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Texas Instruments Using the ADS7841 and ADS7844 with 15-Clock Cycles Application notes
Application Report
SLAA256 – August 2005
Using the ADS7841 and ADS7844 With 15-Clock Cycles
Tom Hendrick................................................................................................ Data Acquisition Products
ABSTRACT
This application report presents an analysis on the use of the 15-clock cycle method of
operation for the ADS7841 and ADS7844 described in their respective data sheets.
The advent of commercially available processors such as the TMS470 no longer
restricts users from implementing the 15-clock cycle method with simple
microprocessors. This method, however, does present some challenges to the software
interface which is explored in this application report.
1
2
3
Contents
Introduction .......................................................................................... 1
TMS470 and TMS320x28xx Processors ........................................................ 1
References .......................................................................................... 3
List of Figures
1
2
1
Typical 15-Cycle Interface ......................................................................... 2
Short Cycled LSB ................................................................................... 2
Introduction
The serial peripheral interface (SPI) from Motorola began as a simple, fixed 8-bit transfer between master
and slave devices on a common databus. Over the years, the interface has expanded with new processor
development to allow the user to increase the number of clock cycles the master device could transmit.
This typically added clock cycles in 4- or 8-bit increments allowing the master to issue 8, 12, 16, 20, etc.
clocks per communication cycle.
The data sheets for both the ADS7841 and ADS7844 (12 bit, 4 and 8 channels with SPI control) describe
the fastest way to clock data by using only 15 clocks per conversion cycle. The data sheets also suggest
that this method is not possible with most microprocessors and is limited to field programmable gate
arrays (FPGA) or application specific integrated circuits (ASIC).
2
TMS470 and TMS320x28xx Processors
The TMS470 series of microprocessors as well as the TMS320 28xx series of DSPs have implemented an
SPI interface that allows the user to choose from 1 to 16 clocks per communication cycle. With such
flexibility in the SPI interface, it is no longer appropriate to say that users must implement an FPGA or
ASIC in order to use the ADS7841 or ADS7844 devices in the 15-clock cycle mode.
2.1
15 Clocks per Conversion
The 15-clocks-per-conversion method of interfacing the ADS784x devices does increase the effective
throughput rate as mentioned in the data sheets. Running the devices at the 3.2-MHz serial clock speed
shown in the specification tables boosts the throughput from [(1/3.2 MHz) × 16 clocks = 5 µS = 200 KSPS]
to [(1/3.2 MHz) × 15 clocks = 4.68 µS = 213.6 KSPS].
SLAA256 – August 2005
Using the ADS7841 and ADS7844 With 15-Clock Cycles
1
www.ti.com
TMS470 and TMS320x28xx Processors
The actual throughput, however, also depends on the time between data transfers initiated by the master
SPI controller which typically runs in a burst clock fashion. The DSP can somewhat control the latency
between data transfers by using programmable delay time, FIFO transfers, etc., but the user should still
expect to see something slightly under 200 KSPS in the final application using a microprocessor.
2.2
Software Manipulation With an SPI Interface
The software associated with running an SPI interface often requires some manner of data manipulation in
the processor. The sequence is started when the master transmits a START bit in the MSB position of the
input data byte as shown in Figure 1.
CS
First SPI Transfer
Second SPI Transfer
DCLK
1
DIN
S
15
A2
A1
SGL/
A0 MODE DIF PD1 PD0
1
15
S
A2
A1
5
4
3
1
SGL/
A0 MODE DIF PD1 PD0
S
A2
A1
A0
5
4
3
2
BUSY
DOUT
10
11
9
8
7
6
2
1
0
11
10
9
8
7
6
Figure 1. Typical 15-Cycle Interface
Because the data transfer to and from the data converter happens simultaneously, the host begins looking
for the MSB of the conversion results on the same edges associated with the START bit. As shown in
Figure 1, the MSB of the first set of conversion results is available on the 10th rising clock edge. To further
complicate things, the second SPI cycle which begins conversion sequence 2 starts off reading bit 5 of the
previous conversion cycle results. To effectively use the conversion data, the host must be able to shift
and re-assemble the received data.
2.3
Accuracy versus Resolution
The 15-clocks-per-conversion method presents an additional caveat in regards to the 12-bit ADS7841 and
ADS7844 devices.
CS
tACQ
tACQ
DCLK
1
DIN
S
15
A2
A1
A0
SGL/
MODE DIF
PD1 PD0
1
S
A2
A1
A0
MODE
5
4
3
2
1
SGL/
DIF
PD1 PD0
BUSY
DOUT
11
10
9
8
7
6
11
Figure 2. Short Cycled LSB
Both the ADS7841 and ADS7844 devices begin converting the acquired data during the period where the
BUSY indicator goes high (see Figure 2). During the clock cycle when BUSY is active, the MSB is being
converted with each subsequent bit converted during the next clock period. The actual data output shift,
however, is one cycle delayed. In other words, the MSB is converted on cycle 9 and presented on cycle
10.
The data acquisition phase (opening of the sample/hold switches) begins after the reception of the MODE
bit. On the falling edge of clock 5, the device internally forces the D0 output bit to a high state after a delay
of approximately 200 ns. The result is the appearance of a runt bit which typically is missed by the host
processor, because its duration is significantly less than ½ clock cycle. The received data is therefore 12
bits accurate, but with only 11 bits of resolution. The LSB is essentially lost to the host processor.
2
Using the ADS7841 and ADS7844 With 15-Clock Cycles
SLAA256 – August 2005
www.ti.com
References
2.4
Conclusion
The 15-clocks-per-conversion method of using the ADS7841 and ADS7844 devices is a viable option
when used with the SPI ports of TMS470 or TMS320x280x or 281x processors without the need to add
expensive ASICs or complicated FPGAs. The drawbacks with this method include the loss of the LSB
data, which ultimately reduces the overall accuracy of the system.
3
References
1. TMS470R1x Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) Reference Guide (SPNU195)
2. TMS320x281x, 280x DSP Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) Reference Guide (SPRU059)
3. ADS7841, 12-Bit, 4-Channel Serial Output Sampling Analog-to-Digital Converter data sheet
(SBAS084)
4. ADS7844, 12-Bit, 8-Channel Serial Output Sampling Analog-To-Digital Converter data sheet
(SBAS100)
SLAA256 – August 2005
Using the ADS7841 and ADS7844 With 15-Clock Cycles
3
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