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Texas Instruments Linear Repeaters Used in SAS/SATA Applications Application notes
Application Report
SNLA236 – September 2015
Linear Repeaters Used in SAS/SATA Applications
Lee Sledjeski
ABSTRACT
This report summarizes the results of SAS/SATA testing using TI’s DS125BR820 and DS125BR401A
Low-Power 12.5 Gbps 8-Channel Repeaters. The TI devices are tested in an external miniSAS-HD
environment and directly using a DS125BR820EVM. The test results will demonstrate how linear
equalization can improve system margin and allow for the extended channel configurations that are
required in the latest storage systems.
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Contents
Introduction ................................................................................................................... 2
SAS-3 Transmit Waveforms ................................................................................................ 2
Equalizer Placement within a SAS-3 Channel ........................................................................... 5
System Results Using Linear Equalization ............................................................................... 7
Passing Out Of Band (OOB) Signals .................................................................................... 10
Conclusions ................................................................................................................. 12
Appendix A: Layout Considerations ..................................................................................... 12
List of Figures
1
Typical Application Using the DS125BR820 ............................................................................. 2
2
Typical Host Transmitter Reference Waveforms ........................................................................ 3
3
Transmitted and Recovered SAS-3 Waveforms ......................................................................... 4
4
Waveforms Before and After a Linear Equalizer ........................................................................ 5
5
Illustration of Channel Extension and DS125BR820 Placement ...................................................... 6
6
Waveforms at the SAS-3 Tx and After the Linear Equalizer ........................................................... 7
7
SAS-3 System Test Setup .................................................................................................. 7
8
TIDA-00425, 12 Gbps SAS-3 Link Extender Board ..................................................................... 8
9
12 Gbps SAS-3 Waveform Output from “Link Extender Board” ....................................................... 9
10
12 Gbps SAS-3 Testing with System ASIC ............................................................................. 10
11
OOB Signaling at DS125BR820 Input ................................................................................... 11
12
OOB Signaling at DS125BR820 Output................................................................................. 11
13
Evaluation Module Layout Using the DS125BR820 ................................................................... 13
14
AC Coupling Capacitor Footprint Relief ................................................................................. 14
List of Tables
........................................................................................... 2
............................................................................ 3
DS125BR820 Settings Used for Testing ................................................................................. 6
DS125BR401A Settings Used for Testing ................................................................................ 8
OOB Specifications ........................................................................................................ 10
1
SAS-3 Transmitter Equalization
2
SAS-3 Reference Waveform Characteristics
3
4
5
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Introduction
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Trademarks
1
Introduction
The testing carried out in this report involves the DS125BR820 Low-Power 12.5Gbps 8-Channel Linear
Repeater which is designed to support 40GbE (40G-CR4/KR4/SR4/LR4), SAS/SATA, and PCIe Gen 3.0
applications. The linear nature of the DS125BR820’s equalization allows the DS125BR820 to preserve the
transmit signal characteristics of the system ASIC, thereby allowing the link partners to negotiate transmit
equalizer coefficients.
The DS125BR820 is in a small 10mm x 5.5mm leadless WQFN package, which fits easily behind a
standard miniSAS-HD connector.
A typical SAS application of the DS125BR820 is shown in Figure 1.
BR820
miniSAS-HD
BR820
miniSAS-HD
tCable 1t
miniSAS-HD
ASIC
tCable 2t
SAS-3
ASIC
miniSAS-HD
ASIC
SAS-3
SAS-3
Figure 1. Typical Application Using the DS125BR820
2
SAS-3 Transmit Waveforms
SAS-3 is a serial interface which is often grouped in a x4 lane arrangement supported by miniSAS-HD
connectors. Due to the link attenuation supported by SAS-3 devices, the SAS-3 transmitter must
contribute some Tx equalization to help compensate for the total channel attenuation or loss at high
frequencies. The transmitter must be able to produce individual pre- and post- cursor equalization
coefficients based on the table below.
Table 1. SAS-3 Transmitter Equalization
SIGNAL CHARACTERISTIC
Precursor Equalization Ratio RPRE
MINIMUM
NOMINAL
MAXIMUM
UNITS
1.66
V/V
1
3.33
V/V
850
1200
mV
50
mV
1
Post Cursor Equalization Ratio RPOST
Peak to Peak Voltage (Differential VP-P)
Transmitter Device Off Voltage
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SAS-3 Transmit Waveforms
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NOTE: When pre- and post-cursor energy is applied, the combined equalization may be higher.
The experiments in this report demonstrate the DS125BR820’s ability to reproduce this type of transmitted
waveform using active continuous time linear equalization. This capability works well with system Tx-Rx
training algorithms, allowing for increased reach in SAS-3 applications.
2.1
Default Transmit Equalization Coefficients
SAS-3 defines a pair of Reference waveforms, Reference 1 (left side) and Reference 2 (right side). In
many cases Reference 1 is used as a starting point for link training.
Figure 2. Typical Host Transmitter Reference Waveforms
The voltage specifications for Reference 1 and Reference 2 waveforms are listed in Table 2.
Table 2. SAS-3 Reference Waveform Characteristics
WAVEFORM
2.2
POST
CURSOR
PRE
CURSOR
Va
Vb
Vc
Vd
Va/Vb
Vc/Vb
Reference 1
1.03
0.725
0.915
1.20
1.42
1.262
-3 dB
2 dB
Reference 2
0.84
0.23
0.61
1.20
3.65
2.652
-11.2 dB
8.5 dB
No Tx Eq
1.20
1.20
1.20
1.20
1
1
0 dB
0 dB
Using Linear Equalization to Recover Tx FIR Information
Tx equalization or Tx Finite Impulse Response (FIR) is used in SAS-3 to assist the SAS-3 receiver in
establishing a robust communication link across the system interface. When the system is physically large
and the serial data-rate is increased, there is going to be an increase in the overall attenuation or loss
present in the transmit channel. Since the SAS-3 specification utilizes a Rx – Tx training algorithm to
optimize the overall equalization solution, it is important that any intermediate component provide a linear
response. Keeping the whole system relatively linear enables the SAS-3 transmit signals to reach through
the linear equalizer and make an impact on the SAS-3 receiver eye opening. Without this linear behavior
the training process is likely to result in sub-optimal solutions.
In order to demonstrate the linear nature of the DS125BR820, a transmit waveform with TX FIR energy
was observed. Placing the DS125BR820 within the active channel at a point 8 dB removed from the SAS3 transmitter output shows how linear equalization can recover high frequency energy lost due to
attenuation and retain critical low frequency information as well. This preserves the transmitted waveform
analog characteristics.
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SAS-3 Transmit Waveforms
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Figure 3. Transmitted and Recovered SAS-3 Waveforms
The SAS-3 Tx and equalizer input/output waveforms in Figure 3 are aligned in time. Much of the original
Tx information has been lost due to attenuation (Light Blue Waveform). Linear equalization on the
DS125BR820 output (Magenta Waveform) is still able to recover and reproduce the analog characteristics
of the original FIR Tx waveform (Black Waveform).
2.3
Linear Equalization Effects on Jitter Due to Attenuation
A key benefit of linear equalization is how it can have a positive impact further down the channel after
significant energy has been attenuated away from the initial transmit signal. By moving the point of linear
equalization 14” from the SAS-3 transmitter it is easy to see just how much jitter accumulates after only ~
14 dB of attenuation at 6 GHz. When combined with a typical Reference 1 waveform, the DS125BR820
significantly improves the eye opening and reduces jitter. This is shown in Figure 4.
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Equalizer Placement within a SAS-3 Channel
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Figure 4. Waveforms Before and After a Linear Equalizer
The combination of Expander package, transmission line traces, and vias can easily add up to a total
attenuation of 10-12 dB when connecting a SAS Expander to a set of external miniSAS-HD connectors.
3
Equalizer Placement within a SAS-3 Channel
The benefits of a linear equalizer can only be realized if it is placed some distance away from the SAS-3
transmitter. The physical distance may vary based on materials used in PCB fabrication, but not the
attenuation. Since linear equalizers compensate for PCB or cable based attenuation, some attenuation
must occur prior to the equalizer to result in any benefit. Figure 5 helps to show the minimum input loss
required to optimize the possible channel extension. As the level of equalization in the DS125BR820 is
increased, the device must be placed further away from the transmit source. Using an equalization setting
which can drive the DS125BR820 beyond the 1.2 V dynamic range will result in non-linear operation. This
will degrade the waveform and result in sub-optimal link training results.
Placement to maximize channel extension is not limited to a location roughly 10 dB removed from the
transmit source. It is possible to achieve full extension when the DS125BR820 is placed at any point
beyond the 10 dB minimum. If placement closer than 10 dB from the transmitter is required, a lower level
of equalization is recommended.
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Equalizer Placement within a SAS-3 Channel
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Figure 5. Illustration of Channel Extension and DS125BR820 Placement
Table 3. DS125BR820 Settings Used for Testing
EQ SETTING
VALUE
OUTPUT SETTINGS
EQUIVALENT
REGISTER
SETTING
PIN STRAP
Level 1
0: 1 kΩ to GND
0x2C or 0x00
Level 2
R: 20 kΩ to GND
0x2D or 0x01
Level 3
F: Floating
0x2E or 0x02
Level 4
1: 1 kΩ to VIH
0x2F or 0x03
VOD
VOD_DB
Level 2 - Level 6
or
0xAA – 0xAE
0 dB
or
000’b
COMMENTS
Different EQ
settings used for
different input
channel length.
NOTE: Each channel has its own EQ, VOD, and VOD_DB control register.
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System Results Using Linear Equalization
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4
System Results Using Linear Equalization
4.1
Linear Equalization Effects on Jitter Due to Attenuation
As shown earlier with the ability to recover and reproduce SAS-3 transmit FIR characteristics, this section
shows a family of curves from the SAS-3 Transmitter and at the output of the DS125BR820 Linear
Equalizer. As the SAS-3 waveform post cursor is stepped up from a minimum value (Light Blue
Waveform), the DS125BR820 is able to stay in sync with the SAS-3 transmit waveform characteristics.
Like waveform colors on left and right oscilloscope screens show SAS-3 Tx output and equalizer output
characteristics for the same condition.
Figure 6. Waveforms at the SAS-3 Tx and After the Linear Equalizer
For this family of waveforms the linear equalizer was placed ~ 5 dB from the SAS-3 Tx. The waveforms
taken at the output of the DS125BR820 utilized an equalizer setting of Level 2 (+5dB).
4.2
Channel Extension
In order to assess channel extension in a system environment, a PCB with the DS125BR401A and
miniSAS-HD connectors was developed.
TIDA-00425
miniSAS-HD
tCable 1t
miniSAS-HD
ASIC
BR401A
ASIC
miniSAS-HD
tCable 2t
SAS-3
miniSAS-HD
SAS-3
Figure 7. SAS-3 System Test Setup
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System Results Using Linear Equalization
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The following EQ, VOD, DEM, and VOD_DB settings have been tested for SAS-3 12 Gbps operation with
a SAS-3 Expander ASIC. The cable lengths tested ranged from 1 – 12 meters with no more than 7 meters
on one side of the DS125BR401A. The test data is shown in the table below.
Table 4. DS125BR401A Settings Used for Testing
CABLE LENGTHS
DS125BR401A SETTINGS
CH-A
VOD
CH-A
DEM
CH-B
EQ
CH-B
VOD
CH-B
DEM
BER
Testing
Result
Cable1
Cable 2
CH-A
EQ
2m
7m
0x03’h
110’b
0x00’h
0x03’h
1.4Vpp
0x00’h
Pass
3m
7m
0x03’h
110’b
0x00’h
0x03’h
1.4Vpp
0x00’h
Pass
5m
7m
0x03’h
110’b
0x00’h
0x03’h
1.4Vpp
0x00’h
Pass
7m
2m
0x03’h
110’b
0x00’h
0x00’h
1.4Vpp
0x00’h
Pass
7m
3m
0x03’h
110’b
0x00’h
0x00’h
1.4Vpp
0x00’h
Pass
7m
5m
0x03’h
110’b
0x00’h
0x00’h
1.4Vpp
0x00’h
Pass
NOTE: Channel-A DEM is listed as VOD_DB in the device datasheet.
The mini-SAS HD cable running from the system ASIC to the DS125BR401A (Table 4, Column 2)
connects to the top connector on the DS125BR401A SAS board given the orientation shown in Figure 8.
The mini-SAS HD cable running from the DS125BR401A to the system ASIC (Table 4, Column 4)
connects to the bottom connector.
Figure 8. TIDA-00425, 12 Gbps SAS-3 Link Extender Board
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System Results Using Linear Equalization
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Although testing was completed with DS124BR401A CTLE = 0x03’h for Channel A, lower levels of
equalization should be used if the attenuation between the SAS-3 ASIC Tx and the DS125BR401A inputs
is less than 8-10 dB at 6 GHz.
With the miniSAS-HD cables removed, the TIDA-00425 “SAS-3 Link Extender” design can be tested
directly using SMA to miniSAS-HD breakout cables. Under this condition, high quality waveforms are
observed on the output ports.
Figure 9. 12 Gbps SAS-3 Waveform Output from “Link Extender Board”
Additional testing with the DS125BR820 using the setup in Figure 10 shows SAS-3 channel extension of
approximately 10 dB is possible with good isolation between channels. This diagram shows DS125BR820
placement at both 10 dB and 25 dB away from the SAS-3 ASIC Tx. Further testing verified that all
locations between 10 – 25 dB resulted in error free system performance.
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Passing Out Of Band (OOB) Signals
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Figure 10. 12 Gbps SAS-3 Testing with System ASIC
5
Passing Out Of Band (OOB) Signals
Out of Band (OOB) Signaling is used in SATA and SAS to enable device-to-device communication and
negotiation in a storage environment. This signaling uses a series of Idle and Active periods with specific
timing. Any impact to this timing could cause major problems within a storage system. This makes
undistorted propagation of the OOB signaling extremely important to a storage system design engineer.
Highlighting some key OOB signaling specifications from SATA3.1 gives some guidelines for the type of
OOB and signal noise which could be encountered in a real storage system.
Table 5. OOB Specifications
PARAMETER
VTHRESH: OOB Signal
Detection Threshold
UNITS
LIMIT
mVppd
COMINIT/COMRES
ET and COMWAKE
Transmit Burst
Length
ns
COMINIT/COMRES
ET Transmit Gap
Length
ns
COMWAKE
Transmit Gap
Length
ns
ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATION
Gen 1
Gen 2
Min
50
75
75
Nom
100
125
125
Max
200
200
200
Min
103.5
Nom
106.7
Max
109.9
Min
310.4
Nom
320.0
Max
329.6
Min
103.5
Nom
106.7
Max
109.9
Gen 3
Using the COMWAKE waveform burst timing and a noise level equal to the typical OOB signal detection
threshold represents a very difficult problem for most re-driver components. With a fully linear datapath,
the DS125BR820 overcomes any distortion issues while propagating this waveform across SAS/SATA
links ensuring robust OOB communication.
The visible noise injected in Figure 11 is 100 mVpp in amplitude at a frequency of 200 MHz.
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Passing Out Of Band (OOB) Signals
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Figure 11. OOB Signaling at DS125BR820 Input
Figure 12. OOB Signaling at DS125BR820 Output
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Conclusions
6
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Conclusions
The DS125BR820 Linear Repeater can enable SAS-3 operation beyond typical system ASIC capability.
The CTLE on the DS125BR820 can provide up to 10 dB of high frequency gain helping to compensate for
the additional channel losses. Full linear operation allows for consistent link training, helping to establish
the best possible eye at the SAS-3 receiver. This channel extension comes without any penalty of OOB
signaling amplitude or timing distortion.
7
Appendix A: Layout Considerations
Storage applications commonly use miniSAS-HD connectors and cages. The 8-channel DS125BR820 can
easily fit adjacent to this style of connector to service all eight channels. Two DS125BR820 repeaters can
even be placed on opposing sides of the PCB (top and bottom) if that facilitates board routing. The
DS125BR820 does not require a heat sink or airflow, since the power consumption is only 70
mW/channel.
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Appendix A: Layout Considerations
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Figure 13. Evaluation Module Layout Using the DS125BR820
There are several structures on the evaluation board which aid signal fidelity. In Figure 13 one clear
structure is the Reference Plane or GND relief immediately beneath the high speed I/O. By relieving the
copper directly under the pads, parasitic capacitance in this area is reduced, helping to bring the local
impedance closer to the target value. This is especially true when thin dielectric materials are used to
fabricate the outer layers of the PCB.
A similar effect can often be detected at AC coupling capacitors when they are placed close to device
transmitter outputs. When the extremely small 0201 size SMT capacitors are used, no relief is required. If
0402 size capacitors are used, a relief cutout like the one in Figure 14 is recommended.
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Appendix A: Layout Considerations
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Figure 14. AC Coupling Capacitor Footprint Relief
The final “structure” is related to the overall differential pair coupling and pair-to-pair spacing. Signals
around this type of component are forced into a relatively small space. Fanning signals out to create
additional space between pairs will help to control crosstalk levels. Using a differential microstrip with
narrow traces and tight coupling in the breakout area immediately around the repeater will also improve
the channel isolation in this densely routed space. The evaluation PCB in Table 5 uses a 5-6-5 (w-s-w)
differential pair topology to create a 100 Ω signaling environment. The minimum channel-to-channel
spacing is 24 mils which results in a 4:1 ratio of inter-pair to intra-pair spacing. For high speed and high
loss channels, going below this ratio is not recommended.
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Revision History
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Revision History
DATE
REVISION
NOTES
September 2015
*
Initial release.
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Revision History
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