Texas Instruments | ADS114x 16-Bit, 2-kSPS, Analog-to-Digital Converters With Programmable Gain Amplifier (PGA) for Sensor Measurement (Rev. G) | Datasheet | Texas Instruments ADS114x 16-Bit, 2-kSPS, Analog-to-Digital Converters With Programmable Gain Amplifier (PGA) for Sensor Measurement (Rev. G) Datasheet

Texas Instruments ADS114x 16-Bit, 2-kSPS, Analog-to-Digital Converters With Programmable Gain Amplifier (PGA) for Sensor Measurement (Rev. G) Datasheet
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ADS1146, ADS1147, ADS1148
SBAS453G – JULY 2009 – REVISED AUGUST 2016
ADS114x 16-Bit, 2-kSPS, Analog-to-Digital Converters With
Programmable Gain Amplifier (PGA) for Sensor Measurement
1 Features
3 Description
•
•
•
The ADS1146, ADS1147, and ADS1148 devices are
precision, 16-bit analog-to-digital converters (ADCs)
that include many integrated features to reduce
system cost and component count for sensor
measurement applications. The devices feature a
low-noise, programmable gain amplifier (PGA), a
precision delta-sigma (ΔΣ) ADC with a single-cycle
settling digital filter, and an internal oscillator. The
ADS1147 and ADS1148 devices also provide a builtin, low-drift voltage reference, and two matched
programmable excitation current sources (IDACs).
1
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Programmable Data Rates Up to 2 kSPS
Single-Cycle Settling for All Data Rates
Simultaneous 50-Hz and 60-Hz Rejection at
20 SPS
Analog Multiplexer With 8 (ADS1148) and
4 (ADS1147) Independently Selectable Inputs
Programmable Gain: 1 V/V to 128 V/V
Dual-Matched Programmable Excitation Current
Sources
Low-Drift Internal 2.048-V Reference
Sensor Burnout Detection
4 or 8 General-Purpose I/Os (ADS1147 and
ADS1148)
Internal Temperature Sensor
Power Supply and VREF Monitoring (ADS1147 and
ADS1148)
Self and System Calibration
SPI™-Compatible Serial Interface
Analog Supply: Unipolar (2.7 V to 5.25 V) or
Bipolar (±2.5 V)
Digital Supply: 2.7 V to 5.25 V
2 Applications
•
•
•
•
Temperature Measurement
– RTDs, Thermocouples, and Thermistors
Pressure Measurement
Flow Meters
Factory Automation and Process Control
An input multiplexer supports four differential inputs
for the ADS1148, two for the ADS1147, and one for
the ADS1146. In addition, the multiplexer integrates
sensor burn-out detection, voltage bias for
thermocouples, system monitoring, and general
purpose digital I/Os (ADS1147 and ADS1148). The
PGA provides selectable gains up to 128 V/V. These
features provide a complete front-end solution for
temperature sensor measurement applications
including thermocouples, thermistors, and resistance
temperature detectors (RTDs) and other small signal
measurements including resistive bridge sensors.
The digital filter settles in a single cycle to support
fast channel cycling when using the input multiplexer
and provides data rates up to 2 kSPS. For data rates
of 20 SPS or less, both 50-Hz and 60-Hz interference
are rejected by the filter.
Device Information(1)
PART NUMBER
PACKAGE
BODY SIZE (NOM)
ADS1146
TSSOP (16)
5.00 mm × 4.40 mm
ADS1147
TSSOP (20)
6.50 mm × 4.40 mm
TSSOP (28)
9.70 mm × 4.40 mm
VQFN (32)
5.00 mm × 5.00 mm
ADS1148
(1) For all available packages, see the orderable addendum at
the end of the datasheet.
Functional Block Diagrams
AVDD
REFP
REFN
REFP0/ REFN0/
AVDD GPIO0 GPIO1
DVDD
Burnout
Detect
Burnout
Detect
ADS1146
ADS1148
Only
REFP1 REFN1 VREFOUT VREFCOM
VREF Mux
VBIAS
VBIAS
DVDD
Voltage
Reference
ADS1147
ADS1148
Adjustable
Digital
Filter
Serial
Interface
And
Control
GPIO
AINP
Input
Mux
AINN
PGA
3rd Order
û
Modulator
Adjustable
Digital
Filter
Serial
Interface
And
Control
Internal
Oscillator
SCLK
AIN0/IEXC
DIN
AIN1/IEXC
DRDY
DOUT/ DRDY
AIN3/IEXC/GPIO3
CS
START
AIN4/IEXC/GPIO4
RESET
AIN6/IEXC/GPIO6
SCLK
System
Monitor
AIN2/IEXC/GPIO2
Input
Mux
PGA
DIN
3rd Order
û
Modulator
AIN5/IEXC/GPIO5
Dual
IDACs
AIN7/IEXC/GPIO7
DRDY
DOUT/ DRDY
CS
START
RESET
Internal
Oscillator
ADS1148 Only
Burnout
Detect
Burnout
Detect
AVSS
CLK
DGND
AVSS IEXC1 IEXC2
ADS1148 Only
CLK
DGND
Copyright © 2016, Texas Instruments Incorporated
1
An IMPORTANT NOTICE at the end of this data sheet addresses availability, warranty, changes, use in safety-critical applications,
intellectual property matters and other important disclaimers. PRODUCTION DATA.
ADS1146, ADS1147, ADS1148
SBAS453G – JULY 2009 – REVISED AUGUST 2016
www.ti.com
Table of Contents
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Features ..................................................................
Applications ...........................................................
Description .............................................................
Revision History.....................................................
Device Comparison Table.....................................
Pin Configuration and Functions .........................
Specifications.........................................................
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
1
1
1
2
4
5
7
Absolute Maximum Ratings ...................................... 7
ESD Ratings.............................................................. 7
Recommended Operating Conditions....................... 8
Thermal Information .................................................. 8
Electrical Characteristics........................................... 9
Timing Requirements .............................................. 11
Switching Characteristics ........................................ 11
Typical Characteristics ............................................ 13
8
Parameter Measurement Information ................ 15
9
Detailed Description ............................................ 16
8.1 Noise Performance ................................................. 15
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
Overview .................................................................
Functional Block Diagrams .....................................
Feature Description.................................................
Device Functional Modes........................................
16
16
17
28
9.5 Programming........................................................... 33
9.6 Register Maps ......................................................... 42
10 Application and Implementation........................ 62
10.1 Application Information.......................................... 62
10.2 Typical Applications .............................................. 68
10.3 Do's and Don'ts ..................................................... 78
11 Power Supply Recommendations ..................... 80
11.1 Power Supply Sequencing .................................... 80
11.2 Power Supply Decoupling ..................................... 80
12 Layout................................................................... 81
12.1 Layout Guidelines ................................................. 81
12.2 Layout Example .................................................... 82
13 Device and Documentation Support ................. 83
13.1
13.2
13.3
13.4
13.5
13.6
13.7
Documentation Support ........................................
Related Links ........................................................
Receiving Notification of Documentation Updates
Community Resources..........................................
Trademarks ...........................................................
Electrostatic Discharge Caution ............................
Glossary ................................................................
83
83
83
83
83
83
83
14 Mechanical, Packaging, and Orderable
Information ........................................................... 84
4 Revision History
NOTE: Page numbers for previous revisions may differ from page numbers in the current version.
Changes from Revision F (April 2012) to Revision G
Page
•
Added ESD Ratings table and Feature Description, Device Functional Modes, Application and
Implementation, Power Supply Recommendations, Layout, Device and Documentation Support, and Mechanical,
Packaging, and Orderable Information sections..................................................................................................................... 1
•
Updated Features and Description sections to include use in applications other than temperature measurement .............. 1
•
Merged all Pin Functions into one table ................................................................................................................................. 6
•
Changed values in the Thermal Information table to align with JEDEC standards................................................................ 8
•
Added Absolute input current specification to Electrical Characteristics................................................................................ 9
•
Changed compliance voltage for excitation current sources in Electrical Characteristics, now refers to Figure 9 and
Figure 10; changed initial error and initial mismatch to absolute error and absolute mismatch ............................................ 9
•
Changed IDAC mismatch specification in Electrical Characteristics table to reflect proper distribution ................................ 9
•
Re-ordered elements in Timing Requirements tables, changed timing references to tCLK ................................................... 11
•
Changed Low-Noise PGA section ........................................................................................................................................ 18
•
Modified Figure 20 to show variable resistor position ......................................................................................................... 18
•
Added fCLK/fMOD column to Table 5 ....................................................................................................................................... 22
•
Changed Chip Select (CS) section....................................................................................................................................... 33
•
Changed Data Output and Data Ready (DOUT/DRDY) section .......................................................................................... 34
•
Changed Figure 42, 43, and 44............................................................................................................................................ 35
•
Added more infomation to Data Format section; added Figure 45 ...................................................................................... 36
•
Modified Figure 46 to include CS status through SLEEP and WAKEUP command ............................................................ 38
•
Updated Figure 47 and Figure 48 to show start of command execution ............................................................................. 38
•
Removed figure for SDATAC (0001 011x) (Stop Read Data Continuous) command.......................................................... 40
•
Updated Figure 53 to show MUX1 as the start of the data byte for the given command and register location................... 40
2
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SBAS453G – JULY 2009 – REVISED AUGUST 2016
Revision History (continued)
•
Updated Figure 54 to show start of calibration timing .......................................................................................................... 41
•
Updated Figure 79 and Figure 80 to better show timing information ................................................................................... 66
Changes from Revision E (April 2012) to Revision F
•
Page
Added ADS1148, QFN-32 row to Package/Ordering Information table ................................................................................. 4
Changes from Revision D (October 2011) to Revision E
•
Page
Added RHB pin configuration ................................................................................................................................................. 5
Changes from Revision C (April 2010) to Revision D
Page
•
Added footnote to Analog Inputs, Full-scale input voltage parameter typical specification in Electrical Characteristics
table ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 9
•
Deleted Analog Inputs, Mux leakage current parameter from Electrical Characteristics table .............................................. 9
•
Added tCSPW to minimum specification in Timing Characteristics for Figure 1...................................................................... 11
•
Changed tDTS minimum specification in Timing Requirements............................................................................................. 11
•
Updated Figure 1 to show tCSPW timing ................................................................................................................................ 12
•
Added Figure 6, Figure 5, Figure 9, and Figure 10 .............................................................................................................. 13
•
Added Figure 15, Figure 16, Figure 11, and Figure 12 ........................................................................................................ 14
•
Corrected Figure 19 to remove constant short..................................................................................................................... 17
•
Added Table 4 to Analog Input Impedance section ............................................................................................................. 21
•
Corrected Figure 29 and Figure 30 ...................................................................................................................................... 23
•
Added details to Bias Voltage Generation section ............................................................................................................... 26
•
Added Channel Cycling and Overload Recovery section..................................................................................................... 30
•
Corrected Table 10............................................................................................................................................................... 31
•
Added Equation 18 to Calibration section ............................................................................................................................ 31
•
Added details to Calibration Commands section.................................................................................................................. 32
•
Added details to Digital Interface section ............................................................................................................................. 33
•
Added Restricted command to Table 15 .............................................................................................................................. 37
Copyright © 2009–2016, Texas Instruments Incorporated
Product Folder Links: ADS1146 ADS1147 ADS1148
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ADS1146, ADS1147, ADS1148
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www.ti.com
5 Device Comparison Table
PRODUCT
RESOLUTION
(BITS)
NUMBER OF INPUTS
VOLTAGE
REFERENCE
EXCITATION CURRENT
SOURCES
PACKAGE
(PINS)
ADS1246
24
1 Differential
External
No
TSSOP (16)
ADS1247
24
4-Input Multiplexer
Internal or External
Yes
TSSOP (20)
ADS1248
24
8-Input Multiplexer
Internal or External
Yes
TSSOP (28)
ADS1146
16
1 Differential
External
No
TSSOP (16)
ADS1147
16
4-Input Multiplexer
Internal or External
Yes
TSSOP (20)
16
8-Input Multiplexer
Internal or External
Yes
TSSOP (28)
16
8-Input Multiplexer
Internal or External
Yes
VQFN (32)
ADS1148
4
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Product Folder Links: ADS1146 ADS1147 ADS1148
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SBAS453G – JULY 2009 – REVISED AUGUST 2016
6 Pin Configuration and Functions
PW Package
16-Pin TSSOP
Top View
DVDD
1
DGND
16
2
CLK
15
3
RESET
14
4
REFP
13
5
REFN
12
6
AINP
11
7
AINN
PW Package
28-Pin TSSOP
Top View
10
8
9
DVDD
1
28
SCLK
DGND
2
27
DIN
CLK
3
26
DOUT/DRDY
RESET
4
25
DRDY
REFP0/GPIO0
5
24
CS
REFN0/GPIO1
6
23
START
REFP1
7
22
AVDD
REFN1
8
21
AVSS
VREFOUT
9
20
IEXC1
VREFCOM
10
19
IEXC2
AIN0/IEXC
11
18
AIN3/IEXC/GPIO3
AIN1/IEXC
12
17
AIN2/IEXC/GPIO2
AIN4/IEXC/GPIO4
13
16
AIN7/IEXC/GPIO7
AIN5/IEXC/GPIO5
14
15
AIN6/IEXC/GPIO6
SCLK
DIN
DOUT/DRDY
DRDY
CS
START
AVDD
AVSS
Not to scale
Not to scale
PW Package
20-Pin TSSOP
Top View
13
AVSS
AIN0/IEXC
9
12
AIN3/IEXC/GPIO3
AIN1/IEXC
10
11
AVDD
AVSS
IEXC1
IEXC2
28
27
26
25
3
22
AIN7/IEXC/GPIO7
NC
4
21
AIN6/IEXC/GPIO6
NC
5
20
AIN5/IEXC/GPIO5
Thermal Pad
NC
6
19
AIN4/IEXC/GPIO4
DVDD
7
18
AIN1/IEXC
DGND
8
17
AIN0/IEXC
CLK
9
Not to scale
AIN2/IEXC/GPIO2
NC
16
8
15
VREFCOM
AIN2/IEXC/GPIO2
VREFOUT
AVDD
AIN3/IEXC/GPIO3
23
VREFCOM
14
24
2
14
7
1
13
VREFOUT
DIN
SCLK
REFP1
START
REFN1
CS
15
START
16
6
29
5
12
REFP0/GPIO0
REFN0/GPIO1
REFN0/GPIO1
DRDY
CS
DOUT/DRDY
17
DRDY
18
4
30
3
31
CLK
RESET
11
DIN
10
SCLK
19
RESET
20
2
REFP0/GPIO0
1
DOUT/DRDY
DVDD
DGND
32
RHB Package
32-Pin VQFN
Top View
Copyright © 2009–2016, Texas Instruments Incorporated
Product Folder Links: ADS1146 ADS1147 ADS1148
Not to scale
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ADS1146, ADS1147, ADS1148
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Pin Functions
PIN
NAME
ADS1146
ADS1147
TYPE (1)
ADS1148
DESCRIPTION (2)
TSSOP (16)
TSSOP (20)
TSSOP (28)
VQFN (32)
AIN0/IEXC
—
9
11
17
I
Analog input 0, optional excitation current output
AIN1/IEXC
—
10
12
18
I
Analog input 1, optional excitation current output
AIN2/IEXC/GPIO2
—
11
17
23
I/O
Analog input 2, optional excitation current output,
or general-purpose digital input/output pin 2
AIN3/IEXC/GPIO3
—
12
18
24
I/O
Analog input 3, optional excitation current output,
or general-purpose digital input/output pin 3
AIN4/IEXC/GPIO4
—
—
13
19
I/O
Analog input 4, optional excitation current output,
or general-purpose digital input/output pin 4
AIN5/IEXC/GPIO5
—
—
14
20
I/O
Analog input 5, optional excitation current output,
or general-purpose digital input/output pin 5
AIN6/IEXC/GPIO6
—
—
15
21
I/O
Analog input 6, optional excitation current output,
or general-purpose digital input/output pin 6
AIN7/IEXC/GPIO7
—
—
16
22
I/O
Analog input 7, optional excitation current output,
or general-purpose digital input/output pin 7
AINN
8
—
—
—
I
Negative analog input
AINP
7
—
—
—
I
Positive analog input
AVDD
10
14
22
28
P
Positive analog power supply, connect a 0.1-µF capacitor
to AVSS
AVSS
9
13
21
27
P
Negative analog power supply
CLK
3
3
3
9
I
External clock input, tie to DGND to activate the internal
oscillator.
CS
12
16
24
30
I
Chip select (active low)
DGND
2
2
2
8
G
Digital ground
DIN
15
19
27
1
I
Serial data input
DOUT/DRDY
14
18
26
32
O
Serial data output, or data out combined with data ready
DRDY
13
17
25
31
O
Data ready (active low)
DVDD
1
1
1
7
P
Digital power supply, connect a 0.1-µF capacitor to
DGND
IEXC1
—
—
20
26
O
Excitation current output 1
IEXC2
—
—
19
25
O
Excitation current output 2
NC
—
—
—
3, 4, 5, 6
—
Connect pin to AVSS or leave floating
REFN
6
—
—
—
I
REFN0/GPIO1
—
6
6
12
I/O
REFN1
—
—
8
14
I
Negative external reference input 1
REFP
5
—
—
—
I
Positive external reference input
REFP0/GPIO0
—
5
5
11
I/O
REFP1
—
—
7
13
I
Positive external reference input 1
RESET
4
4
4
10
I
Reset (active low)
SCLK
16
20
28
2
I
Serial clock input
START
11
15
23
29
I
Conversion start
Thermal Pad
—
—
—
33
—
Connect pin to AVSS or leave floating
VREFCOM
—
8
10
16
O
Negative internal reference voltage output, connect to
AVSS when using a unipolar supply or to the mid-voltage
ground when using a bipolar supply
VREFOUT
—
7
9
15
O
Positive internal reference voltage output, connect a
capacitor in the range of 1 µF to 47 µF to VREFCOM
(1)
(2)
6
Negative external reference input
Negative external reference input 0,
or general-purpose digital input/output pin 1
Positive external reference input 0,
or general-purpose digital input/output pin 1
G = Ground, I = Input, O = Output, P = Power
See Unused Inputs and Outputs for unused pin connections.
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SBAS453G – JULY 2009 – REVISED AUGUST 2016
7 Specifications
7.1 Absolute Maximum Ratings
See (1)
Power-supply voltage
MIN
MAX
AVDD to AVSS
–0.3
5.5
AVSS to DGND
–2.8
0.3
DVDD to DGND
–0.3
5.5
UNIT
V
Analog input voltage
AINx, REFPx, REFNx, VREFOUT, VREFCOM, IEXC1, IEXC2
AVSS – 0.3
AVDD + 0.3
V
Digital input voltage
SCLK, DIN, DOUT/DRDY, DRDY, CS, START, RESET, CLK
DGND – 0.3
DVDD + 0.3
V
Continuous, any pin except power supply pins
–10
10
Momentary, any pin except power supply pins
–100
100
Input current
Temperature
(1)
Junction, TJ
mA
150
Storage, Tstg
–60
°C
150
Stresses beyond those listed under Absolute Maximum Ratings may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings
only, which do not imply functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated under Recommended
Operating Conditions. Exposure to absolute-maximum-rated conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
7.2 ESD Ratings
VALUE
V(ESD)
(1)
(2)
Electrostatic discharge
Human-body model (HBM), per ANSI/ESDA/JEDEC JS-001 (1)
±2000
Charged-device model (CDM), per JEDEC specification JESD22-C101 (2)
±750
UNIT
V
JEDEC document JEP155 states that 500-V HBM allows safe manufacturing with a standard ESD control process.
JEDEC document JEP157 states that 250-V CDM allows safe manufacturing with a standard ESD control process.
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7.3 Recommended Operating Conditions
Over operating ambient temperature range (unless otherwise noted)
MIN
NOM
MAX
UNIT
POWER SUPPLY
Analog power supply
Digital power supply
AVDD to AVSS
2.7
AVSS to DGND
–2.65
5.25
0.1
AVDD to DGND
2.25
5.25
DVDD to DGND
2.7
5.25
V
VREF / Gain
V
0.5
(AVDD – AVSS) – 1
V
AVSS – 0.1
V(REFPx) – 0.5
V
V(REFNx) + 0.5
AVDD + 0.1
V
V
ANALOG INPUTS (1)
VIN
Differential input voltage
V(AINP) – V(AINN) (2)
VCM
Common-mode input voltage
(V(AINP) + V(AINN)) / 2
–VREF / Gain
See Equation 3
VOLTAGE REFERENCE INPUTS (3)
VREF
Differential reference input voltage
V(REFNx)
Absolute negative reference voltage
V(REFPx)
Absolute positive reference voltage
V(REFPx) – V(REFNx)
EXTERNAL CLOCK INPUT (4)
fCLK
External clock frequency
1
4.5
External clock duty cycle
25%
75%
MHz
AVSS
AVDD
V
DGND
DVDD
V
Operating ambient temperature
–40
125
°C
Specified ambient temperature
–40
105
°C
GENERAL-PURPOSE INPUTS AND OUTPUTS (GPIO)
GPIO input voltage
DIGITAL INPUTS
Digital input voltage
TEMPERATURE RANGE
TA
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
AINP and AINN denote the positive and negative inputs of the PGA.
For VREF > 2.7 V, the differential input voltage must not exceed 2.7 V / Gain.
REFPx and REFNx denote the differential reference input pair (ADS1146, ADS1147), or one of the two available differential reference
input pairs (ADS1148).
External clock only required if the internal oscillator is not used.
7.4 Thermal Information
THERMAL METRIC
(1)
ADS1146
ADS1147
ADS1148
PW (TSSOP)
PW (TSSOP)
PW (TSSOP)
RHB (VQFN)
16 PINS
20 PINS
28 PINS
32 PINS
UNIT
RθJA
Junction-to-ambient thermal resistance
95.2
87.4
74.2
32.5
°C/W
RθJC(top)
Junction-to-case (top) thermal resistance
28.9
21.7
20.2
23.9
°C/W
RθJB
Junction-to-board thermal resistance
41
39.6
31.8
6.6
°C/W
ψJT
Junction-to-top characterization parameter
1.5
0.8
0.8
0.3
°C/W
ψJB
Junction-to-board characterization parameter
40.4
38.9
31.3
6.6
°C/W
RθJC(bot)
Junction-to-case (bottom) thermal resistance
—
—
—
1.6
°C/W
(1)
8
For more information about traditional and new thermal metrics, see the Semiconductor and IC Package Thermal Metrics application
report.
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7.5 Electrical Characteristics
Minimum and maximum specifications apply from TA = –40°C to +105°C. Typical specifications are at TA = 25°C.
All specifications are at AVDD = 5 V, DVDD = 3.3 V, AVSS = 0 V, VREF = 2.048 V, and fCLK = 4.096 MHz (unless otherwise
noted).
PARAMETER
TEST CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNIT
ANALOG INPUTS
Differential input current
100
Absolute input current
pA
See Table 4
PGA
PGA gain settings
1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128
V/V
SYSTEM PERFORMANCE
Resolution
DR
No missing codes
Data rate
INL
ADC conversion time
Single-cycle settling
Integral nonlinearity
Differential input, end point fit,
Gain = 1, VCM = 2.5 V
–1
Offset error
After calibration
–1
Offset drift
Gain error
Gain drift
Common-mode rejection
PSRR
Power supply rejection
0.5
1
1
100
Gain = 128
Excluding VREF errors
SPS
See Table 10
LSB
nV/°C
0.5%
Gain = 1, excludes VREF drift
Gain = 128, excludes VREF drift
LSB
nV/°C
15
–0.5%
1
ppm°C
–3.5
ppm/°C
See Table 1 and Table 2
Normal mode rejection
CMRR
Bits
Gain = 1
Noise
NMRR
16
5, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160, 320, 640, 1000, 2000
See Table 6
At DC, Gain = 1
90
At DC, Gain = 32
100
AVDD, DVDD at DC
100
dB
30
nA
dB
VOLTAGE REFERENCE INPUTS
Reference input current
INTERNAL VOLTAGE REFERENCE
VREF
Internal reference voltage
Reference drift (1)
2.038
2.048
2.058
20
50
TA = –40°C to +105°C
Output current (2)
–10
10
Load regulation
50
Start-up time
V
ppm/°C
mA
µV/mA
See Table 7
INTERNAL OSCILLATOR
Internal oscillator frequency
3.89
4.096
4.3
MHz
EXCITATION CURRENT SOURCES (IDACs)
Output current settings
50, 100, 250, 500, 750, 1000, 1500
Compliance voltage
All currents
Absolute error
All currents, each IDAC
Absolute mismatch
All currents, between IDACs
Temperature drift
Each IDAC
Temperature drift matching
Between IDACs
µA
See Figure 9 and Figure 10
–6%
±1%
6%
±0.2%
200
ppm/°C
10
ppm/°C
BURN-OUT CURRENT SOURCES
Burn-out current source settings
(1)
(2)
0.5, 2, 10
µA
Specified by the combination of design and final production test.
Do not exceed this loading on the internal voltage reference.
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Electrical Characteristics (continued)
Minimum and maximum specifications apply from TA = –40°C to +105°C. Typical specifications are at TA = 25°C.
All specifications are at AVDD = 5 V, DVDD = 3.3 V, AVSS = 0 V, VREF = 2.048 V, and fCLK = 4.096 MHz (unless otherwise
noted).
PARAMETER
TEST CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNIT
BIAS VOLTAGE
Bias voltage
Bias voltage output impedance
(AVDD + AVSS) / 2
V
400
Ω
TEMPERATURE SENSOR
Output voltage
TA = 25°C
Temperature coefficient
118
mV
405
µV/°C
GENERAL-PURPOSE INPUTS AND OUTPUTS (GPIO)
VIL
Low-level input voltage
AVSS
0.3 × AVDD
V
VIH
High-level input voltage
0.7 × AVDD
AVDD
V
VOL
Low-level output voltage
IOL = 1 mA
AVSS
0.2 × AVDD
V
VOH
High-level output voltage
IOH = 1 mA
0.8 × AVDD
V
DIGITAL INPUTS AND OUTPUTS (OTHER THAN GPIO)
VIL
Low-level input voltage
DGND
0.3 × DVDD
V
VIH
High-level input voltage
0.7 × DVDD
DVDD
V
VOL
Low-level output voltage
IOL = 1 mA
DGND
0.2 × DVDD
V
VOH
High-level output voltage
IOH = 1 mA
0.8 × DVDD
Input leakage
DGND < VIN < DVDD
10
µA
V
–10
POWER SUPPLY
IAVDD
IDVDD
PD
10
Analog supply current
Digital supply current
Power dissipation
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0.1
Converting, AVDD = 3.3 V,
DR = 20 SPS, external reference
212
Converting, AVDD = 5 V,
DR = 20 SPS, external reference
225
Additional current with internal reference
enabled
180
Power-down mode
0.2
Normal operation, DVDD = 3.3 V,
DR = 20 SPS, internal oscillator
210
Normal operation, DVDD = 5 V,
DR = 20 SPS, internal oscillator
230
AVDD = DVDD = 3.3 V,
DR = 20 SPS, internal oscillator, external
reference
1.4
AVDD = DVDD = 5 V,
DR = 20 SPS, internal oscillator, external
reference
2.3
µA
µA
mW
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7.6 Timing Requirements
At TA = –40°C to +105°C and DVDD = 2.7 V to 5.5 V (unless otherwise noted)
PARAMETER
MIN
NOM
MAX
UNIT
SERIAL INTERFACE (SEE Figure 1 AND Figure 2)
tCSSC
Delay time, first SCLK rising edge after CS falling edge
10
ns
tSCCS
Delay time, CS rising edge after final SCLK falling edge
7
tCLK (1)
tCSPW
Pulse duration, CS high
5
tCLK
tSCLK
SCLK period
tSPWH
Pulse duration, SCLK high
0.25
0.75
tSCLK
tSPWL
Pulse duration, SCLK low
0.25
0.75
tSCLK
tDIST
Setup time, DIN valid before SCLK falling edge
5
ns
tDIHD
Hold time, DIN valid after SCLK falling edge
5
ns
tSTD
Setup time, SCLK low before DRDY rising edge
5
tCLK
tDTS
Delay time, SCLK rising edge after DRDY falling edge
1
tCLK
3
tCLK
488
ns
64
Conversions
MINIMUM START TIME PULSE DURATION (SEE Figure 3)
tSTART
Pulse duration, START high
RESET PULSE DURATION, SERIAL INTERFACE COMMUNICATION AFTER RESET (SEE Figure 4)
tRESET
Pulse duration, RESET low
tRHSC
Delay time, SCLK rising edge (start of serial interface communication)
after RESET rising edge
(1)
(2)
4
tCLK
0.6 (2)
ms
tCLK = 1 / fCLK. The default clock frequency fCLK = 4.096 MHz.
Applicable only when fCLK = 4.096 MHz, scales proportionally with fCLK frequency.
7.7 Switching Characteristics
At TA = –40°C to +105°C and DVDD = 2.7 V to 5.5 V (unless otherwise noted; see Figure 1 and Figure 2)
PARAMETER
TEST CONDITIONS
tDOPD
Propagation delay time,
SCLK rising edge to valid new DOUT
tDOHD
DOUT hold time
tCSDO
Propagation delay time,
CS rising edge to DOUT high impedance
tPWH
Pulse duration, DRDY high
MIN
TYP
MAX
DVDD ≤ 3.6 V
50
DVDD > 3.6 V
180
UNIT
0
ns
10
3
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tCLK
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tCSPW
CS
tSCLK
tCSSC
tSPWH
tSCCS
SCLK
tDIST tDIHD
DIN
DIN[0]
DIN[7]
tSPWL
DIN[6]
DIN[5]
DIN[4]
DIN[1]
tDOPD
DOUT[7]
DOUT/DRDY
DOUT[6]
DIN[0]
tDOHD
DOUT[5]
DOUT[4]
DOUT[1]
DOUT[0]
tCSDO
Figure 1. Serial Interface Timing, DRDY MODE Bit = 0
tDTS
tPWH
DRDY
tSTD(1)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
SCLK(2)
(1)
This timing diagram is applicable only when the CS pin is low. SCLK does not need to be low during tSTD when CS is
high.
(2)
SCLK must only be sent in multiples of eight during partial retrieval of output data.
Figure 2. Serial Interface Timing to Allow Conversion Result Loading
tSTART
START
Figure 3. Minimum Start Pulse Duration
tRESET
RESET
CS
SCLK
tRHSC
Figure 4. Reset Pulse Duration and Serial Interface Communication After Reset
12
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7.8 Typical Characteristics
TA = 25°C, AVDD = 5 V, AVSS = 0 V, and VREF = 2.5 V (unless otherwise noted)
0
3.0
32 Units
2.5
2.0
Data Rate Error (%)
Reference Drift (ppm)
−20
−40
−60
−80
1.5
1.0
DVDD = 5V
0.5
0
DVDD = 3.3V
-0.5
-1.0
-1.5
-2.0
−100
-2.5
−120
-3.0
0
200
400
600
Time (hours)
800
1000
-40
20
40
60
80
100
120
Temperature (°C)
Figure 5. Internal Reference Long-Term Drift
Figure 6. Data Rate Error vs Temperature
1.002
0.004
1.5mA Setting, 10 Units
1.001
0.003
1.000
0.999
IEXC1 - IEXC2 (mA)
Normalized Output Current
0
-20
G000
50mA
100mA
0.998
0.997
500mA
0.996
250mA
0.995
750mA
0.994
0.993
1mA
0.992
IDAC Current Settings
0.002
0.001
0
-0.001
-0.002
-0.003
1.5mA
0.991
-0.004
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
-40
0
-20
20
40
60
80
100
120
Temperature (°C)
AVDD (V)
Figure 7. IDAC Line Regulation
Figure 8. IDAC Drift
1.01
1.1
1.005
Normalized IDAC Current
Normalized IDAC Current
1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
50µA
100µA
250µA
500µA
750µA
1mA
1.5mA
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0
1
1
0.995
0.99
0.985
2
3
Voltage (V)
4
Figure 9. IDAC Voltage Compliance
5
0.98
0
1
2
3
Voltage (V)
4
5
Figure 10. IDAC Voltage Compliance
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Typical Characteristics (continued)
TA = 25°C, AVDD = 5 V, AVSS = 0 V, and VREF = 2.5 V (unless otherwise noted)
600
290
550
270
Digital Current (mA)
Analog Current (mA)
500
450
AVDD = 5V
400
350
AVDD = 3.3V
300
250
200
250
DVDD = 5V
230
DVDD = 3.3V
210
190
150
170
100
5
10
20
40
80
160 320 640 1000 2000
5
10
20
40
80
160
320 640 1000 2000
Data Rate (SPS)
Data Rate (SPS)
Figure 11. Analog Supply Current vs Data Rate
Figure 12. Digital Supply Current vs Data Rate
330
800
AVDD = 5V
DVDD = 5V
2kSPS
700
310
320/640/1kSPS
500
40/80/160SPS
400
5/10/20SPS
300
200
Digital Current (mA)
Analog Current (mA)
2kSPS
600
290
320/640/1kSPS
270
250
230
40/80/160SPS
100
210
0
190
5/10/20SPS
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
-40
-20
0
40
60
80
100
120
Figure 14. Digital Supply Current vs Temperature
Figure 13. Analog Supply Current vs Temperature
700
310
AVDD = 3.3V
2kSPS
DVDD = 3.3V
600
290
500
320/640/1kSPS
400
40/80/160SPS
300
5/10/20SPS
200
Digital Current (mA)
2kSPS
Analog Current (mA)
20
Temperature (°C)
Temperature (°C)
270
320/640/1kSPS
250
230
40/80/160SPS
100
210
0
190
5/10/20SPS
-40
14
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Temperature (°C)
Temperature (°C)
Figure 15. Analog Supply Current vs Temperature
Figure 16. Digital Supply Current vs Temperature
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8 Parameter Measurement Information
8.1 Noise Performance
The ADC noise performance is optimized by adjusting the data rate and PGA setting. Generally, the lowest inputreferred noise is achieved using the highest gain possible, consistent with the input signal range. Do not set the
gain too high or the result is ADC overrange. Noise also depends on the output data rate. As the data rate
reduces, the ADC bandwidth correspondingly reduces. This reduction in total bandwidth results in lower overall
noise. Table 1 and Table 2 summarize the noise performance of the device. The data are representative of
typical noise performance at TA = 25°C. The data shown are the result of averaging the readings from multiple
devices and were measured with the inputs shorted together.
Table 1 lists the input-referred noise in units of µVPP for the conditions shown. Table 2 lists the corresponding
data in units of ENOB (effective number of bits) where ENOB for the peak-to-peak noise is defined in Equation 1.
ENOB = ln((2 × VREF/Gain) / VNPP) / ln(2)
where
•
VNPP is the input referred peak-to-peak noise voltage
(1)
Table 1. Noise in µVPP
At VREF = 2.048 V, AVDD = 5 V, AVSS = 0 V
PGA SETTING
DATA RATE
(SPS)
1
2
4
8
16
32
64
128
5
62.5 (1)
31.25 (1)
15.63 (1)
7.81 (1)
3.91 (1)
1.95 (1)
0.98 (1)
0.49 (1)
10
62.5 (1)
31.25 (1)
15.63 (1)
7.81 (1)
3.91 (1)
1.95 (1)
0.98 (1)
0.49 (1)
20
62.5
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
0.55
40
62.5 (1)
31.25 (1)
15.63 (1)
7.81 (1)
3.91 (1)
1.95 (1)
0.98 (1)
0.75
80
62.5 (1)
31.25 (1)
15.63 (1)
7.81 (1)
3.91 (1)
1.95 (1)
1.09
0.98
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
31.25
31.25
15.63
15.63
7.81
7.81
3.91
3.91
1.95
1.95
0.98
160
62.5
1.88
1.57
320
62.5 (1)
35.3
17.52
8.86
4.35
3.03
2.44
2.34
640
93.06
45.2
18.73
12.97
6.51
4.2
3.69
3.5
1000
284.59
129.77
61.3
33.04
16.82
9.08
5.42
4.65
2000
273.39
130.68
67.13
36.16
19.22
9.87
6.93
6.48
Peak-to-peak noise rounded up to 1 LSB.
Table 2. Effective Number of Bits From Peak-to-Peak Noise
At VREF = 2.048 V, AVDD = 5 V, AVSS = 0 V
PGA SETTING
DATA RATE
(SPS)
1
2
4
8
16
32
64
128
5
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
10
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
20
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
15.8
40
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
15.4
80
16
16
16
16
16
16
15.8
15
160
16
16
16
16
16
16
15.1
14.3
320
16
15.8
15.8
15.8
15.8
15.4
14.7
13.7
640
15.4
15.5
15.7
15.3
15.3
14.9
14.1
13.2
1000
13.8
13.9
14
13.9
13.9
13.8
13.5
12.7
2000
13.9
13.9
13.9
13.8
13.7
13.7
13.2
12.3
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9 Detailed Description
9.1 Overview
The ADS1146, ADS1147 and ADS1148 devices are highly integrated 16-bit data converters. The devices include
a low-noise, high-input impedance programmable gain amplifier (PGA), a delta-sigma (ΔΣ) ADC with an
adjustable single-cycle settling digital filter, internal oscillator, and an SPI-compatible serial interface.
The ADS1147 and ADS1148 also include a flexible input multiplexer with system monitoring capability and
general-purpose I/O settings, a low-drift voltage reference, and two matched current sources for sensor
excitation. Figure 17 and Figure 18 show the various functions incorporated into each device.
9.2 Functional Block Diagrams
AVDD
REFP
REFN
DVDD
Burnout
Detect
ADS1146
VBIAS
SCLK
DIN
AINP
Input
Mux
AINN
3rd Order
û
Modulator
PGA
Serial
Interface
And
Control
Adjustable
Digital
Filter
DRDY
DOUT/DRDY
CS
START
RESET
Internal Oscillator
Burnout
Detect
AVSS
CLK
DGND
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Figure 17. ADS1146 Diagram
REFP0/ REFN0/
AVDD GPIO0 GPIO1
Burnout
Detect
ADS1148 Only
REFP1
REFN1 VREFOUT
VREFCOM
Voltage
Reference
VREF Mux
VBIAS
DVDD
ADS1147
ADS1148
GPIO
AIN0/IEXC
SCLK
System
Monitor
AIN1/IEXC
AIN2/IEXC/GPIO2
Input
Mux
AIN3/IEXC/GPIO3
AIN4/IEXC/GPIO4
PGA
DIN
3rd Order
û
Modulator
Adjustable
Digital
Filter
Serial
Interface
And
Control
DRDY
DOUT/DRDY
CS
START
AIN5/IEXC/GPIO5
Dual
IDACs
AIN6/IEXC/GPIO6
AIN7/IEXC/GPIO7
RESET
Internal Oscillator
ADS1148 Only
Burnout
Detect
AVSS IEXC1 IEXC2
ADS1148 Only
CLK
DGND
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Figure 18. ADS1147 and ADS1148 Diagram
16
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9.3 Feature Description
9.3.1 ADC Input and Multiplexer
The ADC measures the input signal through the onboard PGA. All analog inputs are connected to the internal
AINP or AINN analog inputs through the analog multiplexer. Figure 19 shows a block diagram of the analog input
multiplexer.
The input multiplexer connects to eight (ADS1148) or four (ADS1147) analog inputs. Any analog input pin can be
selected as the positive input or negative input through the MUX0 register, while the ADS1146 has AINP and
AINN connections for a single differential channel. The multiplexer also allows the on-chip excitation current and
bias voltage to be selected to a specific channel.
Through the input multiplexer, the ambient temperature (internal temperature sensor), AVDD, DVDD, and
external reference can all be selected for measurement. See the System Monitor section for more details.
On the ADS1147 and ADS1148, the analog inputs can also be configured as general-purpose inputs and outputs
(GPIOs). See the General-Purpose Digital I/O section for more details.
AVDD
AVDD
IDAC2
IDAC1
System Monitors
AVSS
AVDD
VBIAS
AVDD
AVDD
AIN0
AVSS
AVDD
VBIAS
AIN1
ADS1147/8 Only
AVSS
AVDD
Temperature
Diode
VREFP
VREFN
VREFP1/4
VBIAS
VREFN1/4
VREFP0/4
AIN2
AVSS
AVDD
VREFN0/4
VBIAS
AVDD/4
AIN3
AVSS/4
DVDD/4
ADS1148 Only
AVSS
AVDD
DGND/4
VBIAS
AIN4
AVDD
AVSS
AVDD
VBIAS
Burnout Current Source
(0.5 µA, 2 µA, 10 µA)
AIN5
AINP
AVSS
AVDD
VBIAS
AVSS
AVDD
VBIAS
AINN
PGA
To
ADC
AIN6
AIN7
Burnout Current Source
(0.5 µA, 2 µA, 10 µA)
AVSS
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Figure 19. Analog Input Multiplexer Circuit
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Feature Description (continued)
ESD diodes protect the ADC inputs. To prevent these diodes from turning on, make sure the voltages on the
input pins do not go below AVSS by more than 100 mV, and do not exceed AVDD by more than 100 mV, as
shown in Equation 2. Note that the same caution is true if the inputs are configured to be GPIOs.
AVSS – 100 mV < V(AINX) < AVDD + 100 mV
(2)
9.3.2 Low-Noise PGA
The ADS1146, ADS1147, and ADS1148 feature a low-drift, low-noise, high input impedance programmable gain
amplifier (PGA). The PGA can be set to gains of 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, or 128 by register SYS0. Figure 20 shows
a simplified diagram of the PGA.
The PGA consists of two chopper-stabilized amplifiers (A1 and A2) and a resistor feedback network that sets the
gain of the PGA. The PGA input is equipped with an electromagnetic interference (EMI) filter, as shown in
Figure 20. As with any PGA, ensure that the input voltage stays within the specified common-mode input range.
The common-mode input (VCM) must be within the range shown in Equation 3.
§
¨ AVSS
¨
©
0.1 V
VIN (MAX) ˜ Gain ·
§
¸ d VCM d ¨ AVDD
¸
¨
2
¹
©
0.1 V
VIN (MAX)˜ Gain ·
¸
¸
2
¹
(3)
454
+
AINP
A1
7.5 pF
RF
7.5 pF
R
C
RG
ADC
R
RF
7.5 pF
A2
454
+
AINN
7.5 pF
Figure 20. Simplified Diagram of the PGA
Gain is changed inside the device using a variable resistor, RG. The differential full-scale input voltage range
(FSR) of the PGA is defined by the gain setting and the reference voltage used, as shown in Equation 4.
FSR = ±VREF / Gain
(4)
Table 3 shows the corresponding full-scale input ranges when using the internal 2.048-V reference.
Table 3. PGA Full-Scale Range
18
PGA GAIN SETTING
FSR
1
±2.048 V
2
±1.024 V
4
±0.512 V
8
±0.256 V
16
±0.128 V
32
±0.064 V
64
±0.032 V
128
±0.016 V
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9.3.2.1 PGA Common-Mode Voltage Requirements
To stay within the linear operating range of the PGA, the input signals must meet certain requirements that are
discussed in this section.
The outputs of both amplifiers (A1 and A2) in Figure 20 can not swing closer to the supplies (AVSS and AVDD)
than 100 mV. If the outputs OUTP and OUTN are driven to within 100 mV of the supply rails, the amplifiers
saturate and consequently become nonlinear. To prevent this nonlinear operating condition, the output voltages
must meet Equation 5.
AVSS + 0.1 V ≤ V(OUTN), V(OUTP) ≤ AVDD – 0.1 V
(5)
Translating the requirements of Equation 5 into requirements referred to the PGA inputs (AINP and AINN) is
beneficial because there is no direct access to the outputs of the PGA. The PGA employs a symmetrical design;
therefore, the common-mode voltage at the output of the PGA can be assumed to be the same as the commonmode voltage of the input signal, as shown in Figure 21.
AINP
+
A1
½ V IN
RF
OUTP
½ Gain·V IN
RG
VCM = ½ (V (AINP) + V(AINN))
½ Gain·V IN
RF
OUTN
½ V IN
A2
AINN
+
Figure 21. PGA Common-Mode Voltage
The common-mode voltage is calculated using Equation 6.
VCM = ½ (V(AINP) + V(AINN)) = ½ (V(OUTP) + V(OUTN))
(6)
The voltages at the PGA inputs (AINP and AINN) can be expressed as Equation 7 and Equation 8.
V(AINP) = VCM + ½ VIN
V(AINN) = VCM – ½ VIN
(7)
(8)
The output voltages (V(OUTP) and V(OUTN)) can then be calculated as Equation 9 and Equation 10.
V(OUTP) = VCM + ½ Gain × VIN
V(OUTN) = VCM – ½ Gain × VIN
(9)
(10)
The requirements for the output voltages of amplifiers A1 and A2 (Equation 5) can now be translated into
requirements for the input common-mode voltage range using Equation 9 and Equation 10, which are given in
Equation 11 and Equation 12.
VCM (MIN) ≥ AVSS + 0.1 V + ½ Gain × VIN (MAX)
VCM (MAX) ≤ AVDD – 0.1 V – ½ Gain × VIN (MAX)
(11)
(12)
To calculate the minimum and maximum common-mode voltage limits, the maximum differential input voltage
(VIN (MAX)) that occurs in the application must be used. VIN (MAX) can be less than the maximum possible full-scale
value.
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9.3.2.2 PGA Common-Mode Voltage Calculation Example
The following paragraphs explain how to apply Equation 11 and Equation 12 to a hypothetical application. The
setup for this example is AVDD = 3.3 V, AVSS = 0 V, and gain = 16, using an external reference, VREF = 2.5 V.
The maximum possible differential input voltage VIN = (V(AINP) – V(AINN)) that can be applied is then limited to the
full-scale range of FSR = ±2.5 V / 16 = ±0.156 V. Consequently, Equation 11 and Equation 12 yield an allowed
VCM range of 1.35 V ≤ VCM ≤ 1.95 V.
If the sensor signal connected to the inputs in this hypothetical application does not make use of the entire fullscale range but is limited to VIN (MAX) = ±0.1 V, for example, then this reduced input signal amplitude relaxes the
VCM restriction to 0.9 V ≤ VCM ≤ 2.4 V.
In the case of a fully-differential sensor signal, each input (AINP, AINN) can swing up to ±50 mV around the
common-mode voltage (V(AINP) + V(AINN)) / 2, which must remain between the limits of 0.9 V and 2.4 V. The
output of a symmetrical wheatstone bridge is an example of a fully-differential signal. Figure 22 shows a situation
where the common-mode voltage of the input signal is at the lowest limit. V(OUTN) is exactly at 0.1 V in this case.
Any further decrease in common-mode voltage (VCM) or increase in differential input voltage (VIN) drives V(OUTN)
below 0.1 V and saturates amplifier A2.
V(AINP) = 0.95 V
+
A1
50 mV
RF
V(OUTP) = 1.7 V
800 mV
VCM = 0.9 V
RF / 7.5
RF
800 mV
V(OUTN) = 0.1 V
50 mV
A2
V(AINN) = 0.85 V
+
Figure 22. Example Where VCM is at the Lowest Limit
In contrast, the signal of an RTD is of a pseudo-differential nature (if implemented as shown in the 3-Wire RTD
Measurement System section), where the negative input is held at a constant voltage other than 0 V and only the
voltage on the positive input changes. When a pseudo-differential signal must be measured, the negative input in
this example must be biased at a voltage from 0.85 V to 2.35 V. The positive input can then swing up to VIN (MAX)
= 100 mV above the negative input. In this case, the common-mode voltage changes at the same time the
voltage on the positive input changes. That is, while the input signal swings between 0 V ≤ VIN ≤ VIN (MAX), the
common-mode voltage swings between V(AINN) ≤ VCM ≤ V(AINN) + ½ VIN (MAX). Satisfying the common-mode
voltage requirements for the maximum input voltage VIN (MAX) ensures the requirements are met throughout the
entire signal range.
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Figure 23 and Figure 24 show examples of both fully-differential and pseudo-differential signals, respectively.
AINP
AINP
VCM
VCM
1.0 V
100 mV
1.0 V
100 mV
AINN
AINN
0V
0V
Figure 23. Fully-Differential Input Signal
Figure 24. Pseudo-Differential Input Signal
NOTE
With a unipolar power supply, the input range does not extend to the ground. Equation 11
and Equation 12 show the common-mode voltage requirements.
• VCM (MIN) ≥ AVSS + 0.1 V + ½ Gain × VIN (MAX)
• VCM (MAX) ≤ AVDD – 0.1 V – ½ Gain × VIN (MAX)
9.3.2.3 Analog Input Impedance
The device inputs are buffered through a high-input impedance PGA before they reach the ΔΣ modulator. For the
majority of applications, the input current is minimal and can be neglected. However, because the PGA is
chopper-stabilized for noise and offset performance, the input impedance is best described as a small absolute
input current. The absolute input current for selected channels is approximately proportional to the selected
modulator clock. Table 4 shows the typical values for these currents with a differential voltage coefficient and the
corresponding input impedances over data rate.
Table 4. Typical Values for Analog Input Current Over Data Rate (1)
(1)
CONDITION
ABSOLUTE INPUT CURRENT
EFFECTIVE INPUT IMPEDANCE
DR = 5 SPS, 10 SPS, 20 SPS
± (0.5 nA + 0.1 nA/V)
5000 MΩ
DR = 40 SPS, 80 SPS, 160 SPS
± (2 nA + 0.5 nA/V)
1200 MΩ
DR = 320 SPS, 640 SPS, 1 kSPS
± (4 nA + 1 nA/V)
600 MΩ
DR = 2 kSPS
± (8 nA + 2 nA/V)
300 MΩ
Input current with VCM = 2.5 V, TA = 25°C, AVDD = 5 V, and AVSS = 0 V.
9.3.3 Clock Source
The device can use either the internal oscillator or an external clock. Connect the CLK pin to DGND before
power-on or reset to activate the internal oscillator. Connecting an external clock to the CLK pin at any time
deactivates the internal oscillator, with the device then operating on the external clock. After the device switches
to the external clock, it cannot be switched back to the internal oscillator without cycling the power supplies or
resetting the device.
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9.3.4 Modulator
A third-order delta-sigma modulator is used in the ADS1146, ADS1147, and ADS1148 devices. The modulator
converts the analog input voltage into a pulse code modulated (PCM) data stream. To save power, the modulator
clock runs from 32 kHz up to 512 kHz for different data rates, as shown in Table 5.
Table 5. Modulator Clock Frequency for Different Data Rates
DATA RATE
(SPS)
(1)
MODULATOR RATE (fMOD) (1)
(kHz)
fCLK/fMOD
5, 10, 20
32
128
40, 80, 160
128
32
320, 640, 1000
256
16
2000
512
8
Using the internal oscillator or an external 4.096-MHz clock.
9.3.5 Digital Filter
The ADC uses linear-phase finite impulse response (FIR) digital filters that can be adjusted for different output
data rates. The digital filter always settles in a single cycle.
Table 6 shows the exact data rates when an external clock equal to 4.096 MHz is used. Also shown is the signal
–3-dB bandwidth, and the 50-Hz and 60-Hz attenuation. For good 50-Hz or 60-Hz rejection, use a data rate of
20 SPS or slower.
The frequency responses of the digital filter are shown in Figure 25 to Figure 35. Figure 28 shows a detailed
view of the filter frequency response from 48 Hz to 62 Hz for a 20-SPS data rate. All filter plots are generated
with a 4.096-MHz external clock.
Data rates and digital filter frequency responses scale proportionally with changes in the system clock frequency.
The internal oscillator frequency has a variation, as specified in the Electrical Characteristics section, that also
affects data rates and the digital filter frequency response.
Table 6. Digital Filter Specifications (1)
ATTENUATION
NOMINAL
DATA RATE
ACTUAL
DATA RATE
–3-dB
BANDWIDTH
fIN = 50 Hz ±0.3 Hz
fIN = 60 Hz ±0.3 Hz
fIN = 50 Hz ±1 Hz
fIN = 60 Hz ±1 Hz
5 SPS
5.018 SPS
2.26 Hz
–106 dB
–74 dB
–81 dB
–69 dB
10 SPS
10.037 SPS
4.76 Hz
–106 dB
–74 dB
–80 dB
–69 dB
20 SPS
20.075 SPS
14.8 Hz
–71 dB
–74 dB
–66 dB
–68 dB
40 SPS
40.15 SPS
9.03 Hz
—
—
—
—
80 SPS
80.301 SPS
19.8 Hz
—
—
—
—
160 SPS
160.6 SPS
118 Hz
—
—
—
—
320 SPS
321.608 SPS
154 Hz
—
—
—
—
640 SPS
643.21 SPS
495 Hz
—
—
—
—
1000 SPS
1000 SPS
732 Hz
—
—
—
—
2000 SPS
2000 SPS
1465 Hz
—
—
—
—
(1)
Values shown for fCLK = 4.096 MHz.
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0
0
-20
-20
Magnitude (dB)
Magnitude (dB)
www.ti.com
-40
-60
-80
-100
-40
-60
-80
-100
-120
-120
0
20
40
60
80
100 120 140 160 180 200
20
0
40
60
Frequency (Hz)
0
-60
-20
-70
-60
-80
-80
-90
-100
-110
-100
-120
-120
0
20
40
60
80
48
100 120 140 160 180 200
50
Figure 27. Filter Profile With Data Rate = 20 SPS
-20
-20
-40
-40
Gain (dB)
0
56
58
60
62
-60
-80
-80
-100
-100
-120
54
Figure 28. Detailed View of Filter Profile With
Data Rate = 20 SPS Between 48 Hz and 62 Hz
0
-60
52
Frequency (Hz)
Frequency (Hz)
Magnitude (dB)
100 120 140 160 180 200
Figure 26. Filter Profile With Data Rate = 10 SPS
Magnitude (dB)
Magnitude (dB)
Figure 25. Filter Profile With Data Rate = 5 SPS
-40
80
Frequency (Hz)
-120
0
200
400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000
0
200
400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000
Frequency (Hz)
Frequency (Hz)
Figure 29. Filter Profile With Data Rate = 40 SPS
Figure 30. Filter Profile With Data Rate = 80 SPS
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0
0
-20
-20
Magnitude (dB)
Magnitude (dB)
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-40
-60
-80
-100
-60
-80
-100
-120
-120
0
200
400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000
0
500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000
Frequency (Hz)
Frequency (Hz)
Figure 31. Filter Profile With Data Rate = 160 SPS
Figure 32. Filter Profile With Data Rate = 320 SPS
0
0
-20
-20
Magnitude (dB)
Magnitude (dB)
-40
-40
-60
-80
-40
-60
-80
-100
-100
-120
-120
0
0
500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Frequency (kHz)
Frequency (Hz)
Figure 33. Filter Profile With Data Rate = 640 SPS
Figure 34. Filter Profile With Data Rate = 1 kSPS
0
Magnitude (dB)
-20
-40
-60
-80
-100
-120
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
Frequency (kHz)
Figure 35. Filter Profile With Data Rate = 2 kSPS
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9.3.6 Voltage Reference Input
The voltage reference for the device is the differential voltage between REFP and REFN, given by Equation 13.
VREF = V(REFP) – V(REFN)
(13)
In the case of the ADS1146, these pins are dedicated inputs. For the ADS1147 and ADS1148, there is a
multiplexer that selects the reference inputs, as shown in Figure 36. The reference inputs use buffers to increase
the input impedance.
As with the analog inputs, REFP0 and REFN0 can be configured as digital I/Os on the ADS1147 and ADS1148.
ADS1148 Only
REFP1 REFN1
REFP0 REFN0
Reference Multiplexer
VREFP
VREFOUT VREFCOM
Internal
Voltage
Reference
VREFN
ADC
Figure 36. Reference Input Multiplexer
The reference input circuit has ESD diodes to protect the inputs. To prevent the diodes from turning on, make
sure the voltage on the reference input pin is not less than AVSS – 100 mV, and does not exceed AVDD + 100
mV, as shown in Equation 14.
AVSS – 100 mV < (V(REFP) or V(REFN)) < AVDD + 100 mV
(14)
9.3.7 Internal Voltage Reference
The ADS1147 and ADS1148 have an internal voltage reference with a low temperature coefficient. The output of
the voltage reference is 2.048 V (nominal) with the capability of both sourcing and sinking up to 10 mA of current.
The voltage reference must have a capacitor connected between VREFOUT and VREFCOM. The value of the
capacitance must be in the range of 1 µF to 47 µF. Large values provide more filtering of the reference; however,
the turnon time increases with capacitance, as shown in Table 7. For stability reasons, VREFCOM must have a
low-impedance path to AC ground nodes, such as GND. VREFCOM may be connected to AVSS (for a ±2.5-V
analog power supply) as long as AVSS has a low-impedance path less than 10 Ω to AC ground. In case this
impedance is higher than 10 Ω, connect a capacitor of at least 0.1 µF between VREFCOM and an AC ground
node (for example, GND).
NOTE
Because time is required for the voltage reference to settle to the final voltage, take care
when the device is turned off between conversions. Allow adequate time for the internal
reference to fully settle before starting a new conversion.
Table 7. Internal Reference Settling Time
VREFOUT CAPACITOR
SETTLING ERROR
1 µF
4.7 µF
47 µF
TIME TO REACH THE SETTLING ERROR
±0.5%
70 µs
±0.1%
110 µs
±0.5%
290 µs
±0.1%
375 µs
±0.5%
2.2 ms
±0.1%
2.4 ms
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The internal reference is controlled by the MUX1 register; by default, the internal reference is off after power up
(see the ADS1147 and ADS1148 Detailed Register Definitions section for more details). Therefore, the internal
reference must first be turned on and then connected through the internal reference multiplexer. Because the
internal reference is used to generate the current reference for the excitation current sources, it must be turned
on before the excitation currents become available.
9.3.8 Excitation Current Sources
The ADS1147 and ADS1148 provide two matched excitation current sources (IDACs) for RTD applications. For
three-wire RTD applications, the matched current sources can be used to cancel the errors caused by sensor
lead resistance. The output current of the IDACs can be programmed to 50 µA, 100 µA, 250 µA, 500 µA, 750 µA,
1000 µA, or 1500 µA.
The two matched current sources can be connected to dedicated current output pins IEXC1 and IEXC2
(ADS1148 only), or to any analog input pin (ADS1147 and ADS1148); see the ADS1147 and ADS1148 Detailed
Register Definitions section for more information. Both current sources can be connected to the same pin. The
internal reference must be turned on and the proper amount of capacitance applied to VREFOUT when using the
excitation current sources.
9.3.9 Sensor Detection
To help detect a possible sensor malfunction, the device provides selectable current sources (0.5 µA, 2 µA, or
10 µA) to act as burn-out current sources. When enabled, one current source sources current to the selected
positive analog input (AINP) while the other current source sinks current from the selected negative analog input
(AINN).
In case of an open circuit in the sensor, these burn-out current sources pull the positive input towards AVDD and
the negative input towards AVSS, resulting in a full-scale reading. A full-scale reading may also indicate that the
sensor is overloaded or that the reference voltage is absent. A near-zero reading may indicate a shorted sensor.
The absolute value of the burn-out current sources typically varies by ±10% and the internal multiplexer adds a
small series resistance. Therefore, distinguishing a shorted sensor condition from a normal reading can be
difficult, especially if an RC filter is used at the inputs. In other words, even if the sensor is shorted, the voltage
drop across the external filter resistance and the residual resistance of the multiplexer causes the output to read
a value higher than zero.
The ADC readings of a functional sensor may be corrupted when the burn-out current sources are enabled. TI
recommends disabling the burn-out current sources when performing the precision measurement, and only
enabling them to test for sensor fault conditions.
9.3.10 Bias Voltage Generation
A selectable bias voltage is provided for use with unbiased thermocouples. The bias voltage is (AVDD + AVSS) /
2 and can be applied to any analog input channel through the internal input multiplexer. Table 8 lists the bias
voltage turnon times for different sensor capacitances.
The internal bias voltage generator, when selected on multiple channels, causes them to be internally shorted.
Because of this, take care to limit the amount of current that may flow through the device. TI recommends that
under no circumstances must more than 5 mA be allowed to flow through this path. This applies when the device
is in operation and when it is powered down.
Table 8. Bias Voltage Settling Time
26
SENSOR CAPACITANCE
SETTLING TIME
0.1 µF
220 µs
1 µF
2.2 ms
10 µF
22 ms
200 µF
450 ms
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9.3.11 General-Purpose Digital I/O
The ADS1148 has eight pins and the ADS1147 has four pins that serve a dual purpose as either analog inputs
or GPIOs.
Three registers control the function of the GPIO pins. Use the GPIO configuration register (IOCFG) to enable a
pin as a GPIO pin. The GPIO direction register (IODIR) configures the GPIO pin as either an input or an output.
Finally, the GPIO data register (IODAT) contains the GPIO data. If a GPIO pin is configured as an input, the
respective IODAT[x] bit reads the status of the pin; if a GPIO pin is configured as an output, write the output
status to the respective IODAT[x] bit. For more information about the use of GPIO pins, see the ADS1147 and
ADS1148 Detailed Register Definitions section.
Figure 37 shows a diagram of how these functions are combined onto a single pin. Note that when the pin is
configured as a GPIO, the corresponding logic is powered from AVDD and AVSS. When the ADS1147 and
ADS1148 are operated with bipolar analog supplies, the GPIO outputs bipolar voltages. Care must be taken
loading the GPIO pins when used as outputs because large currents can cause droop or noise on the analog
supplies.
IOCFG
IODIR
REFx0/GPIOx
AINx/GPIOx
DIO WRITE
To Analog Mux
DIO READ
Figure 37. Analog and Data Interface Pin
9.3.12 System Monitor
The ADS1147 and ADS1148 provide a system monitor function. This function can measure the analog power
supply, digital power supply, external voltage reference, or ambient temperature. Note that the system monitor
function provides a coarse result. When the system monitor is enabled, the analog inputs are disconnected.
9.3.12.1 Power-Supply Monitor
The system monitor can measure the analog or digital power supply. When measuring the power supply (VSP),
the resulting conversion is approximately 1/4 of the actual power supply voltage, as shown in Equation 15.
Conversion Result = (VSP / 4) / VREF
(15)
9.3.12.2 External Voltage Reference Monitor
The ADC can measure the external voltage reference. In this configuration, the monitored external voltage
reference (VREX) is connected to the analog input. The result (conversion code) is approximately 1/4 of the actual
reference voltage, as shown in Equation 16.
Conversion Result = (VREX / 4) / VREF
(16)
NOTE
The internal reference voltage must be enabled when measuring an external voltage
reference using the system monitor.
9.3.12.3 Ambient Temperature Monitor
On-chip diodes provide temperature-sensing capability. When selecting the temperature monitor function, the
anodes of two diodes are connected to the ADC. Typically, the difference in diode voltage is 118 mV at
TA = 25°C with a temperature coefficient of 405 µV/°C.
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9.4 Device Functional Modes
9.4.1 Power Up
When DVDD is powered up, the internal power-on reset module generates a pulse that resets all digital circuitry.
All the digital circuits are held in a reset state for 216 system clocks to allow the analog circuits and the internal
digital power supply to settle. SPI communication cannot occur until the internal reset is released.
9.4.2 Reset
When the RESET pin goes low, the device is immediately reset. All registers are restored to default values. The
device stays in reset mode as long as the RESET pin stays low. When the RESET pin goes high, the ADC
comes out of reset mode and is able to convert data. After the RESET pin goes high, the digital filter and the
registers are held in a reset state for 0.6 ms when fCLK = 4.096 MHz. Therefore, valid SPI communication can
only be resumed 0.6 ms after the RESET pin goes high; see Figure 4. When the RESET pin goes low, the clock
selection is reset to the internal oscillator.
A reset can also be performed by the RESET command through the serial interface and is functionally the same
as using the RESET pin. For information about using the RESET command, see the RESET section.
9.4.3 Power-Down Mode
Power consumption is reduced to a minimum by placing the device into power-down mode. There are two ways
to put the device into power-down mode: using the SLEEP command and taking the START pin low.
During power-down mode, the internal reference status depends on the setting of the VREFCON bits in the
MUX1 register; see the Register Maps section for details.
9.4.4 Conversion Control
The START pin provides precise control of conversions. Pulse the START pin high to begin a conversion, as
shown in Figure 38 and Table 9. The conversion completion is indicated by the DRDY pin going low and with the
DOUT/DRDY pin when the DRDY MODE bit is 1 in the IDAC0 register. When the conversion completes, the
device automatically powers down. During power down, the conversion result can be retrieved; however, START
must be taken high before communicating with the configuration registers. The device stays powered down until
the START pin is returned high to begin a new conversion. When the START pin returned high, the decimation
filter is held in a reset state for 32 modulator clock cycles internally to allow the analog circuits to settle.
Holding the START pin high configures the device to continuously convert as shown in Figure 39.
tSTART
START
tCONV
DOUT/DRDY
1
2
3
16
SCLK
DRDY
ADS1146/47/48
Status
Converting
Power-down
Figure 38. Timing for Single Conversion Using START Pin
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Table 9. START Pin Conversion Times for Figure 38
SYMBOL
tCONV
(1)
DESCRIPTION
(1)
DATA RATE (SPS)
VALUE
UNIT
5
200.295
ms
10
100.644
ms
20
50.825
ms
40
25.169
ms
80
12.716
ms
160
6.489
ms
320
3.247
ms
640
1.692
ms
1000
1.138
ms
2000
0.575
ms
Time from START pulse to DRDY and
DOUT/DRDY going low
For fCLK = 4.096MHz
START
Data Ready
Data Ready
Data Ready
DOUT/DRDY
ADS1146/7/8
Status
Converting
Converting
Converting
Converting
NOTE: SCLK held low in this example.
Figure 39. Timing for Conversion with START Pin High
With the START pin held high, the ADC converts the selected input channels continuously. This configuration
continues until the START pin is taken low. The START pin can also be used to perform synchronized
measurements for multi-channel applications by pulsing the START pin. With multiple devices, if each device
receives the START pin pulse at the same time, all devices start a conversion on the rise of the start pin. If all
devices are operating with the same data rate, all of the devices complete the conversion at the same time.
Conversions can also be initiated through SPI commands. Similar to using the START pin, the device can be put
into a power-down mode using the SLEEP command. Functionally, this is similar to taking the START pin low.
To initiate a conversion, the WAKEUP command powers up the ADC and starts a conversion, similar to returning
the START pin high. Note that the START pin must be held high to use commands to control conversions. Do
not combine using the START pin and using commands to control conversions.
Also, sending a SYNC command immediately starts a new ADC conversion. For the SYNC command, the digital
filter is reset, starting a new conversion without completing the previous conversion. This is useful in
synchronizing conversions from multiple devices or maintaining periodic timing from multiple channels.
Similarly, writing to any of the first four registers (MUX0, VBIAS, MUX1, or SYS0; addresses 00h to 04h)
automatically resets the digital filter. A change in any of these registers makes the appropriate setup change in
the device, but also restarts the conversion similar to a SYNC command.
9.4.4.1 Settling Time for Channel Multiplexing
The device is a true single-cycle settling ΔΣ converter. The first data available after the start of a conversion are
fully settled and valid for use, provided that the input signal has settled to its final result. The time required to
settle is roughly equal to the inverse of the data rate. The exact time depends on the specific data rate and the
operation that resulted in the start of a conversion; see Table 10 for specific values.
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9.4.4.2 Channel Cycling and Overload Recovery
When cycling through channels, take care when configuring the device to ensure that settling occurs within one
cycle. For setups that cycle through MUX channels, but do not change PGA and data rate settings, changing the
MUX0 register is sufficient. However, when changing PGA and data rate settings, ensure that an overload
condition cannot occur during the data transmission. When configuration register data are transferred to the
device, new settings become active at the end of each byte sent. Therefore, a brief overload condition can occur
during the transmission of configuration data after the completion of the MUX0 byte and before the completion of
the SYS0 byte. This temporary overload can result in intermittent incorrect readings. To ensure that an overload
does not occur, it may be necessary to split the communication into two separate communications allowing the
change of the SYS0 register before the change of the MUX0 register.
In the event of an overloaded state, take care to ensure single-cycle settling into the next cycle. Because the
device implements a chopper-stabilized PGA, changing data rates during an overload state can cause the
chopper to become unstable. This instability results in slow settling time. To prevent this slow settling, always
change the PGA setting or MUX setting to a non-overloaded state before changing the data rate.
9.4.4.3 Single-Cycle Settling
The ADS1146, ADS1147, and ADS1148 are capable of single-cycle settling across all gains and data rates.
However, to achieve single-cycle settling at 2 kSPS, special care must be taken with respect to the interface
using WREG to change a configuration register. When operating at 2 kSPS, the SCLK period must not exceed
520 ns, and the time between the beginning of writing a register byte data and the beginning of a subsequent
register byte data must not exceed 4.2 µs. Additionally, when performing multiple individual write commands to
the first four registers, wait at least 64 oscillator clocks before initiating another write command.
9.4.4.4 Digital Filter Reset Operation
Apart from the RESET command and the RESET pin, the digital filter is reset automatically when either a write
operation to the MUX0, VBIAS, MUX1, or SYS0 registers is performed, when a SYNC command is issued, or the
START pin is taken high.
The filter is reset four system clocks (tCLK) after the falling edge of the seventh SCLK of the SYNC command.
Similarly, if any write operation takes place in the MUX0 register, regardless of whether the register value
changed or not, the filter is reset after the completion of the MUX0 write.
If any write activity takes place in the VBIAS, MUX1, or SYS0 registers, regardless of whether the register value
changed or not, the filter is reset. The reset pulse lasts for 32 modulator clocks after the completion of the write
operation. If there are multiple write operations, the resulting reset pulse may be viewed as the ANDed result of
the different active low pulses created individually by each action.
Table 10 shows the conversion time after a filter reset. Note that this time depends on the operation initiating the
reset. Also, the first conversion after a filter reset has a slightly different time than the second and subsequent
conversions.
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Table 10. Data Conversion Time
FIRST DATA CONVERSION TIME AFTER FILTER RESET
NOMINAL
DATA RATE
(SPS)
(1)
EXACT DATA
RATE
(SPS)
HARDWARE RESET, RESET
COMMAND, START PIN HIGH,
WAKEUP COMMAND, VBIAS,
MUX1, or SYS0 REGISTER
WRITE
SYNC COMMAND, MUX0
REGISTER WRITE
(ms) (1)
NO. OF
SYSTEM
CLOCK
CYCLES
SECOND AND SUBSEQUENT
CONVERSION TIME AFTER
FILTER RESET
(ms) (1)
NO. OF
SYSTEM
CLOCK
CYCLES
(ms) (1)
NO. OF
SYSTEM
CLOCK
CYCLES
5
5.019
199.258
816160
200.26
820265
199.250
816128
10
10.038
99.633
408096
100.635
412201
99.625
408064
20
20.075
49.820
204064
50.822
208169
49.812
204032
40
40.151
24.920
102072
25.172
103106
24.906
102016
80
80.301
12.467
51064
12.719
52098
12.453
51008
160
160.602
6.241
25560
6.492
26594
6.226
25504
320
321.608
3.124
12796
3.250
13314
3.109
12736
640
643.216
1.569
6428
1.695
6946
1.554
6368
1000
1000.000
1.014
4156
1.141
4674
1.000
4096
2000
2000.000
0.514
2108
0.578
2370
0.500
2048
For fCLK = 4.096 MHz.
9.4.5 Calibration
The conversion data are scaled by offset and gain registers before yielding the final output code. As shown in
Figure 40, the output of the digital filter is first subtracted by the offset register (OFC) and then multiplied by the
full-scale register (FSC) to digitally scale the gain. A digital clipping circuit ensures that the output code does not
exceed 16 bits. Equation 17 shows the scaling.
+
S
´
OFC
Register
FSC Register
400000h
ADC
-
Output Data
Clipped to 16 Bits
Final
Output
Figure 40. Calibration Block Diagram
Final Output Data = (Input - OFC[2:1]) ´
FSC[2:0]
400000h
(17)
The values of the offset and full-scale registers are set by writing to them directly, or they are set automatically
by calibration commands.
The offset and gain calibration features are intended for correction of minor system level offset and gain errors.
When entering manual values into the calibration registers, take care to avoid scaling down the gain register to
values far below a scaling factor of 1.0. Under extreme situations it is possible to over-range the ADC. Avoid
encountering situations where analog inputs are connected to voltages greater than VREF / Gain.
Take care when increasing digital gain with the FSC register. When implementing custom digital gains less than
20% higher than nominal and offsets less than 40% of full scale, no special care is required. When operating at
digital gains greater than 20% higher than nominal and offsets greater than 40% of full scale, make sure that the
offset and gain registers follow the conditions of Equation 18.
2V
1.251 V ! Offset Scaling
Gain Scaling
(18)
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9.4.5.1 Offset Calibration Register: OFC[2:0]
The offset calibration is a 24-bit word, composed of three 8-bit registers. The offset is in twos complement format
with a maximum positive value of 7FFFFFh and a maximum negative value of 800000h. The upper 16 bits,
OFC[2:1], are the most important bits of the offset calibration register for calibration and can correct offsets
ranging from –FS to +FS, as shown in Table 11. The lower eight bits, OFC[0], provide sub-LSB correction and
are used by the calibration commands. If a calibration command is issued and the offset register is then read for
storage and re-use later, it is recommended that all 24 bits of the OFC be used. When the calibration commands
are not used and the offset is corrected by writing a user-calculated value to the OFC register, it is recommended
that only OFC[2:1] be used and that OFC[0] be left as all zeros. A register value of 000000h provides no offset
correction.
Note that while the offset calibration register value can correct offsets ranging from –FS to +FS (as shown in
Table 11), avoid overloading the analog inputs.
Table 11. Final Output Code vs
Offset Calibration Register Setting
(1)
OFFSET REGISTER
FINAL OUTPUT CODE WITH VIN = 0 (1)
7FFFFFh
8000h
000100h
FFFFh
000000h
0000h
FFFF00h
0001h
800000h
7FFFh
Excludes effects of noise and inherent offset errors.
9.4.5.2 Full-Scale Calibration Register: FSC[2:0]
The full-scale or gain calibration is a 24-bit word composed of three 8-bit registers. The full-scale calibration
value is 24-bit, straight binary, normalized to 1.0 at code 400000h. Table 12 summarizes the scaling of the fullscale register. Note that while the full-scale calibration register can correct gain errors > 1 (with gain scaling < 1),
make sure to avoid overloading the analog inputs.
Table 12. Gain Correction Factor vs
Full-Scale Calibration Register Setting
FULL-SCALE REGISTER
GAIN SCALING
800000h
2
400000h
1
200000h
0.5
000000h
0
9.4.5.3 Calibration Commands
The device provide commands for three types of calibration: system gain calibration, system offset calibration
and self offset calibration. Where absolute accuracy is required, TI recommends performing a calibration after
power up, a change in temperature, a change of gain and in some cases a change in channel. At the completion
of calibration, the DRDY signal goes low indicating the calibration has completed. The first data after calibration
are always valid. If the START pin is taken low or a SLEEP command is issued after any calibration command,
the devices powers down after completing calibration.
After a calibration has started, allow the calibration to complete before issuing any other commands (other than
the SLEEP command). Issuing commands during a calibration can result in corrupted data. If this occurs, either
resend the calibration command that was aborted or issue a device reset.
9.4.5.3.1 System Offset and Self Offset Calibration
System offset calibration corrects both internal and external offset errors. The system offset calibration is initiated
by sending the SYSOCAL command while applying a zero differential input voltage (VIN = 0 V) to the selected
analog inputs with the inputs set within the specified input common-mode range, ideally at mid-supply.
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The self offset calibration is initiated by sending the SELFOCAL command. During self offset calibration, the
selected inputs are disconnected from the internal circuitry and a zero differential signal is applied internally,
connecting the inputs to mid-supply. With both offset calibrations the offset calibration register (OFC) is updated
afterwards. When either offset calibration command is issued, the device stops the current conversion and starts
the calibration procedure immediately. An offset calibration must be performed before a gain calibration.
9.4.5.3.2 System Gain Calibration
System gain calibration corrects for gain error in the signal path. The system gain calibration is initiated by
sending the SYSGCAL command while applying a full-scale input to the selected analog inputs. Afterwards the
full-scale calibration register (FSC) is updated. When a system gain calibration command is issued, the device
stops the current conversion and starts the calibration procedure immediately.
9.4.5.4 Calibration Timing
When calibration is initiated, the device performs 16 consecutive data conversions and averages the results to
calculate the calibration value. This provides a more accurate calibration value. The time required for calibration
is shown in Table 13 and can be calculated using Equation 19.
Calibration Time
t CAL
50
fCLK
32
fMOD
16
fDATA
(19)
Table 13. Calibration Time vs Data Rate
(1)
DATA RATE
(SPS)
CALIBRATION TIME (tCAL)
(ms) (1)
5
3201.01
10
1601.01
20
801.012
40
400.26
80
200.26
160
100.14
320
50.14
640
25.14
1000
16.14
2000
8.07
For fCLK = 4.096 MHz.
9.5 Programming
9.5.1 Digital Interface
The device provides an SPI-compatible serial communication interface plus a data ready signal (DRDY).
Communication is full-duplex with the exception of a few limitations in regards to the RREG command and the
RDATA command. These limitations are explained in detail in the Commands section. For the basic serial
interface timing characteristics, see Figure 1 and Figure 2 of this document.
9.5.1.1 Chip Select (CS)
The CS pin activates SPI communication. CS must be low before data transactions and must stay low for the
entire SPI communication period. When CS is high, the DOUT/DRDY pin enters a high-impedance state.
Therefore, reading and writing to the serial interface are ignored and the serial interface is reset. DRDY pin
operation is independent of CS. DRDY still indicates that a new conversion has completed and is forced high as
a response to SCLK, even if CS is high.
Taking CS high deactivates only the SPI communication with the device. Data conversion continues and the
DRDY signal can be monitored to check if a new conversion result is ready. A master device monitoring the
DRDY signal can select the appropriate slave device by pulling the CS pin low.
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Programming (continued)
9.5.1.2 Serial Clock (SCLK)
SCLK provides the clock for serial communication. SCLK is a Schmitt-trigger input, but TI recommends keeping
SCLK as free from noise as possible to prevent glitches from inadvertently shifting the data. Data are shifted into
DIN on the falling edge of SCLK and shifted out of DOUT on the rising edge of SCLK.
9.5.1.3 Data Input (DIN)
DIN is used along with SCLK to send data to the device. Data on DIN are shifted into the device on the falling
edge of SCLK.
The communication of this device is full-duplex in nature. The device monitors commands shifted in even when
data are being shifted out. Data that are present in the output shift register are shifted out when sending in a
command. Therefore, make sure that whatever is being sent on the DIN pin is valid when shifting out data. When
no command is to be sent to the device when reading out data, send the NOP command on DIN.
9.5.1.4 Data Ready (DRDY)
The DRDY pin goes low to indicate a new conversion is complete, and the conversion result is stored in the
conversion result buffer. SCLK must be held low for tDTS after the DRDY low transition (see Figure 2) so that the
conversion result is loaded into both the result buffer and the output shift register. Therefore, issue no commands
during this time frame if the conversion result is to be read out later. This constraint applies only when CS is
asserted and the device is in RDATAC mode. When CS is not asserted, SPI communication with other devices
on the SPI bus does not affect loading of the conversion result. After the DRDY pin goes low, it is forced high on
the first falling edge of SCLK (so that the DRDY pin can be polled for 0 instead of waiting for a falling edge). If
the DRDY pin is not taken high by clocking in SCLKs after it falls low, a short high pulse for a duration of tPWH
indicates new data are ready.
9.5.1.5 Data Output and Data Ready (DOUT/DRDY)
The DOUT/DRDY pin has two modes: data out (DOUT) only, or DOUT combined with data ready (DRDY). The
DRDY MODE bit determines the function of this pin and can be found in the ID register in the ADS1146 and the
IDAC0 register in the ADS1147 and ADS1148. In either mode, the DOUT/DRDY pin goes to a high-impedance
state when CS is taken high.
When the DRDY MODE bit is set to 0, this pin functions as DOUT only. Data are clocked out on the rising edge
of SCLK, MSB first (as shown in Figure 41).
When the DRDY MODE bit is set to 1, this pin functions as both DOUT and DRDY. Data are shifted out as with
DOUT, but the pin adds the DRDY function. Note that this mode is not operational when the device is in stop
read data continuous mode when the SDATAC command is given.
The DRDY MODE bit modifies only the DOUT/DRDY pin functionality. The DRDY pin functionality remains
unaffected.
SCLK
DOUT/DRDY(1)
1
2
D[15]
D[14]
3
D[13]
14
D[2]
15
D[1]
16
1
2
8
D[0]
DRDY
CS tied low.
Figure 41. Data Retrieval With the DRDY MODE Bit = 0 (Disabled)
When the DRDY MODE bit is enabled and a new conversion is complete, DOUT/DRDY goes low if it is high. If it
is already low, then DOUT/DRDY goes high and then goes low (as shown in Figure 42). Similar to the DRDY pin,
a falling edge on the DOUT/DRDY pin signals that a new conversion result is ready. After DOUT/DRDY goes
low, the data can be clocked out by providing 16 SCLKs if the device is in read data continuous mode. To force
DOUT/DRDY high (so that DOUT/DRDY can be polled for a 0 instead of waiting for a falling edge), a no
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Programming (continued)
operation command (NOP) or any other command that does not load the data output register can be sent after
reading out the data. Because SCLKs can only be sent in multiples of eight, a NOP can be sent to force
DOUT/DRDY high if no other command is pending. The DOUT/DRDY pin goes high after the first rising edge of
SCLK after reading the conversion result completely (as shown in Figure 43). The same condition also applies
after an RREG command. After all the register bits have been read out, the first rising edge of SCLK forces
DOUT/DRDY high. Figure 44 shows an example where sending an extra NOP command after reading out a
register with an RREG command forces the DOUT/DRDY pin high.
SCLK
DOUT/DRDY(1)
1
2
3
14
D[2]
D[15] D[14] D[13]
DIN
NOP
15
16
D[1]
1
2
D[15] D[14]
D[0]
16
D[0]
NOP
NOP
DRDY
CS tied low.
Figure 42. Data Retrieval With the DRDY MODE Bit = 1 (Enabled)
SCLK
DOUT/DRDY(1)
1
2
3
14
D[2]
D[15] D[14] D[13]
DIN
15
16
D[1]
1
2
8
1
2
D[15] D[14]
D[0]
NOP
NOP
16
D[0]
NOP
DRDY
DRDY MODE bit enabled, CS tied low.
Figure 43. DOUT/DRDY Forced High After Retrieving the Conversion Result
SCLK
1
2
8
1
2
DOUT/DRDY(1)
DIN
8
1
2
8
1
2
8
XXh
RREG
00h
NOP
NOP
DRDY MODE bit enabled, CS tied low.
Figure 44. DOUT/DRDY Forced High After Reading Register Data
9.5.1.6 SPI Reset
SPI communication is reset in several ways. To reset the serial interface (without resetting the registers or the
digital filter), the CS pin can be pulled high. Taking the RESET pin low resets the serial interface along with all
the other digital functions. This also returns all registers to their default values and start a new conversion.
In systems where CS is tied low permanently, register writes must always be fully completed in 8-bit increments.
If a glitch on SCLK disrupts SPI communications, commands are not recognized by the device. The device
implements a timeout function for all listed commands in the event that data are corrupted and the CS pin is
permanently tied low. The SPI timeout resets the interface if idle for 64 conversion cycles.
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Programming (continued)
9.5.1.7 SPI Communication During Power-Down Mode
When the START pin is low or the device is in power-down mode, only the RDATA, RDATAC, SDATAC,
WAKEUP, and NOP commands can be issued. The RDATA command can be used to repeatedly read the last
conversion result during power-down mode. Other commands do not function because the internal clock is shut
down to save power during power-down mode.
9.5.2 Data Format
The device provides 16 bits of data in binary twos complement format. The size of one code (LSB) is calculated
using Equation 20.
1 LSB = (2 × VREF / Gain) / 216 = +FS / 215
(20)
A positive full-scale (FS) input [VIN ≥ (+FS – 1 LSB) = (VREF / Gain – 1 LSB)] produces an output code of 7FFFh
and a negative full-scale input (VIN ≤ –FS = –VREF / Gain) produces an output code of 8000h. The output clips at
these codes for signals that exceed full-scale. Table 14 summarizes the ideal output codes for different input
signals.
Table 14. Ideal Output Code vs Input Signal
INPUT SIGNAL, VIN
(AINP – AINN)
IDEAL OUTPUT CODE (1)
≥ FS (215 – 1) / 215
7FFFh
15
FS / 2
(1)
0001h
0
0000h
–FS / 215
FFFFh
≤ –FS
8000h
Excludes effects of noise, linearity, offset, and gain errors.
Figure 45 shows the mapping of the analog input signal to the output codes.
7FFFh
0001h
0000h
FFFFh
‡‡‡
Output Code
‡‡‡
7FFEh
8001h
8000h
±FS
±FS
‡‡‡
215 ± 1
215
0
FS
‡‡‡
Input Voltage VIN
±FS
215 ± 1
215
Figure 45. Code Transition Diagram
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9.5.3 Commands
The device offers 13 commands to control device operation as shown in Table 15. Some of the commands are
stand-alone commands (WAKEUP, SLEEP, SYNC, RESET, SYSOCAL, SYSGCAL, and SELFOCAL). There are
three additional commands used to control the read of data from the device (RDATA, RDATAC, and SDATAC).
The commands to read (RREG) and write (WREG) configuration register data from and to the device require
additional information as part of the instruction. A no-operation command (NOP) can be used to clock out data
from the device without clocking in a command.
Operands:
• n = number of registers to be read or written (number of bytes – 1)
• r = register (0 to 15)
• x = don't care
Table 15. SPI Commands
COMMAND (1)
(1)
DESCRIPTION
1st COMMAND BYTE
2nd COMMAND BYTE
WAKEUP
Exit power down mode
0000 000x (00h, 01h)
SLEEP
Enter power down mode
0000 001x (02h, 03h)
SYNC
Synchronize ADC conversions
0000 010x (04h, 05h)
RESET
Reset to default values
0000 011x (06h, 07h)
NOP
No operation
1111 1111 (FFh)
RDATA
Read data once
0001 001x (12h, 13h)
RDATAC
Read data continuous mode
0001 010x (14h, 15h)
SDATAC
Stop read data continuous mode
0001 011x (16h, 17h)
RREG
Read from register rrrr
0010 rrrr (2xh)
0000 nnnn
WREG
Write to register rrrr
0100 rrrr (4xh)
0000 nnnn
SYSOCAL
System offset calibration
0110 0000 (60h)
SYSGCAL
System gain calibration
0110 0001 (61h)
SELFOCAL
Self offset calibration
0110 0010 (62h)
Restricted
Restricted command.
Never send to the device.
1111 0001 (F1h)
0000 010x (04,05h)
When the START pin is low or the device is in power-down mode, only the RDATA, RDATAC, SDATAC, WAKEUP, and NOP
commands can be issued.
9.5.3.1 WAKEUP (0000 000x)
Use the WAKEUP command to power up the device after a SLEEP command. After execution of the WAKEUP
command, the device powers up on the falling edge of the eighth SCLK.
9.5.3.2 SLEEP (0000 001x)
The SLEEP command places the device into power-down mode. When the SLEEP command is issued, the
device completes the current conversion and then goes into power-down mode. Note that this command does
not automatically power down the internal voltage reference; see the VREFCON bits in the MUX1 section for
each device for further details.
To exit power-down mode, issue the WAKEUP command. Single conversions can be performed by issuing a
WAKEUP command followed by a SLEEP command.
Both WAKEUP and SLEEP are the software command equivalents of using the START pin to control the device,
as shown in Figure 46.
NOTE
If the START pin is held low, a WAKEUP command does not power up the device. When
using the SLEEP command, CS must be held low for the duration of the power-down
mode.
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CS
DIN
SLEEP
WAKEUP
0000 001X
0000 000X
1
8
SCLK
DRDY
Normal Mode
Status
Normal Mode
Power-down Mode
Finish Current Conversion
Start New Conversion
Figure 46. SLEEP and WAKEUP Commands Operation
9.5.3.3 SYNC (0000 010x)
The SYNC command resets the ADC digital filter and starts a new conversion. The DRDY pin from multiple
devices connected to the same SPI bus can be synchronized by issuing a SYNC command to all of devices
simultaneously.
SYNC
DIN
0000 010X
0000 010X
1
7 8
SCLK
Synchronization
Occurs Here
4 tCLK
Figure 47. SYNC Command Operation
9.5.3.4 RESET (0000 011x)
The RESET command restores the registers to the respective default values. This command also resets the
digital filter. RESET is the command equivalent of using the RESET pin to reset the device. However, the
RESET command does not reset the serial interface. If the RESET command is issued when the serial interface
is out of synchonization due to a glitch on SCLK, the device does not reset. The CS pin can be used to reset the
serial interface first, and then a RESET command can be issued to reset the device. The RESET command
holds the registers and the decimation filter in a reset state for 0.6 ms when the system clock frequency is
4.096 MHz, similar to the hardware reset. Therefore, SPI communication can only be started 0.6 ms after the
RESET command is issued, as shown in Figure 48.
DIN
ANY SPI
COMMAND
RESET
1
7 8
1
8
SCLK
4 tCLK
0.6 ms
Figure 48. SPI Communication after an SPI Reset
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9.5.3.5 RDATA (0001 001x)
The RDATA command loads the most recent conversion result into the output register. After issuing this
command, the conversion result is read out by sending 16 SCLKs, as shown in Figure 49. This command also
works in RDATAC mode.
DRDY
RDATA
0001 001X
DIN
DOUT
NOP
NOP
MSB
LSB
SCLK
1
8
1
16
Figure 49. Figure Read Data Once
When performing multiple reads of the conversion result, the RDATA command can be sent when the last eight
bits of the conversion result are being shifted out during the course of the first read operation by taking
advantage of the duplex communication nature of the serial interface, as shown in Figure 50.
1
2
7
8
9
10
15
16
1
2
15
16
SCLK
DOUT
DIN
D[15] D[14]
NOP
D[9]
D[8]
NOP
D[7]
D[6]
NOP
D[1]
D[0]
RDATA
D[15] D[14]
NOP
D[1]
D[0]
NOP
DRDY
Figure 50. Using RDATA in Full-Duplex Mode
9.5.3.6 RDATAC (0001 010x)
The RDATAC command enables read data continuous mode. This is the default mode after a power up or reset.
In read data continuous mode, new conversion results are automatically loaded onto DOUT. The conversion
result can be received from the device after the DRDY signal goes low by sending 16 SCLKs. It is not necessary
to read back all the bits, as long as the number of bits read out is a multiple of eight. The RDATAC command
must be issued after DRDY goes low, and the command takes effect on the next DRDY as shown in Figure 51.
Be sure to complete data retrieval (conversion result or register read-back) before DRDY returns low, or the
resulting data is corrupted. Successful register read operations in RDATAC mode require the knowledge of when
the next DRDY falling edge occurs.
DRDY
RDATAC
DIN
NOP
0001 010X
16 Bits
DOUT
SCLK
1
8
1
16
Figure 51. Read Data Continuously
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9.5.3.7 SDATAC (0001 011x)
The SDATAC command terminates read data continuous mode. In stop read data continuous mode, the
conversion result is not automatically loaded onto DOUT when DRDY goes low, and register read operations can
be performed without interruption from new conversion results being loaded into the output shift register. Use the
RDATA command to retrieve conversion data. The SDATAC command takes effect after the next DRDY.
If DRDY is not actively monitored for data conversions, the stop read data continuous mode is the preferred
method of reading data. In this mode, a read of ADC data is not interrupted by the completion of a new ADC
conversion.
9.5.3.8 RREG (0010 rrrr, 0000 nnnn)
The RREG command outputs the data from up to 15 registers, starting with the register address specified as part
of the instruction. The number of registers read is one plus the value of the second byte. If the count exceeds the
remaining registers, the addresses wrap back to the beginning. The two byte command structure for RREG is
listed below.
• First Command Byte: 0010 rrrr, where rrrr is the address of the first register to read.
• Second Command Byte: 0000 nnnn, where nnnn is the number of bytes to read –1.
• Byte(s): data read from the registers are clocked out with NOPs.
It is not possible to use the full-duplex nature of the serial interface when reading out the register data. For
example, a SYNC command cannot be issued when reading out the VBIAS and MUX1 data, as shown in
Figure 52. Any command sent during the readout of the register data is ignored. Thus, TI recommends sending
NOPs through DIN when reading out the register data.
1st
2nd
Command Command
Byte
Byte
0010 0001 0000 0001
DIN
DOUT
VBIAS
MUX1
Data Byte
Data Byte
Figure 52. Read from Register
9.5.3.9 WREG (0100 rrrr, 0000 nnnn)
The WREG command writes to the registers, starting with the register specified as part of the instruction. The
number of registers that are written is one plus the value of the second byte. The command structure for WREG
is listed below.
• First Command Byte: 0100 rrrr, where rrrr is the address of the first register to be written.
• Second Command Byte: 0000 nnnn, where nnnn is the number of bytes to be written – 1.
• Byte(s): data to be written to the registers.
DIN
0100 0010
0000 0001
MUX1
SYS0
1st
Command
2nd
Command
Data
Byte
Data
Byte
Figure 53. Write to Register
40
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9.5.3.10 SYSOCAL (0110 0000)
The SYSOCAL command initiates a system offset calibration. For a system offset calibration, the inputs must be
externally shorted to a voltage within the input common-mode range. The inputs must be near the mid-supply
voltage of (AVDD + AVSS) / 2. The OFC register is updated when the command completes. Timing for the
calibration commands can be found in Figure 54.
Calibration
Starts
Calibration
Complete
tCAL
DRDY
CALIBRATION
COMMAND
DIN
1
8
SCLK
4 tCLK
Figure 54. Calibration Command
9.5.3.11 SYSGCAL (0110 0001)
The SYSGCAL command initiates the system gain calibration. For a system gain calibration, the input must be
set to full-scale. The FSC register is updated after this operation. Timing for the calibration commands can be
found in Figure 54.
9.5.3.12 SELFOCAL (0110 0010)
The SELFOCAL command initiates a self offset calibration. The device internally shorts the inputs to mid-supply
and performs the calibration. The OFC register is updated after this operation. Timing for the calibration
commands can be found in Figure 54.
9.5.3.13 NOP (1111 1111)
This is a no-operation command. This is used to clock out data without clocking in a command.
9.5.3.14 Restricted Command (1111 0001)
This is a restricted command. This command must never be issued to the device.
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9.6 Register Maps
9.6.1 ADS1146 Register Map
Table 16. ADS1146 Register Map
ADDRESS
REGISTER
00h
BCS
BIT 7
BIT 6
BIT 5
BIT 4
BIT 3
BIT 2
BIT 1
BIT 0
0
0
0
0
0
1
01h
VBIAS
0
02h
MUX1
CLKSTAT
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
03h
SYS0
0
04h
OFC0
OFC[7:0]
05h
OFC1
OFC[15:8]
06h
OFC2
OFC[23:16]
07h
FSC0
FSC[7:0]
08h
FSC1
FSC[15:8]
09h
FSC2
FSC[23:16]
0Ah
ID
BCS[1:0]
VBIAS[1:0]
MUXCAL[2:0]
PGA[2:0]
DR[3:0]
DRDY
MODE
ID[3:0]
0
0
0
9.6.2 ADS1146 Detailed Register Definitions
9.6.2.1 BCS—Burn-out Current Source Register (offset = 00h) [reset = 01h]
These bits control the sensor burn-out detect current source.
Figure 55. Burn-out Current Source Register
7
6
5
0
R-0h
BCS[1:0]
R/W-0h
4
0
R-0h
3
0
R-0h
2
0
R-0h
1
0
R-0h
0
1
R-1h
LEGEND: R/W = Read/Write; R = Read only; -n = value after reset
Table 17. Burn-out Current Source Register Field Descriptions
42
BIT
FIELD
TYPE
RESET
DESCRIPTION
7:6
BCS[1:0]
R/W
0h
Burn-out Detect Current Source
These bits control the setting of the sensor burn-out detect
current source
00: Burn-out current source off (default)
01: Burn-out current source on, 0.5 µA
10: Burn-out current source on, 2 µA
11: Burn-out current source on, 10 µA
5:0
RESERVED
R
01h
Reserved
Always write 000001
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9.6.2.2 VBIAS—Bias Voltage Register (offset = 01h) [reset = 00h]
This register enables a bias voltage on the analog inputs.
Figure 56. Bias Voltage Register
7
0
R-0h
6
0
R-0h
5
0
R-0h
4
0
R-0h
3
0
R-0h
2
0
R-0h
1
0
VBIAS[1:0]
R/W-0h
LEGEND: R/W = Read/Write; R = Read only; -n = value after reset
Table 18. Bias Voltage Register Field Descriptions
BIT
FIELD
TYPE
RESET
DESCRIPTION
7:2
RESERVED
R
00h
Reserved
Always write 000000
1
VBIAS[1]
R/W
0h
VBIAS[1] Voltage Enable
A bias voltage of mid-supply (AVDD + AVSS) / 2 is applied to
AINN
0: Bias voltage is not enabled (default)
1: Bias voltage is applied to AINN
0
VBIAS[0]
R/W
0h
VBIAS[0] Voltage Enable
A bias voltage of mid-supply (AVDD + AVSS) / 2 is applied to
AINP
0: Bias voltage is not enabled (default)
1: Bias voltage is applied to AINP
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9.6.2.3 MUX—Multiplexer Control Register (offset = 02h) [reset = x0h]
Figure 57. Multiplexer Control Register
7
CLKSTAT
R-xh
6
0
R-0h
5
0
R-0h
4
0
R-0h
3
0
R-0h
2
1
MUXCAL[2:0]
R/W-0h
0
LEGEND: R/W = Read/Write; R = Read only; -n = value after reset
Table 19. Multiplexer Control Register Field Descriptions
BIT
FIELD
TYPE
RESET
DESCRIPTION
CLKSTAT
R
xh
Clock status
This bit is read-only and indicates whether the internal oscillator
or external clock is being used.
0: Internal oscillator in use
1: External clock in use
6:3
RESERVED
R
0h
Reserved
Always write 0000
2:0
MUXCAL[2:0]
R/W
0h
System Monitor Control
These bits are used to select a system monitor. The MUXCAL
selection supercedes the selections from the VBIAS register.
000: Normal operation (default)
001: Offset calibration. The analog inputs are disconnected and
AINP and AINN are internally connected to mid-supply (AVDD +
AVSS) / 2.
010: Gain calibration. The analog inputs are connected to the
voltage reference.
011: Temperature measurement. The inputs are connected to a
diode circuit that produces a voltage proportional to the ambient
temperature of the device.
7
Table 20 lists the ADC input connection and PGA settings for each MUXCAL setting. The PGA setting reverts to
the original SYS0 register setting when MUXCAL is taken back to normal operation or offset measurement.
Table 20. MUXCAL Settings
44
MUXCAL[2:0]
PGA GAIN SETTING
ADC INPUT
000
Set by SYS0 register
Normal operation
001
Set by SYS0 register
Offset calibration: inputs shorted to mid-supply (AVDD + AVSS) / 2
010
Forced to 1
Gain calibration: V(REFP) – V(REFN) (full-scale)
011
Forced to 1
Temperature measurement diode
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9.6.2.4 SYS0—System Control Register 0 (offset = 03h) [reset = 00h]
Figure 58. System Control Register 0
7
0
R-0h
6
5
PGA[2:0]
R/W-0h
4
3
2
1
0
DR[3:0]
R/W-0h
LEGEND: R/W = Read/Write; R = Read only; -n = value after reset
Table 21. System Control Register 0 Field Descriptions
BIT
FIELD
TYPE
RESET
DESCRIPTION
RESERVED
R
0h
Reserved
Always write 0
6:4
PGA[2:0]
R/W
0h
Gain Setting for PGA
These bits determine the gain of the PGA
000: PGA = 1 (default)
001: PGA = 2
010: PGA = 4
011: PGA = 8
100: PGA = 16
101: PGA = 32
110: PGA = 64
111: PGA = 128
3:0
DR[3:0]
R/W
0h
Data Output Rate Setting
These bits determine the data output rate of the ADC
0000: DR = 5 SPS (default)
0001: DR = 10 SPS
0010: DR = 20 SPS
0011: DR = 40 SPS
0100: DR = 80 SPS
0101: DR = 160 SPS
0110: DR = 320 SPS
0111: DR = 640 SPS
1000: DR = 1000 SPS
1001 to 1111: DR = 2000 SPS
7
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9.6.2.5 OFC—Offset Calibration Coefficient Registers (offset = 04h, 05h, 06h) [reset = 00h, 00h, 00h]
These bits make up the offset calibration coefficient register of the ADS1146.
Figure 59. Offset Calibration Coefficient Registers
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
11
10
9
8
19
18
17
16
OFC[7:0]
R/W-00h
15
14
13
12
OFC[15:8]
R/W-00h
23
22
21
20
OFC[23:16]
R/W-00h
LEGEND: R/W = Read/Write; R = Read only; -n = value after reset
Table 22. Offset Calibration Coefficient Register Field Descriptions
BIT
FIELD
TYPE
RESET
DESCRIPTION
23:0
OFC[23:0]
R/W
000000h
Offset Calibration Register
Three registers compose the ADC 24-bit offset calibration word
and is in twos complement format. The upper 16 bits
(OFC[23:8]) can correct offsets ranging from -FS to +FS, while
the lower eight bits (OFC[7:0]) provide sub-LSB correction. The
ADC subtracts the register value from the conversion result
before full scale operation.
9.6.2.6 FSC—Full-Scale Calibration Coefficient Registers (offset = 07h, 08h, 09h) [reset = 00h, 00h, 40h]
These bits make up the full-scale calibration coefficient register.
Figure 60. Full-Scale Calibration Coefficient Registers
7
6
5
4
3
2
4
0
11
10
9
8
19
18
17
16
FSC[7:0]
R/W-00h
15
14
13
12
FSC[15:8]
R/W-00h
23
22
21
20
FSC[23:16]
R/W-40h
LEGEND: R/W = Read/Write; R = Read only; -n = value after reset
Table 23. Full-Scale Calibration Coefficient Register Field Descriptions
46
BIT
FIELD
TYPE
RESET
DESCRIPTION
23:0
FSC[23:0]
R/W
400000h
Full-Scale Calibration Register
Three registers compose the ADC 24-bit full-scale calibration
word. The 24-bit word is straight binary. The ADC divides the
register value of the FSC register by 400000h to derive the scale
factor for calibration. After the offset calibration, the ADC
multiplies the scale factor by the conversion result.
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9.6.2.7 ID—ID Register (offset = 0Ah) [reset = x0h]
Figure 61. ID Register
7
6
5
4
3
DRDY MODE
R/W-0h
ID[3:0]
R-xh
2
0
R-0h
1
0
R-0h
0
0
R-0h
LEGEND: R/W = Read/Write; R = Read only; -n = value after reset
Table 24. ID Register Field Descriptions
BIT
FIELD
TYPE
RESET
DESCRIPTION
7:4
ID[3:0]
R
xh
Revision Identification
Read-only, factory-programmed bits used for revision
identification.
Note: The revision ID may change without notification
DRDY MODE
R/W
0h
Data Ready Mode Setting
This bit sets the DOUT/DRDY pin functionality. In either setting
of the DRDY MODE bit, the dedicated DRDY pin continues to
indicate data ready, active low.
0: DOUT/DRDY pin functions only as Data Out (default)
1: DOUT/DRDY pin functions both as Data Out and Data Ready,
active low (1)
RESERVED
R
0h
RESERVED
These bits must always be set to 000
3
2:0
(1)
Cannot be used in SDATAC mode
9.6.3 ADS1147 and ADS1148 Register Map
Table 25. ADS1147 and ADS1148 Register Map
ADDRESS
REGISTER
BIT 7
BIT 6
BIT 5
BCS[1:0]
BIT 4
BIT 3
00h
MUX0
01h
VBIAS
MUX_SP[2:0]
02h
MUX1
CLKSTAT
03h
SYS0
0
04h
OFC0
05h
OFC1
OFC[15:8]
06h
OFC2
OFC[23:16]
07h
FSC0
FSC[7:0]
08h
FSC1
FSC[15:8]
09h
FSC2
FSC[23:16]
0Ah
IDAC0
ID[3:0]
0Bh
IDAC1
I1DIR[3:0]
0Ch
GPIOCFG
0Dh
GPIODIR
IODIR[7:0]
0Eh
GPIODAT
IODAT[7:0]
BIT 2
BIT 1
BIT 0
MUX_SN[2:0]
VBIAS[7:0]
VREFCON[1:0]
REFSELT[1:0]
PGA[2:0]
MUXCAL[2:0]
DR[3:0]
OFC[7:0]
DRDY
MODE
IMAG[2:0]
I2DIR[3:0]
IOCFG[7:0]
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9.6.4 ADS1147 and ADS1148 Detailed Register Definitions
9.6.4.1 MUX0—Multiplexer Control Register 0 (offset = 00h) [reset = 01h]
This register allows any combination of differential inputs to be selected on any of the input channels. Note that
this setting can be superceded by the MUXCAL and VBIAS bits.
Figure 62. Multiplexer Control Register 0
7
6
BCS[1:0]
R/W-0h
5
4
MUX_SP[2:0]
R/W-0h
3
2
1
MUX_SN[2:0]
R/W-1h
0
LEGEND: R/W = Read/Write; R = Read only; -n = value after reset
Table 26. Multiplexer Control Register 0 Register Field Descriptions
48
BIT
FIELD
TYPE
RESET
DESCRIPTION
7:6
BCS[1:0]
R/W
0h
Burn-out Detect Current Source Register
These bits control the setting of the sensor burnout detect
current source
00: Burn-out current source off (default)
01: Burn-out current source on, 0.5 µA
10: Burn-out current source on, 2 µA
11: Burn-out current source on, 10 µA
5:3
MUX_SP[2:0]
R/W
0h
Multiplexer Selection - ADC Positive Input
Positive input channel selection bits
000: AIN0 (default)
001: AIN1
010: AIN2
011: AIN3
100: AIN4 (ADS1148 only)
101: AIN5 (ADS1148 only)
110: AIN6 (ADS1148 only)
111: AIN7 (ADS1148 only)
2:0
MUX_SN[2:0]
R/W
1h
Multiplexer Selection - ADC Negative Input
Negative input channel selection bits
000: AIN0
001: AIN1 (default)
010: AIN2
011: AIN3
100: AIN4 (ADS1148 only)
101: AIN5 (ADS1148 only)
110: AIN6 (ADS1148 only)
111: AIN7 (ADS1148 only)
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9.6.4.2 VBIAS—Bias Voltage Register (offset = 01h) [reset = 00h]
Figure 63. Bias Voltage Register (ADS1147)
7
0
R-0h
6
0
R-0h
5
0
R-0h
4
0
R-0h
3
2
1
0
VBIAS[3:0]
R/W-0h
LEGEND: R/W = Read/Write; R = Read only; -n = value after reset
Table 27. Bias Voltage Register Field Descriptions (ADS1147)
BIT
FIELD
TYPE
RESET
DESCRIPTION
7:4
RESERVED
R
0h
Reserved
Always write 0000
3
VBIAS[3]
R/W
0h
VBIAS[3] Voltage Enable
A bias voltage of mid-supply (AVDD + AVSS) / 2 is applied to
AIN3
0: Bias voltage is not enabled (default)
1: Bias voltage is applied to AIN3
2
VBIAS[2]
R/W
0h
VBIAS[2] Voltage Enable
A bias voltage of mid-supply (AVDD + AVSS) / 2 is applied to
AIN2
0: Bias voltage is not enabled (default)
1: Bias voltage is applied to AIN2
1
VBIAS[1]
R/W
0h
VBIAS[1] Voltage Enable
A bias voltage of mid-supply (AVDD + AVSS) / 2 is applied to
AIN1
0: Bias voltage is not enabled (default)
1: Bias voltage is applied to AIN1
0
VBIAS[0]
R/W
0h
VBIAS[0] Voltage Enable
A bias voltage of mid-supply (AVDD + AVSS) / 2 is applied to
AIN0
0: Bias voltage is not enabled (default)
1: Bias voltage is applied to AIN0
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Figure 64. Bias Voltage Register (ADS1148)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
VBIAS[7:0]
R/W-00h
LEGEND: R/W = Read/Write; R = Read only; -n = value after reset
Table 28. Bias Voltage Register Field Descriptions (ADS1148)
BIT
50
FIELD
TYPE
RESET
DESCRIPTION
7
VBIAS[7]
R/W
0h
VBIAS[7] Voltage Enable
A bias voltage of mid-supply (AVDD + AVSS) / 2 is applied to
AIN7
0: Bias voltage is not enabled (default)
1: Bias voltage is applied to AIN7
6
VBIAS[6]
R/W
0h
VBIAS[6] Voltage Enable
A bias voltage of mid-supply (AVDD + AVSS) / 2 is applied to
AIN6
0: Bias voltage is not enabled (default)
1: Bias voltage is applied to AIN6
5
VBIAS[5]
R/W
0h
VBIAS[5] Voltage Enable
A bias voltage of mid-supply (AVDD + AVSS) / 2 is applied to
AIN5
0: Bias voltage is not enabled (default)
1: Bias voltage is applied to AIN5
4
VBIAS[4]
R/W
0h
VBIAS[4] Voltage Enable
A bias voltage of mid-supply (AVDD + AVSS) / 2 is applied to
AIN4
0: Bias voltage is not enabled (default)
1: Bias voltage is applied to AIN4
3
VBIAS[3]
R/W
0h
VBIAS[3] Voltage Enable
A bias voltage of mid-supply (AVDD + AVSS) / 2 is applied to
AIN3
0: Bias voltage is not enabled (default)
1: Bias voltage is applied to AIN3
2
VBIAS[2]
R/W
0h
VBIAS[2] Voltage Enable
A bias voltage of mid-supply (AVDD + AVSS) / 2 is applied to
AIN2
0: Bias voltage is not enabled (default)
1: Bias voltage is applied to AIN2
1
VBIAS[1]
R/W
0h
VBIAS[1] Voltage Enable
A bias voltage of mid-supply (AVDD + AVSS) / 2 is applied to
AIN1
0: Bias voltage is not enabled (default)
1: Bias voltage is applied to AIN1
0
VBIAS[0]
R/W
0h
VBIAS[0] Voltage Enable
A bias voltage of mid-supply (AVDD + AVSS) / 2 is applied to
AIN0
0: Bias voltage is not enabled (default)
1: Bias voltage is applied to AIN0
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9.6.4.3 MUX1—Multiplexer Control Register 1 (offset = 02h) [reset = x0h]
Figure 65. Multiplexer Control Register 1
7
CLKSTAT
R-xh
6
5
4
VREFCON[1:0]
R/W-0h
3
2
REFSELT[1:0]
R/W-0h
1
MUXCAL[2:0]
R/W-0h
0
LEGEND: R/W = Read/Write; R = Read only; -n = value after reset
Table 29. Multiplexer Control Register 0 Register Field Descriptions
BIT
FIELD
TYPE
RESET
DESCRIPTION
CLKSTAT
R
xh
Clock Status
This bit is read-only and indicates whether the internal oscillator or
external clock is being used
0: Internal oscillator in use
1: External clock in use
6:5
VREFCON[1:0]
R/W
0h
Internal Reference Control
These bits control the internal voltage reference. These bits allow the
reference to be turned on or off completely, or allow the reference state
to follow the state of the device. Note that the internal reference is
required for operation of the IDAC functions.
00: Internal reference is always off (default)
01: Internal reference is always on
10 or 11: Internal reference is on when a conversion is in progress and
powers down when the device receives a SLEEP command or the
START pin is taken low
4:3
REFSELT[1:0]
R/W
0h
Reference Select Control
These bits select the reference input for the ADC.
00: REFP0 and REFN0 reference inputs selected (default)
01: REFP1 and REFN1 reference inputs selected (ADS1148 only)
10: Internal reference selected
11: Internal reference selected and internally connected to REFP0 and
REFN0 input pins
2:0
MUXCAL[2:0] (1)
R/W
0h
System Monitor Control
These bits are used to select a system monitor. The MUXCAL selection
supercedes selections from the MUX0, MUX1, and VBIAS registers
(includes MUX_SP, MUX_SN, VBIAS, and reference input selections).
000: Normal operation (default)
001: Offset calibration. The analog inputs are disconnected and AINP
and AINN are internally connected to mid-supply (AVDD + AVSS) / 2.
010: Gain calibration. The analog inputs are connected to the voltage
reference.
011: Temperature measurement. The inputs are connected to a diode
circuit that produces a voltage proportional to the ambient temperature
of the device.
100: REF1 monitor. The analog inputs are disconnected and AINP and
AINN are internally connected to (V(REFP1) – V(REFN1)) / 4 (ADS1148
only)
101: REF0 monitor. The analog inputs are disconnected and AINP and
AINN are internally connected to (V(REFP0) – V(REFN0)) / 4
110: Analog supply monitor. The analog inputs are disconnected and
AINP and AINN are internally connected to (AVDD – AVSS) / 4
111: Digital supply monitor. The analog inputs are disconnected and
AINP and AINN are internally connected to (DVDD – DGND) / 4
7
(1)
When using either reference monitor, the internal reference must be enabled.
Table 30 provides the ADC input connection and PGA settings for each MUXCAL setting. The PGA setting
reverts to the original SYS0 register setting when MUXCAL is taken back to normal operation or offset
measurement.
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Table 30. MUXCAL Settings
MUXCAL[2:0]
PGA GAIN SETTING
ADC INPUT
000
Set by SYS0 register
Normal operation
001
Set by SYS0 register
Inputs shorted to mid-supply (AVDD + AVSS) / 2
010
Forced to 1
V(REFP) – V(REFN) (full-scale)
011
Forced to 1
Temperature measurement diode
100
Forced to 1
(V(REFP1) – V(REFN1)) / 4
101
Forced to 1
(V(REFP0) – V(REFN0)) / 4
110
Forced to 1
(AVDD – AVSS) / 4
111
Forced to 1
(DVDD – DGND) / 4
9.6.4.4 SYS0—System Control Register 0 (offset = 03h) [reset = 00h]
Figure 66. System Control Register 0
7
0
6
R-0h
5
PGA[2:0]
4
3
2
1
0
DR[3:0]
R/W-0h
R/W-0h
LEGEND: R/W = Read/Write; R = Read only; -n = value after reset
Table 31. System Control Register 0 Field Descriptions
BIT
FIELD
TYPE
RESET
DESCRIPTION
RESERVED
R
0h
Reserved
Always write 0
6:4
PGA[2:0]
R/W
0h
Gain Setting for PGA
These bits determine the gain of the PGA
000: PGA = 1 (default)
001: PGA = 2
010: PGA = 4
011: PGA = 8
100: PGA = 16
101: PGA = 32
110: PGA = 64
111: PGA = 128
3:0
DR[3:0]
R/W
0h
Data Output Rate Setting
These bits determine the data output rate of the ADC
0000: DR = 5 SPS (default)
0001: DR = 10 SPS
0010: DR = 20 SPS
0011: DR = 40 SPS
0100: DR = 80 SPS
0101: DR = 160 SPS
0110: DR = 320 SPS
0111: DR = 640 SPS
1000: DR = 1000 SPS
1001 to 1111: DR = 2000 SPS
7
52
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9.6.4.5 OFC—Offset Calibration Coefficient Register (offset = 04h, 05h, 06h) [reset = 00h, 00h, 00h]
These bits make up the offset calibration coefficient register of the ADS1147 and ADS1148.
Figure 67. Offset Calibration Coefficient Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
11
10
9
8
19
18
17
16
OFC[7:0]
R/W-00h
15
14
13
12
OFC[15:8]
R/W-00h
23
22
21
20
OFC[23:16]
R/W-00h
LEGEND: R/W = Read/Write; R = Read only; -n = value after reset
Table 32. Offset Calibration Coefficient Register Field Descriptions
BIT
FIELD
TYPE
RESET
DESCRIPTION
23:0
OFC[23:0]
R/W
000000h
Offset Calibration Register
Three registers compose the ADC 24-bit offset calibration word
and is in twos complement format. The upper 16 bits
(OFC[23:8]) can correct offsets ranging from -FS to +FS, while
the lower eight bits (OFC[7:0]) provide sub-LSB correction. The
ADC subtracts the register value from the conversion result
before full scale operation.
9.6.4.6 FSC—Full-Scale Calibration Coefficient Register (offset = 07h, 08h, 09h) [reset = 00h, 00h, 40h]
These bits make up the full-scale calibration coefficient register.
Figure 68. Full-Scale Calibration Coefficient Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
4
0
11
10
9
8
19
18
17
16
FSC[7:0]
R/W-00h
15
14
13
12
FSC[15:8]
R/W-00h
23
22
21
20
FSC[23:16]
R/W-40h
LEGEND: R/W = Read/Write; R = Read only; -n = value after reset
Table 33. Full-Scale Calibration Coefficient Register Field Descriptions
BIT
FIELD
TYPE
RESET
DESCRIPTION
23:0
FSC[23:0]
R/W
400000h
Full-Scale Calibration Register
Three registers compose the ADC 24-bit full-scale calibration
word. The 24-bit word is straight binary. The ADC divides the
register value of the FSC register by 400000h to derive the scale
factor for calibration. After the offset calibration, the ADC
multiplies the scale factor by the conversion result.
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9.6.4.7 IDAC0—IDAC Control Register 0 (offset = 0Ah) [reset = x0h]
Figure 69. IDAC Control Register 0
7
6
5
4
3
DRDY MODE
R/W-0h
ID[3:0]
R-xh
2
1
IMAG[2:0]
R/W-0h
0
LEGEND: R/W = Read/Write; R = Read only; -n = value after reset
Table 34. IDAC Control Register 0 Field Descriptions
BIT
FIELD
TYPE
RESET
DESCRIPTION
7:4
ID[3:0]
R
xh
Revision Identification
Read-only, factory-programmed bits used for revision
identification.
Note: The revision ID may change without notification
DRDY MODE
R/W
0h
Data Ready Mode Setting
This bit sets the DOUT/DRDY pin functionality. In either setting
of the DRDY MODE bit, the dedicated DRDY pin continues to
indicate data ready, active low.
0: DOUT/DRDY pin functions only as Data Out (default)
1: DOUT/DRDY pin functions both as Data Out and Data Ready,
active low (1)
IMAG[2:0]
R/W
0h
IDAC Excitation Current Magnitude
The ADS1147 and ADS1148 have two excitation current
sources (IDACs) that can be used for sensor excitation. The
IMAG bits control the magnitude of the excitation current. The
IDACs require the internal reference to be on.
000: off (default)
001: 50 µA
010: 100 µA
011: 250 µA
100: 500 µA
101: 750 µA
110: 1000 µA
111: 1500 µA
3
2:0
(1)
54
Cannot be used in SDATAC mode
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9.6.4.8 IDAC1—IDAC Control Register 1 (offset = 0Bh) [reset = FFh]
Figure 70. IDAC Control Register 1
7
6
5
4
3
2
I1DIR[3:0]
R/W-Fh
1
0
I2DIR[3:0]
R/W-Fh
LEGEND: R/W = Read/Write; R = Read only; -n = value after reset
The two IDACs on the ADS1148 can be routed to either the IEXC1 and IEXC2 output pins or directly to the
analog inputs.
Table 35. IDAC Control Register Field Descriptions
BIT
FIELD
TYPE
RESET
DESCRIPTION
7:4
I1DIR[3:0]
R/W
Fh
IDAC Excitation Current Output 1
These bits select the output pin for the first excitation current
source
0000: AIN0
0001: AIN1
0010: AIN2
0011: AIN3
0100: AIN4 (ADS1148 only)
0101: AIN5 (ADS1148 only)
0110: AIN6 (ADS1148 only)
0111: AIN7 (ADS1148 only)
10x0: IEXC1 (ADS1148 only)
10x1: IEXC2 (ADS1148 only)
11xx: Disconnected (default)
3:0
I2DIR[3:0]
R/W
Fh
IDAC Excitation Current Output 2
These bits select the output pin for the second excitation current
source
0000: AIN0
0001: AIN1
0010: AIN2
0011: AIN3
0100: AIN4 (ADS1148 only)
0101: AIN5 (ADS1148 only)
0110: AIN6 (ADS1148 only)
0111: AIN7 (ADS1148 only)
10x0: IEXC1 (ADS1148 only)
10x1: IEXC2 (ADS1148 only)
11xx: Disconnected (default)
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9.6.4.9 GPIOCFG—GPIO Configuration Register (offset = 0Ch) [reset = 00h]
Figure 71. GPIO Configuration Register (ADS1147)
7
0
R-0h
6
0
R-0h
5
0
R-0h
4
0
R-0h
3
2
1
0
IOCFG[3:0]
R/W-0h
LEGEND: R/W = Read/Write; R = Read only; -n = value after reset
Table 36. GPIO Configuration Register Field Descriptions (ADS1147)
56
BIT
FIELD
TYPE
RESET
DESCRIPTION
7:4
RESERVED
R
0h
Reserved
Always write 0000
3
IOCFG[3]
R/W
0h
GPIO[3] (AIN3) Pin Configuration
0: GPIO[3] is not enabled (default)
1: GPIO[3] is applied to AIN3
2
IOCFG[2]
R/W
0h
GPIO[2] (AIN2) Pin Configuration
0: GPIO[2] is not enabled (default)
1: GPIO[2] is applied to AIN2
1
IOCFG[1]
R/W
0h
GPIO[1] (REFN0) Pin Configuration
0: GPIO[1] is not enabled (default)
1: GPIO[1] is applied to REFN0
0
IOCFG[0]
R/W
0h
GPIO[0] (REFP0) Pin Configuration
0: GPIO[0] is not enabled (default)
1: GPIO[0] is applied to REFP0
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Figure 72. GPIO Configuration Register (ADS1148)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
IOCFG[7:0]
R/W-00h
LEGEND: R/W = Read/Write; R = Read only; -n = value after reset
Table 37. GPIO Configuration Register Field Descriptions (ADS1148)
BIT
FIELD
TYPE
RESET
DESCRIPTION
7
IOCFG[7]
R/W
0h
GPIO[7] (AIN7) Pin Configuration
0: GPIO[7] is not enabled (default)
1: GPIO[7] is applied to AIN7
6
IOCFG[6]
R/W
0h
GPIO[6] (AIN6) Pin Configuration
0: GPIO[6] is not enabled (default)
1: GPIO[6] is applied to AIN6
5
IOCFG[5]
R/W
0h
GPIO[5] (AIN5) Pin Configuration
0: GPIO[5] is not enabled (default)
1: GPIO[5] is applied to AIN5
4
IOCFG[4]
R/W
0h
GPIO[4] (AIN4) Pin Configuration
0: GPIO[4] is not enabled (default)
1: GPIO[4] is applied to AIN4
3
IOCFG[3]
R/W
0h
GPIO[3] (AIN3) Pin Configuration
0: GPIO[3] is not enabled (default)
1: GPIO[3] is applied to AIN3
2
IOCFG[2]
R/W
0h
GPIO[2] (AIN2) Pin Configuration
0: GPIO[2] is not enabled (default)
1: GPIO[2] is applied to AIN2
1
IOCFG[1]
R/W
0h
GPIO[1] (REFN0) Pin Configuration
0: GPIO[1] is not enabled (default)
1: GPIO[1] is applied to REFN0
0
IOCFG[0]
R/W
0h
GPIO[0] (REFP0) Pin Configuration
0: GPIO[0] is not enabled (default)
1: GPIO[0] is applied to REFP0
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9.6.4.10 GPIODIR—GPIO Direction Register (offset = 0Dh) [reset = 00h]
Figure 73. GPIO Direction Register (ADS1147)
7
0
R-0h
6
0
R-0h
5
0
R-0h
4
0
R-0h
3
2
1
0
IODIR[3:0]
R/W-0h
LEGEND: R/W = Read/Write; R = Read only; -n = value after reset
Table 38. GPIO Direction Register Field Descriptions (ADS1147)
58
BIT
FIELD
TYPE
RESET
DESCRIPTION
7:4
RESERVED
R
0h
Reserved
Always write 0000
3
IODIR[3]
R/W
0h
GPIO[3] (AIN3) Pin Direction
Configures GPIO[3] as a GPIO input or GPIO output
0: GPIO[3] is an output (default)
1: GPIO[3] is an input
2
IODIR[2]
R/W
0h
GPIO[2] (AIN2) Pin Direction
Configures GPIO[2] as a GPIO input or GPIO output
0: GPIO[2] is an output (default)
1: GPIO[2] is an input
1
IODIR[1]
R/W
0h
GPIO[1] (REFN0) Pin Direction
Configures GPIO[1] as a GPIO input or GPIO output
0: GPIO[1] is an output (default)
1: GPIO[1] is an input
0
IODIR[0]
R/W
0h
GPIO[0] (REFP0) Pin Direction
Configures GPIO[0] as a GPIO input or GPIO output
0: GPIO[0] is an output (default)
1: GPIO[0] is an input
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Figure 74. GPIO Direction Register (ADS1148)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
IODIR[7:0]
R/W-00h
LEGEND: R/W = Read/Write; R = Read only; -n = value after reset
Table 39. GPIO Direction Register Field Descriptions (ADS1148)
BIT
FIELD
TYPE
RESET
DESCRIPTION
7
IODIR[7]
R/W
0h
GPIO[7] (AIN7) Pin Direction
Configures GPIO[7] as a GPIO input or GPIO output
0: GPIO[7] is an output (default)
1: GPIO[7] is an input
6
IODIR[6]
R/W
0h
GPIO[6] (AIN6) Pin Direction
Configures GPIO[6] as a GPIO input or GPIO output
0: GPIO[6] is an output (default)
1: GPIO[6] is an input
5
IODIR[5]
R/W
0h
GPIO[5] (AIN5) Pin Direction
Configures GPIO[5] as a GPIO input or GPIO output
0: GPIO[5] is an output (default)
1: GPIO[5] is an input
4
IODIR[4]
R/W
0h
GPIO[4] (AIN4) Pin Direction
Configures GPIO[4] as a GPIO input or GPIO output
0: GPIO[4] is an output (default)
1: GPIO[4] is an input
3
IODIR[3]
R/W
0h
GPIO[3] (AIN3) Pin Direction
Configures GPIO[3] as a GPIO input or GPIO output
0: GPIO[3] is an output (default)
1: GPIO[3] is an input
2
IODIR[2]
R/W
0h
GPIO[2] (AIN2) Pin Direction
Configures GPIO[2] as a GPIO input or GPIO output
0: GPIO[2] is an output (default)
1: GPIO[2] is an input
1
IODIR[1]
R/W
0h
GPIO[1] (REFN0) Pin Direction
Configures GPIO[1] as a GPIO input or GPIO output
0: GPIO[1] is an output (default)
1: GPIO[1] is an input
0
IODIR[0]
R/W
0h
GPIO[0] (REFP0) Pin Direction
Configures GPIO[0] as a GPIO input or GPIO output
0: GPIO[0] is an output (default)
1: GPIO[0] is an input
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9.6.4.11 GPIODAT—GPIO Data Register (offset = 0Eh) [reset = 00h]
Figure 75. GPIO Data Register (ADS1147)
7
0
R-0h
6
0
R-0h
5
0
R-0h
4
0
R-0h
3
2
1
0
IODAT[3:0]
R/W-0h
LEGEND: R/W = Read/Write; R = Read only; -n = value after reset
Table 40. GPIO Data Register Field Descriptions (ADS1147)
60
BIT
FIELD
TYPE
RESET
DESCRIPTION
7:4
RESERVED
R
0h
Reserved
Always write 0000
3
IODAT[3]
R/W
0h
GPIO[3] (AIN3) Pin Data
Configured as an output, read returns the register value
Configured as an input, write sets the register value only
0: GPIO[3] is low (default)
1: GPIO[3] is high
2
IODAT[2]
R/W
0h
GPIO[2] (AIN2) Pin Data
Configured as an output, read returns the register value
Configured as an input, write sets the register value only
0: GPIO[2] is low (default)
1: GPIO[2] is high
1
IODAT[1]
R/W
0h
GPIO[1] (REFN0) Pin Data
Configured as an output, read returns the register value
Configured as an input, write sets the register value only
0: GPIO[1] is low (default)
1: GPIO[1] is high
0
IODAT[0]
R/W
0h
GPIO[0] (REFP0) Pin Data
Configured as an output, read returns the register value
Configured as an input, write sets the register value only
0: GPIO[0] is low (default)
1: GPIO[0] is high
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Figure 76. GPIO Data Register (ADS1148)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
IODAT[7:0]
R/W-00h
LEGEND: R/W = Read/Write; R = Read only; -n = value after reset
Table 41. GPIO Data Register Field Descriptions (ADS1148)
BIT
FIELD
TYPE
RESET
DESCRIPTION
7
IODAT[7]
R/W
0h
GPIO[7] (AIN7) Pin Data
Configured as an output, read returns the register value
Configured as an input, write sets the register value only
0: GPIO[7] is low (default)
1: GPIO[7] is high
6
IODAT[6]
R/W
0h
GPIO[6] (AIN6) Pin Data
Configured as an output, read returns the register value
Configured as an input, write sets the register value only
0: GPIO[6] is low (default)
1: GPIO[6] is high
5
IODAT[5]
R/W
0h
GPIO[5] (AIN5) Pin Data
Configured as an output, read returns the register value
Configured as an input, write sets the register value only
0: GPIO[5] is low (default)
1: GPIO[5] is high
4
IODAT[4]
R/W
0h
GPIO[4] (AIN4) Pin Data
Configured as an output, read returns the register value
Configured as an input, write sets the register value only
0: GPIO[4] is low (default)
1: GPIO[4] is high
3
IODAT[3]
R/W
0h
GPIO[3] (AIN3) Pin Data
Configured as an output, read returns the register value
Configured as an input, write sets the register value only
0: GPIO[3] is low (default)
1: GPIO[3] is high
2
IODAT[2]
R/W
0h
GPIO[2] (AIN2) Pin Data
Configured as an output, read returns the register value
Configured as an input, write sets the register value only
0: GPIO[2] is low (default)
1: GPIO[2] is high
1
IODAT[1]
R/W
0h
GPIO[1] (REFN0) Pin Data
Configured as an output, read returns the register value
Configured as an input, write sets the register value only
0: GPIO[1] is low (default)
1: GPIO[1] is high
0
IODAT[0]
R/W
0h
GPIO[0] (REFP0) Pin Data
Configured as an output, read returns the register value
Configured as an input, write sets the register value only
0: GPIO[0] is low (default)
1: GPIO[0] is high
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10 Application and Implementation
NOTE
Information in the following applications sections is not part of the TI component
specification, and TI does not warrant its accuracy or completeness. TI’s customers are
responsible for determining suitability of components for their purposes. Customers should
validate and test their design implementation to confirm system functionality.
10.1 Application Information
The ADS1146, ADS1147, and ADS1148 make up a family of precision, 16-bit, ΔΣ ADCs that offers many
integrated features to ease the measurement of the most common sensor types including various types of
temperature and bridge sensors. Primary considerations when designing an application with these devices
include connecting and configuring the serial interface, designing the analog input filtering, establishing an
appropriate external reference for ratiometric measurements, and setting the common-mode input voltage for the
internal PGA. These considerations are discussed in the following sections.
10.1.1 Serial Interface Connections
Figure 77 shows the principle serial interface connections for the ADS1148.
47
GPIO
3.3 V
47
1
0.1 PF
DVDD
SCLK
28
SCLK
47
2
DGND
DIN
27
MOSI
47
3
CLK
DOUT/DRDY
26
MISO
Microcontroller
with SPI
47
4
RESET
DRDY
25
GPIO/IRQ
47
5
REFP0
CS
24
GPIO
47
6
REFN0
START
23
GPIO
5V
7
REFP1
AVDD
3.3 V
22
DVDD
Device
1 PF
8
REFN1
AVSS
21
9
VREFOUT
IEXC1
20
10
VREFCOM
IEXC2
19
11
AIN0
AIN0
18
12
AIN1
AIN1
17
13
AIN4
AIN7
16
14
AIN5
AIN6
15
0.1 PF
0.1 PF
DVSS
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Figure 77. Serial Interface Connections
Most microcontroller SPI peripherals can operate with the ADS1148. The interface operates in SPI mode 1
where CPOL = 0 and CPHA = 1. In SPI mode 1, SCLK idles low and data are launched or changed only on
SCLK rising edges; data are latched or read by the master and slave on SCLK falling edges. Details of the SPI
communication protocol employed by the device can be found in the Serial Interface Timing Requirements
section.
TI recommends placing 47-Ω resistors in series with all digital input and output pins (CS, SCLK, DIN,
DOUT/DRDY, DRDY, RESET and START). This resistance smooths sharp transitions, suppresses overshoot,
and offers some overvoltage protection. Care must be taken to meet all SPI timing requirements because the
additional resistors interact with the bus capacitances present on the digital signal lines.
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Application Information (continued)
10.1.2 Analog Input Filtering
Analog input filtering serves two purposes: first, to limit the effect of aliasing during the sampling process and
second, to reduce external noise from being a part of the measurement.
As with any sampled system, aliasing can occur if proper anti-alias filtering is not in place. Aliasing occurs when
frequency components are present in the input signal that are higher than half the sampling frequency of the
ADC (also known as the Nyquist frequency). These frequency components are folded back and show up in the
actual frequency band of interest below half the sampling frequency. Note that inside a ΔΣ ADC, the input signal
is sampled at the modulator frequency, fMOD and not at the output data rate. The filter response of the digital filter
repeats at multiples of the fMOD, as shown in Figure 78. Signals or noise up to a frequency where the filter
response repeats are attenuated to a certain amount by the digital filter depending on the filter architecture. Any
frequency components present in the input signal around the modulator frequency or multiples thereof are not
attenuated and alias back into the band of interest, unless attenuated by an external analog filter.
Magnitude
Sensor
Signal
Unwanted
Signals
Unwanted
Signals
Output
Data Rate
fMOD / 2
fMOD
Frequency
fMOD
Frequency
fMOD
Frequency
Magnitude
Digital Filter
Aliasing of Unwanted
Signals
Output
Data Rate
fMOD / 2
Magnitude
External
Antialiasing Filter
Roll-Off
Output
Data Rate
fMOD / 2
Figure 78. Effect of Aliasing
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Application Information (continued)
Many sensor signals are inherently bandlimited; for example, the output of a thermocouple has a limited rate of
change. In this case, the sensor signal does not alias back into the pass-band when using a ΔΣ ADC. However,
any noise pickup along the sensor wiring or the application circuitry can potentially alias into the pass-band.
Power line-cycle frequency and harmonics are one common noise source. External noise can also be generated
from electromagnetic interference (EMI) or radio frequency interference (RFI) sources, such as nearby motors
and cellular phones. Another noise source typically exists on the printed-circuit board (PCB) itself in the form of
clocks and other digital signals. Analog input filtering helps remove unwanted signals from affecting the
measurement result.
A first-order resistor-capacitor (RC) filter is (in most cases) sufficient to either totally eliminate aliasing, or to
reduce the effect of aliasing to a level within the noise floor of the sensor. Ideally, any signal beyond fMOD/2 is
attenuated to a level below the noise floor of the ADC. The digital filter of the ADS1148 attenuates signals to a
certain degree, as illustrated in the filter response plots in the Digital Filter section. In addition, noise components
are usually smaller in magnitude than the actual sensor signal. Therefore, using a first-order RC filter with a
cutoff frequency set at the output data rate or 10× higher is generally a good starting point for a system design.
Internal to the device, prior to the PGA inputs, is an EMI filter; see Figure 20. The cutoff frequency of this filter is
approximately 47 MHz, which helps reject high-frequency interferences.
10.1.3 External Reference and Ratiometric Measurements
The full-scale range of the ADS1148 is defined by the reference voltage and the PGA gain (FSR = ±VREF / Gain).
An external reference can be used instead of the integrated 2.048-V reference to adapt the FSR to the specific
system requirements. An external reference must be used if VIN > 2.048 V. For example, an external 2.5-V
reference is required to measure signals as large as 2.5 V. Note that the input signal must be within the
common-mode input range to be valid, and that the reference input voltage must be between 0.5 V and
(AVDD – AVSS – 1 V).
The buffered reference inputs of the device also allow the implementation of ratiometric measurements. In a
ratiometric measurement, the same excitation source that is used to excite the sensor is also used to establish
the reference for the ADC. As an example, a simple form of a ratiometric measurement uses the same current
source to excite both the resistive sensor element (such as an RTD) and another resistive reference element that
is in series with the element being measured. The voltage that develops across the reference element is used as
the reference source for the ADC. In this configuration, current noise and drift are common to both the sensor
measurement and the reference; therefore, these components cancel out in the ADC transfer function. The
output code is only a ratio of the sensor element value and the reference resistor value, and is not affected by
the absolute value of the excitation current.
10.1.4 Establishing a Proper Common-Mode Input Voltage
The ADS1148 is used to measure various types of signal configurations. However, configuring the input of the
device properly for the respective signal type is important.
The ADS1148 features an 8-input multiplexer (while the ADS1147 has a 4-input multiplexer). Each input can be
independently selected as the positive input or the negative input to be measured by the ADC. With an 8-input
multiplexer, the user can measure four independent differential-input channels. The user can also choose to
measure 7 channels, using one input as a fixed common input. Regardless of the analog input configuration,
make sure that all inputs, including the common input are within the common-mode input voltage range.
If the supply is unipolar (for example, AVSS = 0 V and AVDD = 5 V), then V(AINN) = 0 V is not within the commonmode input range as shown by Equation 3. Therefore, a single-ended measurement with the common input
connected to ground is not possible. TI recommends connecting the common-input to mid-supply or alternatively
to VREFOUT. Note that the common-mode range becomes further restricted with increasing PGA gain.
If the supply is bipolar (AVSS = –2.5 V and AVDD = 2.5 V), then ground is within the common-mode input range.
Single-ended measurements with the common input connected to 0 V are possible in this case.
For a detailed explanation of the common-mode input range as it relates to the PGA see the PGA CommonMode Voltage Requirements section.
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Application Information (continued)
10.1.5 Isolated (or Floating) Sensor Inputs
Isolated sensors (sensors that are not referenced to the ADC ground) must have a common-mode voltage
established within the specified ADC input range. Level shift the common-mode voltage by external resistor
biasing, by connecting the negative lead to ground (bipolar analog supply), or by connecting to a DC voltage
(unipolar analog supply). The 2.048-V reference output voltage may also be used to provide level shifting to
floating sensor inputs.
10.1.6 Unused Inputs and Outputs
To minimize leakage currents on the analog inputs, leave unused analog inputs floating, connect them to midsupply, or connect them to AVDD. Connecting unused analog inputs to AVSS is possible as well, but can yield
higher leakage currents than the options mentioned before.
Do not float unused digital inputs or excessive power-supply leakage current may result. Tie all unused digital
inputs to the appropriate levels, DVDD or DGND, including when in power-down mode. If the DRDY output is not
used, leave the pin unconnected or tie it to DVDD using a weak pullup resistor.
10.1.7 Pseudo Code Example
The following list shows a pseudo code sequence with the required steps to set up the device and the
microcontroller that interfaces to the ADC to take subsequent readings from the ADS1148 in stop read data
continuous (SDATAC) mode. In SDATAC mode, it is sufficient to wait for a time period longer than the data rate
to retrieve the conversion result. New conversion data does not interrupt the reading of registers or data on
DOUT. However in this example, the dedicated DRDY pin is used to indicate availability of new conversion data
instead of waiting a set time period for a readout. The default configuration register settings are changed to PGA
gain = 16, using the internal reference, and a data rate of 20 SPS.
Power up;
Delay for a minimum of 16 ms to allow power supplies to settle and power-on reset to complete;
Enable the device by setting the START pin high;
Configure the serial interface of the microcontroller to SPI mode 1 (CPOL = 0, CPHA =1);
If the CS pin is not tied low permanently, configure the microcontroller GPIO connected to CS as an
output;
Configure the microcontroller GPIO connected to the DRDY pin as a falling edge triggered interrupt
input;
Set CS to the device low;
Delay for a minimum of tCSSC;
Send the RESET command (06h) to make sure the device is properly reset after power up;
Delay for a minimum of 0.6 ms;
Send SDATAC command (16h) to prevent the new data from interrupting data or register transactions;
Write the respective register configuration with the WREG command (40h, 03h, 01h, 00h, 03h and 42h);
As an optional sanity check, read back all configuration registers with the RREG command (four bytes
from 20h, 03h);
Send the SYNC command (04h) to start the ADC conversion;
Delay for a minimum of tSCCS;
Clear CS to high (resets the serial interface);
Loop
{
Wait for DRDY to transition low;
Take CS low;
Delay for a minimum of tCSSC;
Send the RDATA command (12h);
Send 16 SCLKs to read out conversion data on DOUT/DRDY;
Delay for a minimum of tSCCS;
Clear CS to high;
}
Take CS low;
Delay for a minimum of tCSSC;
Send the SLEEP command (02h) to stop conversions and put the device in power-down mode;
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Application Information (continued)
10.1.8 Channel Multiplexing Example
This example applies only to the ADS1147 and ADS1148. It explains a method to use the device with two
sensors connected to two different analog channels. Figure 79 shows the sequence of SPI operations performed
on the device. After power up, 216 tCLK cycles are required before communication can be started. During the first
216 tCLK cycles, the device is internally held in a reset state. In this example, one of the sensors is connected to
channels AIN0 and AIN1 and the other sensor is connected to channels AIN2 and AIN3. The ADC is operated at
a data rate of 2 kSPS. The PGA gain is set to 32 for both sensors. VBIAS is connected to the negative terminal
of both sensors (that is, channels AIN1 and AIN3). All these settings can be changed by performing a block write
operation on the first four registers of the device. After the DRDY pin goes low, the conversion result can be
immediately retrieved by sending in 16 SCLK pulses because the device defaults to RDATAC mode. As the
conversion result is being retrieved, the active input channels can be switched to AIN2 and AIN3 by writing into
the MUX0 register in a full-duplex manner, as shown in Figure 79. The write operation is completed with an
additional eight SCLK pulses. The time from the write operation into the MUX0 register to the next DRDY low
transition is shown in Figure 79 and is 0.513 ms in this case. After DRDY goes low, the conversion result can be
retrieved and the active channel can be switched as before.
Power-up sequence
ADC initial setup
Multiplexer change to channel 2
Data retrieval for
channel 2 conversion
(1)
16 ms
DVDD
START
RESET
CS
WREG
WREG
NOP
DIN
SCLK
Conversion result
for channel 1
Conversion result
for channel 2
DOUT
Initial setting:
AIN0 is the positive channel,
AIN1 is the negative channel,
Internal reference selected,
PGA gain = 32, DR = 2 kSPS,
VBIAS is connected to pins
AIN1 and AIN3
DRDY
(1)
0.513 ms for
MUX0 write
tDRDY
AIN2 is the positive channel,
AIN3 is the negative channel.
For fCLK = 4.096 MHz.
Figure 79. SPI Communication Sequence for Channel Multiplexing
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Application Information (continued)
10.1.9 Power-Down Mode Example
This second example deals with performing one conversion after power up and then entering power-down mode.
In this example, a sensor is connected to input channels AIN0 and AIN1. Commands to set up the device must
occur at least 216 system clock cycles after powering up the device. The ADC operates at a data rate of 2 kSPS.
The PGA gain is set to 32. VBIAS is connected to the negative terminal of the sensor (that is, channel AIN1). All
these settings can be changed by performing a block write operation on the first four registers of the device. After
performing the block write operation, the START pin can be taken low. The device enters the power-down mode
as soon as DRDY goes low 0.575 ms after writing into the SYS0 register. The conversion result can be retrieved
even after the device enters power-down mode by sending 16 SCLK pulses.
Power-up sequence
ADC is put in power-down
mode after a single conversion.
Data are retrieved when the
ADC is powered down
ADC initial setup
16 ms(1)
DVDD
START
RESET
CS
WREG
NOP
DIN
SCLK
Conversion result
for channel 1
DOUT
DRDY
Initial setting:
AIN0 is the positive channel,
AIN1 is the negative channel,
Internal reference selected,
PGA gain = 32, DR = 2 kSPS,
VBIAS is connected to AIN1
(1)
tDRDY
(0.575 ms)
ADC enters
power-down
mode
For fCLK = 4.096 MHz.
Figure 80. SPI Communication Sequence for Entering Power-Down Mode After a Conversion
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10.2 Typical Applications
10.2.1 Ratiometric 3-Wire RTD Measurement System
Figure 81 shows a 3-wire RTD application circuit with lead-wire compensation using the ADS1147. The two IDAC
current sources integrated in the ADS1147 are used to implement the lead-wire compensation. One IDAC
current source (IDAC1) provides excitation to the RTD element. The other current source (IDAC2) has the same
current setting, providing cancellation of lead-wire resistance by generating a voltage drop across lead-wire
resistance RLEAD2 equal to the voltage drop across RLEAD1. Because the voltage across the RTD is measured
differentially at ADC pins AIN1 and AIN2, the voltages across the lead-wire resistances cancel. The ADC
reference voltage (pins REFP0 and REFN0) is derived from the voltage across RREF with the currents from
IDAC1 and IDAC2, providing ratiometric cancellation of current-source drift. RREF also level shifts the RTD signal
to within the ADC specified common-mode input range.
IDAC1
CI_CM1
RI1
ADS1147
IDAC2
AIN0/IEXC1
AIN1
RLEAD1
CI_DIFF
RRTD
AIN2
RLEAD2
RI2
CI_CM2
MUX
û
ADC
PGA
AIN3/IEXC2
RLEAD3
Reference
Buffer/MUX
REFN0
REFP0
CR_CM1
CR_CM2
CR_DIFF
RR1
RR2
IIDAC1 + IIDAC2
RREF
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Figure 81. Ratiometric 3-Wire RTD Measurement System Featuring the ADS1147
10.2.1.1 Design Requirements
Table 42 shows the design requirements of the 3-wire RTD application.
Table 42. 3-Wire RTD Application Requirements
PARAMETER
(1)
68
VALUE
Supply voltage
3.3 V
Data rate
20 SPS
RTD type
3-wire PT100
RTD excitation current
1 mA
Temperature
–200°C to 850°C
Calibrated temperature measurement
accuracy at TA = 25ºC (1)
±0.2°C
Not accounting for error of RTD; a two-point gain and offset calibration are performed, as well as
chopping of the excitation currents to remove IDAC mismatch errors.
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10.2.1.2 Detailed Design Procedure
10.2.1.2.1 Topology
Figure 82 shows the basic topology of a ratiometric measurement using an RTD. Shown are the ADC with the
RTD and a reference resistor RREF. There is a single current source, labeled IDAC1 which is used to excite the
RTD as well as to establish a reference voltage for the ADC across RREF.
IDAC1
û
ADC
RRTD
REFP
REFN
RREF
Figure 82. Example of a Ratiometric RTD Measurement
With IDAC1, the ADC measures the RTD voltage using the voltage across RREF as the reference. This gives a
measurement such that the output code is proportional to the ratio of the RTD voltage and the reference voltage
as shown in Equation 21 and Equation 22.
Code ∝ VRTD / VREF
Code ∝ (RRTD × IIDAC1) / (RREF × IIDAC1)
(21)
(22)
The currents cancel so that the equation reduces to Equation 23:
Code ∝ RRTD / RREF
(23)
As shown in Equation 23, the measurement depends on the resistive value of the RTD and the reference resistor
RREF, but not on the IDAC1 current value. Therefore, the absolute accuracy and temperature drift of the
excitation current does not matter. This is a ratiometric measurement. As long as there is no current leakage
from IDAC1 outside of this circuit, the measurement depends only on RRTD and RREF.
In Figure 83, the lead resistances of a 3-wire RTD are shown and another excitation current source is added,
labeled IDAC2.
IDAC1
RLEAD1
RRTD
û
ADC
RLEAD2
REFP
RLEAD3
REFN
IDAC2
RREF
Figure 83. Example of Lead Wire Compensation
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With a single excitation current source, RLEAD1 adds an error to the measurement. By adding IDAC2, the second
excitation current source is used to cancel out the error in the lead wire resistance. When adding the lead
resistances and the second current source, the equation becomes:
Code ∝ (VRTD + (RLEAD1 × IIDAC1) – (RLEAD2 × IIDAC2)) / (VREF × (IIDAC1 + IIDAC2))
(24)
If the lead resistances match and the excitation currents match, then RLEAD1 = RLEAD2 and IIDAC1 = IIDAC2. The
lead wire resistances cancel out so that Equation 24 reduces to the result in Equation 25 maintaining a
ratiometric measurement.
Code ∝ RRTD / (2 × RREF)
(25)
RLEAD3 is not part of the measurement, because it is not in the input measurement path or in the reference input
path.
As Equation 24 shows, the two current sources must be matched to cancel the lead resistances of the RTD
wires. Any mismatch in the two current sources is minimized by using the multiplexer to swap or chop the two
current sources between the two inputs. Taking measurements in both configurations and averaging the readings
reduces the effects of mismatched current sources. The design uses the multiplexer in the ADS1147 to
implement this chopping technique to remove the mismatch error between IDAC1 and IDAC2.
10.2.1.2.2 RTD Selection
The RTD is first chosen to be a PT100 element. The RTD resistance is defined by the Callendar-Van Dusen
(CVD) equations and the resistance of the RTD is known depending on the temperature. The PT100 RTD has an
impedance of 100 Ω at 0˚C and roughly 0.385 Ω of resistance change per 1˚C in temperature change. With a
desired temperature measurement accuracy of 0.2˚C, this translates to a resistive measurement accuracy of
approximately 0.077 Ω. The RTD resistance at the low end of the temperature range of –200˚C is 18.59 Ω and
the resistance at the high end of the temperature range of 850˚C is 390.48 Ω.
10.2.1.2.3 Excitation Current
For the best possible resolution, the voltage across the RTD must be made as large as possible compared to the
noise floor in the measurement. In general, measurement resolution improves with increasing excitation current.
However, a larger excitation current creates self-heating in the RTD, which causes drift and error in the
measurement. The selection of excitation currents trades off resolution against sensor self-heating.
The excitation current sources in this design are selected to be 1 mA. This maximizes the value of the RTD
voltage while keeping the self-heating low. The typical range of RTD self-heating coefficients is 2.5 mW/°C for
small, thin-film elements and 65 mW/°C for larger, wire-wound elements. With 1-mA excitation at the maximum
RTD resistance value, the power dissipation in the RTD is less than 0.4 mW and keeps the measurement errors
due to self-heating to less than 0.01˚C.
As mentioned in the Topology section, chopping of the excitation current sources cancels mismatches between
the IDACs. This technique is necessary for getting the best possible accuracy from the system. Mismatch
between the excitation current sources is a large source of error if chopping is not implemented.
The internal reference voltage must be enabled while using the IDACs, even if an external ratiometric
measurement is used for ADC conversions.
Table 43 shows the ADS1147 register settings for setting up the internal reference and the excitation current
sources.
Table 43. Register Bit Settings for Excitation Current Sources
REGISTER (ADDRESS)
MUX1 (02h)
(1)
(2)
70
(1)
BIT NAME
BIT VALUES
COMMENT
VREFCON[1:0]
01
Internal reference enabled
MUX1 (02h)
REFSELT[1:0]
00
REFP0 and REFN0 reference inputs selected
IDAC0 (0Ah)
IMAG[2:0]
110
IDAC magnitude = 1 mA
IDAC1 (0Bh)
I1DIR[3:0]
(2)
0000
IDAC1 = AIN0
IDAC1 (0Bh)
I2DIR[3:0] (2)
0011
IDAC2 = AIN3
The internal reference is required to be enabled to use the IDAC current sources.
To implement chopping, swap IDAC1 direction for IDAC2 direction. Set I1DIR[3:0] = 0011 and I2DIR[3:0] = 0000
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10.2.1.2.4 Reference Resistor, RREF
TI recommends setting the common-mode voltage of the measurement near mid-supply, this helps keep the
input within the common-mode input range of the PGA.
The reference resistor is selected to be 820 Ω. The voltage across RREF is calculated from Equation 26.
VREF = RREF × (IIDAC1 + IIDAC2) = 820 Ω × 2 mA = 1.64 V
(26)
With AVDD = 3.3 V, Equation 26 shows that the input voltage is just below mid-supply.
The excitation current sources operate properly to a maximum IDAC compliance voltage. Above this compliance
voltage, the current sources lose current regulation. In this example, the output voltage of the excitation current
source is calculated from the sum of the voltages across the RTD and RREF as shown in Equation 27.
VIDAC1 MAX = RRTD MAX × IIDAC1 + (RREF × (IIDAC1 + IIDAC2)) = 0.4 V + 1.64 V = 2.04 V
(27)
A compliance voltage of 3.3 V – 2.04 V = 1.26 V is sufficient for proper IDAC operation. See Figure 9 and
Figure 10 in the Typical Characteristics section for details.
Because the voltage across RREF sets the reference voltage for the ADC, the tolerance and temperature drift of
RREF directly affect the measurement gain. A resistor with 0.01% maximum tolerance is selected for this
measurement.
10.2.1.2.5 PGA Setting
Because the excitation current is small to reduce self-heating, the PGA in the ADS1147 is used to amplify the
signal across the RTD to use the full-scale range of the ADC. Starting with the reference voltage, the ADC is
able to measure a differential input signal range of ±1.64 V. The maximum allowable PGA gain setting is based
on the reference voltage, the maximum RTD resistance, and the excitation current.
As mentioned previously, the maximum resistance of the RTD is seen at the top range of the temperature
measurement at 850°C. This gives the largest voltage measurement of the ADC. RRTD@850°C is 390.48 Ω.
VRTD MAX = RRTD@850°C × IIDAC1 = 390.48 Ω × 1 mA = 390.48 mV
(28)
With a reference voltage of 1.64 V, the maximum gain for the PGA, without over-ranging the ADC, is shown in
Equation 29.
GainMAX = VREF / VRTD MAX = 1.64 V / 390.48 mV = 4.2 V/V
(29)
Selecting a PGA gain of 4 gives a maximum measurement of 95% of the positive full-scale range. Table 44
shows the register settings to set the PGA gain as well as the inputs for the ADC.
Table 44. Register Bit Settings for the Input Multiplexer and PGA
REGISTER (ADDRESS)
BIT NAME
BIT VALUES
COMMENT
MUX0 (01h)
MUX_SP[2:0]
001
AINP = AIN1
MUX0 (01h)
MUX_SN[2:0]
010
AINN = AIN2
SYS0 (03h)
PGA[2:0]
010
PGA Gain = 4
10.2.1.2.6 Common-Mode Input Range
Now that the component values are selected, the common-mode input range must be verified to ensure that the
ADC and PGA are not limited in operation. Start with the maximum input voltage, which gives the most restriction
in the common-mode input range. At the maximum input voltage, the common-mode input voltage seen by the
ADC is shown in Equation 30.
VCM = VREF + (VRTD_MAX / 2) = 1.64 V + (390.48 mV / 2) = 1.835 V
(30)
As mentioned in the Low-Noise PGA section, the common-mode input range is shown in Equation 3 and is
applied to Equation 31.
AVSS + 0.1 V + (VRTD_MAX × Gain) / 2 ≤ VCM ≤ AVDD – 0.1 V – (VRTD_MAX × Gain) / 2
(31)
After substituting in the appropriate values, the common-mode input range can be found in Equation 32 and
Equation 33.
0 V + 0.1 V + (390.48 mV × 4) / 2 ≤ VCM ≤ 3.3 V – 0.1 V – (390.48 mV × 4) / 2
881 mV ≤ VCM ≤ 2.42 V
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(32)
(33)
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Because VCM = 1.835 V is within the limits of Equation 33, the RTD measurement is within the input commonmode range of the ADC and PGA. At the RTD voltage minimum (VRTD MIN = 18.59 mV), a similar calculation can
be made to show that the input common-mode voltage is within the range as well.
10.2.1.2.7 Input and Reference Low-Pass Filters
The differential filters chosen for this application are designed to have a –3-dB corner frequency at least 10 times
larger than the bandwidth of the ADC. The selected ADS1147 sampling rate of 20 SPS results in a –3-dB
bandwidth of 14.8 Hz. The –3-dB filter corner frequency is set to be roughly 250 Hz at mid-scale measurement
resistance. For proper operation, the differential cutoff frequencies of the reference and input low-pass filters
must be well matched. This can be difficult because as the resistance of the RTD changes over the span of the
measurement, the filter cutoff frequency changes as well. To mitigate this effect, the two resistors used in the
input filter (RI1 and RI2) are chosen to be two orders of magnitude larger than the RTD. Input bias currents of the
ADC causes a voltage drop across the filter resistors that shows up as a differential offset error if the bias
currents and/or filter resistors are not equal. TI recommends limiting the resistors to at most 10 kΩ to reduce DC
offset errors due to input bias current. RI1 and RI2 are chosen to be 4.7 kΩ.
The input filter differential capacitor (CI_DIFF) is calculated starting from the cutoff frequency as shown in
Equation 34.
f–3dB_DIFF = 1 / (2 π × CI_DIFF × (RI1 + RRTD + RI2))
f–3dB_DIFF = 1 / (2 π × CI_DIFF × (4.7 kΩ + 150 Ω + 4.7 kΩ))
(34)
(35)
After solving for CI_DIFF, the capacitor is chosen to be a standard value of 68 nF.
To ensure that mismatch of the common-mode filter capacitors does not translate to a differential voltage, the
common-mode capacitors (CI_CM1 and CI_CM2) are chosen to be 10 times smaller than the differential capacitor,
making them 6.8 nF each. This results in a common-mode cutoff frequency that is roughly 20 times larger than
the differential filter, making the matching of the common-mode cutoff frequencies less critical.
f–3dB_CM+ = 1 / (2 π × CI_CM1 × (RI1 + RRTD + RREF))
f–3dB_CM– = 1 / (2 π × CI_CM1 × (RI2 + RREF))
(36)
(37)
After substituting values into Equation 36 and Equation 37, the common-mode cutoff frequencies are found to be
f–3dB_CM+ = 4.13 kHz and f–3dB_CM– = 4.24 kHz.
Often, filtering the reference input is not necessary and adding bulk capacitance at the reference input is
sufficient. However, equations showing a design procedure calculating filter values for the reference inputs are
shown below.
The differential reference filter is designed to have a –3-dB corner frequency of 250 Hz to match the differential
input filter. The two reference filter resistors are selected to be 9.09 kΩ, several times larger than the value of
RREF. The reference filter resistors must not be sized larger than 10 kΩ or DC bias errors become significant. The
differential capacitor for the reference filter is calculated as shown in Equation 38.
f–3dB_DIFF = 1 / (2 π × CR_DIFF × (RR1 + RRTD + RR2))
CR_DIFF ≈ 33 nF
(38)
(39)
After solving for CR_DIFF, the capacitor is chosen to be a standard value of 33 nF.
To ensure that mismatch of the common-mode filter capacitors does not translate to a differential voltage, the
reference common-mode capacitors (CR_CM1 and CR_CM2) are chosen to be 10 times smaller than the reference
differential capacitor, making them 3.3 nF each. Again, the resulting cutoff frequency for the common-mode filters
is roughly 20 times larger than the differential filter, making the matching of the cutoff frequencies less critical.
f–3dB_CM+ = 1 / (2 π × CR_CM1 × (RR1 + RREF))
f–3dB_CM– = 1 / (2 π × CR_CM2 × RR2)
(40)
(41)
After substituting values into Equation 40 and Equation 41, common-mode cutoff frequencies for the reference
filter are found to be f–3dB_CM+ = 4.87 kHz and f–3dB_CM+ = 5.31 kHz.
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10.2.1.2.8 Register Settings
The register settings for this design are shown in Table 45.
Table 45. Register Settings
REGISTER
(1)
(2)
NAME
SETTING
DESCRIPTION
00h
MUX0
0Ah
Select AINP = AIN1 and AINN = AIN2
01h
VBIAS
00h
02h
MUX1
20h
Internal reference enabled,
REFP0 and REFN0 reference inputs selected
03h
SYS0
22h
PGA Gain = 4, DR = 20 SPS
04h
OFC0 (1)
xxh
05h
OFC1
xxh
06h
OFC2
xxh
07h
FSC0 (1)
xxh
08h
FSC1
xxh
09h
FSC2
xxh
0Ah
IDAC0
x6h
ID bits may be version dependent,
IDAC magnitude set to 1 mA
0Bh
IDAC1
03h (2)
IDAC1 set to AIN0; IDAC2 set to AIN3
0Ch
GPIOCFG
00h
0Dh
GPIOCDIR
00h
0Eh
GPIODAT
00h
A two-point gain calibration and offset calibration remove errors from the RREF tolerance, offset voltage and gain error. The results are
used for the OFC and FSC registers
To chop the excitation current sources, swap output pins with IDAC1 register and set to 30h
10.2.1.3 Application Curves
To test the accuracy of the acquisition circuit, a series of calibrated, high-precision discrete resistors are used as
the input to the system. Measurements are taken at TA = 25°C. Figure 84 displays the uncalibrated resistance
measurement accuracy of the system over an input span from 20 Ω to 400 Ω. For each resistor value, 512
measurements are taken. With each measurement, IDAC1 and IDAC2 are chopped to remove the excitation
current mismatch.
The uncalibrated measurement error is displayed in Figure 85. The offset and gain error can be primarily
attributed to the offset and gain error of the ADC. However, the accuracy of RREF contributes directly to the
accuracy of the measurement. To keep the gain error low, RREF must be a low-drift precision resistor.
Precision temperature measurement applications are typically calibrated to remove the effects of gain and offset
errors, which generally dominate the total system error. The simplest calibration method is a linear, or two-point,
calibration which applies an equal and opposite gain and offset term to cancel the measured system gain and
offset errors. Using the results of Figure 85, the uncalibrated gain and offset error are then used to modify the
Offset Calibration and the Full-Scale Calibration registers in the device. The results of this calibrated system
measurement are shown in Figure 86.
The results in Figure 86 are converted to temperature accuracy by dividing the results by the RTD sensitivity (α)
at the measured resistance. Over the full resistance input range, the maximum total measured error is
±0.011 Ω. Equation 42 uses the measured resistance error and the nominal RTD sensitivity to calculate the
measured temperature accuracy.
Error (W)
0.011 W
Error ( oC) =
=
= ± 0.0286 oC
W
a@ 0o C
0.385 o
C
(42)
Figure 87 displays the calculated temperature measurement accuracy of the circuit assuming a linear RTD
resistance to temperature response. It does not include any linearity compensation of the RTD.
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0.0
35000
Resistance Measurement Error (
ADC Measurement (Code)
30000
y = 79.880x - 0.603
25000
20000
15000
10000
5000
Uncalibrated Results
Best Fit Line
0
0
100
200
300
400
-0.2
-0.3
-0.4
-0.5
-0.6
-0.7
0
500
RRTD (
100
200
300
400
RRTD (
C001
Figure 84. Resistance Measurement Results With
Precision Resistors Before Calibration
C002
Figure 85. Resistance Measurement Error With Precision
Resistors Before Calibration
0.04
Temperature Measurement Error (ƒC)
0.015
Resistance Measurement Error (
-0.1
0.010
0.005
0.000
-0.005
0.03
0.02
0.01
0.00
-0.01
-0.02
-0.03
-0.010
0
100
200
RRTD (
300
0
400
100
Figure 86. Resistance Measurement Error With Precision
Resistors After Calibration
200
300
400
RRTD (
C003
C004
Figure 87. Calculated Temperature Measurement Error
from Resistance Measurement Error
Table 46 compares the measurement accuracy with the design goal from Table 42.
Table 46. Comparison of Design Goals and Measured Performance
GOAL
74
MEASURED
Calibrated resistance measurement accuracy at TA = 25ºC
±0.077 Ω
±0.011 Ω
Calibrated temperature measurement accuracy at TA = 25ºC
±0.2°C
±0.029°C
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10.2.2 K-Type Thermocouple Measurement (–200°C to 1250°C) With Cold-Junction Compensation
Figure 88 shows the basic connections of a thermocouple measurement system based on the ADS1148. This
circuit uses a cold-junction compensation measurement based on the Ratiometric 3-Wire RTD Measurement
System topology shown in the previous application example. Using the IEXC1 and IEXC2 pins allow for routing
of the IDAC currents without using any other analog pins. Along with the thermocouple and cold-junction
measurements, four other analog inputs (AIN4 to AIN7 not shown in the schematic) are available for alternate
measurements or use as GPIO pins.
3.3 V
3.3 V
3.3 V
0.1 µF
Isothermal
Block
RB1
CI_CM1
RI1
AIN0
CI_DIFF
RI2
Thermocouple
0.1 µF
DVDD
AVDD
ADS1148
AIN1
û
ADC
PGA
CI_CM2
MUX
RB2
AIN2
Reference Mux
AIN3
RRTD
RRTD_I1
CRTD_I_CM1
IEXC1
IDAC1
CRTD_I_DIFF
3-Wire RTD
IEXC2
IDAC2
Internal
Reference
RRTD_I2
CRTD_I_CM2
AVSS
DGND
REFN0
REFP0
CR_CM1
CR_DIFF
RR1
CR_CM2
RR2
RREF
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Figure 88. Thermocouple Measurement System Using the ADS1148
10.2.2.1 Design Requirements
Table 47 shows the design requirements of the thermocouple application for the ADS1148.
Table 47. Example Thermocouple Application Requirements
(1)
PARAMETER
VALUE
Supply voltage
3.3 V
Reference voltage
Internal 2.048-V reference
Update rate
≥ 10 readings per second
Thermocouple type
K
Temperature measurement
–200ºC to 1250ºC
Measurement accuracy at TA = 25ºC (1)
±0.5ºC
Not accounting for error of thermocouple and the cold-junction measurement; offset calibration is
performed at T(TC) = T(CJ) = 25°C; no gain calibration.
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10.2.2.2 Detailed Design Procedure
10.2.2.2.1 Biasing Resistors
The biasing resistors RB1 and RB2 are used to set the common-mode voltage of the thermocouple to within the
specified common-mode voltage range of the PGA (in this example, to mid-supply AVDD / 2). If the application
requires the thermocouple to be biased to GND, a bipolar supply (for example, AVDD = 2.5 V and AVSS =
–2.5 V) must be used for the device to meet the common-mode voltage requirement of the PGA. When choosing
the values of the biasing resistors, care must be taken so that the biasing current does not degrade
measurement accuracy. The biasing current flows through the thermocouple and can cause self-heating and
additional voltage drops across the thermocouple leads. Typical values for the biasing resistors range from 1 MΩ
to 50 MΩ.
In addition to biasing the thermocouple, RB1 and RB2 are also useful for detecting an open thermocouple lead.
When one of the thermocouple leads fails open, the biasing resistors pull the analog inputs (AIN0 and AIN1) to
AVDD and AVSS, respectively. The ADC consequently reads a full-scale value, which is outside the normal
measurement range of the thermocouple voltage, to indicate this failure condition.
10.2.2.2.2 Input Filtering
Although the digital filter attenuates high-frequency components of noise, TI recommends providing a first-order,
passive RC filter at the inputs to further improve performance. The differential RC filter formed by RI1, RI2, and
the differential capacitor CI_DIFF offers a cutoff frequency that is calculated using Equation 43.
fC = 1 / (2 π × (RI1 + RI2) × CI_DIFF)
(43)
Two common-mode filter capacitors (CI_CM1 and CI_CM2) are also added to offer attenuation of high-frequency,
common-mode noise components. TI recommends that the differential capacitor CI_DIFF be at least an order of
magnitude (10×) larger than the common-mode capacitors (CI_CM1 and CI_CM2) because mismatches in the
common-mode capacitors can convert common-mode noise into differential noise.
The filter resistors RF1 and RF2 also serve as current-limiting resistors. These resistors limit the current into the
analog inputs (AIN0 and AIN1) of the device to safe levels if an overvoltage on the inputs occurs. Care must be
taken when choosing the filter resistor values because the input currents flowing into and out of the device cause
a voltage drop across the resistors. This voltage drop shows up as an additional offset error at the ADC inputs.
For thermocouple measurements, TI recommends limiting the filter resistor values to below 10 kΩ.
The filter component values used in this design are: RI1 = RI2 = 1 kΩ, CI_DIFF = 100 nF, and CI_CM1 = CI_CM2 = 10
nF.
10.2.2.2.3 PGA Setting
The highest measurement resolution is achieved when matching the largest potential input signal to the FSR of
the ADC by choosing the highest possible gain. From the design requirement, the maximum thermocouple
voltage occurs at TTC = 1250°C and is VTC = 50.644 mV as defined in the tables published by the National
Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) using a cold-junction temperature of TCJ = 0°C. A thermocouple
produces an output voltage that is proportional to the temperature difference between the thermocouple tip and
the cold junction. If the cold junction is at a temperature below 0°C, the thermocouple produces a voltage larger
than 50.644 mV. The isothermal block area is constrained by the operating temperature range of the device.
Therefore, the isothermal block temperature is limited to –40°C. A K-type thermocouple at TTC = 1250°C
produces an output voltage of VTC = 50.644 mV – (–1.527 mV) = 52.171 mV when referenced to a cold-junction
temperature of TCJ = –40°C. The maximum gain that can be applied when using the internal 2.048-V reference is
then calculated as 39.3 from Equation 44. The next smaller PGA gain setting the device offers is 32.
GainMAX = VREF / VTC MAX = 2.048 V / 52.171 mV = 39.3
(44)
10.2.2.2.4 Cold-Junction Measurement
AIN2 and AIN3 are attached to a 3-wire RTD that is used to measure the cold-junction temperature. Similar to
the example in the Ratiometric 3-Wire RTD Measurement System section, the 3-wire RTD design is the same
except the inputs and excitation current sources have been changed. Note that RREF and PGA Gain can be
optimized for a reduced temperature range.
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The device does not perform an automatic cold-junction compensation of the thermocouple. This compensation
must be done in the microcontroller that interfaces to the device. The microcontroller requests one or multiple
readings of the thermocouple voltage from the device and then sets the device to measure the cold junction with
the RTD to compensate for the cold-junction temperature.
An algorithm similar to the following must be implemented on the microcontroller to compensate for the coldjunction temperature:
1. Measure the thermocouple voltage, V(TC), between AIN0 and AIN1.
2. Measure the temperature of the cold junction, T(CJ), using a ratiometric measurement with the 3-wire RTD
across AIN2 and AIN3.
3. Convert the cold-junction temperature into an equivalent thermoelectric voltage, V(CJ), using the tables or
equations provided by NIST.
4. Add V(TC) and V(CJ) and translate the summation back into a thermocouple temperature using the NIST tables
or equations again.
There are alternate methods of measuring the cold-junction temperature. The additional analog input channels of
the device can be used in this case to measure the cold-junction temperature with a thermistor or an alternate
analog temperature sensor.
10.2.2.2.5 Calculated Resolution
To get an approximation of the achievable temperature resolution, the peak-to-peak noise of the ADS1148 at
Gain = 32 and DR = 20 SPS (1.95 µVPP) is taken from Table 1. The noise is divided by the average sensitivity of
a K-type thermocouple (41 µV/°C), as shown in Equation 45.
Temperature Resolution = 1.95 µV / 41 µV/°C = 0.048°C
(45)
10.2.2.2.6 Register Settings
The register settings for this design are shown in Table 48. The inputs are selected to measure the thermocouple
and the internal reference is enabled and selected. The excitation current sources are also enabled and selected.
While this does consume some power, it allows for a quick transition for the cold-junction measurement.
Table 48. Register Settings for the Thermocouple Measurement
REGISTER
NAME
SETTING
DESCRIPTION
00h
MUX0
01h
Select AINP = AIN0, AINN = AIN1
01h
VBIAS
00h
02h
MUX1
30h
Internal reference enabled, internal reference selected
03h
SYS0
52h
PGA Gain = 32, DR = 20 SPS
04h
OFC0
xxh
05h
OFC1
xxh
06h
OFC2
xxh
07h
FSC0
xxh
08h
FSC1
xxh
09h
FSC2
xxh
0Ah
IDAC0
x6h
IDAC magnitude set to 1 mA
IDAC1 set to IEXC1, IDAC2 set to IEXC2
0Bh
IDAC1
89h
0Ch
GPIOCFG
00h
0Dh
GPIOCDIR
00h
0Eh
GPIODAT
00h
Changing to the cold-junction measurement, the registers are set to measure the RTD. This requires changing
the input, the reference input, the gain, and any calibration settings required for the measurement accuracy.
Table 49 shows the register settings for the RTD measurement used for cold-junction compensation.
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Table 49. Register Settings for the Cold-Junction Measurement
REGISTER
NAME
SETTING
DESCRIPTION
00h
MUX0
13h
Select AINP = AIN2, AINN = AIN3
01h
VBIAS
00h
02h
MUX1
20h
Internal reference enabled, REFP0 and REFN0
selected
03h
SYS0
22h
PGA Gain = 4, DR = 20 SPS
04h
OFC0
xxh
Calibration values are different between measurement
settings
05h
OFC1
xxh
06h
OFC2
xxh
07h
FSC0
xxh
08h
FSC1
xxh
09h
FSC2
xxh
0Ah
IDAC0
x6h
IDAC magnitude set to 1 mA
0Bh
IDAC1
89h
IDAC1 set to IEXC1, IDAC2 set to IEXC2
0Ch
GPIOCFG
00h
0Dh
GPIOCDIR
00h
0Eh
GPIODAT
00h
10.3 Do's and Don'ts
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Do partition the analog, digital, and power supply circuitry into separate sections on the PCB.
Do use a single ground plane for analog and digital grounds.
Do place the analog components close to the ADC pins using short, direct connections.
Do keep the SCLK pin free of glitches and noise.
Do verify that the analog input voltages are within the specified PGA input voltage range under all input
conditions.
Do float unused analog input pins to minimize input leakage current. Connecting unused pins to AVDD is the
next best option.
Do provide current limiting to the analog inputs in case overvoltage faults occur.
Do use a low-dropout linear regulator (LDO) to reduce ripple voltage generated by switch-mode power
supplies. This is especially true for AVDD where the supply noise may affect the performance.
Don't cross analog and digital signals.
Don't allow the analog and digital power supply voltages to exceed 5.5 V under all conditions, including during
power up and power down.
Figure 89 shows Do's and Don'ts of ADC circuit connections.
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Do's and Don'ts (continued)
INCORRECT
5V
AVDD
Device
AINP
16-bit
û ADC
PGA
AINN
AVSS
0V
0V
Input grounded, unipolar supply
CORRECT
CORRECT
2.5 V
5V
AVDD
AVDD
Device
Device
AINP
AINP
16-bit
û ADC
PGA
2.5 V
AINN
AVSS
AVSS
0V
-2.5 V
0V
Input referenced to mid-supply, unipolar
supply
INCORRECT
5V
AVDD
16-bit
û ADC
PGA
AINN
Input grounded, bipolar supply
3.3 V
5V
3.3 V
INCORRECT
DVDD
AVDD
PGA
16-bit
û ADC
PGA
16-bit
û ADC
AVSS
DGND
AVSS
DGND
Device
Inductive supply or ground connections
5V
CORRECT
AVDD
3.3 V
Device
DVDD
AGND/DGND isolation
2.5 V
CORRECT
3.3 V
DVDD
AVDD
PGA
16-bit
û ADC
PGA
16-bit
û ADC
AVSS
DGND
AVSS
DGND
Device
Device
DVDD
-2.5 V
Low impedance AGND/DGND connection
Low impedance AGND/DGND connection
Figure 89. Do's and Don'ts Circuit Connections
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11 Power Supply Recommendations
The device requires two power supplies: analog (AVDD, AVSS) and digital (DVDD, DGND). The analog power
supply can be bipolar (for example, AVDD = 2.5 V, AVSS = –2.5 V) or unipolar (for example, AVDD = 3.3 V,
AVSS = 0 V) and is independent of the digital power supply. The digital supply sets the digital I/O levels (with the
exception of the GPIO levels which are set by the analog supply of AVDD to AVSS).
11.1 Power Supply Sequencing
The power supplies can be sequenced in any order but in no case must any analog or digital inputs exceed the
respective analog or digital power-supply voltage limits. Wait at least 216 tCLK cycles after all power supplies are
stabilized before communicating with the device to allow the power-on reset process to complete.
11.2 Power Supply Decoupling
Good power-supply decoupling is important to achieve optimum performance. AVDD, AVSS (when using a
bipolar supply) and DVDD must be decoupled with at least a 0.1-µF capacitor, as shown in Figure 90. Place the
bypass capacitors as close to the power-supply pins of the device as possible using low-impedance connections.
TI recommends using multi-layer ceramic chip capacitors (MLCCs) that offer low equivalent series resistance
(ESR) and inductance (ESL) characteristics for power-supply decoupling purposes. For very sensitive systems,
or for systems in harsh noise environments, avoiding the use of vias for connecting the capacitors to the device
pins may offer superior noise immunity. The use of multiple vias in parallel lowers the overall inductance and is
beneficial for connections to ground planes. TI recommends connecting analog and digital ground together as
close to the device as possible.
3.3 V
3.3 V
0.1 µF
1
DVDD
SCLK
28
1
DVDD
SCLK
28
2
DGND
DIN
27
2
DGND
DIN
27
3
CLK
DOUT/DRDY
26
3
CLK
DOUT/DRDY
26
4
RESET
DRDY
25
4
RESET
DRDY
25
5
REFP0
CS
24
5
REFP0
CS
24
6
REFN0
START
23
6
REFN0
START
23
7
REFP1
AVDD
22
0.1 µF
+2.5 V
5V
7
REFP1
AVDD
22
Device
0.1 µF
Device
8
REFN1
AVSS
21
9
VREFOUT
IEXC1
20
10
VREFCOM
IEXC2
19
11
AIN0
AIN0
12
AIN1
13
14
0.1 µF
8
REFN1
AVSS
21
9
VREFOUT
IEXC1
20
10
VREFCOM
IEXC2
19
18
11
AIN0
AIN0
18
AIN1
17
12
AIN1
AIN1
17
AIN4
AIN7
16
13
AIN4
AIN7
16
AIN5
AIN6
15
14
AIN5
AIN6
15
0.1 µF
-2.5 V
1 µF
1 µF
Figure 90. Power Supply Decoupling for Unipolar and Bipolar Supply Operation
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12 Layout
12.1 Layout Guidelines
TI recommends employing best design practices when laying out a printed-circuit board (PCB) for both analog
and digital components. This recommendation generally means that the layout separates analog components
[such as ADCs, amplifiers, references, digital-to-analog converters (DACs), and analog MUXs] from digital
components [such as microcontrollers, complex programmable logic devices (CPLDs), field-programmable gate
arrays (FPGAs), radio frequency (RF) transceivers, universal serial bus (USB) transceivers, and switching
regulators]. An example of good component placement is shown in Figure 91. Although Figure 91 provides a
good example of component placement, the best placement for each application is unique to the geometries,
components, and PCB fabrication capabilities employed. That is, there is no single layout that is perfect for every
design and careful consideration must always be used when designing with any analog component.
Ground Fill or
Ground Plane
Supply
Generation
Microcontroller
Device
Optional: Split
Ground Cut
Signal
Conditioning
(RC Filters
and
Amplifiers)
Ground Fill or
Ground Plane
Optional: Split
Ground Cut
Ground Fill or
Ground Plane
Interface
Transceiver
Connector
or Antenna
Ground Fill or
Ground Plane
Figure 91. System Component Placement
The following outlines some basic recommendations for the layout of the ADS1148 to get the best possible
performance of the ADC. A good design can be ruined with a bad circuit layout.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Separate analog and digital signals. To start, partition the board into analog and digital sections where the
layout permits. Route digital lines away from analog lines. This prevents digital noise from coupling back into
analog signals.
The ground plane can be split into an analog plane (AGND) and digital plane (DGND), but this is not
necessary. Place digital signals over the digital plane, and analog signals over the analog plane. As a final
step in the layout, the split between the analog and digital grounds must be connected to together at the
ADC.
Fill void areas on signal layers with ground fill.
Provide good ground return paths. Signal return currents flow on the path of least impedance. If the ground
plane is cut or has other traces that block the current from flowing right next to the signal trace, it has to find
another path to return to the source and complete the circuit. If it is forced into a larger path, it increases the
chance that the signal radiates. Sensitive signals are more susceptible to EMI interference.
Use bypass capacitors on supplies to reduce high frequency noise. Do not place vias between bypass
capacitors and the active device. Placing the bypass capacitors on the same layer as close to the active
device yields the best results.
Consider the resistance and inductance of the routing. Often, traces for the inputs have resistances that react
with the input bias current and cause an added error voltage. Reducing the loop area enclosed by the source
signal and the return current reduces the inductance in the path. Reducing the inductance reduces the EMI
pickup and reduce the high frequency impedance seen by the device.
Watch for parasitic thermocouples in the layout. Dissimilar metals going from each analog input to the sensor
may create a parasitic themocouple which can add an offset to the measurement. Differential inputs must be
matched for both the inputs going to the measurement source.
Analog inputs with differential connections must have a capacitor placed differentially across the inputs. Best
input combinations for differential measurements use adjacent analog input lines such as AIN0, AIN1 and
AIN2, AIN3. The differential capacitors must be of high quality. The best ceramic chip capacitors are C0G
(NPO), which have stable properties and low noise characteristics.
Copyright © 2009–2016, Texas Instruments Incorporated
Product Folder Links: ADS1146 ADS1147 ADS1148
Submit Documentation Feedback
81
ADS1146, ADS1147, ADS1148
SBAS453G – JULY 2009 – REVISED AUGUST 2016
www.ti.com
12.2 Layout Example
Digital
supply
DVDD
SCLK
DGND
DIN
CLK
DOUT/
DRDY
RESET
DRDY
REFP0
CS
Other
digital
Route digital
lines away from
analog and
reference inputs
Controller SPI
REFN0
START
REFP1
AVDD
REFN1
AVSS
VREFOUT
IEXC1
+2.5 V Positive
analog
supply
Reference
inputs
Internal
reference
bypass
VREFCOM
Place ground
plane under
device
Negative
analog
±2.5 V supply
Excitation currents
may be routed to
elements measured
by the analog inputs
and then routed to
the reference inputs
IEXC2
AIN0
AIN3
AIN1
AIN2
Analog
inputs
Use differential
and commonmode capacitors
for analog inputs
as shown for AIN0
and AIN1
AIN4
AIN7
AIN5
AIN6
Figure 92. ADS114x Layout Example
82
Submit Documentation Feedback
Copyright © 2009–2016, Texas Instruments Incorporated
Product Folder Links: ADS1146 ADS1147 ADS1148
ADS1146, ADS1147, ADS1148
www.ti.com
SBAS453G – JULY 2009 – REVISED AUGUST 2016
13 Device and Documentation Support
13.1 Documentation Support
13.1.1 Related Documentation
For related documentation see the following:
• Example Temperature Measurement Applications Using the ADS1247 and ADS1248 (SBAA180)
• RTD Ratiometric Measurements and Filtering Using the ADS1148 and ADS1248 Family of Devices
(SBAA201)
• 3-Wire RTD Measurement System Reference Design, –200°C to 850°C (SLAU520)
• A Glossary of Analog-to-Digital Specifications and Performance Characteristics (SBAA147)
13.2 Related Links
The table below lists quick access links. Categories include technical documents, support and community
resources, tools and software, and quick access to sample or buy.
Table 50. Related Links
PARTS
PRODUCT FOLDER
SAMPLE & BUY
TECHNICAL
DOCUMENTS
TOOLS &
SOFTWARE
SUPPORT &
COMMUNITY
ADS1146
Click here
Click here
Click here
Click here
Click here
ADS1147
Click here
Click here
Click here
Click here
Click here
ADS1148
Click here
Click here
Click here
Click here
Click here
13.3 Receiving Notification of Documentation Updates
To receive notification of documentation updates, navigate to the device product folder on ti.com. In the upper
right corner, click on Alert me to register and receive a weekly digest of any product information that has
changed. For change details, review the revision history included in any revised document.
13.4 Community Resources
The following links connect to TI community resources. Linked contents are provided "AS IS" by the respective
contributors. They do not constitute TI specifications and do not necessarily reflect TI's views; see TI's Terms of
Use.
TI E2E™ Online Community TI's Engineer-to-Engineer (E2E) Community. Created to foster collaboration
among engineers. At e2e.ti.com, you can ask questions, share knowledge, explore ideas and help
solve problems with fellow engineers.
Design Support TI's Design Support Quickly find helpful E2E forums along with design support tools and
contact information for technical support.
13.5 Trademarks
E2E is a trademark of Texas Instruments.
SPI is a trademark of Motorola, Inc.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
13.6 Electrostatic Discharge Caution
These devices have limited built-in ESD protection. The leads should be shorted together or the device placed in conductive foam
during storage or handling to prevent electrostatic damage to the MOS gates.
13.7 Glossary
SLYZ022 — TI Glossary.
This glossary lists and explains terms, acronyms, and definitions.
Copyright © 2009–2016, Texas Instruments Incorporated
Product Folder Links: ADS1146 ADS1147 ADS1148
Submit Documentation Feedback
83
ADS1146, ADS1147, ADS1148
SBAS453G – JULY 2009 – REVISED AUGUST 2016
www.ti.com
14 Mechanical, Packaging, and Orderable Information
The following pages include mechanical, packaging, and orderable information. This information is the most
current data available for the designated devices. This data is subject to change without notice and revision of
this document. For browser-based versions of this data sheet, refer to the left-hand navigation.
84
Submit Documentation Feedback
Copyright © 2009–2016, Texas Instruments Incorporated
Product Folder Links: ADS1146 ADS1147 ADS1148
PACKAGE OPTION ADDENDUM
www.ti.com
22-Feb-2016
PACKAGING INFORMATION
Orderable Device
Status
(1)
Package Type Package Pins Package
Drawing
Qty
Eco Plan
Lead/Ball Finish
MSL Peak Temp
(2)
(6)
(3)
Op Temp (°C)
Device Marking
(4/5)
ADS1146IPW
ACTIVE
TSSOP
PW
16
90
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-1-260C-UNLIM
-40 to 105
ADS1146
ADS1146IPWR
ACTIVE
TSSOP
PW
16
2000
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-1-260C-UNLIM
-40 to 105
ADS1146
ADS1147IPW
ACTIVE
TSSOP
PW
20
70
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-2-260C-1 YEAR
-40 to 105
ADS1147
ADS1147IPWR
ACTIVE
TSSOP
PW
20
2000
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-2-260C-1 YEAR
-40 to 105
ADS1147
ADS1148IPW
ACTIVE
TSSOP
PW
28
50
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-2-260C-1 YEAR
-40 to 105
ADS1148
ADS1148IPWR
ACTIVE
TSSOP
PW
28
2000
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-2-260C-1 YEAR
-40 to 105
ADS1148
ADS1148IRHBR
ACTIVE
VQFN
RHB
32
3000
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-2-260C-1 YEAR
-40 to 105
ADS
1148
ADS1148IRHBT
ACTIVE
VQFN
RHB
32
250
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-2-260C-1 YEAR
-40 to 105
ADS
1148
(1)
The marketing status values are defined as follows:
ACTIVE: Product device recommended for new designs.
LIFEBUY: TI has announced that the device will be discontinued, and a lifetime-buy period is in effect.
NRND: Not recommended for new designs. Device is in production to support existing customers, but TI does not recommend using this part in a new design.
PREVIEW: Device has been announced but is not in production. Samples may or may not be available.
OBSOLETE: TI has discontinued the production of the device.
(2)
Eco Plan - The planned eco-friendly classification: Pb-Free (RoHS), Pb-Free (RoHS Exempt), or Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) - please check http://www.ti.com/productcontent for the latest availability
information and additional product content details.
TBD: The Pb-Free/Green conversion plan has not been defined.
Pb-Free (RoHS): TI's terms "Lead-Free" or "Pb-Free" mean semiconductor products that are compatible with the current RoHS requirements for all 6 substances, including the requirement that
lead not exceed 0.1% by weight in homogeneous materials. Where designed to be soldered at high temperatures, TI Pb-Free products are suitable for use in specified lead-free processes.
Pb-Free (RoHS Exempt): This component has a RoHS exemption for either 1) lead-based flip-chip solder bumps used between the die and package, or 2) lead-based die adhesive used between
the die and leadframe. The component is otherwise considered Pb-Free (RoHS compatible) as defined above.
Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br): TI defines "Green" to mean Pb-Free (RoHS compatible), and free of Bromine (Br) and Antimony (Sb) based flame retardants (Br or Sb do not exceed 0.1% by weight
in homogeneous material)
(3)
MSL, Peak Temp. - The Moisture Sensitivity Level rating according to the JEDEC industry standard classifications, and peak solder temperature.
Addendum-Page 1
Samples
PACKAGE OPTION ADDENDUM
www.ti.com
(4)
22-Feb-2016
There may be additional marking, which relates to the logo, the lot trace code information, or the environmental category on the device.
(5)
Multiple Device Markings will be inside parentheses. Only one Device Marking contained in parentheses and separated by a "~" will appear on a device. If a line is indented then it is a continuation
of the previous line and the two combined represent the entire Device Marking for that device.
(6)
Lead/Ball Finish - Orderable Devices may have multiple material finish options. Finish options are separated by a vertical ruled line. Lead/Ball Finish values may wrap to two lines if the finish
value exceeds the maximum column width.
Important Information and Disclaimer:The information provided on this page represents TI's knowledge and belief as of the date that it is provided. TI bases its knowledge and belief on information
provided by third parties, and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of such information. Efforts are underway to better integrate information from third parties. TI has taken and
continues to take reasonable steps to provide representative and accurate information but may not have conducted destructive testing or chemical analysis on incoming materials and chemicals.
TI and TI suppliers consider certain information to be proprietary, and thus CAS numbers and other limited information may not be available for release.
In no event shall TI's liability arising out of such information exceed the total purchase price of the TI part(s) at issue in this document sold by TI to Customer on an annual basis.
Addendum-Page 2
PACKAGE MATERIALS INFORMATION
www.ti.com
22-Feb-2016
TAPE AND REEL INFORMATION
*All dimensions are nominal
Device
Package Package Pins
Type Drawing
SPQ
Reel
Reel
A0
Diameter Width (mm)
(mm) W1 (mm)
B0
(mm)
K0
(mm)
P1
(mm)
W
Pin1
(mm) Quadrant
5.6
1.6
8.0
12.0
Q1
ADS1146IPWR
TSSOP
PW
16
2000
330.0
12.4
6.9
ADS1147IPWR
TSSOP
PW
20
2000
330.0
16.4
6.95
7.1
1.6
8.0
16.0
Q1
ADS1148IPWR
TSSOP
PW
28
2000
330.0
16.4
6.9
10.2
1.8
12.0
16.0
Q1
ADS1148IRHBR
VQFN
RHB
32
3000
330.0
12.4
5.3
5.3
1.1
8.0
12.0
Q2
ADS1148IRHBT
VQFN
RHB
32
250
180.0
12.4
5.3
5.3
1.1
8.0
12.0
Q2
Pack Materials-Page 1
PACKAGE MATERIALS INFORMATION
www.ti.com
22-Feb-2016
*All dimensions are nominal
Device
Package Type
Package Drawing
Pins
SPQ
Length (mm)
Width (mm)
Height (mm)
ADS1146IPWR
TSSOP
PW
16
2000
367.0
367.0
35.0
ADS1147IPWR
TSSOP
PW
20
2000
367.0
367.0
38.0
ADS1148IPWR
TSSOP
PW
28
2000
367.0
367.0
38.0
ADS1148IRHBR
VQFN
RHB
32
3000
367.0
367.0
35.0
ADS1148IRHBT
VQFN
RHB
32
250
210.0
185.0
35.0
Pack Materials-Page 2
GENERIC PACKAGE VIEW
RHB 32
VQFN - 1 mm max height
PLASTIC QUAD FLATPACK - NO LEAD
5 x 5, 0.5 mm pitch
Images above are just a representation of the package family, actual package may vary.
Refer to the product data sheet for package details.
4224745/A
www.ti.com
PACKAGE OUTLINE
PW0016A
TSSOP - 1.2 mm max height
SCALE 2.500
SMALL OUTLINE PACKAGE
SEATING
PLANE
C
6.6
TYP
6.2
A
0.1 C
PIN 1 INDEX AREA
14X 0.65
16
1
2X
5.1
4.9
NOTE 3
4.55
8
9
B
0.30
0.19
0.1
C A B
16X
4.5
4.3
NOTE 4
1.2 MAX
(0.15) TYP
SEE DETAIL A
0.25
GAGE PLANE
0.15
0.05
0 -8
0.75
0.50
DETAIL A
A 20
TYPICAL
4220204/A 02/2017
NOTES:
1. All linear dimensions are in millimeters. Any dimensions in parenthesis are for reference only. Dimensioning and tolerancing
per ASME Y14.5M.
2. This drawing is subject to change without notice.
3. This dimension does not include mold flash, protrusions, or gate burrs. Mold flash, protrusions, or gate burrs shall not
exceed 0.15 mm per side.
4. This dimension does not include interlead flash. Interlead flash shall not exceed 0.25 mm per side.
5. Reference JEDEC registration MO-153.
www.ti.com
EXAMPLE BOARD LAYOUT
PW0016A
TSSOP - 1.2 mm max height
SMALL OUTLINE PACKAGE
SYMM
16X (1.5)
(R0.05) TYP
1
16
16X (0.45)
SYMM
14X (0.65)
8
9
(5.8)
LAND PATTERN EXAMPLE
EXPOSED METAL SHOWN
SCALE: 10X
SOLDER MASK
OPENING
METAL UNDER
SOLDER MASK
METAL
SOLDER MASK
OPENING
EXPOSED METAL
EXPOSED METAL
0.05 MAX
ALL AROUND
NON-SOLDER MASK
DEFINED
(PREFERRED)
0.05 MIN
ALL AROUND
SOLDER MASK
DEFINED
SOLDER MASK DETAILS
15.000
4220204/A 02/2017
NOTES: (continued)
6. Publication IPC-7351 may have alternate designs.
7. Solder mask tolerances between and around signal pads can vary based on board fabrication site.
www.ti.com
EXAMPLE STENCIL DESIGN
PW0016A
TSSOP - 1.2 mm max height
SMALL OUTLINE PACKAGE
16X (1.5)
SYMM
(R0.05) TYP
1
16X (0.45)
16
SYMM
14X (0.65)
8
9
(5.8)
SOLDER PASTE EXAMPLE
BASED ON 0.125 mm THICK STENCIL
SCALE: 10X
4220204/A 02/2017
NOTES: (continued)
8. Laser cutting apertures with trapezoidal walls and rounded corners may offer better paste release. IPC-7525 may have alternate
design recommendations.
9. Board assembly site may have different recommendations for stencil design.
www.ti.com
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IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR NON-INFRINGEMENT OF THIRD
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