Texas Instruments | Operating RS-485 transceivers at fast signaling rates (Rev. A) | Application notes | Texas Instruments Operating RS-485 transceivers at fast signaling rates (Rev. A) Application notes

Texas Instruments Operating RS-485 transceivers at fast signaling rates (Rev. A) Application notes
Application Report
SLLA173A – November 2004 – Revised February 2019
Operating RS-485 transceivers at fast signaling rates
Clark Kinnaird
ABSTRACT
The TIA/EIA-485-A standard specifies characteristics for RS-485 signaling. Most applications operate
below 10 Mbps but it is often possible to signal at higher rates. This application report examines the
constraints on high-speed signaling and presents results using the SN65HVD10 transceiver as one
example transceiver. Our method is to measure the eye patterns at the end of a 10-m cable under varying
conditions. Signaling at rates up to 100 Mbps is demonstrated under limited circumstances. Signaling at
40 Mbps is possible with the SN65HVD05; eye patterns show how jitter increases for various lengths of
cable.
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Contents
Introduction ................................................................................................................... 2
Receiver operation at fast signaling rates ................................................................................ 2
Driver operation at fast signaling rates.................................................................................... 4
Eye-pattern data – HVD10 transceiver only (no cable effects) ........................................................ 6
Effects of cable on the differential signal ................................................................................. 7
Results with a typical data transmission system......................................................................... 9
Thermal considerations .................................................................................................... 11
Summary .................................................................................................................... 12
References .................................................................................................................. 12
List of Figures
1
HVD10 receiver operation at 50 Mbps, with less than 200-mV differential input.................................... 3
2
Receiver operation at 50 Mbps with VID = 1 V, giving little pulse-width distortion ................................... 3
3
HVD10 receiver operating at 100 Mbps, with 1-V input amplitude .................................................... 4
4
Temperature variation of typical HVD10 driver rise and fall times .................................................... 5
5
HVD10 driver operating at 100 Mbps with load of 50 W and 50 pF .................................................. 5
6
HVD driver and receiver operating at 50 Mbps .......................................................................... 6
7
HVD driver and receiver operating at 100 Mbps
8
Eye pattern of the HVD10 driver and receiver With 50-Mbps data
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10
11
12
13
14
15
........................................................................ 6
................................................... 7
Eye pattern of the HVD10 driver and receiver With 100-Mbps data .................................................. 7
Attenuation of the 50-Mbps HVD10 driver output across a 10-meter cable ......................................... 8
Detail of the attenuation of 100-Mbps HVD10 driver output signal across a 10-meter length of CAT-5 cable .. 8
Data transmission chain .................................................................................................... 9
Data Transmission of 50-Mbps square wave across a 10-meter CAT-5 cable...................................... 9
Data transmission of 100-Mbps square wave across a 10-Meter CAT-5 cable ................................... 10
Eye pattern of HVD10 data transmission across 10-Meter CAT-5 cable With 50-Mbps signaling rate ......... 10
List of Tables
1
Different Temperature Grades ............................................................................................. 4
2
Summary of jitter vs signaling rate and cable length.................................................................... 9
3
Power Dissipation Comparisons
.........................................................................................
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1
Introduction
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1
Introduction
The data sheets for some of Texas Instruments RS-485 transceivers specify signaling rates up to 30
Mbps. This is over all recommended operating conditions and with full compliance to the provisions of the
ANSI/TIA/EIA-485-A standard.
Many applications do not require specification to all worst-case conditions of temperature, cable distance,
power supply variation, etc. For these applications, it is often possible to signal at faster rates. This
application report examines the constraints on high-speed signaling and demonstrates operation at
speeds of 50 Mbps and faster.
The SN65HVD10 transceiver (hereafter referred to as the HVD10) is used as an example, but the basic
discussions are valid for any of Texas Instruments RS-485 transceivers and line driver/line receiver
circuits.
NOTE: Several of Texas Instruments RS-485 devices include a feature which intentionally limits the
driver slew rate. Although the basic discussions are still valid for these devices, drivers with
slew-rate limiting are optimized for slower signaling rates.
The principal requirements for an RS-485 transceiver to operate at fast signaling rates are that the
receiver must accurately detect valid signal levels on the bus, and the driver must successfully generate
valid bus states. Another concern at fast signaling rates is that the transceiver dissipates more power than
at slower rates.
2
Receiver operation at fast signaling rates
The ANSI/TIA/EIA-485-A standard requires a receiver to detect any differential bus voltage (VA- VB) with
amplitude of greater than 200 mV as a valid data state. Therefore, the worst-case input for a receiver has
amplitude of only 200 mV.
Figure 1 shows the HVD10 receiver detecting a differential bus signal with zero-to-peak amplitude of 1 V
and a rate of 50 Mbps. Because this larger signal quickly transitions through the threshold region, the
effect of the threshold offset is much less significant, and the pulse-width distortion is negligible.
NOTE: All the following oscilloscope plots were taken at room temperature with VCC set to 3.3 V.
The signal frequency is 25 MHz, corresponding to a signaling rate of 50 Mbps. Although the HVD10
receiver output is changing state correctly in response to the bus signal, there is significant pulse-width
distortion due to the offset in the HVD10 receiver thresholds. That is, the passive fail-safe feature requires
that a 0-mV differential signal be detected as a known state. Therefore, the receiver thresholds (VIT+ and
VIT-) for the HVD10 are centered on –105 mV. Because the input signal is centered on zero and has finite
edge transition times, more of the input signal is above the receiver threshold than is below it. This causes
significant pulse-width distortion for the specific case of high data rates with low signal amplitudes.
2
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Receiver operation at fast signaling rates
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(1)
The glitch or crossover distortion of the input signal on channel 1 is an unintended effect of the test fixture.
Because the amplitude is small (±40 mV), and the duration is short (2 nsec), the effect on the receiver output
is negligible. This type of signal distortion may be caused by instrumentation with mismatched impedance,
circuit-board discontinuities, or incorrectly terminated cables. The receiver input hysteresis of Texas
Instruments transceivers prevents output state switching in reaction to small glitches such as shown in this
example.
Figure 1. HVD10 receiver operation at 50 Mbps, with less than 200-mV differential input
Although this much timing distortion may not be acceptable at fast signaling rates, many applications with
higher input signal amplitude can operate effectively at these speeds. For example, the TIA/EIA-485-A
standard requires compliant drivers to generate a differential voltage amplitude of 1.5 V (VA – VB = 1.5 for
ON and VA – VB = –1.5 for OFF). This allows for 1.3 V of attenuation between the driver and the receiver
while still delivering a valid 200 mV signal. In most applications, the bus characteristics are such (length
and type of cable, number and quality of connectors) that the signal is not so severely degraded.
Figure 2 shows the HVD10 receiver detecting a differential bus signal with zero-to-peak amplitude of 1 V
and a rate of 50 Mbps. Because this larger signal quickly transitions through the threshold region, the
effect of the threshold offset is much less significant, and the pulse-width distortion is negligible.
Figure 2. Receiver operation at 50 Mbps with VID = 1 V, giving little pulse-width distortion
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Driver operation at fast signaling rates
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Figure 3 shows that even at 100 Mbps, the HVD10 receiver correctly receives valid signals with
reasonable amplitudes, with little distortion.
Figure 3. HVD10 receiver operating at 100 Mbps, with 1-V input amplitude
3
Driver operation at fast signaling rates
In order to comply with the TIA/EIA-485-A standard, a driver must meet several criteria. One of these is to
generate balanced differential voltage levels. Another requirement restricts the 10%-to-90% transition time
to 30% of the unit interval (bit time). Therefore, there is an inverse relationship between the driver output
rise and fall times and the maximum achievable signaling rate.
Under all recommended operating conditions, the HVD10 driver is specified to have rise and fall times not
exceeding 10 nanoseconds. This corresponds to a maximum achievable signaling rate (for ALL
recommended operating conditions) of 30 Mbps. However, reasonable assumptions can be made which
extend the possible signaling rate for many applications
One reasonable assumption is that in some applications the driver may not be subjected to the entire
temperature range for which the HVD10 is specified. The HVD10 is available in different temperature
grades:
Table 1. Different Temperature Grades
Device
Temperature
SN67
0ºC to 70ºC
SN65
–40ºC to 85ºC
SN65_Q
–40ºC to 125ºC
As can be seen from the curves shown in Figure 4, the rise and fall times for the HVD10 driver typically
are well below 8 nanoseconds. If the application does not encounter temperatures below 0°C, a time of
7.5 nanoseconds seems reasonable. System designers should expect that signaling rate performance will
show a similar sensitivity to temperature. Note that a rise/fall time of 7.5 nanoseconds corresponds to an
RS-485 signaling rate of 40 Mbps.
4
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10
HVD10 Driver Rise/Fall Time
9
VCC = 3.6 V
8
VCC = 3.3 V
VCC = 3 V
7
6
5
-55
-35
-15
5
25
45
65
85
105
125
TA ± Free-Air Temperature - °C
Figure 4. Temperature variation of typical HVD10 driver rise and fall times
For signaling rates beyond 40 Mbps, it may be feasible in some applications to increase the fraction of bit
time allowed for the signal transition. If the standard 30% constraint is relaxed, the HVD10 can exhibit
signaling rates up to 100 Mbps. The system designer must decide if the corresponding decrease in timing
margin is acceptable.
Figure 5 shows the driver performance at 100 Mbps when loaded with 50 W and 50 pF across the
differential driver outputs. Note that the 10%-to-90% rise time is reasonably consistent with the data
shown in Figure 4. Based purely on the shape of this waveform, most designers would not accept this as
a reliable data signal. Certainly, the driver output waveform does not meet the requirements of the TIA/EIA
standard.
If the details of the data transmission path are examined closely, it can be seen that several possible
trade-offs may allow faster signaling rates with these transceivers. One consideration is whether the
system of interest is best modeled with the test loading. Another consideration is whether the signal
reaching the receiver has sufficient amplitude that the receiver thresholds are always reliably exceeded
and sufficient setup and hold time is available.
Figure 5. HVD10 driver operating at 100 Mbps with load of 50 W and 50 pF
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Eye-pattern data – HVD10 transceiver only (no cable effects)
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To illustrate the first consideration, Figure 6 and Figure 7 show the outputs of a driver and a receiver, with
negligible cable length connecting them. Note that in these cases there is only the 51 W load and the
capacitance of the test board, cable, and connectors across the outputs. Comparing Figure 7 to Figure 5,
it is obvious that the load capacitance plays a significant role in signal transition time and quality, affecting
the maximum possible signaling rate. Therefore, it is important to model the system of interest in terms of
load capacitance. Subsequent sections discuss the results with actual cable, rather than with a lumped
capacitive load. In Figure 6 and Figure 7, channel 1 is the differential driver output with a 51-W load, and
channel 2 is the receiver output.
Figure 6. HVD driver and receiver operating at 50 Mbps
Figure 7. HVD driver and receiver operating at 100 Mbps
4
Eye-pattern data – HVD10 transceiver only (no cable effects)
One measure of system performance at high signaling rates is data signal jitter. Eye patterns can be used
to visualize the jitter at various points in the system.
NOTE: For a discussion of eye-pattern measurements, see Section 4 of Texas Instruments
application report, Interface Circuits for TIA/EIA-485 (RS-485) (SLLA036)
Jitter at the driver output is one component of total system jitter. Figure 8 and Figure 9 illustrate that the
HVD10 contributes a small amount of jitter at 50 Mbps, and a larger contribution at signaling rates of 100
Mbps. Channel 1 is the driver output; channel 2 is the receiver output.
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Effects of cable on the differential signal
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Figure 8. Eye pattern of the HVD10 driver and receiver With 50-Mbps data
Figure 9. Eye pattern of the HVD10 driver and receiver With 100-Mbps data
5
Effects of cable on the differential signal
Another variable to be considered is the effect of the transmission media (cable, connectors, and circuit
board traces) on the differential signal. The RS-485 standard is intended for applications with cable
lengths up to 1200 meters. Long cable applications can have significant signal attenuation between the
driver and receiver. This is the basis for the large margins between driver output amplitude (at least 1.5 V)
and receiver input sensitivity (200 mV or smaller)
For applications with shorter cable lengths, the signal attenuation is less significant, and the receiver may
see a large fraction of the amplitude generated by the driver. See Figure 10 and Figure 11, which show
operation with a 10-meter cable. In these figures, channel 1 shows the differential voltage at the output of
the HVD10 driver, and channel 2 shows the differential voltage which reaches the other end of the cable.
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Effects of cable on the differential signal
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Figure 10. Attenuation of the 50-Mbps HVD10 driver output across a 10-meter cable
For all applications, the dependence on the overall driver rise and fall time is of less importance than the
transition time through the receiver threshold region. Examining the details of Figure 11 shows that
although the overall rise and fall times of the differential signal at the receiver are relatively slow, the time
of transition through the –200-mV to 200-mV receiver threshold window is much shorter. This implies that
because the signal amplitude is large, the receiver sensitivity helps recover the original signal with less
degradation than if a long cable were used.
Figure 11. Detail of the attenuation of 100-Mbps HVD10 driver output signal across a 10-meter length of
CAT-5 cable
8
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Results with a typical data transmission system
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Table 2 shows how jitter varies as a function of cable length and signaling rate. Here, the driver and
receiver were SN65HVD05 devices, which are RS-485 transceivers similar in design to the HVD10.
Table 2. Summary of jitter vs signaling rate and cable length
Signaling Rate (Mbps)
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Cable Length (Belden Mediatwist 1872A)
10 Meters
30 Meters
80 Meters
40
3%
9%
24%
60
5%
80
20%
100
35%
Results with a typical data transmission system
Figure 12 shows a simple diagram of a typical data transmission chain. Although only one driver and one
receiver are shown, the following results can be extended to a more complex system.
+
VI
VOD
±
+
VO
VID
±
Figure 12. Data transmission chain
Figure 13 illustrates the signals throughout the entire data transmission chain with a signaling rate of 50
Mbps. The transmission path was an unshielded, twisted-pair wire (Belden 1583A CAT-5) terminated at
each end with an approximate 100-Ω resistor. Channel 1 is the TTL input to the driver, and channel 2
shows the differential driver output. Channel 3 shows the differential signal that reaches the input to the
HVD10 receiver after the 10-meter length of cable. Note that the signal that reaches the receiver has been
attenuated, especially the high-frequency components, reducing both the amplitude and the edge rates.
Channel 4 shows the output of the receiver.
Figure 13. Data Transmission of 50-Mbps square wave across a 10-meter CAT-5 cable
Although the transmission channel has degraded the signal, the final digital signal matches the original
input. This illustrates that the HVD10 can achieve signaling rates of 50 Mbps. Signaling rates as high as
100 Mbps are possible, as shown in Figure 14.
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Results with a typical data transmission system
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Figure 14 shows the operation at 100 Mbps through the same signal chain as previously described. Here,
the input signal to the receiver appears more as a sinusoid than a square wave, due to the combined
effects of the driver finite rise and fall times, and the high-frequency attenuation of the cable.
Figure 14. Data transmission of 100-Mbps square wave across a 10-Meter CAT-5 cable
In spite of the appearance of the receiver’s input, the receiver output is a reasonable square wave,
reflecting the original signal at the source of the driver. This indicates that 100-Mbps data transmission is
possible using the HVD10 transceiver.
Practically, the square-wave signals (clock signals) shown in Figure 13 and Figure 14 are not
representative of most RS-485 applications. A more general signal is represented by a pseudo-random bit
stream (PRBS) of binary data. Such a PRBS signal typically includes all significant combinations of bits
and is used to generate an eye pattern as a measure of data transmission system quality.
The oscilloscope traces in Figure 15 illustrate successful 50-Mbps data transmission using two HVD10
transceivers and a cable length of 10 meters. The signal was a PRBS. Channel 1 shows the TTL input to
the driver; channel 2 shows the differential driver output. Channel 3 shows the differential signal that
reaches the input to the HVD10 receiver and channel 4 shows the TTL output of the receiver.
Figure 15. Eye pattern of HVD10 data transmission across 10-Meter CAT-5 cable With 50-Mbps signaling
rate
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Thermal considerations
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Thermal considerations
Power dissipation and thermal issues must always be considered, especially in industrial applications
where RS-485 transceivers are commonly used. Designers for fast-signaling rate applications should pay
close attention to the increased power dissipation inherent in those cases.
In a data bus network, power supply current is delivered to the bus load as well as to the transceiver
circuitry. For a typical RS-485 bus configuration, the steady-state load that an active driver must drive
consists of all the receiving nodes, plus the termination resistors at each end of the bus.
The load presented by the receiving nodes depends on the input impedance of each receiver. The
TIA/EIA-485-A standard defines a unit load allowing up to 1 mA.
NOTE: For more details on the unit load, see TI application report The RS-485 Unit Load and
Maximum Number of Bus Connections, (SLLA166).
With up to 32 unit loads allowed on the bus, the total current supplied to all receivers can be as high as 32
mA. Many transceivers now are designed with reduced unit loading; for example, the HVD10 is a 1/2-unitload device, and the SN65HVD3088E is rated as a 1/8 unit-load device. These reduced unit-loading
devices have correspondingly lower input current.
The current in the termination resistors depends on the differential bus voltage. The standard requires
active drivers to produce at least 1.5 V of differential signal. For a bus terminated with one standard
120-Ω resistor at each end, this sums to 25 mA in the termination resistors whenever the bus is active.
Texas Instruments transceivers typically can drive more than 25 mA to a 60-Ω load, resulting in a
differential output voltage higher than the minimum required by the standard.
Overall, the total steady-state load current can typically be 60 mA to a fully loaded RS-485 bus. This is in
addition to the current required by the transceiver.
Supply current increases with signaling rate primarily due to the totem-pole outputs of the driver. When
these outputs change state, for a moment, both the high-side and low-side output transistors are
conducting. This creates a short spike in the supply current. As the frequency of state changes increases,
more power is used as these short spikes of current occur more frequently, leading to a marked increase
in the overall power dissipation.
A secondary increase in power consumption occurs due to capacitive effects. The capacitive elements are
found both internal to the transceiver and in the external load. The external load capacitance is often
modeled as a lumped 50 pF, as shown in the data sheet test circuit schematics. This 50 pF represents
test fixture and instrumentation capacitance because the inductance of the short interconnect is negligible.
The internal capacitance is due to the transceiver circuitry and is typically approximately 5 pF to 10 pF.
Table 3 illustrates how power dissipation is affected by signaling rate, as well as by the mode of operation.
In each case, the maximum power dissipation takes into account variations in power supply, temperature,
and so on, while the typical values reflect the power dissipation under nominal conditions.
Table 3. Power Dissipation Comparisons
Signaling Rate
Driver Load
Driver Load
Mode
100 Mbps
Transceiver Power
Dissipation
387 mW (maximum)
Driver enabled and
Receiver enabled
50 Mbps
296 mW (maximum)
256 mW (maximum)
32 Mbps
60 Ω, 50 pF
25 Mbps
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15 pF
Driver enabled and
Receiver disabled
245 mW (maximum)
Driver disabled and
Receiver enabled
32 mW (maximum)
20 mW (typical)
Driver enabled and
Receiver enabled
233 mW (maximum)
198 mW (typical)
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Summary
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Designers should take the higher power dissipation at fast signaling rates into account. For additional
information on thermal design, see the individual device data sheets and Texas Instruments application
notes IC Package Thermal Metrics (SPRA953) and Thermal Characteristics of Linear and Logic Packages
Using JEDEC PCB Designs (SZZA017).
8
Summary
Texas Instruments data sheets are intentionally conservative in regard to the highest possible signaling
rate and the signal-quality requirements of TIA/EIA-485-A. The HVD10 transceiver can successfully
operate at fast signaling rates, up to 50 Mbps or even 100 Mbps. The system designer must consider
limiting constraints, such as compliance to RS-485 standards, application temperature, and cable effects
when determining how far to push the envelope in terms of signaling rate.
Similarly, system designers must consider the parametric limitations of other RS-485 devices in extending
the performance beyond worst-case minimums. Depending on the application, signaling rates significantly
higher than the minimum claims may be possible. The ultimate top signaling rate can only be determined
at the final installation.
For more information on the performance of RS-485 transceivers when operated at high data rates over
long cables, please reference the application report Signal Integrity Versus Data Rate and Cable Length
for RS-485 Transceivers (SLLA431), which provides measurement results based on TI's THVD14xx family
of transceivers.
9
References
•
•
Interface Circuits for TIA/EIA-485 (RS-485) application report (SLLA036)
The RS-485 Unit Load and Maximum Number of Bus Connections application report (SLLA166)
Revision History
NOTE: Page numbers for previous revisions may differ from page numbers in the current version.
Changes from Original (November 2004) to A Revision ................................................................................................ Page
•
12
Added text to the Summary section: "For more information on the performance of RS-485 transceivers..."
Revision History
...............
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