Texas Instruments | TLV990-21: 3-V, 10-Bit, 21-MSPS Area CCD Analog Front End (Rev. A) | Datasheet | Texas Instruments TLV990-21: 3-V, 10-Bit, 21-MSPS Area CCD Analog Front End (Rev. A) Datasheet

Texas Instruments TLV990-21: 3-V, 10-Bit, 21-MSPS Area CCD Analog Front End (Rev. A) Datasheet
SLAS299A − AUGUST 2000 − REVISED MARCH 2004
features
application
D Single-Chip CCD Analog Front-End
D 10-Bit, 21-MSPS, Single 3-V Supply
D
D
D
D
D
D
D 48-Pin TQFP Package
STBY
RESET
CS
SDIN
SCLK
ADCCLK
D
PFB PACKAGE
(TOP VIEW)
BLKG
CP
CP
AVDD4
AGND4
OBCLP
D
Operation A/D Converter
Very Low Power: 150-mW Typical, 2-mW
Power-Down Mode
Differential Nonlinearity Error:
< ±0.5 LSB Typical
Integral Nonlinearity Error:
< ±0.75 LSB Typical
Programmable Gain Amplifier (PGA) With
0-dB to 36-dB Gain Range (0.045 dB/Step)
Automatic or Programmable Optical Black
Level and Offset Calibration With Digital
Filter and Bad Pixel Limits
Additional DACs for External Analog
Setting
Serial Interface for Register Configuration
Internal-Reference Voltages
D Digital Still Camera
D Video Camcorder
36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25
AGND5
RBD
RMD
RPD
AVDD5
VSS
AVDD1
AGND1
SR
SV
CLCCD
CLREF
description
37
24
38
23
39
22
40
21
20
41
TLV990−21PFB
42
19
43
18
44
17
45
16
46
15
47
14
48
13
1
2 3 4
5 6 7
8
OE
SCKP
DACO2
DACO1
AGND3
AVDD3
DIGND
DIVDD
D9
D8
D7
D6
9 10 11 12
CCDIN
NC
AVDD2
AGND2
DGND
DVDD
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
The TLV990-21 is a complete CCD signal
processor/digitizer designed for digital still
camera and PC camera applications. The
TLV990-21 performs all the analog-processing
functions necessary to maximize the dynamic range, corrects various errors associated with the CCD sensor,
and then digitizes the results with an on-chip high-speed analog-to-digital converter (ADC).
The key components of the TLV990-21 include: an input clamp circuit for CCD signal, a correlated double
sampler (CDS), a programmable-gain amplifier (PGA) with 0 to 36-dB gain range, two internal digital-to-analog
converters (DAC) for automatic or programmable optical black level and offset calibration, a 10-bit, 21-MSPS
pipeline ADC, a parallel data port for easy microprocessor interface, a serial port for configuring internal control
registers, two additional DACs for external system control, and internal reference voltages.
Designed in advanced CMOS process, the TLV990-21 operates from a single 3-V power supply with a normal
power consumption of 150 mW at 21 MSPS and 2 mW in power-down mode.
Its very high throughput rate, single 3-V operation, very low-power consumption, and fully-integrated
analog-processing circuitry make the TLV990-21 an ideal CCD signal-processing solution for digital still
cameras and electronic video camcorder applications.
This device is available in a 48-pin TQFP package and is specified over a –20°C to 75°C operating-temperature
range.
Please be aware that an important notice concerning availability, standard warranty, and use in critical applications of
Texas Instruments semiconductor products and disclaimers thereto appears at the end of this data sheet.
Copyright  2004, Texas Instruments Incorporated
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AVAILABLE OPTIONS
PACKAGE DEVICE
TA
TQFP
(PFB)
−20°C to 75°C
TLV990-21PFB
functional block diagram
AVDD1−5
CLCCD
CLREF
RPD RBD
DVDD
RMD
DIVDD
OE
INT. REF.
Clamp
1.2 V REF
CDS/
MUX
CCDIN
Σ
PGA
Σ
Three
State
Latch
10-Bit
ADC
D0
D9
10
8-Bit
CDAC
PGA
Regulator
Offset
Register
DACO1
8-Bit
DAC
DAC
REG
DACO2
8-Bit
DAC
DAC
REG
8-Bit
FDAC
Offset
Register
Digital
Averager/
Filter
Timing
and
Control
Logic
Serial
Port
VSS
DGND
AGND1−5
2
Optical
Black
Pixel Limits
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DIGND
RESET
CLK
SV
SR
BLKG
OBCLP
STBY
SCKP
CS
SCLK
SDIN
SLAS299A − AUGUST 2000 − REVISED MARCH 2004
Terminal Functions
TERMINAL
NAME
NO.
I/O
ADCCLK
25
AGND1
44
Analog ground for internal CDS circuits
AGND2
4
Analog ground for internal PGA circuits
AGND3
20
Analog ground for internal DAC circuits
AGND4
32
Analog ground for internal ADC circuits
AGND5
37
Analog ground for internal REF circuits
AVDD1
AVDD2
43
Analog supply voltage for internal CDS circuits, 3 V
3
Analog supply voltage for internal PGA circuits, 3 V
AVDD3
AVDD4
19
Analog supply voltage for internal DAC circuits, 3 V
33
Analog supply voltage for internal ADC circuits, 3 V
AVDD5
BLKG
41
Analog supply voltage for internal ADC circuits, 3 V
36
I
Control input. The CDS operation is disabled when BLKG is pulled low.
CLCCD
47
I
CCD signal clamp control input
CCDIN
1
I
CCD input
48
O
Clamp-reference-voltage output
34, 35
I
Connect these pins to AVDD
CLREF
CP
CS
I
DESCRIPTION
ADC clock input
28
I
Chip select. A logic low on this input enables the serial port.
D0 – D9
7–16
O
10-bit 3-state ADC output data or offset DACs test data
DACO1
21
O
Digital-to-analog converter output1
DACO2
22
O
Digital-to-analog converter output2
DGND
5
Digital ground
DIGND
18
Digital-interface-circuit ground
DIVDD
DVDD
17
Digital-interface-circuit supply voltage, 1.8 V− 4.4 V
6
Digital-supply voltage, 3 V
NC
2
I
No connect
OBCLP
31
I
Optical black-level and offset-calibration control input, active low
OE
24
I
Output-data enable, active low
RBD
38
O
Internal bandgap reference for external decoupling
RESET
29
I
Hardware-reset input, active low. This signal forces a reset of all internal registers.
RMD
39
O
Ref− output for external decoupling
RPD
40
O
Ref+ output for external decoupling
SDIN
27
I
Serial-data input to configure the internal registers
SCKP
23
I
This pin selects the polarity of SCLK. 0 – active low (high when SCLK is not running), 1 – active high (low
when SCLK is not running).
SCLK
26
I
Serial-clock input. This clock synchronizes the serial data transfer.
SR
45
I
CCD reference-level-sample clock input
STBY
30
I
Hardware power-down control input, active low
SV
46
I
CCD signal-level sample clock input
VSS
42
Silicon substrate, normally connected to analog ground
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absolute maximum ratings over operating free-air temperature (unless otherwise noted)†
Supply voltage, AVDD, DVDD, DIVDD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . −0.3 V to 6.5 V
Analog input voltage range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . −0.3 V to AVDD+0.3 V
Digital input voltage range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . −0.3 V to DVDD+0.3 V
Operating virtual junction temperature range, TJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . −40°C to 150°C
Operating free-air temperature range, TA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . −20°C to 75°C
Storage temperature range, Tstg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . −65°C to 150°C
Lead temperature 1,6 mm (1/16 inch) from case for 10 seconds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260°C
† Stresses beyond those listed under “absolute maximum ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only, and
functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated under “recommended operating conditions” is not
implied. Exposure to absolute-maximum-rated conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
recommended operating conditions
power supplies
MIN
NOM
MAX
2.7
3
3.3
V
Digital supply voltage
AVDD
DVDD
2.7
3
3.3
V
Digital interface supply voltage
DIVDD
1.8
4.4
V
Analog supply voltage
UNIT
digital inputs, DIVDD = 3 V
MIN
High-level input voltage, VIH
NOM
MAX
0.8DIVDD
Low-level input voltage, VIL
V
0.2DIVDD
21
Input ADCCLK frequency
ADCCLK pulse duration, clock high, tw(MCLKH)
23.8
ADCCLK pulse duration, clock low, tw(MCLKL)
23.8
Input SCLK frequency
UNIT
V
MHz
ns
ns
40
MHz
SCLK pulse duration, clock high, tw(SCLKH)
12.5
ns
SCLK pulse duration, clock low, tw(SCLKL)
12.5
ns
4
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electrical characteristics over recommended operating free-air temperature range, TA = 25°C, AVDD
= DVDD = 3 V, ADCCLK = 21 MHz (unless otherwise noted)
total device
PARAMETER
TEST CONDITIONS
MIN
AVDD operating current
DVDD operating current
Device power consumption
Power consumption in power-down mode
INL
Full CCD channel integral nonlinearity
AVDD=DVDD= 2.7 V – 3.3 V,
Using best fit method
DNL
Full CCD channel differential nonlinearity
AVDD=DVDD= 2.7 V – 3.3 V
No missing code
TYP
MAX
UNIT
34
mA
4
mA
150
mW
2
mW
±0.75
±2
LSB
±0.5
±0.99
LSB
Assured
Full channel output latency
CLK
cycles
6
analog-to-digital converter (ADC)
PARAMETER
TEST CONDITIONS
MIN
ADC resolution in CCD mode
Full-scale input span
TYP
MAX
UNIT
10
Bits
2
21
VP-P
MHz
MAX
UNIT
21
MHz
Conversion rate
correlated double sample (CDS) and programmable gain amplifier (PGA)
PARAMETER
TEST CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
CDS and PGA sample rate
CDS full-scale input span
Single-ended input
1
Input capacitance of CDS
4
Minimum PGA gain
Maximum PGA gain
35
PGA gain resolution
PGA programming code resolution
V
pF
0
1
dB
36
37
dB
0.045
dB
10
Bits
internal digital-to-analog converters (DAC) for offset correction
PARAMETER
TEST CONDITIONS
DAC resolution
INL
Integral nonlinearity
DNL
Differential nonlinearity
Output settling time
To 1% accuracy
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MIN
TYP
MAX
UNIT
8
Bits
±0.5
LSB
±0.5
LSB
80
ns
5
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electrical characteristics over recommended operating free-air temperature range, TA = 25°C, AVDD
= DVDD = 3 V, ADCCLK = 21 MHz (unless otherwise noted) (continued)
user digital-to-analog converters (DAC)
PARAMETER
TEST CONDITIONS
MIN
DAC resolution
INL
Integral nonlinearity
DNL
Differential nonlinearity
MAX
8
Bits
LSB
0
10 pF external load, settle to 1 mV
UNIT
±0.75
±0.5
Output voltage range
Output settling time
TYP
LSB
VDD
V
µs
4
reference voltages
PARAMETER
TEST CONDITIONS
Internal bandgap voltage reference
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNIT
1.43
1.50
1.58
V
Temperature coefficient
100
ADC Ref+
Externally decoupled
ADC Ref−
ppm/°C
2
V
1
V
digital specifications
PARAMETER
TEST CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNIT
Logic inputs
IIH
IIL
High-level input current
Ci
Input capacitance
Low-level input current
DIVDD = 3 V
−10
10
−10
10
µA
A
5
pF
DIVDD−0.4
0.4
V
±10
µA
5
pF
Logic outputs
VOH
VOL
High-level output voltage
IOZ
Co
High-impedance-state output current
Low-level output voltage
IOH = 50 µA, DIVDD = 3 V
IOL = 50 µA, DIVDD = 3 V
Output capacitance
V
key timing requirements
PARAMETER
TEST CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNIT
tSRW
tSVW
SR pulse width
tOD
tCSF
ADCCLK-to-output data delay
CS falling edge to SCLK rising edge
0
ns
tCSR
SCLK falling edge to CS rising edge
5
ns
6
SV pulse width
Measured at 50% of pulse height
10
ns
10
ns
6
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ns
SLAS299A − AUGUST 2000 − REVISED MARCH 2004
10 BIT-PGA GAIN CURVE
40
35
Gain − dB
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0
200
400
600
800
PGA Codes
1000
1200
Figure 1
TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Optical Black Interval
Dummy Black
(Blanking) Interval
Signal Interval
CCD
Output
n
n+1
SR
tSRW
SV
tSvW
BLKG
CLCCD
OBCLP
ADCCLK
Latency: 6 ADC Cycles
tOD
ADC OUT
n
Figure 2. System Operation Timing Diagram
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TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS
tCSF
tCSR
CS
1
2
3
4
5
6
DI15
DI14
DI13
DI12
DI11
DI10
7
16
SCLK
SDIN
DI9
DI0
SCKP Pin is Pulled Low
tCSF
tCSR
CS
1
2
3
4
5
6
DI15
DI14
DI13
DI12
DI11
DI10
7
16
SCLK
SDIN
SCKP Pin is Pulled High
Figure 3. Serial Interface Timing Diagram
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DI9
DI0
SLAS299A − AUGUST 2000 − REVISED MARCH 2004
TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS
tSRD
CCD IN
tSVD
SR
SV
tADC_SV
ADCCLK
Figure 4. Detailed Internal Timing Diagram
TIMING PARAMETER
MIN
TYP
MAX
EXPLANATION
tSRD
Delay between sample reset (SR) rising edge and
actual sampling instant (ns)
6
This is the fixed internal delay in the chip. The reset
value of the CCD waveform should be stable until
the end of this period.
tSVD
Delay between sample video (SV) rising edge and
actual instant of video signal sampling (ns)
6
This is the fixed internal delay in the chip. The video
signal value of the CCD waveform should be stable
until the end of this period.
tADC_SV
Time between ADCCLK and SV falling edges
3
The timing margin required to ensure the ADCCLK
positive half cycle is in between two SV pulses
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APPLICATION INFORMATION
AVDD
0.1 µF
1 µF
AVDD
0.1 µF
0.1 µF
1 µF
1 µF
0.1 µF
Inputs
1 µF
1 µF
9
10
RBD
AGND5
RPD
RMD
AVDD1
V SS
AVDD5
SV
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
11
12
TLV990−21PFB
0.1 µF
Inputs
Inputs
OE
8
DVDD
D0
SCKP
0.1 µF
DGND
AGND3
DACO1
DACO2
6
7
DVDD
DIGND
AVDD3
5
NC
AVDD2
AGND2
D9
DIVDD
0.1 µF
AVDD
36
BLKG
CP 35
CP 34
33
AVDD4
32
AGND4
31
OBCLP
30
STBY
29
RESET
28
CS
27
SDIN
26
SCLK
25
SDCCLK
CCDIN
D8
3
4
AVDD
SR
AGND1
CLREF
1
2
CLCCD
48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37
D7
0.1 µF
Area
CCD
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
Inputs
D (0−9)
DIVDD
AVDD − 3 V
DVDD − 3 V
DIVDD − 1.8 V to 4.4 V
AVDD
0.1 µF
0.1 µF
Analog GND
Digital GND
NOTE: All analog outputs should be buffered if the load is resistive, or if the load is capacitive and greater than 2-pF.
Figure 5. Typical Application Connection
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REGISTER DEFINITION
serial input data format
DI15
DI14
DI13
DI12
DI11
DI10
DI9
DI8
DI7
DI6
DI5
DI4
DI3
DI2
DI1
DI0
X
X
A3
A2
A1
A0
D9
D8
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
A3
A2
A1
A0
0
0
0
0
Control register1
D9−D0
0
0
0
1
PGA gain register
0
0
1
0
User DAC1 register
0
0
1
1
User DAC2 register
0
1
0
0
Coarse offset DAC
0
1
0
1
Fine offset DAC
0
1
1
0
Digital Vb register (sets reference-code level at the ADC output during the optical black interval)
0
1
1
1
Optical black setup register (sets the number of black pixels per line for digital averaging)
1
0
0
0
Hot/cold pixel limit register (sets the limit for maximum positive deviation of optical black pixel from Vb value)
1
0
0
1
Reserved
1
0
1
0
Control register2 (sets the weight for digital filtering)
1
0
1
1
Blanking data register (The data in this register appears at digital output during blanking (BLKG is low))
1
1
0
0
ADCCLK internal programmable delay register
1
1
0
1
SR and SV internal programmable delay register
1
1
1
0
Test register
10-bit data to be written into the selected register
control register1 format
D9
D8
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
STBY
PDD1
PDD2
ACD
AFD
OBM
X
SRSV
RTOB
RTSY
control register1 description
BIT
NAME
D9
STBY
Device power-down control: 1 = standby, 0 = active (default)
DESCRIPTION
D8
PDD1
Power-down user DAC1: 1 = standby, 0 = active (default)
D7
PDD2
Power-down user DAC2: 1 = standby, 0 = active (default)
D6
ACD
Coarse-offset DAC mode control:
0 = autocalibration (default), 1 = bypass autocalibration.
Note: When D6 is set to 0, D5 must also be set to 0 (automode). Otherwise, the automode will be disabled on both offset DACs.
D5
AFD
Fine offset DAC mode control:
0 = autocalibration (default), 1 = bypass autocalibration.
Note: D5 can be set to 0 with or without D6 being set to 0.
D4
OBM
This bit initiates the offset DAC’s starting sequence.
0 = coarse-offset DAC starts first (default)
1 = fine-offset DAC starts first
D3
X
Reserved
D2
SRSV
This bit specifies the polarity of SR and SV input pulses.
0 – SR/SV active low (default)
1 – SR/SV active high
D1
RTOB
Writing 1 to this bit will reset calculated black-level results in the digital averager.
D0
RTSY
Writing 1 to this bit will reset entire system to the default settings (edge sensitive).
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REGISTER DEFINITION
PGA register format
D9
D8
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
Bit 9
Bit 8
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Default PGA gain = 0000000000 or 0 dB
user DAC1 and DAC2 registers format
D9
D8
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
X
X
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Default user DAC register value = XX00000000
coarse offset DAC register format
D9
D8
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
X
SIGN
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
coarse offset DAC register description
BIT
NAME
D9
X
Reserved
D8
SIGN
Coarse DAC sign bit, 0 = + sign (default), 1 = − sign
D7−D0
DESCRIPTION
Coarse DAC control data when the D6 in the control register is set at 1.
Default coarse DAC register value = X000000000
fine offset DAC register format
D9
D8
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
X
SIGN
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
fine offset DAC register description
BIT
NAME
D9
X
Reserved
D8
SIGN
Fine DAC sign bit, 0 = + sign (default), 1 = − sign
D7−D0
DESCRIPTION
Fine DAC control data when the D5 in the control register is set at 1.
Default fine DAC register value = X000000000
digital Vb (optical black level) register format
D9
D8
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
Bit 9
Bit 8
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Default Vb register value = 00 Hex
12
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REGISTER DEFINITION
optical black setup register format
D9
D8
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
OMUX1
OMUX0
HYS
X
SOFW1
SOFW0
MP
PN2
PN1
PN0
optical black setup register description
BIT
NAME
D8, D9
OMUX1,
OMUX0
D7
HYS
D6
X
D5, D4
SOFW1,
SOFW0
D3
MP
DESCRIPTION
These two bits multiplex digital output (data presented at D[9:0] pins):
OMUX1 OMUX0
0
0
D[9:0] = ADC output (default)
0
1
D[9:0] = ADC output
1
0
D[9] = fine/coarse (1/0) autocorrection flag
D[8] = coarse DAC sign
D[7:0] = coarse DAC value
1
1
D[9] = fine/coarse (1/0) autocorrection flag
D[8] = fine DAC sign
D[7:0] = fine DAC value
Sets the hysteresis
0 = Apply hysteresis to FDAC (default)
1 = No hysteresis
Reserved
These two bits set the digital filter weight when SOF is activated (the SOF bit in control register 2 is set to 1).
SOFW1 SOFW0
Weight
0
0
0
(default)
0
1
1
1
0
2
1
1
3
When this bit is 1, the number of optical black pixels to be averaged per line (2N) is multiplied by 3.
By setting the MP and PN2−PN0 bits together, the number of optical black pixels can be programmed to have the following numbers:
1, 2, 3 (1X3), 4, 6 (2×3), 8, 12 (4×3), 16, 24 (8×3), 32, 48 (16×3), 64, 96 (32×3), and 192 (64×3).
Default: MP = 0, no multiplication
D2−D0
PN2−PN0
Number of optical black pixels per line to average = 2N
N can be 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. Or number of pixels per line can be 1, 2, 4, 8 (default), 16, 32, or 64.
The maximum number of pixels per line is 64, even if N>6.
Default optical black calibration register value = 0000000011
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13
SLAS299A − AUGUST 2000 − REVISED MARCH 2004
REGISTER DEFINITION
hot/cold pixel limit register format
D9
D8
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
HFIT
hot/cold pixel limit register description
Bit
Name
D9 − D1
X
D0
HFIT
Description
Reserved
Set hot/cold pixel filter
0 − Apply Vb ± .8 hot/cold pixel filtering
1 − No hot/cold pixel filtering (default)
Default hot/cold pixel limit register value = 0000000001
control register2 format
D9
D8
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
SOF
NOS
ASOF
X
X
X
WT3
WT2
WT1
WT0
control register 2 description
BIT
NAME
DESCRIPTION
D9
SOF
0 – Normal mode (default)
1 – Start of frame (only used when exposure time is changed)
When this bit is set to 1, next positive ADCCLK edge indicates that next pixel line is the beginning of a new frame.
The optical black correction will be performed with one line averaging only (digital filtering weight = 1) and without
hot/cold pixel limits.
D8
NOS
Internal test bit, add 255 to optical black pixels when bit set to 1
Default = 0
D7
ASOF
Enable auto SOF
0 = No auto SOF (default)
1 = Automatically enable SOF at major gain changes
D6−D4
X
Reserved. Set bits to 0.
D3−D0
WT2−WT0
These three bits set the weight for digital filtering.
WT3
WT2
WT1
WT0
Weight (effect of the averaged result of each optical black pixel line on
0
overall optical black averaging
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1/2
0
0
1
0
1/4
0
0
1
1
1/8
0
1
0
0
1/16
0
1
0
1
1/32
0
1
1
0
1/64
0
1
1
1
1/128 (default)
1
0
0
0
1/256
Default control register2 value = X000000111
14
POST OFFICE BOX 655303
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SLAS299A − AUGUST 2000 − REVISED MARCH 2004
REGISTER DEFINITION
blanking data register format
D9
D8
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
0
0
0
0
BDTA
0
0
0
0
0
blanking data register description
BIT
NAME
D5
BDTA
DESCRIPTION
This register value appears at the digital output when BLKG is low. When this bit is set to 1, digital output during blanking
will be Vb.
Default = 0000000000
ADCCLK internal delay register format
D9
D8
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
X
X
X
X
X
X
ADL3
ADL2
ADL1
ADL0
ADCCLK internal delay register description
BIT
NAME
D9−D4
X
DESCRIPTION
D3−D0
ADL3−ADL0
Reserved
These four bits set the internal ADCCLK delay.
ADL3
ADL2
ADL1
ADL0
Typical internal delay
0
0
0
0
0 ns (default)
:
:
1
1
1
1
10 ns
Default register value = XXXXXX0000
SR and SV internal delay register format
D9
D8
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
X
X
SVL3
SVL2
SVL1
SVL0
SRL3
SRL2
SRL1
SRL0
SR and SV internal delay register description
BIT
NAME
DESCRIPTION
D9−D8
X
D7−D4
SVL3−SVL0
Reserved
These four bits set the internal SV delay.
SVL3
SVL2
SVL1
SVL0
Typical internal delay
0
0
0
0
0 ns (default)
:
:
1
1
1
1
10 ns
D3−D0
SRL3−SRL0
These four bits set the internal SV delay.
SRL3
SRL2
SRL1
SRL0
Typical internal delay
0
0
0
0
0 ns (default)
:
:
1
1
1
1
10 ns
Default register value = XX00000000
POST OFFICE BOX 655303
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15
SLAS299A − AUGUST 2000 − REVISED MARCH 2004
PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION
CDS and PGA
The output from the CCD sensor is first fed to a correlated double sampler (CDS) through the CCDIN pin. The
CCD signal is sampled and held during the reset-reference interval and the video-signal interval. By subtracting
two resulting voltage levels, the CDS removes low-frequency noise from the output of the CCD sensor and
obtains the voltage difference between the CCD reference level and the video level of each pixel. Two
sample/hold control pulses (SR and SV) are required to perform the CDS function.
The CCD output is capacitively coupled to the TLV990-21. The ac-coupling capacitor is clamped to establish
proper dc bias during the dummy pixel interval by the CLCCD input. The bias at the input to the TLV990-21 is
set to 1.2 V. Normally, CLCCD is applied at the sensor’s line rate. A capacitor, with a value ten times larger than
that of the input ac-coupling capacitor, should be connected between the CLREF pin and AGND.
When operating the TLV990-21 at its maximum speed, the CCD internal source resistance should be smaller
than 50 Ω. Otherwise CCD output buffering is required.
The signal is sent to the PGA after the CDS function is complete. The PGA gain can be adjusted from 0 to 36 dB
by programming the internal-gain register via the serial port. The PGA is digitally controlled with 10-bit resolution
on a linear dB scale, resulting in a 0.045-dB gain step. The gain can be expressed by the following equation,
Gain = PGA code × 0.045 dB
Where PGA code has a range of 0 to 767.
ADC
The ADC employs a pipelined architecture to achieve high throughput and low-power consumption. Fullydifferential implementation and digital-error correction ensure 10-bit resolution.
The latency of the ADC data output is 6 ADCCLK cycles, as shown in Figure 1. Pulling the OE pin (pin 24) high
puts the ADC output in high impedance.
user DACs
The TLV990-21 includes two user DACs that can be used for external analog settings. The output voltage of
each DAC can be independently set and has a range of 0 V up to the supply voltage, with an 8-bit resolution.
When the user DACs are not used in a camera system, they can be put in the standby mode by programming
control bits in the control register.
internal timing
The SR and SV signals are required to operate the CDS, as previously explained. The user needs to
synchronize the SR and SV clocks with the CCD signal waveform. The output of the ADC is read out to external
circuitry by the ADCCLK signal, which is also used internally to control both ADC and PGA operations. The
positive-half cycle of the ADCCLK signal is required to always fall in between two adjacent SV pulses as shown
in Fig. 1. The user can then fine tune the ADCCLK timing in relation to the CDS timing to achieve optimal
performance.
The CLCCD signal is used to activate the input clamping and the OBCLP signal is used to activate auto-optical
black and offset correction.
16
POST OFFICE BOX 655303
• DALLAS, TEXAS 75265
SLAS299A − AUGUST 2000 − REVISED MARCH 2004
PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION
input blanking function
Large input transients may occur at the TLV990-21’s input during some period of operation, which can saturate
the input circuits and cause long recovery time. To prevent circuit saturation the TLV990-21 includes an input
blanking function that blocks the input signals by disabling the CDS operation whenever the BLKG input is pulled
low. The TLV990-21 digital output will be set by the blanking data register after BLKG is pulled low.
NOTE:
If the BLKG pulse is located before the OBCLP pulse, there must be at least 4 pixels between the
rising edge of the BLKG pulse and the falling edge of the OBCLP pulse. If the BLKG pulse is located
after the OBCLP, the minimum number of pixels between the falling edge of the OBCLP and the
falling edge of the BLKG pulse should be equal to the number of optical black pixels per line + 4.
3-wire serial interface
A simple 3-wire (SCLK, SDIN, and CS) serial interface is provided to allow writing to the internal registers of
the TLV990-21. The serial clock SCLK can be run at a maximum frequency of 40 MHz. Serial data SDIN is 16
bits long. The two leading null bits are followed by four address bits for which the internal register is to be
updated, and then ten bits of data to be written to the register. The CS pin must be held low to enable the serial
port. The data transfer is initiated by the incoming SCLK after CS falls.
The SCLK polarity is selectable by pulling the SCKP pin either high or low.
device reset
When pin RESET (pin 29) is pulled low, all internal registers are set to their default values. The device also resets
itself when it is first powered on. In addition, the TLV990-21 has a software-reset function that resets the device
when writing a control bit to the control register.
See the register definition section for the register default values.
voltage references
An internal precision-voltage reference of 1.5 V nominal is provided. This reference voltage is used to generate
the ADC Ref− voltage of 1 V and Ref+ of 2 V. It is also used to set the clamp voltage. All internally-generated
voltages are fixed values and cannot be adjusted.
power-down mode (standby)
The TLV990-21 implements both hardware and software power-down modes. Pulling pin STBY (pin 30) low
puts the device in the low-power standby mode. Total supply current drops to about 0.6 mA. Setting a
power-down control bit in the control register can also activate the power-down mode. The user can still program
all internal registers during the power-down mode.
power supply
The TLV990-21 has several power-supply pins. Each major internal analog block has a dedicated AVDD supply
pin. All internal digital circuitry is powered by DVDD. Both AVDD and DVDD are 3-V nominal.
The DIVDD and DIGND pins supply power to the output digital driver (D9−D0). The DIVDD is independent of the
DVDD and can be operated from 1.8 V to 4.4 V. This allows the outputs to interface with digital ASICs requiring
different supply voltages.
POST OFFICE BOX 655303
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17
SLAS299A − AUGUST 2000 − REVISED MARCH 2004
PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION
ground and decoupling
All ground pins of the TLV990-21 are not internally connected and must be connected externally to PCB ground.
General practices should apply to the PCB design to limit high-frequency transients and noise that are fed back
into the supply and reference lines. This requires that the supply and reference pins be sufficiently bypassed.
In the case of power supply decoupling, 0.1-µF ceramic chip capacitors are adequate to keep the impedance
low over a wide frequency range. Recommended external decoupling for the three voltage-reference pins is
shown in Figure 4. Since their effectiveness depends largely on the proximity to the individual supply pin, all
decoupling capacitors should be placed as close as possible to the supply pins.
To reduce high-frequency and noise coupling, it is highly recommended that digital and analog grounds be
shorted immediately outside the package. This can be accomplished by running a low-impedance line between
DGND and AGND under the package.
automatic optical black and offset correction
In the TLV990-21, the optical black and system channel-offset corrections are performed by an autodigital
feedback loop. Two DACs are used to compensate for both channel offset and optical black offset. A coarse
correction DAC (CDAC) is located before the PGA gain stage, and a fine correction DAC (FDAC) is located after
the gain stage. The digital-calibration system is capable of correcting the optical black and channel offset down
to one ADC LSB accuracy.
The TLV990-21 automatically starts autocalibration whenever the OBCLP input is pulled low. The OBCLP pulse
should be wide enough to cover one positive half cycle of the ADCCLK, as shown in Figure 1.
For each line, the optical black pixels plus the channel offset are sampled and converted to digital data by the
ADC. A digital circuit averages the data during the optical black pixels. The averaged result is compared digitally
with the desired output code stored in the Vb register (default is 40H), then control logic adjusts the FDAC to
make the ADC output equal to the Vb. If the offset is out of the range of the FDAC (±255 ADC LSBs), the error
is corrected by both CDAC and FDAC. The CDAC increments or decrements by one CDAC LSB, depending
on whether the offset is negative of positive, until the output is within the range of the FDAC. The remaining
residue is corrected by the FDAC.
The relationship among the FDAC, CDAC, and ADC in terms of number of ADC LSBs is as follows:
1 FDAC LSB = 1 ADC LSB,
1 CDAC LSB = PGA linear gain × n ADC LSB.
Where n is:
4 for 0 =< gain code <128
3 for 128 =< gain code <192
2 for 192 =< gain code <256
1 for 256 =< gain code
For example, if PGA gain = 2 (6 dB), then, 1 CDAC LSB = 2 x 3 ADC LSBs = 6 ADC LSBs.
After autocalibration is complete, the ADC’s digital output during CCD signal interval can be expressed by the
following equation:
ADC output [D9−D0] = CCD_input × PGA gain + Vb,
Where Vb is the desired black level selected by the user. The total offset, including optical black offset, is
calibrated to be equal to Vb by adjusting the offset correction DACs during autocalibration.
18
POST OFFICE BOX 655303
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SLAS299A − AUGUST 2000 − REVISED MARCH 2004
PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION
automatic optical black and offset correction (continued)
A weighted rolling average of the optical black pixels is taken during averaging. The weighting factor can be
programmed in control register2. The weighting factor determines the speed of convergence of the digital
filtering implemented within the CCD signal processor. Weighting factors closer to 1 result in faster
convergence. As the weighting factor decreases towards its minimum value of 1/256, the speed of convergence
of the digital filtering decreases.
The algorithm also takes hot pixels and cold pixels into consideration. A hot optical black pixel is a defective
pixel that generates too much charge, while a cold pixel is the one that generates very little or no charge. A digital
comparator compares the digitized optical black pixels with user-selected hot and cold pixel limits. If the optical
black pixel value is out of range, then that hot or cold pixel is replaced with the value of the previous pixel.
Due to different exposure times, there might be a sudden optical black level shift at the start of each frame. Thus,
a quick optical black level correction is desirable. The user can set an internal control bit (the SOF bit in control
register2) to automatically disable the hot/cold pixel limits and to set the digital filtering weighting factor to 1
(equivalent to one-line averaging). In this way the optical black correction could be performed very quickly for
the first line of each frame.
The number of black pixels in each line is programmable. The number of black pixels per line that can be
averaged is 2N, where N can be any integer from 0 to 6.
The autocalibration feature can be bypassed if the user prefers to directly program the offset DAC registers.
Switching the autocalibration mode to the direct-programming mode requires two register writes. First, the
control bits for the offset DACs in the control register must be changed; then the desired offset value for the
register is loaded to the offset DAC registers for proper error correction. If the total offset, including optical black
level, is less than ±255 ADC LSBs, only the FDAC needs to be programmed. When switching from directprogramming mode to autocalibration mode, the previous DAC register values, rather than default DAC register
values, are used as starting offsets.
POST OFFICE BOX 655303
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19
PACKAGE OPTION ADDENDUM
www.ti.com
26-Feb-2009
PACKAGING INFORMATION
Orderable Device
Status (1)
Package
Type
Package
Drawing
Pins Package Eco Plan (2)
Qty
TLV990-21PFB
NRND
TQFP
PFB
48
250
Green (RoHS &
no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-2-260C-1 YEAR
TLV990-21PFBG4
NRND
TQFP
PFB
48
250
Green (RoHS &
no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-2-260C-1 YEAR
Lead/Ball Finish
MSL Peak Temp (3)
(1)
The marketing status values are defined as follows:
ACTIVE: Product device recommended for new designs.
LIFEBUY: TI has announced that the device will be discontinued, and a lifetime-buy period is in effect.
NRND: Not recommended for new designs. Device is in production to support existing customers, but TI does not recommend using this part in
a new design.
PREVIEW: Device has been announced but is not in production. Samples may or may not be available.
OBSOLETE: TI has discontinued the production of the device.
(2)
Eco Plan - The planned eco-friendly classification: Pb-Free (RoHS), Pb-Free (RoHS Exempt), or Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) - please check
http://www.ti.com/productcontent for the latest availability information and additional product content details.
TBD: The Pb-Free/Green conversion plan has not been defined.
Pb-Free (RoHS): TI's terms "Lead-Free" or "Pb-Free" mean semiconductor products that are compatible with the current RoHS requirements
for all 6 substances, including the requirement that lead not exceed 0.1% by weight in homogeneous materials. Where designed to be soldered
at high temperatures, TI Pb-Free products are suitable for use in specified lead-free processes.
Pb-Free (RoHS Exempt): This component has a RoHS exemption for either 1) lead-based flip-chip solder bumps used between the die and
package, or 2) lead-based die adhesive used between the die and leadframe. The component is otherwise considered Pb-Free (RoHS
compatible) as defined above.
Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br): TI defines "Green" to mean Pb-Free (RoHS compatible), and free of Bromine (Br) and Antimony (Sb) based flame
retardants (Br or Sb do not exceed 0.1% by weight in homogeneous material)
(3)
MSL, Peak Temp. -- The Moisture Sensitivity Level rating according to the JEDEC industry standard classifications, and peak solder
temperature.
Important Information and Disclaimer:The information provided on this page represents TI's knowledge and belief as of the date that it is
provided. TI bases its knowledge and belief on information provided by third parties, and makes no representation or warranty as to the
accuracy of such information. Efforts are underway to better integrate information from third parties. TI has taken and continues to take
reasonable steps to provide representative and accurate information but may not have conducted destructive testing or chemical analysis on
incoming materials and chemicals. TI and TI suppliers consider certain information to be proprietary, and thus CAS numbers and other limited
information may not be available for release.
In no event shall TI's liability arising out of such information exceed the total purchase price of the TI part(s) at issue in this document sold by TI
to Customer on an annual basis.
Addendum-Page 1
MECHANICAL DATA
MTQF019A – JANUARY 1995 – REVISED JANUARY 1998
PFB (S-PQFP-G48)
PLASTIC QUAD FLATPACK
0,27
0,17
0,50
36
0,08 M
25
37
24
48
13
0,13 NOM
1
12
5,50 TYP
7,20
SQ
6,80
9,20
SQ
8,80
Gage Plane
0,25
0,05 MIN
0°– 7°
1,05
0,95
Seating Plane
0,75
0,45
0,08
1,20 MAX
4073176 / B 10/96
NOTES: A. All linear dimensions are in millimeters.
B. This drawing is subject to change without notice.
C. Falls within JEDEC MS-026
POST OFFICE BOX 655303
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PACKAGE OPTION ADDENDUM
www.ti.com
3-Jul-2015
PACKAGING INFORMATION
Orderable Device
Status
(1)
TLV990-21PFB
ACTIVE
Package Type Package Pins Package
Drawing
Qty
TQFP
PFB
48
250
Eco Plan
Lead/Ball Finish
MSL Peak Temp
(2)
(6)
(3)
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-2-260C-1 YEAR
Op Temp (°C)
Device Marking
(4/5)
-20 to 75
TLV990-21
(1)
The marketing status values are defined as follows:
ACTIVE: Product device recommended for new designs.
LIFEBUY: TI has announced that the device will be discontinued, and a lifetime-buy period is in effect.
NRND: Not recommended for new designs. Device is in production to support existing customers, but TI does not recommend using this part in a new design.
PREVIEW: Device has been announced but is not in production. Samples may or may not be available.
OBSOLETE: TI has discontinued the production of the device.
(2)
Eco Plan - The planned eco-friendly classification: Pb-Free (RoHS), Pb-Free (RoHS Exempt), or Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) - please check http://www.ti.com/productcontent for the latest availability
information and additional product content details.
TBD: The Pb-Free/Green conversion plan has not been defined.
Pb-Free (RoHS): TI's terms "Lead-Free" or "Pb-Free" mean semiconductor products that are compatible with the current RoHS requirements for all 6 substances, including the requirement that
lead not exceed 0.1% by weight in homogeneous materials. Where designed to be soldered at high temperatures, TI Pb-Free products are suitable for use in specified lead-free processes.
Pb-Free (RoHS Exempt): This component has a RoHS exemption for either 1) lead-based flip-chip solder bumps used between the die and package, or 2) lead-based die adhesive used between
the die and leadframe. The component is otherwise considered Pb-Free (RoHS compatible) as defined above.
Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br): TI defines "Green" to mean Pb-Free (RoHS compatible), and free of Bromine (Br) and Antimony (Sb) based flame retardants (Br or Sb do not exceed 0.1% by weight
in homogeneous material)
(3)
MSL, Peak Temp. - The Moisture Sensitivity Level rating according to the JEDEC industry standard classifications, and peak solder temperature.
(4)
There may be additional marking, which relates to the logo, the lot trace code information, or the environmental category on the device.
(5)
Multiple Device Markings will be inside parentheses. Only one Device Marking contained in parentheses and separated by a "~" will appear on a device. If a line is indented then it is a continuation
of the previous line and the two combined represent the entire Device Marking for that device.
(6)
Lead/Ball Finish - Orderable Devices may have multiple material finish options. Finish options are separated by a vertical ruled line. Lead/Ball Finish values may wrap to two lines if the finish
value exceeds the maximum column width.
Important Information and Disclaimer:The information provided on this page represents TI's knowledge and belief as of the date that it is provided. TI bases its knowledge and belief on information
provided by third parties, and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of such information. Efforts are underway to better integrate information from third parties. TI has taken and
continues to take reasonable steps to provide representative and accurate information but may not have conducted destructive testing or chemical analysis on incoming materials and chemicals.
TI and TI suppliers consider certain information to be proprietary, and thus CAS numbers and other limited information may not be available for release.
In no event shall TI's liability arising out of such information exceed the total purchase price of the TI part(s) at issue in this document sold by TI to Customer on an annual basis.
Addendum-Page 1
Samples
PACKAGE OPTION ADDENDUM
www.ti.com
3-Jul-2015
Addendum-Page 2
MECHANICAL DATA
MTQF019A – JANUARY 1995 – REVISED JANUARY 1998
PFB (S-PQFP-G48)
PLASTIC QUAD FLATPACK
0,27
0,17
0,50
36
0,08 M
25
37
24
48
13
0,13 NOM
1
12
5,50 TYP
7,20
SQ
6,80
9,20
SQ
8,80
Gage Plane
0,25
0,05 MIN
0°– 7°
1,05
0,95
Seating Plane
0,75
0,45
0,08
1,20 MAX
4073176 / B 10/96
NOTES: A. All linear dimensions are in millimeters.
B. This drawing is subject to change without notice.
C. Falls within JEDEC MS-026
POST OFFICE BOX 655303
• DALLAS, TEXAS 75265
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