Texas Instruments | Implementing JESD204B SYSREF and Achieving Deterministic Latency with ADC32RF45 | Application notes | Texas Instruments Implementing JESD204B SYSREF and Achieving Deterministic Latency with ADC32RF45 Application notes

Texas Instruments Implementing JESD204B SYSREF and Achieving Deterministic Latency with ADC32RF45 Application notes
Application Report
SBAA221 – May 2016
Implementing JESD204B SYSREF and Achieving
Deterministic Latency With ADC32RF45
Srinivas Murthy
ABSTRACT
SYSREF is a critical signal for data converters with a JESD204B interface and a deep understanding of it
is imperative for application engineers. This application note provides details for deriving SYSREF
frequency for a given mode of the device, SYSREF timing to achieve deterministic latency across
converters, and the AC characteristics of this signal to choose the appropriate SYSREF driver for an
industry-first 3-Gsps, RF-sampling ADC – ADC32RF45.
1
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5
6
7
Contents
Introduction ...................................................................................................................
Calculating SYSREF Frequency ...........................................................................................
Driving SYSREF of ADC32RF45 ..........................................................................................
SYSREF Timing and Deterministic Latency ..............................................................................
Can the Device Operate Without SYSREF (Subclass 0 Operation)? ................................................
Conclusion ....................................................................................................................
Reference .....................................................................................................................
2
3
5
6
7
8
8
List of Figures
1
Sysref Distribution in ADC32RF45, Shown for a Single Channel ..................................................... 2
2
Data Packing of Lanes for LMFS = 8821 Mode ......................................................................... 4
3
SYSREF Driving Circuit ..................................................................................................... 5
4
SYSREF Timing With Regard to Rising Edge of Device Clock at 3 GHz TSU = 140 ps and TH =50 ps .......... 6
5
SYSREF Internal Programmable Delay
6
6
SYSREF Duplication via SPI Writes
7
..................................................................................
......................................................................................
List of Tables
1
Data Packing of Lanes for LMFS = 82820 Mode ........................................................................ 3
2
SYSREF Frequency for Different ADC32RF45 Modes ................................................................. 5
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1
Introduction
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1
Introduction
1.1
Using SYSREF in ADC32RF45
The SYSREF signal is typically a periodic signal which is sampled by the ADC32RF45 device clock, and is
used to align the boundary of the local multi-frame clock inside the data converter for subclass 1 operation
to achieve deterministic latency across converters. The device also uses the same signal to reset critical
blocks such as the clock divider for the interleaved ADCs, NCOs, decimation filters, and so on. The
ADC32RF45 needs SYSREF to put the device into the right state even before loading the device
configuration. The same device also offers subclass 0 operation for applications that do not require
deterministic latency by replacing the SYSREF signal with SPI based trigger via SPI writes.
Clock (fS /4)
Clock Input fS
Input Clock Divider
/4
Clock (fS /4)
ADC
Data
JESD
Sysref Input
Sysref Pulse
Generation
Sysref
Digital Interleaving Correction
LMFC Counter
reset on sysref
(Internal dividers reset on
sysref)
DDC Decimation factor(D)
DDC clock
(fS /D)
Clock Input fS
Data
DDC clock
(NCO reset on sysref)
DDC Clock
Generation
Figure 1. Sysref Distribution in ADC32RF45, Shown for a Single Channel
SYSREF is used to synchronize all dividers in the device. In the DDC bypass mode, SYSREF is used for
resetting the input clock fS / 4 divider that is used to clock the four ADC cores, interleaving correction clock
dividers, and the JESD local multi-frame clock (LMFC) generation. In the DDC mode, SYSREF is also
used to reset the DDC clock generation module and to reset the NCOs of the DDC. It is important to gate
the SYSREF externally or internally to the device in the DDC mode after the JESD link is established as
the NCO phase is reset on SYSREF.
2
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Calculating SYSREF Frequency
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2
Calculating SYSREF Frequency
The ADC32RF45 has two main modes of operation; the first is wide-band RF sampling bypassing the
internal DDC and the second is decimation mode to extract only the required bandwidth of the incoming
RF signal.
1. SYSREF frequency for 3 GHz RF sampling (DDC bypass mode):
The ADC32RF45 has a unique way of packing 12-bit samples onto the JESD lanes using bit packing
to improve the efficiency over the lanes. The JESD block takes in 20 samples of 12 bits. On each lane
it combines 5 consecutive 12-bit samples and appends four 0s to make 64 bit which is encoded to 80
bits by the 8b-10b encoder. The 80 bits are sent over each lane and, in effect, 20 samples over 4
lanes per channel as shown in Table 1.
Table 1. Data Packing of Lanes for LMFS = 82820 Mode
DA0
A0
[11:4]
A0[3:0]
A1[11:8]
A1 [7:0]
A2 [11:4]
A2[3:0]
A3[11:8]
A3 [7:0]
A4 [11:4]
A4[3:0]
0000
DA1
A5 [11:4]
A5[3:0]
A6[11:8]
A6 [7:0]
A7 [11:4]
A7[3:0]
A8[11:8]
A8 [7:0]
A9 [11:4]
A9[3:0]
0000
DA2
A10 [11:4]
A10[3:0]
A11[11:8]
A11 [7:0]
A12 [11:4]
A12[3:0]
A13[11:8]
A13 [7:0]
A14 [11:4]
A14[3:0]
0000
DA3
A15 [11:4]
A15[3:0]
A16[11:8]
A16 [7:0]
A17 [11:4]
A17[3:0]
A18[11:8]
A18 [7:0]
A19 [11:4]
A19[3:0]
0000
DB0
B0 [11:4]
B0[3:0]
B1[11:8]
B1 [7:0]
B2 [11:4]
B2[3:0]
B3[11:8]
B3 [7:0]
B4 [11:4]
B4[3:0]
0000
DB1
B5 [11:4]
B5[3:0]
B6[11:8]
B6 [7:0]
B7 [11:4]
B7[3:0]
B8[11:8]
B8 [7:0]
B9 [11:4]
B9[3:0]
0000
DB2
B10 [11:4]
B10[3:0]
B11[11:8]
B11 [7:0]
B12 [11:4]
B12[3:0]
B13[11:8]
B13 [7:0]
B14 [11:4]
B14[3:0]
0000
DB3
B15 [11:4]
B15[3:0]
B16[11:8]
B16 [7:0]
B17 [11:4]
B17[3:0]
B18[11:8]
B18 [7:0]
B19 [11:4]
B19[3:0]
0000
The high-speed JESD link between transmitter and receiver is configured by specifying the following
parameters:
LMFS = 82820 with K = 16:
• L is the number of lanes per device
• M is the number of converters per device
• F is the number of octets per lane per frame clock
• K is the number of frames per multi-frame clock.
The actual SYSREF frequency is determined by the following 2 constraints:
• SYSREF must be a sub-multiple of the local multiple frame clock.
– Sampling clock, fS = 3000 MHz
– JESD frame clock = fC = fS / S = 3000 / 20 = 150 MHz as S = 20
– Lane rate = fC × f × 10 = 150 × 8 × 10 = 12 Gbps
– LMFC (Local multi-frame clock) = LMFC = FC / K = fS / (K × S)= 15 MHz / 16 = 9.375 MHz
– Maximum SYSREF frequency = LMFC
• SYSREF also needs sub-multiple of fS / 64 from ADC digital block design.
– Maximum SYSREF = fS / 64
Combining the two constraints yields, Maximum SYSREF to be = fS / LCM(64,20 × K)
Where LCM is least common multiple
Generalized expression, SYSREF = fS / LCM(64,20 × K) / N where N is a integer (1,2…)
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3
Calculating SYSREF Frequency
For the previous example,
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SYSREF
= 3000 / LCM(64,20 × 16) / N
= 3000 / 320 / N = 9.375 / 4 (choosing N = 4)
= 2.34375 MHz
2. SYSREF frequency for DDC mode:
ADC32RF45 also supports the feature-rich DDC block. Section 3 shows how to derive the SYSREF for
one of the DDC modes.
fS = 3000 MHz
DDC factor (D) = 8
DDC output rate = fS / D = 3000 / 8 = 375 MHz
LMFS for dual-band DDC per channel = 8821. Each I and Q of the complex output is treated as one
converter.
LMFS = 8821
Channel A first band,
Complex I/Q output
Channel A second band,
Complex I/Q output
DA0
A1I0[15:8]
A1I0[7:0]
A1I1[15:8]
A1I1[7:0]
DA1
A1Q0[15:8]
A1Q0[7:0]
A1Q1[15:8]
A1Q1[7:0]
DA2
A2I0[15:8]
A2I0[7:0]
A2I1[15:8]
A2I1[7:0]
DA3
A2Q0[15:8]
A2Q0[7:0]
A2Q1[15:8]
A2Q1[7:0]
DB0
B1I0[15:8]
B1I0[7:0]
B1I1[15:8]
B1I1[7:0]
DB1
B1Q0[15:8]
B1Q0[7:0]
B1Q1[15:8]
B1Q1[7:0]
DB2
B2I0[15:8]
B2I0[7:0]
B2I1[15:8]
B2I1[7:0]
DB3
B2Q0[15:8]
B2Q0[7:0]
B2Q1[15:8]
B2Q1[7:0]
Channel B first band,
Complex I/Q output
Channel B second band,
Complex I/Q output
Figure 2. Data Packing of Lanes for LMFS = 8821 Mode
The actual SYSREF frequency is determined by the following 2 constraints for DDC 8 × mode,
LMFS =8821:
• SYSREF needs to be s sub-multiple of local multiple frame clock.
– Sampling clock, fS = 3000 MHz
– Decimated output rate = fS / D where D is the decimation factor
– JESD frame clock= FC = fS / D / S = 3000 / 8 / 1 = 375 MHz
– Lane rate = FC × F × 10 = 375 × 2 × 10 = 7.5 Gbps
– LMFC (local multi-frame clock) = LMFC = FC / K = fS / (D × K × S)=375 MHz / 16 = 23.4375 MHz.
– Maximum SYSREF frequency = LMFC
• SYSREF also needs sub-multiple of fS / 64 from ADC digital block design.
– Maximum SYSREF = fS / 64
Combining the two constraints yields, Maximum SYSREF to be = fS / LCM(64,20 × K)
Generalized expression, SYSREF = fS / LCM(64,D×K×S) / N where N is a integer (1,2…)
4
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Driving SYSREF of ADC32RF45
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For the previous example,
SYSREF
=
=
=
=
3000 / LCM(64,8 × 16 × 1) / N
3000 / 128 / N
23.4375 / 16 (choosing N = 16)
1.46484375 MHz
Summarizing the SYSREF frequency calculation:
Table 2. SYSREF Frequency for Different ADC32RF45 Modes
Operating Mode
LMFS Setting
LMFC Clock or Max SYSREF Frequency
Bypass
82820
fS / LCM(64, 20 × K), S=20
Bypass
8224
fS / LCM(64, 4 × K), S=4
Bypass
4211
fS / LCM(64, 1 × K), S =1
Decimation
Various
fS / LCM(64,D × K × S)
Allowable values of SYSREF frequency = LMFC clock / N where N is a integer (N = 1,2…)
Typically, it is always desirable to keep SYSREF frequency < 5 MHz (choose N accordingly) to avoid
SYSREF coupling both on board and device to clock and RF input signal and highly recommended to
switch off SYSREF to device once the JESD link is established.
3
Driving SYSREF of ADC32RF45
The ADC32RF45 SYSREF receiver has 100-Ω differential internal termination with no self-bias. SYSREF
always must be DC coupled with a common mode of 1.2 V. A standard LVDS driver from the LMK04828
clock chip can be used as SYSREF, as shown in Figure 3.
LMK04828 LVDS driver
ADC32RF4x LVDS receiver
Sysrefp
100 Ÿ
Sysref
Sysrefm
x
x
Common mode = 1.2 V
Differential swing = 700 mVPP
x
x
x
100 Ÿ 'LIIHUHQWLDO WHUPLQDWLRQ
No self bias
Only DC coupling
Figure 3. SYSREF Driving Circuit
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SYSREF Timing and Deterministic Latency
4
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SYSREF Timing and Deterministic Latency
The ADC32RF45 samples the incoming SYSREF on the rising edge of the device clock. Figure 4 shows
the setup and hold time with regard to device clock at 3 GHz. The actual setup and hold numbers are yet
to be finalized from device characterization. The simulation numbers and not Silicon data are presented in
Figure 4.
333 ps
T
tSU
tH
140 ps 50 ps
tH
50 ps
tSU
140 ps
SysRef
Valid
Transition
Window
Valid
Transition
Window
Valid Transition Window (VTW) = T- tSU ± tH = 143 ps
Figure 4. SYSREF Timing With Regard to Rising Edge of Device Clock at 3 GHz
TSU = 140 ps and TH =50 ps
NOTE: The numbers are from design simulations across process, voltage and temperature.
Characterization is ongoing The system must meet the SYSREF timing to achieve
deterministic latency from power up to power up and across devices. The device also offers
SYSREF internal delay programmability for any skew adjustment between SYSREF and
device clock introduced on the board.
50
CLKINP/M
V cm
50
Delay
SYSREFP/M
SYSREF
Capture
100
Figure 5. SYSREF Internal Programmable Delay
6
Implementing JESD204B SYSREF and Achieving Deterministic Latency With
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Can the Device Operate Without SYSREF (Subclass 0 Operation)?
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5
Can the Device Operate Without SYSREF (Subclass 0 Operation)?
The ADC32RF45 requires SYSREF to be established even before programming the device as it resets the
clock dividers and is needed to get a stable clock. The device offers JESD SUBCLASS 0 operation where
the external SYSREF can be replaced with a trigger based on SPI.
Sysref
0
JESD Sysref
Register reset (57h, 08h)
1
Input
Clock
divider
Mask (6900003Eh, 40h )
Select (57h, 10h)
Figure 6. SYSREF Duplication via SPI Writes
The following sequence can be used to operate the device in subclass 0 without using external SYSREF.
For details on specifics of SPI programming, please refer to datasheet.
1. Select manual SYSREF and pulse SYSREF ro reset the input clock divider (address, data).
• 12h,04h (Select Master page)
• 57h, 10h
• 57h, 18h
• 57h, 10h
2. Program the device. Source all the needed.defaults
3. Mask the SYSREF to input clock divider.
• 4001h, 00h
• 4002h, 00h
• 4003h, 00h
• 4004h, 69h
• 603Eh, 40h
4. Repeat Step 1, to reset JESD. Provide a reset to the LMFC counter.
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Conclusion
6
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Conclusion
It is imperative for engineers to have a thorough understanding of SYSREF signals for a converter with
JESD interface to bring up the device. This application note explains in detail the SYSREF parameters
needed to successfully design-in ADC32RF45 in a system
7
Reference
1. ADC32RF45 Dual-Channel, 14-Bit, 3.0-GSPS, Analog-to-Digital Converter (SBAS747)
2. ADC32RF45 EVM User Guide (SLAU620)
8
Implementing JESD204B SYSREF and Achieving Deterministic Latency With
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