Application Report SNVA112A – July 2005 – Revised May 2013 AN-1378 Method for Calculating Output Voltage Tolerances in Adjustable Regulators ..................................................................................................................................................... ABSTRACT When working with voltage regulator circuits, the designer is often confronted with the need to calculate the tolerance of the regulated output voltage. For fixed voltage regulators, this problem is easily managed because the required information is directly supplied on the semiconductor manufacturer’s data sheet. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Contents Introduction .................................................................................................................. 2 The Commonly Encountered Circuits .................................................................................... 2 The Worst Case Approach ................................................................................................ 2 Sensitivity Analysis ......................................................................................................... 3 Review of Random Variable Mathematics ............................................................................... 4 Statistical Variation of Resistors, Semiconductors, and Systems .................................................... 4 The RSS Method ............................................................................................................ 6 Random Variable Theory vs. Worst Case Over PVT .................................................................. 6 Errors Caused by Adjust Pin Current ..................................................................................... 8 Conclusion ................................................................................................................... 9 References ................................................................................................................. 10 1 Ground Referenced ......................................................................................................... 2 2 Not Ground Referenced .................................................................................................... 2 3 Adjustable Regulators: Common Topologies List of Figures 4 5 6 7 8 9 ........................................................................... – Sensitivity to Resistor Variations vs.Vout ............................................................................... Typical Vref Variation ........................................................................................................ Typical Resistor Variation: 1% General Purpose 0805 SMD ......................................................... Ground Referenced ......................................................................................................... Not Ground Referenced .................................................................................................... Adjust Pin Currents (Arrow Indicates Actual Direction of Current Flow) ............................................. 2 4 5 5 8 8 9 List of Tables 1 2 3 4 5 ................................................. Gaussian Random Variable Operations ................................................................................. Partial Derivatives of Equation 1 .......................................................................................... Equivalent Six Sigma Output Tolerance for Vout [%] for Common Vout’s (Vref = 1.275 V) ........................... Largest Sensible Values of R2 for Various Iadj and Vout ................................................................ Values of Worst Case Error [%] for Common Vout’s (Vref = 1.275 V) 3 6 7 8 9 All trademarks are the property of their respective owners. SNVA112A – July 2005 – Revised May 2013 Submit Documentation Feedback AN-1378 Method for Calculating Output Voltage Tolerances in Adjustable Regulators Copyright © 2005–2013, Texas Instruments Incorporated 1 Introduction 1 www.ti.com Introduction The tolerancing of adjustable regulators can be more complicated because of the introduction of an external feedback resistor network, effects of adjust pin current, and the difficulties associated with combining these terms to obtain an overall estimate of output voltage tolerance. Traditional “worst case” analysis methods, although valid, result in unrealistic and excessively conservative estimates of the total tolerances leading to unnecessary added circuit costs. Reduced voltages for modern microprocessors are further increasing the demands on available voltage tolerances. As such, a more detailed understanding of the tolerancing problem is needed. 2 The Commonly Encountered Circuits The most commonly encountered adjustable regulator circuits are shown in Figure 2. Circuits and the statistical effects on Vout that are caused by variations in R1, R2, and Vadj will be examined. Be aware that regulators without ground pins (the LM317 and LM1117 for example) have the same mathematical relationship between Vout and Vadj, however, Vref is referenced to ground in one case and to the output pin the other. Reversing the positions of R1 and R2 makes the mathematical relationship for both circuits identical (see Equation 1). Be aware that many data sheets are not consistent in the identification of R1 and R2, which further compounds confusion regarding the correct relationship. For the circuits in Figure 2, Vout is related to Vref: Vout = Vref x R 1 + R2 R1 (1) LM1117-ADJ LM2941 VIN IN OUT VOUT VIN VIN VOUT ADJ GND ADJ R2 CIN 470 nF + COUT 22 PF VREF VOUT VREF R1 10 PF 100 PF R1 Figure 1. Ground Referenced R2 Figure 2. Not Ground Referenced Figure 3. Adjustable Regulators: Common Topologies 3 The Worst Case Approach The overly conservative approach to this problem is to take the known relationship between reference voltage tolerances and output voltage and calculate the worst case output voltage that can occur in the unlikely case that all tolerances are simultaneously at their worst case extremes. Remember that exact values for the desired R1 and R2 may not be available so an additional, but static, voltage error may have to be tolerated. Equation 2 and Equation 3 are commonly applied using plus and minus 1% for values of Rmin and Rmax. The drawback of this approach is that it results in excessively conservative tolerance limits. This is especially true since Vref, R1, and R2 are uncorrelated random variables. Results for the worst case approach are tabulated in Table 1. The minimum and maximum deviations are not exactly symmetric so only the worst case is tabulated. The worst case always occurs on the maximum side. Centering of the nominal value at the actual mean can take advantage of this fact and gain a small improvement in worst case tolerancing. 2 AN-1378 Method for Calculating Output Voltage Tolerances in Adjustable Regulators Copyright © 2005–2013, Texas Instruments Incorporated SNVA112A – July 2005 – Revised May 2013 Submit Documentation Feedback Sensitivity Analysis www.ti.com R1_min + R2_max Vout_max = Vref_max x R1_min (2) R1_max + R2_min Vout_min = Vref_min x R1_max (3) Table 1. Values of Worst Case Error [%] for Common Vout’s (Vref = 1.275 V) VOUT = 1.8 V VOUT = 2.5 V Resistor Tolerance Resistor Tolerance 0.5% 1% 5% 0.5% ΔVref [%] ΔVout [%] ΔVout [%] ΔVout [%] 1% 5% ΔVref [%] ΔVout [%] ΔVout [%] ΔVout [%] ± 0.5 0.82 1.14 ± 1.0 1.32 1.65 3.85 ± 0.5 1.01 1.53 5.87 4.37 ± 1.0 1.52 2.04 ± 2.0 2.32 6.40 2.65 5.40 ± 2.0 2.52 3.05 ± 5.0 5.33 7.45 5.67 8.50 ± 5.0 5.54 6.08 10.61 VOUT = 3.3 V VOUT = 5.0 V Resistor Tolerance Resistor Tolerance 0.5% 1% 5% 0.5% 1% 5% ΔVref [%] ΔVout [%] ΔVout [%] ΔVout [%] ± 0.5 1.13 1.77 7.14 ΔVref [%] ΔVout [%] ΔVout [%] ΔVout [%] ± 0.5 1.26 2.03 ± 1.0 1.64 2.28 8.48 7.67 ± 1.0 1.77 2.54 9.02 ± 2.0 2.64 ± 5.0 2.64 3.29 8.73 ± 2.0 2.77 3.55 10.10 6.33 11.93 ± 5.0 5.80 6.60 13.33 VOUT = 12 V VOUT = 15 V Resistor Tolerance 4 Resistor Tolerance 0.5% 1% 5% 0.5% 1% 5% ΔVref [%] ΔVout [%] ΔVout [%] ΔVout [%] ΔVref [%] ΔVout [%] ΔVout [%] ΔVout [%] ± 0.5 1.41 2.32 9.99 ± 0.5 1.43 2.36 10.21 ± 1.0 1.91 2.83 10.54 ± 1.0 1.93 2.87 10.76 ± 2.0 2.92 3.85 11.64 ± 2.0 2.94 3.89 11.86 ± 5.0 5.95 6.90 14.92 ± 5.0 5.97 6.95 15.15 Sensitivity Analysis So how do small changes in R1, R2, and Vout translate to the output voltage? Sensitivity analysis reveals the underlying nature of the circuit. Taking the partial derivatives of Equation 1 with respect to each of its variables lets us calculate the sensitivity of Vout to small changes in each variable. This is done by dividing the partial derviatives by Vout, then substituting Equation 1 back into the equation, and finally solving for the fractional change of Vout with respect to the fractional change in each of the three variables: GVout Vout GVout Vout GVout Vout =1 = = § GVref · © Vref ¹ therefore: R1 + R 2 § GR1 · © R1 ¹ R2 GR2 R1 + R2 R2 - R2 S Vout =1 Vref therefore: (4) - R2 S Vout = R1 R1 + R2 (5) R2 therefore: SNVA112A – July 2005 – Revised May 2013 Submit Documentation Feedback S Vout = R2 R1 + R2 AN-1378 Method for Calculating Output Voltage Tolerances in Adjustable Regulators Copyright © 2005–2013, Texas Instruments Incorporated (6) 3 Review of Random Variable Mathematics www.ti.com The result from Equation 4 is obvious. That is, variation in Vref translate directly to variations in Vout. Equation 5 and Equation 6 are a bit more interesting. These show that variations in the voltage setting resistors R1 and R2 will translate to the output with a sensitivity ranging from zero to one. The highest sensitivity to resistor variation occurs when output voltages are high and lowest when the output voltage equals the reference voltage (Figure 4). 1 0.8 R2 0.6 SENSITIVITY 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 Vref R1 -0.8 -1 0 2.5 5 7.5 10 12.5 15 17.5 20 VOUT Figure 4. – Sensitivity to Resistor Variations vs.Vout 5 Review of Random Variable Mathematics A few glances at Table 1 and it becomes clear that, for adjustable regulators, the worst case deviations of Vout can be quite large. For example, look at the case where Vout = 3.3 V, ΔVref = ±1%, and ΔR = ±1%. For this case, the total output worst case error could be as high as ΔVout = ±2.28%! We can show that this number, although conservative, is a gross exaggeration of the true variation in Vout. This is because Vref, R1, and R2 are all independent random variables. Some argue that R1 and R2 may not be independent random variables. This is especially true if they are fed from the same reel or supply bin. There is some truth to this, however, R1 and R2 are rarely the same value and even if they are, their sensitivities (see Equation 5 and Equation 6) have equal magnitudes and opposite polarities so any correlation would tend to cancel rather than add! 6 Statistical Variation of Resistors, Semiconductors, and Systems To calculate actual variation, you will need to make some assumptions about the statistics of Vref and the resistors you buy. This information may be available from the vendor, however, in many cases, the vendor may be reluctant to release this data. For fundamental electronic components like resistors it is reasonable to assume that these are produced under a “six sigma” paradigm and have Gaussian variation. Variations in Vref are also approximately Gaussian (Figure 5). Distribution data for a typical linear regulator is shown in Figure 5 and has variation against room temperature specifications on the order of ±6σ. Variation against the full temperature range specification is even more impressive and can be as high as ±10σ (to accommodate variations with temperature). Because components like regulators and chip resistors are made in very high volumes, tight process control is no less than mandatory. 4 AN-1378 Method for Calculating Output Voltage Tolerances in Adjustable Regulators Copyright © 2005–2013, Texas Instruments Incorporated SNVA112A – July 2005 – Revised May 2013 Submit Documentation Feedback Statistical Variation of Resistors, Semiconductors, and Systems www.ti.com 14 RELATIVE FREQUENCY (%) 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 1.24 1.25 1.26 1.27 1.28 1.29 1.30 1.31 1.32 MEASURED VREF (V) Figure 5. Typical Vref Variation A similar histogram supporting our assumption for 0805 general purpose surface mount resistors is shown in Figure 6. The nominal value for a 1% resistor is shown here controlled to greater than ±6σ and is also approximately Gaussian. RELATIVE FREQUENCY (%) 24 20 16 12 8 4 0 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 MEASURED RESISTANCE (:) Figure 6. Typical Resistor Variation: 1% General Purpose 0805 SMD NOTE: Figure 5 and Figure 6 are presented to support the assumption that Vref and the voltage setting resistors are Gaussian and have variations on the order of six sigma or better. SNVA112A – July 2005 – Revised May 2013 Submit Documentation Feedback AN-1378 Method for Calculating Output Voltage Tolerances in Adjustable Regulators Copyright © 2005–2013, Texas Instruments Incorporated 5 The RSS Method 7 www.ti.com The RSS Method The RSS (root sum squares) method is only valid for the case when independent Gaussian random variables are combined as sums. Since Equation 1 contains products, quotients and sums of random variables, this method is not valid for Equation 1. 8 Random Variable Theory vs. Worst Case Over PVT In the worst case method, you saw that total output voltage tolerances could be substantially larger than expected (Table 1). Is it realistic to use these limits? Random variable theory can be used to show that these excessive limits are not necessary. In particular, the concept of “worst case” is not exactly appropriate when dealing with random processes where there is always a (very small) probability that a sample could fall outside of the worst case limits. Rather than look at worst case limits, it is more appropriate to look at the equivalent ±6σ points for the regulator’s output voltage. For this purpose, look again at the output voltage equation. Vout = Vref x R 1 + R2 R1 (7) Be reminded that Vref, R1, and R2 are all independent random variables. As such, Vout is a function of three random variables. To complicate matters, summation, multiplication, and division are all involved. Although summation of two Gaussian random variables produces a Gaussian result, this is not the case for multiplication or division. As such, the true distribution of Vout could be quite complicated. Fortunately, approximations exist for calculating the mean value and deviation for sums, products, and quotients. These approximations are especially accurate for the case where V(x) << E(x), which is the case for linear regulators and resistors. In particular, consider these relationships: E(x) = mean(x) V(x) = variance(x) = σ2 For uncorrelated Gaussian random variables, the following relationships apply: Table 2. Gaussian Random Variable Operations Operation Mean and Variance SUM Resulting Distribution E(x + y) = E(x) + E(y) Gaussian V(x + y) = V(x) + V(y) PRODUCT E(x• y) = E(x) • E(y) Gaussian and Modified Bessel V(x• y) = E(x)2 x V(y) + E(y)2 x V(x) + V(x) x V(y) QUOTIENT x E y V x y E(x) | E(y) + | Cauchy for zero mean x and y E(x) x V(y) 3 E(y) (8) 2 V(y) E(x) V(x) x + 2 E(y) E(x)2 E(y) (9) Notice that the resulting distribution after these operations is not always Gaussian. It is possible to calculate the distribution function for the resulting random variable, however, this is quite complicated and unnecessary since you are only interested in the mean and variance of the result. Since V(x) << E(x), the resulting distribution will somewhat resemble a Gaussian distribution so our Gaussian based SPC (Statistical Process Control) concepts will still be valid. Since Equation 1 involves a sum, product, and quotient, you cannot use the relationships above; instead, you must calculate a specific approximating equation for E(Vout) and V(Vout) using these relationships. 2 E(Vout) | Vout + V(Vout) | V[R1] x 6 2 G Vout 1 G Vout 1 G2Vout 1 x V[V ] x x V[R1] x + x V[R ] x + ref 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 GR2 GVref GR1 GVout GR1 2 2 + V[R2] x GVout GVout + V[Vref] x GR2 GVref (10) 2 AN-1378 Method for Calculating Output Voltage Tolerances in Adjustable Regulators Copyright © 2005–2013, Texas Instruments Incorporated (11) SNVA112A – July 2005 – Revised May 2013 Submit Documentation Feedback Random Variable Theory vs. Worst Case Over PVT www.ti.com Equation 10 and Equation 11 originate from Taylor series expansion (see Mood, Graybill, and Boes). Notice that the expected value for Vout will be slightly different than the simple value calculated in Equation 1. The third and fourth terms in Equation 10 are zero. However, there is a very small positive error caused by the second term, which is not exactly zero. Since you are working with six sigma processes, it is easy to show that this second term is virtually zero and the expected value of Vout is essentially as calculated with Equation 1. To evaluate Equation 10 and Equation 11, you will need the following 'Partial Derivatives of Equation 1' as shown in Table 3. Table 3. Partial Derivatives of Equation 1 GVout GR1 R2 = - G2Vout GR12 2 R1 GR2 (12) 2 x R2 = GVout x Vref 3 = 1 R1 GVout x Vref (13) GR2 R1 2 R 1 + R2 = R1 (14) G2Vout G2Vout x Vref GVref =0 (16) (15) GVref2 =0 (17) Substituting into Equation 10 and Equation 11: E(Vout) ≊ Vout + V[R1] x R2 / R13 x Vref V(Vout) | V[R1] x R2 2 R1 2 x Vref + V[R2] x (18) Vref R1 2 + V[Vref] x R1 + R2 2 R1 (19) Using Equation 19, the six-sigma based error for common Vout’s is tabulated in Table 4. Notice that the results using this method are far more practical than those obtained with the worst case method and a six sigma paradigm is still assured for the resulting output voltage. Values for E(Vout) are not tabulated because the difference from the calculated value of Vout is very small. The worst case for this error occurs at high output voltages. For example, with VOUT = 15 V, R1 = 10 kΩ, R2 = 107 kΩ, and VREF = 1.275 V the expected value of the output voltage will only be 40 µV higher than predicted with Equation 1. This is an error of only 0.000254%. As such, this error predicted by Equation 18 is ignored. SNVA112A – July 2005 – Revised May 2013 Submit Documentation Feedback AN-1378 Method for Calculating Output Voltage Tolerances in Adjustable Regulators Copyright © 2005–2013, Texas Instruments Incorporated 7 Errors Caused by Adjust Pin Current www.ti.com Table 4. Equivalent Six Sigma Output Tolerance for Vout [%] for Common Vout’s (Vref = 1.275 V) Vout = 1.8 V Vout = 2.5 V Resistor Tolerance Resistor Tolerance 0.5% 1% 5% 0.5% 1% 5% ΔVref [%] ΔVout [%] ΔVout [%] ΔVout [%] ± 0.5 0.54 0.65 2.12 ΔVref [%] ΔVout [%] ΔVout [%] ΔVout [%] ± 0.5 0.61 0.85 ± 1.0 1.02 1.08 3.50 2.29 ± 1.0 1.06 1.22 3.61 ± 2.0 2.01 ± 5.0 5.00 2.04 2.87 ± 2.0 2.03 2.12 4.00 5.02 5.41 ± 5.0 5.01 5.05 6.08 VOUT = 3.3 V VOUT = 5.0 V Resistor Tolerance Resistor Tolerance 0.5% 1% 5% 0.5% ΔVref [%] ΔVout [%] ΔVout [%] ΔVout [%] 1% 5% ΔVref [%] ΔVout [%] ΔVout [%] ΔVout [%] ± 0.5 0.66 1.00 4.37 ± 0.5 0.73 1.17 5.29 ± 1.0 1.09 ± 2.0 2.05 1.32 4.45 ± 1.0 1.13 1.45 5.36 2.18 4.78 ± 2.0 2.07 2.26 ± 5.0 5.02 5.63 5.07 6.62 ± 5.0 5.03 5.11 7.26 VOUT = 12 V VoutOUT = 15 V Resistor Tolerance 9 Resistor Tolerance 0.5% 1% 5% 0.5% 1% 5% ΔVref [%] ΔVout [%] ΔVout [%] ΔVout [%] ± 0.5 0.81 1.36 6.34 ΔVref [%] ΔVout [%] ΔVout [%] ΔVout [%] ± 0.5 0.82 1.39 ± 1.0 1.18 1.61 6.49 6.40 ± 1.0 1.19 1.64 ± 2.0 2.10 6.55 2.37 6.63 ± 2.0 2.10 2.38 6.77 ± 5.0 5.04 5.16 8.06 ± 5.0 5.04 5.16 8.18 Errors Caused by Adjust Pin Current For all adjustable regulators, there is always a small amount of current that flows at the adjust pin. Ideally, this current would be zero. For many parts, this current is very low and is not specified. For a bipolar part like the LM1117-ADJ, the adjust pin current is typically 60 µA. For the LM2941 it is about 5 µA. For CMOS regulators, the adjust pin current is much less of a concern and is usually 100 nA or less. Equation 1 can be modified to include the effects of the unwanted adjust pin current. Vout = Vref x R 1 + R2 R1 + Iadj x R2 (20) Equation 20 applies to both circuits. For both circuits, the polarity of Iadj is positive, however, the direction of flow is as defined in Figure 8. Again be reminded that the location of R1, R2 and the Vref is different for the two circuits, however, the resulting Equation 20 is the same. For both circuits, the adjust pin current will cause positive errors in Vout. If the polarity of the adjust pin current is in question, some data sheets contain a transistor level “equivalent circuit diagram.” The actual bias current polarity can usually be determined from the equivalent circuit diagram by examining the polarity of the transistor junction at the adjust pin. Depending upon how much adjust pin current error is tolerable, it is possible to calculate the largest sensible value for R2 (Equation 21 and Table 5). R2_MAX = % Error Vout x Iadj 100 (21) For most circuits, a small value for R2 is not a problem. For battery powered circuits, the wasted current flowing through feedback resistors R1 and R2 may become an issue. If this is the case then it will be desirable to select the largest reasonable value for R2. 8 AN-1378 Method for Calculating Output Voltage Tolerances in Adjustable Regulators Copyright © 2005–2013, Texas Instruments Incorporated SNVA112A – July 2005 – Revised May 2013 Submit Documentation Feedback Conclusion www.ti.com LM2941 VIN IN LM1117-ADJ OUT VIN VOUT VIN VOUT ADJ GND ADJ R2 IADJ CIN 470 nF + COUT VOUT VREF R1 10 PF 22 PF 100 PF IADJ VREF R1 R2 Figure 7. Ground Referenced Figure 8. Not Ground Referenced Figure 9. Adjust Pin Currents (Arrow Indicates Actual Direction of Current Flow) Table 5. Largest Sensible Values of R2 for Various Iadj and Vout For No More Than 0.1% Additional Error Select R2 Less Than: VOUT Iadj (µA) 1.8 V 2.5 V 3.3 V 5.0 V 0.01 180 kΩ 250 kΩ 330 kΩ 500 kΩ 12.0 V 1.2 MΩ 15.0 V (1) 1.5 MΩ (1) 0.1 18 kΩ 25 kΩ 33 kΩ 50 kΩ 120 kΩ 1 1.8 kΩ 2.5 kΩ 3.3 kΩ 5 kΩ 12 kΩ 150 kΩ 15 kΩ 10 180 Ω 250 Ω 330 Ω 500 Ω 1.2 kΩ 1.5 kΩ 12.0 V 15.0 V For No More Than 0.5% Additional Error Select R2 Less Than: VOUT Iadj (µA) 1.8 V 2.5 V 3.3 V 1.25 MΩ (1) 5.0 V 1.65 MΩ (1) 2.5 MΩ 6.0 MΩ (1) 7.5 MΩ (1) 0.01 900 kΩ 0.1 90 kΩ 125 kΩ 165 kΩ 250 kΩ 600 kΩ 1 9 kΩ 12.5 kΩ 16.5 kΩ 25 kΩ 60 kΩ 75 kΩ 10 900 Ω 1.25 kΩ 1.65 kΩ 2.5 kΩ 6 kΩ 7.5 kΩ 750 kΩ For No More Than 1% Additional Error Select R2 Less Than: VOUT Iadj (µA) 0.01 (1) 10 1.8 V 1.8 MΩ 2.5 V (1) 2.5 MΩ 3.3 V (1) 3.3 MΩ 5.0 V (1) 5.0 MΩ 12.0 V (1) 15.0 MΩ (1) (1) 1.5 MΩ 12.0 MΩ 1.2 MΩ 15.0 V (1) (1) 0.1 180 kΩ 250 kΩ 330 kΩ 500 kΩ 1 18 kΩ 25 kΩ 33 kΩ 50 kΩ 120 kΩ 150 kΩ 10 1.8 kΩ 2.5 kΩ 3.3 kΩ 5 kΩ 12 kΩ 15 kΩ Values of R2 greater than 1 MΩ may be inappropriate because of the difficultly associated with maintaining high impedances with surface mount resistors. In particular, ionic PC board contaminants may limit the highest attainable on-board resistance figures that can be reliably maintained. Conclusion The presented method for calculating voltage tolerances in adjustable regulators results in substantial improvements in the available output voltage tolerance while maintaining tight process control and a six sigma paradigm. Complete understanding of the commonly used methods for combining tolerances and sources of error is the only way to get the most from any design. SNVA112A – July 2005 – Revised May 2013 Submit Documentation Feedback AN-1378 Method for Calculating Output Voltage Tolerances in Adjustable Regulators Copyright © 2005–2013, Texas Instruments Incorporated 9 References 11 References • • • • 10 www.ti.com Mood, Alexander McFarlane, Franklin A. Graybill, and Duane C. Boes, Introduction to the Theory of Statistics. n.p.: McGraw-Hill, 1974. Mathword, Continuous Distributions, 2005, http://mathworld.wolfram.com/topics/ContinuousDistributions.html. Cooper, George R. and Clare D. McGillem, Probabilistic Methods of Signal and System Analysis. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1971. Papoulis, Athanasios. Probability, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes. New York: McGrawHill, Inc., 1991. AN-1378 Method for Calculating Output Voltage Tolerances in Adjustable Regulators Copyright © 2005–2013, Texas Instruments Incorporated SNVA112A – July 2005 – Revised May 2013 Submit Documentation Feedback IMPORTANT NOTICE Texas Instruments Incorporated and its subsidiaries (TI) reserve the right to make corrections, enhancements, improvements and other changes to its semiconductor products and services per JESD46, latest issue, and to discontinue any product or service per JESD48, latest issue. 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