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Texas Instruments TIDA-00254 (Rev. B) User guides
TIDA-00254: Accurate Point Cloud Generation
for 3D Machine Vision Applications Using
DLP® Technology and Industrial Camera
User's Guide
Literature Number: DLPU019B
August 2014 – Revised October 2018
Contents
Preface ........................................................................................................................................ 6
1
Introduction to the 3D Machine Vision Reference Design .......................................................... 7
1.1
1.2
1.3
2
7
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Installing the 3D Machine Vision Reference Design .................................................................. 9
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
3
.................................................................................................................................
Structured Light ..............................................................................................................
How the 3D Machine Vision Reference Design Works .................................................................
1.3.1 Projector and Camera Modules ...................................................................................
1.3.2 Calibration ...........................................................................................................
1.3.3 Pattern Projection ...................................................................................................
1.3.4 Image Capture ......................................................................................................
1.3.5 Information Decoding...............................................................................................
1.3.6 Point Cloud Reconstruction .......................................................................................
................................................................................................................................. 9
Installing the Point Grey FlyCapture® 2+ Full SDK ...................................................................... 9
Installing the LifeCam Cinema Camera Driver and Configuring the Camera ...................................... 17
Installing MeshLab ........................................................................................................ 18
Downloading the 3D Machine Vision Reference Design .............................................................. 20
Installing the 3D Machine Vision Reference Design ................................................................... 20
Using the 3D Machine Vision Reference Design ..................................................................... 24
................................................................................................................................ 24
Connecting the Hardware When Using a Point Grey Flea3 Camera ................................................ 24
Connecting the Hardware When Using the Microsoft LifeCam Cinema Camera .................................. 24
Configuring the Camera and Scan Type ................................................................................ 25
Preparing the Projector .................................................................................................... 29
Creating the Calibration Board ........................................................................................... 31
Calibrating the Camera .................................................................................................... 33
Calibrating the Projector ................................................................................................... 42
Calibration Verification ..................................................................................................... 50
Scanning Objects........................................................................................................... 54
4
Troubleshooting ................................................................................................................. 55
4.1
General Troubleshooting Steps .......................................................................................... 55
Revision History .......................................................................................................................... 60
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
2
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List of Figures
2-1.
Point Grey Software Downloads Page .................................................................................... 9
2-2.
Setting Up the FlyCapture2 Install ....................................................................................... 10
2-3.
FlyCapture2 Installation
2-4.
FlyCapture2 SDK Licensing Agreement................................................................................. 11
2-5.
FlyCapture2 SDK Release Notes ........................................................................................ 11
2-6.
FlyCapture2 SDK User Information ...................................................................................... 12
2-7.
FlyCapture2 SDK Installation Path ....................................................................................... 12
2-8.
FlyCapture2 SDK Installation Options ................................................................................... 13
2-9.
Camera Interface Selection for FlyCapture2 SDK ..................................................................... 13
2-10.
Confirm Camera Interface Selection for FlyCapture2 SDK ........................................................... 14
2-11.
Idle State Management Selection for FlyCapture2 SDK .............................................................. 14
2-12.
Install FlyCapture2 SDK ................................................................................................... 15
2-13.
FlyCapture2 SDK Installation Progress Bar
2-14.
FlyCapture2 SDK Finish Installation ..................................................................................... 16
2-15.
MeshLab Installer Initial Screen .......................................................................................... 18
2-16.
MeshLab End User License Agreement
2-17.
MeshLab Installation Path ................................................................................................. 19
2-18.
MeshLab Installation Completed ......................................................................................... 19
2-19.
3D Machine Reference Design Installation Executable ............................................................... 20
2-20.
3D Machine Reference Design Setup Wizard Screen
2-21.
2-22.
2-23.
2-24.
2-25.
3-1.
3-2.
3-3.
3-4.
3-5.
3-6.
3-7.
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3-16.
3-17.
3-18.
3-19.
3-20.
3-21.
3-22.
...................................................................................................
............................................................................
................................................................................
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3D Machine Reference Design License Agreement Screen .........................................................
3D Machine Reference Design Installation Path Selection ...........................................................
3D Machine Reference Design Installation Confirmation .............................................................
3D Machine Reference Design File Installation Progress ............................................................
3D Machine Reference Design Installation Completion ...............................................................
Application Configuration File - ALGORITHM_TYPE .................................................................
Application Configuration File - CAMERA_TYPE ......................................................................
Camera Shutter and Color Settings......................................................................................
Projector Exposure Settings for Vertical and Horizontal Three-phase Scanning ..................................
Camera Exposure Settings for Vertical and Horizontal Three-phase Scanning ...................................
DLPC350 Firmware Parameter ...........................................................................................
Prepare Projector Step ....................................................................................................
Prepare System Step ......................................................................................................
Running the 3D Scanning Command Line Program...................................................................
Command Line Menu Prompt ............................................................................................
Calibration Board Attached to Flat Calibration Surface ...............................................................
Connecting the Camera to the Host PC .................................................................................
Projector, Camera, Object Spatial Orientation .........................................................................
Camera Calibration Board Live View ....................................................................................
Overexposed Camera Capture ...........................................................................................
Underexposed Camera Capture .........................................................................................
Camera Calibration Configuration File ..................................................................................
Calibration Board Image Capture Position 1 ...........................................................................
Calibration Board Image Capture Position 2 ...........................................................................
Calibration Board Image Capture Position 3 ...........................................................................
Calibration Board Image Capture Position 4 ...........................................................................
Calibration Board Image Capture Position 5 ...........................................................................
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List of Figures
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4-3.
4-4.
4-5.
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Calibration Board Image Capture Position 7 ...........................................................................
Calibration Board Image Capture Position 8 ...........................................................................
Calibration Board Image Capture Position 9 ...........................................................................
Calibration Board Image Capture Position 10 ..........................................................................
Number of Projector Calibration Shots ..................................................................................
Projector Calibration Chessboard Capture..............................................................................
Projector Calibration Board Capture Position 1 ........................................................................
Projector Calibration Board Capture Position 2 ........................................................................
Projector Calibration Board Capture Position 3 ........................................................................
Projector Calibration Board Capture Position 4 ........................................................................
Projector Calibration Board Capture Position 5 ........................................................................
Projector Calibration Board Capture Position 6 ........................................................................
Projector Calibration Board Capture Position 7 ........................................................................
Projector Calibration Board Capture Position 8 ........................................................................
Projector Calibration Board Capture Position 9 ........................................................................
Projector Calibration Board Capture Position 10 .......................................................................
Typical Depth Map of a Flat Surface ....................................................................................
Deficient Depth Map of a Flat Surface ..................................................................................
Point Cloud of a Flat Surface .............................................................................................
Point Cloud of a Flat Surface Generated With Poor Calibration Data...............................................
Point Cloud File Location for Use With MeshLab ......................................................................
Camera Configuration File ...............................................................................................
Projector Configuration File ...............................................................................................
FlyCap2 Software Utility Shortcut ........................................................................................
Configure Selected Camera in FlyCap2 Software .....................................................................
Restore Factory Camera Settings In FlyCap2 Software ..............................................................
Confirm Factory Camera Settings in FlyCap2 Software ..............................................................
Camera Configuration File Settings for USB 2.0 .......................................................................
Calibration Board Image Capture Position 6
List of Figures
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List of Figures
5
Preface
DLPU019B – August 2014 – Revised October 2018
Read This First
About This Guide
The 3D Machine Vision Reference Design enables faster evaluation of machine vision applications
utilizing DLP® platforms. This guide walks the user through the installation, calibration, and operation of
the 3D Machine Vision Reference Design.
Trademarks
LightCrafter 4500, Lightcrafter are trademarks of Texas Instruments.
DLP is a registered trademark of Texas Instruments.
Microsoft, Windows are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.
FlyCapture, Flea are registered trademarks of Point Grey.
Related Documentation from Texas Instruments
DLPC350 Datasheet: DLPC350 DLP® Digital Controller for Portable Advanced Light Control, DLPS029
User's Guide: DLP® LightCrafter 4500™ Evaluation Module, DLPU011
User's Guide: DLP® Advanced Light Control SDK for Lightcrafter™ Evaluation Modules, DLPU042
Assembly Guide: TIDA-00254 Camera Trigger Cable Assembly, TIDU457A
If You Need Assistance
Refer to the DLP and MEMS TI E2E Community support forums:
http://e2e.ti.com/support/dlp__mems_micro-electro-mechanical_systems/default.aspx
Minimum System Requirements
•
•
•
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PC with 1GHz, or faster, 32-bit (x86) processor
2GB RAM
10GB of free hard-disk space
Microsoft® Windows® 7 SP 1
Microsoft Visual C++ 2010 Redistributable
Microsoft Visual C++ 2012 Redistributable
Microsoft .NET Framework 4.5.1
USB 3.0 port
USB 2.0 port
Qt Creator 5.3.2 Integrated Design Environment (IDE)
OpenCV v2.4.10 Libraries
Point Grey FlyCapture® v2.9 SDK
MeshLab v1.3.3
DLP® LightCrafter 4500™ Evaluation Module
Point Grey Flea®3 USB 3.0 Camera
Note: The 3D Machine Vision Reference Design installation and setup is written for users that are familiar
with navigating through Windows command line prompts.
Note: The 3D Machine Vision Reference Design was created with the above listed versions of each
software tool. Using newer versions of the software tools may render the code inoperable.
6
Read This First
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Chapter 1
DLPU019B – August 2014 – Revised October 2018
Introduction to the 3D Machine Vision Reference Design
1.1
The 3D Machine Vision Reference Design is an active 3-dimensional photography system that generates
a digital representation of a physical object. The data generated by the 3D Machine Vision Reference
Design can be analyzed, or otherwise manipulated, to provide information to automated systems about
their environment. The information created by the 3D Machine Vision Reference Design allows machines
to make intelligent decisions in a dynamic environment. Applications include industrial automation,
robotics, and digital storage of physical objects.
1.2
Structured Light
Structured light is a method to achieve 3-dimensional photography of objects by manipulating lighting
conditions of a scene under study. The 3D Machine Vision Reference Design projects a series of timemultiplexed and three phase patterns to extract spatial data from a scene. The 3D Machine Vision
Reference Design leverages the highly-programmable DLP digital micromirror device to rapidly display
patterns reducing data acquisition times. DLP is also light source agnostic, making it well suited for
structured light applications using solid-state – near infrared, visible, or ultraviolet light – or laser-based
illumination.
1.3
How the 3D Machine Vision Reference Design Works
The 3D Machine Vision Reference Design consists of a LightCrafter 4500 evaluation module and a
camera interfacing with a host PC. The 3D Machine Vision Reference Design utilizes multiple DLP
Advanced Light Control SDK for Lightcrafter™ EVMs (hereto referred as the DLP ALC SDK) modules to
perform necessary calculations on the host PC.
1.3.1 Projector and Camera Modules
The host PC must send and receive data from both a projector and camera. In this reference design, a
Point Grey Flea3 camera is used with a LightCrafter 4500 module that enables easy, feature-rich use of
the projector.
1.3.2 Calibration
The DLP ALC SDK contains a calibration module to estimate intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of both the
camera and projector. An example of the estimated parameters include focal point, lens distortion, and
spatial orientation of the camera to the projector. The calibration routine must be performed any time the
projector and camera change orientation with each other, or the devices are replaced.
1.3.3 Pattern Projection
Pattern projection is handled by a structured light module in the DLP ALC SDK. The module generates
vertical and horizontal Gray coded patterns or phase shifted patterns that are sent to a LightCrafter 4500
projector. The firmware file is prepared and uploaded to the projector using the LightCrafter 4500 module.
1.3.4 Image Capture
Each projected pattern is captured by the Point Grey Flea3 global or rolling shutter camera or a
compatible Open CV camera (such as a webcam). The images are stored in an image class and the
information in the series of images is decoded by the structured light class.
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1.3.5 Information Decoding
The structured light class performs decoding of the captured images to determine which projector ray the
camera ray detects.
1.3.6 Point Cloud Reconstruction
Objects in view of both the camera and projector will cause different rays from the camera and projector to
intersect each other. This intersection can be calculated by using the Gray coded and/or phase-shifted ray
information from the projector along with the detected ray information from the captured images. This
intersection of rays determines an object's real point in space. The geometrical ray intersection
calculations are performed by a geometry module in the DLP ALC SDK for each intersecting point.
The points generated by the geometry module are stored in a collection called a point cloud. The point
cloud is all of the known points from a captured scene. Software tools and algorithms can be produced to
use point clouds to create solid surfaces. MeshLab is the software tool used to view point clouds during
the 3D Machine Vision Reference Design development.
8
Introduction to the 3D Machine Vision Reference Design
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Chapter 2
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Installing the 3D Machine Vision Reference Design
2.1
Before using the 3D Machine Vision Reference Design application, a few software dependencies and the
reference design software itself must be installed. The Point Grey FlyCapture 2+ SDK supplies the drivers
required for operating the Point Grey Flea3 USB camera, and MeshLab acts as a 3D viewer for the
generated point cloud files. Please read the following sections for more detailed instructions.
2.2
Installing the Point Grey FlyCapture® 2+ Full SDK
The Point Grey software development kit (SDK) supplies the required drivers for image capture when
using the Point Grey cameras. This section walks the user through set up of the FlyCapture2 Full SDK.
Warning: Insure that Microsoft .NET Framework is installed along with the Visual C++ redistributables
listed in the Minimum System Requirements.
1. Go to the Point Grey download site, located at http://www.ptgrey.com/support/downloads and
download the FlyCapture2 Full SDK for the appropriate operating system, as shown in Figure 2-1.
Note: When developing with the DLP ALC SDK, install the 32-bit version of the FlyCapture SDK to
ensure compatibility with the MinGW compiler used in later steps.
Figure 2-1. Point Grey Software Downloads Page
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2. Run the downloaded installation file and click the Install button, as shown in Figure 2-2.
Note: If the Microsoft .NET Framework has not already been installed, the FlyCapture installer will
attempt to install it.
Figure 2-2. Setting Up the FlyCapture2 Install
3. After extraction of the installation components, the installer will begin with a welcome page as shown in
Figure 2-3. Click the "Next" button to continue.
Figure 2-3. FlyCapture2 Installation
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4. Read and accept or decline the end-user license agreement for the FlyCapture2 SDK as shown in
Figure 2-4. If the license agreement is declined, the SDK will not be installed. Click the "Next" button to
continue.
Figure 2-4. FlyCapture2 SDK Licensing Agreement
5. Read the online release notes and click the "Next" button, shown in Figure 2-5, to proceed with the
installation.
Figure 2-5. FlyCapture2 SDK Release Notes
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Installing the Point Grey FlyCapture® 2+ Full SDK
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6. Fill out the required Name and Organization fields and click the "Next" button, shown in Figure 2-6, to
proceed with the installation.
Figure 2-6. FlyCapture2 SDK User Information
7. Choose the installation directory where the FlyCapture2 SDK will be installed. Click the "Next" button,
highlighted in Figure 2-7.
Figure 2-7. FlyCapture2 SDK Installation Path
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Installing the Point Grey FlyCapture® 2+ Full SDK
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8. Click the button labeled "Complete" to install the entire FlyCapture2 SDK, shown in Figure 2-8.
Figure 2-8. FlyCapture2 SDK Installation Options
9. Pick the camera interface that will be used. For the 3D Machine Vision Reference Design, the USB
interface is utilized. Select "I will use USB cameras," uncheck the box "Install USBPro," and then click
the "Next" button. The "Next" button and USB selection is shown in Figure 2-9.
Figure 2-9. Camera Interface Selection for FlyCapture2 SDK
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Installing the Point Grey FlyCapture® 2+ Full SDK
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10. Once your options have been selected, the FlyCapture2 installer will confirm the settings. Check the
box labeled "Click to confirm," then click the "Next" button, shown in Figure 2-10.
Figure 2-10. Confirm Camera Interface Selection for FlyCapture2 SDK
11. Allow FlyCapture2 to manage processor idle states while the SDK is in use. Accept the default
selection and click the "Next" button, shown in Figure 2-11.
Note: This option keeps the CPU running as long as the application executable or the Point Grey GUI
is active. This can significantly increase the computer's power consumption. After any experiment
being run, restore the power option to their previous default. On a Windows machine, search for and
select "Power Options" in the Start Menu. Click "More Power Options" then "Change Plan Settings"
and finally select "Restore Default Settings."
Figure 2-11. Idle State Management Selection for FlyCapture2 SDK
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12. Click the "Install" button, shown in Figure 2-12, to continue the installation.
Figure 2-12. Install FlyCapture2 SDK
13. Wait for the FlyCapture2 SDK files to install. The progress bar is shown in Figure 2-13.
Figure 2-13. FlyCapture2 SDK Installation Progress Bar
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Installing the Point Grey FlyCapture® 2+ Full SDK
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14. After the installation is complete, click the "Finish" button shown in Figure 2-14.
Figure 2-14. FlyCapture2 SDK Finish Installation
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Installing the LifeCam Cinema Camera Driver and Configuring the Camera
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2.3
Installing the LifeCam Cinema Camera Driver and Configuring the Camera
If using a Point Grey camera, this section may be skipped. Two important requirements for cameras used
in 3D machine vision systems are the ability to set the focus and exposure so that they do not
automatically adjust. For this reason, the Microsoft LifeCam Cinema camera was selected as the exposure
and focus can be set manually through the Microsoft LifeCam software. The installation and configuration
of the Microsoft LifeCam Cinema camera are detailed in this section.
1. Go to the Microsoft LifeCam Cinema device downloads website located at
http://www.microsoft.com/hardware/en-us/d/lifecam-cinema and download the software.
2. Run the downloaded installation file and click the "Next" button.
3. Read and accept the end-user license agreement and the privacy agreement by checking the "I accept
this agreement" checkbox and click the "Next" button.
4. The installer will download and install the required camera drivers and software.
5. After the files have finished installing, connect the camera via the USB port and click "Next."
6. If desired, Windows Live Essentials can be installed, but if not desired uncheck the "Install Windows
Live Essentials" checkbox and click "Next."
7. To complete the installation, click "Finish."
After the camera sofware has been installed, the camera should be configured so that the auto-exposure
and auto-focus are both turned off.
1. Open the LifeCam software with the camera connected and a live view should open. Click the arrow on
the right side of the window.
2. A new window will open to adjust effects of settings of the camera. Click the gear button at the top of
the window to show the settings.
3. Uncheck the "truecolor" checkbox.
4. Click the "Properties" button.
5. From the "Camera Control" tab, uncheck the auto-focus checkbox and click "Apply."
6. Change to the "Video Settings" tab, and set the "Brightness" and "Saturation" settings to their absolute
minimum values.
7. Uncheck both the auto-white balance and auto-exposure checkboxes and click "Apply."
8. With the LightCrafter projecting a white test pattern, adjust the Exposure settings until the image is well
exposed but not over-exposed.
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Installing MeshLab
2.4
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Installing MeshLab
MeshLab is the software utility recommended to view pointclouds generated by the reference design.
Installation of MeshLab is detailed in this section.
1. Go to the MeshLab website located at http://meshlab.sourceforge.net/ and download MeshLab V1.3.3
(or higher) executable.
2. As a system administrator, run the downloaded installation file and click the "Next" button as shown in
Figure 2-15.
Note: If the files fail to install, make sure the installation program is run with administrator privileges.
Running without administrator privileges will cause the installation to fail.
Figure 2-15. MeshLab Installer Initial Screen
3. Read and accept the end-user license agreement and the privacy agreement by clicking the "I Agree"
button once for each agreement, as shown in Figure 2-16.
Figure 2-16. MeshLab End User License Agreement
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4. Choose the installation directory for the MeshLab program, shown in Figure 2-17.
Figure 2-17. MeshLab Installation Path
5. Allow the files to be installed and, once completed, click the "Finish" button, highlighted in Figure 2-18.
Figure 2-18. MeshLab Installation Completed
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Downloading the 3D Machine Vision Reference Design
2.5
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Downloading the 3D Machine Vision Reference Design
Compiled Windows binaries for the 3D Machine Vision Reference Design are offered for convenience. The
binaries can be downloaded from the "Software" section of the reference design tool page at
http://www.ti.com/tool/TIDA-00254.
To build the source code for the reference design as well as the DLP Advanced Light Control SDK, please
refer to DLPU042.
2.6
Installing the 3D Machine Vision Reference Design
1. Decompress the "tidc535.zip" file in a convenient location.
2. Install the 3D Machine Vision Reference Design by executing the file "TIDA00254-***-windowsinstaller.exe," as shown in Figure 2-19.
Figure 2-19. 3D Machine Reference Design Installation Executable
3. Click the "Next" button on the install wizard setup screen, as shown in Figure 2-20.
Figure 2-20. 3D Machine Reference Design Setup Wizard Screen
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4. Read and review the license agreement for the 3D Machine Vision Reference Design, as shown in
Figure 2-21. Click the "I accept the agreement" radio button and then click the "Next" button to
continue installing the software.
Figure 2-21. 3D Machine Reference Design License Agreement Screen
5. Select an installation path where the reference design software will be located. Click the "Next" button,
as shown in Figure 2-22. Click the "Next" button to continue installing the software.
Figure 2-22. 3D Machine Reference Design Installation Path Selection
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Installing the 3D Machine Vision Reference Design
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6. The installer is ready to install, click the "Next" button to start the process, as shown in Figure 2-23.
Figure 2-23. 3D Machine Reference Design Installation Confirmation
7. Wait for the files to install in the location specified, as shown in Figure 2-24.
Figure 2-24. 3D Machine Reference Design File Installation Progress
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8. Once the files have been extracted and installed, click the "Finish" button to close the installer, as
shown in Figure 2-25.
Figure 2-25. 3D Machine Reference Design Installation Completion
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Chapter 3
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Using the 3D Machine Vision Reference Design
3.1
The 3D Machine Vision Reference Design application allows users to quickly create a 3D scanner;
complete with calibration, setup, and scanning routines. The application generates the calibration board
required to calibrate the 3D scanner, as well as preparing the LightCrafter 4500 EVM with its own
calibration and structured light patterns. After preparing the calibration board and the LightCrafter 4500
EVM, the user may calibrate the camera and projector. After the calibration procedures are complete, the
application is ready to perform 3D scans. Please follow all instructions to properly setup and use the 3D
scanner.
3.2
Connecting the Hardware When Using a Point Grey Flea3 Camera
When using the 3D Machine Vision reference design with a Point Grey Flea3 camera the following
hardware is needed:
• LightCrafter 4500 EVM & power supply
• Point Grey Flea3 USB 3.0 camera and lens
• USB 2.0 A to mini-B Cable
• USB 3.0 A to micro-B Cable
• TIDA-00254 Camera Trigger Cable
– Assemble the required cable using the instructions from the TIDA-00254 Camera Trigger Cable
Assembly Guide: http://www.ti.com/lit/df/tidu457a/tidu457a.pdf (Drawing No. 2514095)
Connect the hardware as follows:
1. Power the LightCrafter 4500
2. Connect the LightCrafter 4500 to the PC's USB 2.0 port using the USB 2.0 cable
3. Connect the Point Grey camera to the PC's USB 3.0 port using the USB 3.0 cable
4. Connect the camera trigger cable to the Point Grey camera's GPIO port and the LightCrafter 4500
input trigger connector J11
3.3
Connecting the Hardware When Using the Microsoft LifeCam Cinema Camera
When using the 3D Machine Vision reference design with a Microsoft LifeCam Cinema camera the
following hardware is needed:
• LightCrafter 4500 EVM & power supply
• Microsoft LifeCam Cinema camera
• USB 2.0 A to mini-B Cable
Connect the hardware as follows:
1. Power the LightCrafter 4500
2. Connect the LightCrafter 4500 to the PC's USB 2.0 port using the USB 2.0 cable
3. Connect the Microsoft LifeCam Cinema camera with its attached USB cable
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Configuring the Camera and Scan Type
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3.4
Configuring the Camera and Scan Type
This design features two methods of scanning: binary Gray code scanning and hybrid three-phase
scanning. It also allows the user to use the native Point Grey interface or the OpenCV camera interface.
To change the scan type, do the following:
1. After installing or building the design, find DLP_Lightcrafter_4500_3D_Scann_Application_Config.txt in
the build or install folder for the reference design.
2. Open the text file.
Figure 3-1. Application Configuration File - ALGORITHM_TYPE
3. To perform a Gray code scan, ALGORITHM_TYPE should be set to "0". To perform a hybrid three
phase shift scan, ALGORITHM_TYPE should be "1." Figure 3-1 shows where the value should be
changed.
4. Once a selection has been made, save the file. Close and reopen the reference design executable (if it
was running) for the changes to take effect.
Note: For untriggered cameras such as a webcam, three-phase hybrid scanning will not work due to the
precise timing required. In general, any unsynchronized camera will not work with three-phase hybrid
scanning. Further, rolling shutter cameras only work when using binary scans. Three-phase hybrid
scanning will not work with a rolling shutter camera.
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To change the camera interface type, do the following:
1. Follow steps 1 and 2 from the previous steps for changing the scan type.
2. To change the camera type, CAMERA_TYPE, as shown in Figure 3-2, will have to be edited. Enter "0"
to use the OpenCV interface and "1" to use the native camera interface.
Figure 3-2. Application Configuration File - CAMERA_TYPE
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To change between using a global shutter monochrome camera and a rolling shutter color camera, edit
the following:
1. Open config_camera.txt.
2. Figure 3-3 highlights the parameters that must be changed depending on the type of camera used. For
a rolling shutter color camera, make sure PG_FLYCAP_PARAMETERS_PIXEL_FORMAT is set to
"MONO8." If the camera is global shutter monochrome camera, set to "RAW8." Similarly, edit the
PG_FLYCAP_PARAMETERS_STROBE_DELAY to "5.0" for rolling shutter color cameras and "0.0" for
global shutter mono-chrome cameras.
Figure 3-3. Camera Shutter and Color Settings
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Note: To perform a hybrid three-phase scan with both vertical and horizontal patterns, the exposure time
of the projector and the camera will have to be increased in order to allow the frame buffer to have time to
load. It is recommended that the projector sequence exposure be more than 50 ms. Figure 3-4 and
Figure 3-5 show some example exposure settings for the camera and projector that allow the system to
perform both horizontal and vertical three-phase scans.
Figure 3-4. Projector Exposure Settings for Vertical and Horizontal Three-phase Scanning
Figure 3-5. Camera Exposure Settings for Vertical and Horizontal Three-phase Scanning
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Preparing the Projector
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3.5
Preparing the Projector
The LightCrafter 4500 must be prepared with the calibration images and structured light patterns for
calibration and object scanning, respectively. Before preparing the projector, download the firmware for
the DLPC350 and install it. Then in /config, open config_projector.txt. Find the file path for the DLPC350
firmware and copy the whole path into the LCR4500_PARAMETERS_DLPC350_FIRMWARE parameter
as shown in Figure 3-6. An example file path is: C:\Texas Instruments-DLP\DLPR650PROM3.0.0\DLPR350PROM_v3.0.0.bin. The 3D Scanner Command Line program will prepare the projector with
the necessary images by selecting menu option "2: Prepare DLP LightCrafter 4500 (once per projector)"
by entering "2" in the command line, as shown in Figure 3-7. A projector only needs to be prepared once.
Figure 3-6. DLPC350 Firmware Parameter
Figure 3-7. Prepare Projector Step
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Every time the 3D Scanner application is run, the system must be prepared for calibration and scanning. If
option 2 has been run for the projector previously, the projector can be prepared by choosing option
"3: Prepare system for calibration and scanning" by entering "3" in the menu, as shown in Figure 3-8.
Figure 3-8. Prepare System Step
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Creating the Calibration Board
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3.6
Creating the Calibration Board
This section guides the user through the generation and measurement of the camera calibration board.
1. Start the 3D Machine Vision Reference Design program, installed in Section 2.6, by running the
executable file, as shown in Figure 3-9.
Figure 3-9. Running the 3D Scanning Command Line Program
2. Run the "1: Generate camera calibration board and enter feature measurements" option by entering
"1" in the command line menu, as shown in Figure 3-10.
Figure 3-10. Command Line Menu Prompt
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3. Once the command has been entered, the program will generate the calibration board. Print the
camera calibration board image that is found in the location indicated in the prompt
(calibration/camera_images/camera_calibration_board.bmp). The camera calibration board should be
approximately half the size of the total projection area.
4. Attach the printed calibration board to a flat, white surface that is larger than the projection area, as
shown in Figure 3-11. The number of squares on the chessboard can be changed in the configuration
files for the program. The default chessboard size is 7 x 10; therefore the vertices of the squares on
the grid, including the edges, will be 6 x 9. To detect the vertices the algorithm internally uses OpenCV
cvFindChessboardCorners() function; for additional information on the function refer to OpenCV
documentation.
Figure 3-11. Calibration Board Attached to Flat Calibration Surface
5. After attaching the camera calibration board to the calibration surface, measure the length of one side
of one of the squares on the grid and type the number into the command prompt as shown in
Figure 3-11. Do not enter any units in the command line. Hit enter to continue.
Note: The generated point clouds will show unit-less distances. The actual units depend on how you
measured your calibration board. For example, if each square is 2 cm wide, enter "2" into the prompt.
The generated point clouds will show distances which appear unit-less but are actually in centimeters.
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Calibrating the Camera
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3.7
Calibrating the Camera
This section guides the user through the process of creating the physical connections between the
LightCrafter 4500, the host PC, and the Point Grey Flea3 camera and calibrating the camera.
Warning: Section 3.6 must be completed before the camera can be calibrated.
1. Connect the GPIO output trigger from the camera to the projector’s input trigger, using the cable
detailed in the file "TIDA-00254-CAMERA_TRIGGER_CABLE_ASSEMBLY.pdf", as shown in
Figure 3-12.
Figure 3-12. Connecting the Camera to the Host PC
2. Connect the Point Grey Flea3 camera to the host PC's USB 3.0 port.
3. Connect the LightCrafter 4500 to the host PC's USB 2.0 port.
4. Make sure there is sufficient distance between the camera and the projector. The camera and
projector should be separated by a 20 to 45 degree angle as formed by the object being scanned,
shown in Figure 3-13.
Figure 3-13. Projector, Camera, Object Spatial Orientation
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Calibrating the Camera
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5. Enter menu option "4" to start the camera calibration. Follow the prompts and directions on the screen
during the entire process.
6. A live camera view window will appear on the host PC. Position the camera calibration board entirely in
the frame, as shown in Figure 3-14.
Figure 3-14. Camera Calibration Board Live View
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7. Stop down the aperture as low as possible while still being able to discern the gray and white squares
on the calibration board and minimize all sources of glare. Make sure the projection area is in focus,
and lock the aperture and focus. An example of an overexposed image is shown in Figure 3-15, and
an example of an underexposed image is shown in Figure 3-16.
Note: If the camera's aperture size or focus is changed after this step, the resulting point cloud data
will be impacted. Perform camera calibration routine again if the results are undesired.
Figure 3-15. Overexposed Camera Capture
Figure 3-16. Underexposed Camera Capture
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8. Click on the live camera view window on the host PC and verify the calibration board is in focus.
9. From the live camera view window, position the camera at varying angles and distances from the
projection surface. Place the grid in different areas of the camera's view and press the SPACEBAR to
capture images. Default settings require twenty calibration images although this parameter can be
adjusted. In \config, find calibration_camera.txt. Figure 3-17 highlights the parameter which specifies
the number of calibration images. Some recommended calibration images are shown in Figure 3-18 to
Figure 3-27. It is okay to move the camera at this point in the calibration procedure.
Figure 3-17. Camera Calibration Configuration File
Figure 3-18. Calibration Board Image Capture Position 1
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Figure 3-19. Calibration Board Image Capture Position 2
Figure 3-20. Calibration Board Image Capture Position 3
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Figure 3-21. Calibration Board Image Capture Position 4
Figure 3-22. Calibration Board Image Capture Position 5
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Figure 3-23. Calibration Board Image Capture Position 6
Figure 3-24. Calibration Board Image Capture Position 7
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Figure 3-25. Calibration Board Image Capture Position 8
Figure 3-26. Calibration Board Image Capture Position 9
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Figure 3-27. Calibration Board Image Capture Position 10
10. The calibration process estimates the lens focal length, focal point, lens distortion, and the translation
and rotation of the camera relative to the calibration board. The calibration procedure will generate a
reprojection error. Zero reprojection error is ideal, however an error below 2 should be adequate for
typical usage. If the reprojection error is not satisfactory or if initial scans are not providing good
results, run the camera calibration routine again.
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Calibrating the Projector
3.8
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Calibrating the Projector
This procedure calibrates the projector and projector/camera system. Only perform this procedure with a
valid camera calibration already completed.
1. Once the camera calibration is complete and the projector has been prepared, the system calibration
can be performed. Start the system calibration process by entering "5" in the command line prompt.
Read the directions in the prompt in detail. Default calibration will require 5 images. To change this,
open calibration_projector.txt in \config. Figure 3-28 shows the parameter to change.
Figure 3-28. Number of Projector Calibration Shots
2. The projector will display a calibration board. The projected calibration board should be larger than the
camera calibration board but still fall entirely on the calibration surface. Adjust the camera's position to
center the projected calibration board in the live view.
3. Select the live camera view window and press the spacebar to capture the centered calibration board.
Avoid glare from the projected board or the captured image is discarded by the software. Rotate the
angle of the backstop on all 3 axes in the captured images. Figure 3-29 to Figure 3-39 show some
recommended projector calibration capture orientations. The camera captures three patterns after the
spacebar is clicked: solid white, black and white chessboard, and solid black.
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Figure 3-29. Projector Calibration Chessboard Capture
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Figure 3-30. Projector Calibration Board Capture Position 1
Figure 3-31. Projector Calibration Board Capture Position 2
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Figure 3-32. Projector Calibration Board Capture Position 3
Figure 3-33. Projector Calibration Board Capture Position 4
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Figure 3-34. Projector Calibration Board Capture Position 5
Figure 3-35. Projector Calibration Board Capture Position 6
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Figure 3-36. Projector Calibration Board Capture Position 7
Figure 3-37. Projector Calibration Board Capture Position 8
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Figure 3-38. Projector Calibration Board Capture Position 9
Figure 3-39. Projector Calibration Board Capture Position 10
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4. Repeat step 3 a total of five times, capturing various angles and positions of the calibration board by
rotating and moving the calibration surface. Ensure the projected calibration board falls entirely on the
calibration surface in each capture.
5. The system calibration process estimates extrinsic and intrinsic parameters, as well as lens distortion
parameters, for the projector. The system calibration also estimates the camera-projector orientation.
The calibration procedure will generate a reprojection error similar to the camera calibration. Zero
reprojection error is ideal, however an error below 2 should be adequate for typical usage. If the
reprojection error is not satisfactory, verify the calibration as detailed in Section 3.9 before performing
the calibration again.
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Calibration Verification
3.9
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Calibration Verification
Once system calibration is complete, the calibration should be verified. Scan a flat, white surface, like the
backdrop for the printed calibration image, by entering the perform scan command "8" in the command
line menu. The output depth map should look similar to Figure 3-40.
Figure 3-40. Typical Depth Map of a Flat Surface
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If the depth map is missing a significant amount of points, as shown in Figure 3-41, check the
camera/projector synchronization by looking at the captured images and verifying the gray coding is
displayed correctly. It is also possible that the scene was not static. Please ensure that the objects being
scanned are not moving.
Figure 3-41. Deficient Depth Map of a Flat Surface
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When the depth map is acceptably dense, open the output point cloud file using MeshLab. Inspect the
point cloud for accurate reproduction of the scanned board. An example of an acceptable point cloud
displayed in MeshLab is shown in Figure 3-42.
Figure 3-42. Point Cloud of a Flat Surface
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If the depth map is twisted or distorted around the edges, the calibration should be performed again with
special attention paid to placing the printed calibration board close to the edges of the camera frame. An
example of an unacceptable point cloud displayed in MeshLab is shown in Figure 3-43.
Note: The 3D Machine Vision Reference Design is capable of very accurate measurements. If the flat
surface being scanned has a perceivable twist in it, verify that the surface is not twisted as well before
performing the calibration routine again.
Figure 3-43. Point Cloud of a Flat Surface Generated With Poor Calibration Data
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Scanning Objects
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3.10 Scanning Objects
With the system calibration complete and verified, scanning of an object is done by placing the object of
interest in the field of view of the camera and projector. Run the 3D Scanner executable file and enter the
perform scan command "8." The object is scanned and a depth map image will open up. The output point
cloud is saved as an XYZ file in the ../output/scan_images/ directory, viewable in MeshLab, as shown in
Figure 3-44.
Figure 3-44. Point Cloud File Location for Use With MeshLab
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Chapter 4
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Troubleshooting
4.1
General Troubleshooting Steps
This chapter details the troubleshooting steps for common problems encountered by users.
• Problem: The LightCrafter 4500 projector will not connect to the 3D Scanner program.
Solution: Make sure the LightCrafter 4500 GUI is not running on the PC. Reset the LightCrafter 4500,
and reconnect using menu option "9."
• Problem: The projected images do not appear in the camera's live view on the PC.
Solution: It is likely that the LightCrafter 4500 and camera are not synchronized. Try reducing the
frame rate of the camera, reducing the shutter speed, and increasing the exposure time and pattern
period of the projector. These settings can be changed in the "config_camera.txt" and the
"config_projector.txt" files in the ../config/ folder, respectively. The camera settings file is shown in
Figure 4-1, and the projector settings are shown in Figure 4-2. In the example shown below, the
camera frame rate is set to 15 frames per second. The projector exposure and period are set to 60,000
microseconds. The formula for the conversion to and from frame rate to exposure is:
106 = Camera Frame Rate × Projector Exposure Time
(1)
Figure 4-1. Camera Configuration File
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Figure 4-2. Projector Configuration File
•
Problem: The camera appears to be running at a very low frame rate causing slow scan rates.
Solution: Close the 3D Scanner program by entering "0" at the main menu. Click the Windows Start
button and search for "flycap2." Open the Point Grey FlyCap2 software, as shown in Figure 4-3.
Figure 4-3. FlyCap2 Software Utility Shortcut
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Select the camera in use, in the case of a single camera, it will already be selected. Click the
"Configure Selected" button, as shown in Figure 4-4.
Figure 4-4. Configure Selected Camera in FlyCap2 Software
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General Troubleshooting Steps
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Enter the Advanced Camera Settings tab on the left of the screen, make sure the memory channel is
set to default. Click the "Save" button, as shown in Figure 4-5.
Figure 4-5. Restore Factory Camera Settings In FlyCap2 Software
FlyCap2 software will prompt the user that the default setting will load the factory settings. Click the
"OK" button, as shown in Figure 4-6.
Figure 4-6. Confirm Factory Camera Settings in FlyCap2 Software
After the factory settings have been sent to the camera, disconnect the Flea3 camera from the PC.
Wait 3 seconds with the camera depowered before plugging the camera back in to the PC. Restart the
3D Scanner program and try to scan an object to verify the solution.
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•
Problem: The host PC does NOT have a USB 3.0 port to connect the Flea3.
Solution: The Flea3 camera can be connected to a USB 2.0 port but must be run at a lower frame
rate. Open the file named "config_camera.txt" in the ../config/ folder and change the value for
"PG_FLYCAP_PARAMETERS_FRAME_RATE_HZ" to "30" or less, as shown in Figure 4-7. Change
the projector exposure and period in the "config_projector.txt" file according to the above frame
rate/exposure time equation.
Figure 4-7. Camera Configuration File Settings for USB 2.0
•
Problem: Attempting to scan an object, or take any captured image, causes a fatal error in the
operating system.
Solution: The Point Grey software can cause issues if the 3D Scanner program is terminated
unexpectedly due to unterminated camera execution threads. If your 3D Scanning program is closed in
any way other than entering "0" into the command prompt, put the PC into sleep mode – or restart the
PC entirely – before attempting to take a picture with the camera.
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Revision History
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Revision History
NOTE: Page numbers for previous revisions may differ from page numbers in the current version.
Changes from A Revision (May 2016) to B Revision ...................................................................................................... Page
•
•
•
Fixed error where scan types were switched......................................................................................... 25
Added note about rolling shutter cameras and three phase scanning. ........................................................... 25
Added information about chessboard pattern size and how chessboard is detected in the ALC SDK....................... 32
Changes from Original (August 2014) to A Revision ..................................................................................................... Page
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
60
Added trigger cable assembly link and DLP ALC SDK link to Related Documentation from Texas Instruments ............ 6
Added phase shifted pattern information to Section 1.3.3 ........................................................................... 7
Updated screenshots in Section 2.2 for FlyCapture installation .................................................................... 9
Added instructions for webcam operation in Section 2.3 ........................................................................... 17
Added reference to source code in DLP ALC SDK in Section 2.5 ................................................................ 20
Added screenshots and steps for advanced configuration of the camera and scan type in Section 3.4 .................... 25
Added configuration file information to Section 3.5 ................................................................................. 29
Updated Figure 3-44 in Section 3.10 .................................................................................................. 54
Added screenshots to Section 4.1 for clarification and removed out of date troubleshooting steps .......................... 55
Revision History
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