–9 to 44
36-QFN
48-QFP
3.20
3.85
X
—
—
78
12
36
86
2.7 to 3.3
0.5
2
–9 to 44
48-QFP
5.65
X
—
—
78
16
36
86
2.7 to 3.3
2
32
–9 to 44
48-QFP
9.40
X
X
X
80
14
50
140
2.7 to 3.3
0.5
12
0 to 51
**
Single Channel, 12b,
36MSPS
Single Channel, 10b,
36MSPS
Single Ch., 14b, 50MSPS
X
X
X
78
12
36
139
2.7 to 3.3
1
2
–9 to 44
98-BGA
MicroStar
Junior™
100-BGA
7.25
X
X
X
78
10
36
139
2.7 to 3.6
0.5
1
–9 to 44
100-BGA
6.25
X
X
X
80
14
50
140
2.7 to 3.3
0.5
12
0 to 51
64-QFN
**
17.25
**
**
Description
Single-Channel AFEs
VSP2582
VSP2560
VSP2562
VSP2566
VSP8244
VSP01M02
VSP01M01
VSP8133
Multi-Channel AFEs
VSP2254
2 Ch., 14b, 36MSPS
X
—
—
75
14
36
210
3.0 to 3.3
2
8
0
VSP2590
2 Ch., 16b, 41MSPS
X
—
—
75
16
41
290
2.7 to 3.3
0.8
32
–3 to 5
96-BGA
Monostar
159-NFBGA
X
X
—
X
—
—
78
78
12
16
30
54
290
400
3 to 3.6
1.8V core,
3.3V I/O
0.5
1
2
32
0 to 24
0 to 40
64-LQFP
159-NFBGA
18.00
AFE for Line Sensor
VSP5010
VSP7502
2 Ch., 12b, 31MSPS
4 Ch., 16b, 54MSPS,
LVDS Output
Vertical Drivers
Device
Description
VSP1900
CCD Vertical Clock Driver
Drivers
Drive Voltage
E- Shutter Control
Price*
3-Level Drivers x 5, 2-Level Drivers x 3
H = 11 to 15 V, L = –5 to –9 V
X
7.90
*Suggested resale price in U.S. dollars in quantities of 1,000. **Please contact your local TI representative for pricing information. Preview products are listed in bold blue.
Analog Front End Imaging Guide
Texas Instruments 1Q 2011
Packaging
Pin/Package
Package
Symbolization
Length
(mm)
Width
(mm)
Area
(mm2)
Pitch Lead
(mm)
Package
Height (mm)+
RHN
PT
RGC
PM
PFC
GSJ
ZRC
ZWD
ZWV
6.3
7
9
10
12
9
6
7
8
6.3
7
9
10
12
9
9
7
8
39.7
49
84
100
144
81
54
49
64
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.8
0.65
0.65
0.5
0.9
1.4
1.0
1.6
1.2
1.2
1
1.2
1.2
36-QFN
48-QFN
64-QFN
64-LQFP
80-TQFP
96-BGA Monostar
98-BGA MicroStar Junior™
100-BGA
159-NFBGA
For additional packages, visit www.ti.com/packaging
TM
TI Worldwide Technical Support
Internet
Asia
TI Semiconductor Product Information Center Home Page
support.ti.com
TI E2E™ Community Home Page
e2e.ti.com
Product Information Centers
Americas
Brazil
Mexico
Phone
Phone
Phone
Fax
Internet/Email
+1(972) 644-5580
0800-891-2616
0800-670-7544
+1(972) 927-6377
support.ti.com/sc/pic/americas.htm
Europe, Middle East, and Africa
Phone
European Free Call
00800-ASK-TEXAS
(00800 275 83927)
International
+49 (0) 8161 80 2121
Russian Support
+7 (4) 95 98 10 701
Note: The European Free Call (Toll Free) number is not active in all c­ ountries.
If you have technical difficulty calling the free call number, please use the
­international number above.
Fax
+(49) (0) 8161 80 2045
Internet
support.ti.com/sc/pic/euro.htm
Direct Email
asktexas@ti.com
Japan
Phone
Fax
Internet/Email
Domestic
International
Domestic
International
Domestic
© 2011 Texas Instruments Incorporated
Printed in U.S.A. by (Printer, City, State)
0120-92-3326
+81-3-3344-5317
0120-81-0036
support.ti.com/sc/pic/japan.htm
www.tij.co.jp/pic
Phone
International
+91-80-41381665
Domestic
Toll-Free Number
Note: Toll-free numbers do not support
mobile and IP phones.
Australia
1-800-999-084
China
800-820-8682
Hong Kong
800-96-5941
India
1-800-425-7888
Indonesia
001-803-8861-1006
Korea
080-551-2804
Malaysia
1-800-80-3973
New Zealand
0800-446-934
Philippines
1-800-765-7404
Singapore
800-886-1028
Taiwan
0800-006800
Thailand
001-800-886-0010
Fax
+8621-23073686
Emailtiasia@ti.com or ti-china@ti.com
Internet
support.ti.com/sc/pic/asia.htm
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