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Texas Instruments Band-Pass Filter Design Techniques for High-Speed ADCs Application notes
Application Report
SBAA195 – February 2012
Band-Pass Filter Design Techniques for
High-Speed ADCs
Vinod Paliakara, Sourabh Gupta .......................................................... High-Performance Analog Products
ABSTRACT
Several well-known methods exist for designing passive inductor-capacitor (LC) filters with resistive load
terminations. However, when LC filters are used to drive the analog input pins of a high-speed analog-todigital converter (ADC), special consideration must be given to the ADC input impedance. Not accounting
for the ADC input impedance often results in a filter design that does not meet the original target
specifications. This discrepancy is especially true with wide bandwidth filter designs, which are becoming
increasingly common in wireless communication infrastructure applications.
This application note describes the methodology to absorb the ADC input impedance into the filter design
so that the original filter specifications are met up-front, resulting in a first-pass filter design.
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Contents
Introduction ..................................................................................................................
Step 1: Getting Key Filter Specifications .................................................................................
Step 2: Designing the Filter With a Resistive Load (Using Generic Tools) .........................................
Step 3: Designing the Filter with the ADC Input Model (Using the TI-TINA Tool) ..................................
Conclusion ...................................................................................................................
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3
3
5
9
List of Figures
1
Example Filter Response .................................................................................................. 2
2
Filter Specifications ......................................................................................................... 3
3
Filter Model .................................................................................................................. 3
4
Single-Ended and Differential Filters ..................................................................................... 5
5
Single-Ended and Differential ADC Models ............................................................................. 5
6
Capacitance vs Frequency
7
8
9
10
11
................................................................................................
Resistance vs Frequency ..................................................................................................
AC Analysis ..................................................................................................................
BPF Designed for 60-MHz Band at 184-MHz Center Frequency ....................................................
BPF with Modified Last Shunt Arm and ADC Load ....................................................................
Frequency Response With and Without ADC Load ....................................................................
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6
7
8
8
9
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Band-Pass Filter Design Techniques for High-Speed ADCs
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1
Introduction
1
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Introduction
The methodology for designing LC filters with resistive load terminations is quite well-known. However,
when LC filters are used to drive the analog input pins of a high-speed ADC, special consideration must
be given to the ADC input impedance. Not accounting for the ADC input impedance often results in a filter
design that does not meet the original target specifications.
In this following example, the requirement is to design a filter for driving the ADS41B49 analog inputs. The
target specifications for the filter are pass band = 60 MHz and center frequency = 184 MHz, with the passband ripple less than 0.5 dB.
The filter was designed using a commonly-available design tool using a resistive load. The filter frequency
response is shown in the Figure 1 and meets the target specifications. However, when the same filter is
connected to the ADS41B49 input pins, it is discovered that the frequency response has changed. The
pass-band ripple increases to 0.68 dB, and exceeds the target specification.
Figure 1. Example Filter Response
The following sections describe a methodology to design the filter while taking into account the effect of
ADC input impedance.
The procedure consists of the following steps:
• Step 1 and Step 2 consist of the filter design using conventional and well-known methods.
• Step 3 describes the modification required to include the effect of the ADC input impedance.
2
Band-Pass Filter Design Techniques for High-Speed ADCs
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Step 1: Getting Key Filter Specifications
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2
Step 1: Getting Key Filter Specifications
First, decide the main specifications of the filter:
• Width of the passband and center frequency
• Passband ripple
• Stop-band frequency and attenuation
• Source and load termination (determined by the driving amplifier and ADC termination requirements)
Filter Response
An example of filter specifications is shown in Figure 2.
Passband Ripple
Passband BW
Stop-Band Attenuation
fO
fSTOP
Frequency ®
Figure 2. Filter Specifications
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Step 2: Designing the Filter With a Resistive Load (Using Generic Tools)
Several filter design tools are available to design a filter for the given specifications. For example,
freeware tools such as AADE, RF Design, or Circuit Sage that are available on the internet. These tools
allow the user to choose the topology and the order of the filter that meets the required specifications. An
example filter model is shown in Figure 3.
RSOURCE
Filter
RLOAD
Figure 3. Filter Model
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Step 2: Designing the Filter With a Resistive Load (Using Generic Tools)
3.1
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Selecting Filter Topology
The user can choose from various filter topologies such as Butterworth, Chebyshev, or Elliptic.
Additionally, the structure of the filter must be decided (π-type or T-type). In most cases, the π-type
structure works best because the last shunt arm of the filter can be conveniently modified to absorb the
ADC input impedance model (as described in the following sections). TI high-speed ADC data sheets
(such as the ADS58C20, ADS41B49, and ADS61B49) provide an equivalent model of the ADC input
impedance.
For example:
• For the ADS41B49, a differential model is provided consisting of a combination of a shunt resistor and
a shunt capacitor.
• In the case of the ADS58C20, which provides the impedance as a series combination, it is easy to
derive an equivalent shunt combination.
Once the topology and structure is identified, the filter can be designed for the given load impedance and
other specifications using ideal components.
3.2
Designing the Filter
Using the above information, the filter tool creates a design that meets the desired specifications and also
provides the required values of the inductors and capacitors.
3.3
Redesigning the Filter with Non-ideal (Finite-Q) Inductors
The filter designed in the previous section uses ideal components and must be modified to account for
real-world components. In most cases, it is necessary to consider the effect of finite-Q inductors on the
frequency response of the filter. Q values can be obtained from the inductor manufacturer data sheet. All
inductors in the ideal design should be modified with the respective finite-Q values.
Rerun the tool to ensure that the design meets desired specifications, even with finite-Q.
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Step 3: Designing the Filter with the ADC Input Model (Using the TI-TINA Tool)
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4
Step 3: Designing the Filter with the ADC Input Model (Using the TI-TINA Tool)
4.1
Generating a Differential Filter Model
Most filter tools generate a single-ended circuit representation of the design, as shown in Figure 4a. This
representation should be converted into a differential network (as shown in Figure 4b), to enable
differential analysis.
L2
C2
L2
C2
RSOURCE
RSOURCE
L3
C1
L1
RLOAD SE
C3
C1
2
2 L1
C3
2
2 L3
(CSHUNT)
RSOURCE
C2
L2
a) Single-Ended Filter
2 RLOAD SE
(RLOAD)
b) Differential Equivalent Filter
Figure 4. Single-Ended and Differential Filters
Any single-ended structure in the ADC input impedance model (as shown in Figure 5a) must also be
converted to its equivalent differential value, as shown in Figure 5b. This conversion is required for
differential ac analysis using TI-TINA.
INP
LPKG
2 nH
CBOND
1 pF
INM
LPKG
2 nH
CBOND
1 pF
3 pF
5W
RESR
100 W
5 kW
10 W
5 kW
10 W
INP
LPKG
2 nH
CBOND
0.5 pF
RESR
200 W
3 pF
5W
INM
1.5 pF
5W
LPKG
2 nH
10 kW
20 W
5W
RESR
100 W
a) Single-Ended Model
b) Differential Model
Figure 5. Single-Ended and Differential ADC Models
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Step 3: Designing the Filter with the ADC Input Model (Using the TI-TINA Tool)
4.2
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Absorbing the ADC Impedance in the Filter Design
In the next step, the filter performance must be verified with the ADC input model. For this, it is necessary
to absorb the ADC equivalent input impedance in the last shunt arm of the filter.
The components used in the shunt arm can be modified using Equation 1 and Equation 2. This process is
described as:
• Replace RLOAD with RLOAD_NEW:
R - RLOAD
RLOAD_NEW = IN
´ RLOAD
RIN
(1)
• Modify CSHUNT of the filter to CSHUNT_NEW:
CSHUNT_NEW = CSHUNT - CIN
(2)
Where:
CIN is the equivalent ADC input capacitance between INP and INM at the passband center frequency
(from the CIN vs frequency curve, Figure 6).
Resistance
Capacitance
RIN is the equivalent ADC input resistance between INP and INM at the passband center frequency (from
the RIN vs frequency curve, Figure 7).
CIN
RIN
FO
Frequency
FO
Figure 6. Capacitance vs Frequency
Frequency
Figure 7. Resistance vs Frequency
6
Band-Pass Filter Design Techniques for High-Speed ADCs
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4.3
Step 3: Designing the Filter with the ADC Input Model (Using the TI-TINA Tool)
TI-TINA Setup
A TI-TINA project can be setup as shown in Figure 8. An ac analysis can be run to plot the filter transfer
function with the ADC load. Note that the filter output must be measured at the ADC input pins, INP and
INM (shown by the voltmeter Vadc_input in Figure 8). Set up the equation for the transfer function of the
filter using the node names for the input and output pins.
Figure 8. AC Analysis
Check the frequency response of the filter with the ADC load to see if it meets the target specifications.
Note that the last shunt arm of the filter must be modified using the value of the ADC equivalent capacitor
at the center frequency of the passband. Because of this modification, when the ac analysis is run over
the entire frequency range, some variation in the frequency response is expected when compared to the
case with the resistive load only. Verify if the achieved response meets the desired specifications.
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Step 3: Designing the Filter with the ADC Input Model (Using the TI-TINA Tool)
4.3.1
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Example Filter Design
Consider the following band-pass filter design as an example. This filter has a pass band of 60 MHz,
centered at 184 MHz with a pass-band ripple better than 0.5 dB. Using the filter design tool and following
the previously mentioned steps, we arrive at the band-pass filter (BPF) circuit shown in the TI-TINA
schematic of Figure 9.
Figure 9. BPF Designed for 60-MHz Band at 184-MHz Center Frequency
When the ADC load is connected, the transfer function of the filter gets modified. We can minimize the
effect of the ADC load by absorbing the ADC equivalent input resistance and capacitance in the last shunt
arm of the filter as shown in the TI-TINA schematic of Figure 10.
Figure 10. BPF with Modified Last Shunt Arm and ADC Load
8
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Conclusion
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To absorb ADC load impedance, the capacitance in the last shunt arm of the filter is modified to 11.4 pF
from the original value of 13.5 pF, using the value of the ADC equivalent capacitor (CIN) at the center
frequency of 184 MHz (which is 2.1 pF). Similarly, RLOAD is modified to 215 Ω from the original value of
200 Ω, using the ADC equivalent resistor (RIN) at the center frequency of 184 MHz (which is 3000 Ω). The
filter response with and without ADC load is shown in Figure 11.
Figure 11. Frequency Response With and Without ADC Load
The curve labeled Filter’s Response with Resistive Load is the filter response with no ADC load
connected. When the ADC load is connected, the filter response deviates from its designed value, and is
shown by the curve labeled as Filter’s Response with ADC Load (No modification in Filter Components).
After absorbing the ADC input impedance in the last shunt arm of the filter, its response becomes very
much similar to its designed value, as shown by the curve labeled Filter’s Response with ADC Load (Last
Arm Modified).
The last step is to replace the component values used in the filter with the standard values of the
capacitors and inductors. A parallel or series combination of standard components can be used to realize
the required values. Re-run the ac analysis with TI-TINA and make sure the final frequency response is
within the acceptable range of specifications.
5
Conclusion
Designing LC filters (that drive a high-speed ADC) without accounting for the ADC input impedance often
results in a design that does not meet the target specifications. In this application note, a methodology
was described to absorb the ADC input impedance into the filter design. The initial steps in the method
make use of existing well-known techniques for filter design with a resistive load. We then described how
to modify this filter design to absorb the ADC input impedance.
The final result is a design that meets the original specifications targeted for the filter when used with the
ADC. The steps outlined here allow users to come up with a nearly first-pass filter design by minimizing
iterations.
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