Texas Instruments | Overview of 3.3V CAN (Controller Area Network) Transceivers | Application notes | Texas Instruments Overview of 3.3V CAN (Controller Area Network) Transceivers Application notes

Texas Instruments Overview of 3.3V CAN (Controller Area Network) Transceivers Application notes
Application Report
SLLA337 – January 2013
Overview of 3.3V CAN (Controller Area Network)
Transceivers
Jason Blackman and Scott Monroe
ABSTRACT
3.3V CAN (Controller Area Network) transceivers offer advantages and flexibility with
respect to 5V CAN transceivers while being compatible and interoperable with each other.
Power consumption is lower with 3.3V transceiver compared with 5V transceivers. There
is potential for power supply simplification and cost savings when the microprocessor
communicating with the transceiver is also at 3.3V.
Some implementers of CAN buses may be skeptical to use 3.3V transceivers due to the
legacy of 5V transceivers that are known to perform well. There may be uncertainty of
performance in mixed supply CAN buses. This application note demonstrates the
interoperability of 3.3V and 5V CAN transceivers in addition to explaining the theory of
operation.
Contents
1
THEORY OF OPERATION ............................................................................................................ 2
2
MEASUREMENTS DEMONSTRATING OPERATION ................................................................... 4
3
CONFORMANCE TESTING .......................................................................................................... 9
4
3.3V DEVICE ADVANTAGES ...................................................................................................... 10
5
SUMMARY................................................................................................................................... 11
1
SLLA337
1
THEORY OF OPERATION
The ISO 11898 specification details the physical layer requirements for CAN bus
communications. CAN is a low-level communication protocol over a twisted pair cable, similar to
RS-485.
Figure 1.
Typical CAN Network
An important feature of CAN is that the bus isn’t actively driven during logic ‘High’ transmission,
referred to as ‘recessive.’ During this time, both bus lines are typically at the same voltage,
approximately VCC/2. The bus is only driven during ‘dominant’ transmission, or during logic ‘Low.’
In Dominant, the bus lines are driven such that (CANH – CANL) ≥ 1.5V. This allows a node
transmitting a ‘High’ to detect if another node is trying to send a ‘Low’ at the same time. This is
used for non-destructive arbitration, where nodes start each message with an address (priority
code) to determine which node will get to use the bus. The node with the lowest binary address
wins arbitration and continues with its message. There is no need to back-off and retransmit like
other protocols.
CAN receivers measure differential voltage on the bus to determine the bus level. Since 3.3V
transceivers generate the same differential voltage (≥1.5V) as 5V transceivers, all transceivers
on the bus (regardless of supply voltage) can decipher the message. In fact, the other
transceivers can’t even tell there is anything different about the differential voltage levels.
2
Overview of 3.3V CAN (Controller Area Network) Transceivers
SLLA337
3.3V CAN
Typical Bus Voltage (V)
1
2
3
4
Typical Bus Voltage (V)
1
2
3
4
5V CAN
CANH
Vdiff(D)
Vdiff(R)
CANL
Recessive
Logic H
Dominant
Logic L
Figure 2.
Recessive
Logic H
Time, t
CANH
Vdiff(D)
Vdiff(R)
CANL
Recessive
Logic H
Dominant
Logic L
Recessive
Logic H
Time, t
Typical CAN Bus Levels for 5V and 3.3V Transceivers
Figure 2 (above) shows bus voltages for 5V transceivers as well as 3.3V transceivers. For 5V
CAN, CANH and CANL are weakly biased at about 2.5V (VCC/2) during recessive. The recessive
common-mode voltage for 3.3V CAN is biased higher than VCC/2, typically about 2.3V. This is
done to better match the common mode point of the 5V CAN transceivers and minimize the
common mode changes on the bus between 3.3V and 5V transceivers. Since CAN was defined
as a differential bus with wide common mode allowing for ground shifts (DC offsets between
nodes) this isn’t needed for operation, but will minimize emissions in a mixed network. In
addition, by using split termination to filter the common mode of the network a significant
reduction in emissions is possible. The ISO 11898-2 standard states that transceivers must
operate with a common-mode range of -2V to 7V, so the typical 0.2V common-mode shift
between 3.3V and 5V transceivers doesn’t pose a problem.
Overview of 3.3V CAN (Controller Area Network) Transceivers
3
SLLA337
2
MEASUREMENTS DEMONSTRATING OPERATION
Figure 3.
Waveforms of Two 5V SN65HVD255 Transceivers
Figure 3 (above) shows two 5V transceivers communicating on the same bus. In this case,
transceiver (XCVR) 1 and 2 are both Texas Instruments’ SN65HVD255 CAN transceiver. The
signals ‘TXD1’ and ‘TXD2’ show what each transceiver is driving onto the bus, while ‘RXD1’ and
‘RXD2’ show what each transceiver is reading from the bus. The two upper signals are the bus
lines, CANH (yellow) and CANL (light blue). The red waveform below them is the calculated
differential voltage between CANH and CANL.
A simplified bit pattern was used to demonstrate CAN bus principles. Bit time 1: one transceiver
transmits a dominant bit while the other remains recessive. Bit time 2: both transceivers are
recessive. Bit time 3: both transmit dominant, showing what would happen during arbitration. As
shown the differential voltage is slightly greater when both transceivers are dominant due to the
output transistors of each transceiver being in parallel, resulting in a smaller voltage drop and
greater differential voltage output.
4
Overview of 3.3V CAN (Controller Area Network) Transceivers
SLLA337
Figure 4 (below) shows the same setup but with two 3.3V transceivers (TI SN65HVD234). The
differential voltage between the bus lines during dominant bits is lower than the 5V devices that
were tested, but is still meets the requirements of the ISO 11898-2 standard. In addition, the
guaranteed minimum differential bus voltage for the 5V devices is the same as with the 3.3V
devices (1.5V). This means that designers have no advantage if choosing 5V devices for their
higher differential driving abilities, since there is no guarantee that the differential output will be
higher.
Figure 4.
Waveforms of Two 3.3V SN65HVD234 Transceivers
Overview of 3.3V CAN (Controller Area Network) Transceivers
5
SLLA337
Figure 5.
Waveform of Two SN65HVD255 Transceivers, One with a +1V Ground Shift
Figure 5 (above) shows how robust CAN is with common mode differences. The red Math signal
shows the common mode voltage instead of differential voltage in previous plots. The bus
signals become very ugly when arbitration between ground shifted transceivers occurs.
However, the RXD1 signal shows that the transceivers don’t have a problem because the
differential signal is good and the transceiver correctly detects the signal on the bus.
6
Overview of 3.3V CAN (Controller Area Network) Transceivers
SLLA337
Figure 6.
Waveform of Two 5V SN65HVD255 Transceivers with Split Termination,
One with a +1V Ground Shift
Figure 6 (above) shows the same situation as the previous figure, now with split termination
instead of traditional single termination. Split termination, shown below, helps filter out high
frequency noise which can occur when there are ground potential differences between nodes.
The setup for Figure 6 used a CL of 4.7nF, which is typical.
CANH
CANH
RL/2
RL
CANL
Figure 7.
CL
RL/2
CANL
Single Termination (left) and Split Termination (right)
Overview of 3.3V CAN (Controller Area Network) Transceivers
7
SLLA337
Figure 8.
Waveform of a 5V SN65HVD255 and a 3.3V SN65HVD234
Figure 8 (above) shows communication with a mixed network of one 3.3V transceiver and one
5V transceiver. As before, the digital signals TXD1, TXD2, RXD1 and RXD2 show that both
transceivers are accurately talking to each other and there is little common mode shift during
the communication in contrast to the 5V homogeneous network with a 1V ground shift.
8
Overview of 3.3V CAN (Controller Area Network) Transceivers
SLLA337
Figure 9.
Bus Communication of a 5V SN65HVD1050 and a 3.3V SN65HVD230
Figure 9 (above) shows a CAN frame in a mixed network of two 3.3V transceivers and one 5V
transceiver to demonstrate these principles in a CAN frame from a functional mixed system.
3
CONFORMANCE TESTING
The TI SN65HVD23x 3.3V CAN families have been successfully tested by the internationally
recognized third party communications and systems (C&S) group GmbH to the GIFT/ICT CAN
High-Speed Transceiver Conformance Test. This testing covers a homogeneous network of all
3.3V transceivers and a heterogeneous network where four out of sixteen CAN nodes are the
3.3V transceiver and the remaining twelve CAN nodes are a mix of three other “golden”
reference, non TI 5V CAN transceivers. Both TI 3.3V CAN transceiver families successfully
passed this testing with no findings and the certificates of authentication were issued.
Overview of 3.3V CAN (Controller Area Network) Transceivers
9
SLLA337
4
3.3V DEVICE ADVANTAGES
The 3.3V transceivers tested clearly operate in mixed supply networks, so now let’s look at their
advantages. The first advantage is lower power. Not only are 3.3V transceivers lower voltage,
they are also lower current.
Table 1.
Chart of Supply Current for Three Different Two-Node Buses
Case 1: 2X SN65HVD234
SN65HVD234 #1 ICC (mA)
SN65HVD234 #1 ICC (mA)
Both recessive
7.1
7.2
#1 dominant
38.4
7.2
Both dominant
25.9
26.1
Case 2: 2X SN65HVD255
SN65HVD255#1 ICC (mA)
SN65HVD255 #1 ICC (mA)
Both recessive
18.6
18.6
#1 dominant
61.8
18.4
Both dominant
44.6
44.8
Case 3: Mixed
SN65HVD234 ICC (mA)
SN65HVD255 ICC (mA)
Both recessive
7.2
18.6
SN65HVD234 dominant
38.6
18.6
SN65HVD255 dominant
7.2
61.8
Both dominant
11.7
58.9
Table 1 shows the supply current for 3.3V devices is reduced by nearly half. Combined with the
already lower supply voltage, this results in significant power reduction.
10
Overview of 3.3V CAN (Controller Area Network) Transceivers
SLLA337
Several other advantages emerge when used with a 3.3V microcontroller. The digital I/O of a 5V
transceiver would be level shifted either externally or in the 5V CAN transceiver to avoid
damaging the microcontroller (unless it is 5V tolerant) where as a 3.3V transceiver could be
directly connected to this microcontroller. The SN65HVD233/234/235 3.3V transceivers have 5V
tolerant inputs so they may be used directly with a 3.3V or a 5V microcontroller. If 5V was only
used in the system for CAN, a 3.3V CAN transceiver would eliminate the need for the 5V power
supply, simplifying the power domains and lowering the cost.
5
SUMMARY
3.3V and 5V CAN transceivers are interoperable because High Speed CAN physical layer uses
differential signalling that is the same for a 3.3V and 5V CAN transceiver. In addition both the
3.3V and 5V CAN transceivers have the same wide common mode range accommodating not
only the typical signalling but also providing wide margin for ground shift potential. For systems
that can benefit from the advantages of 3.3V transceivers, such as simplified power supplies and
lower power consumption they offer clear advantages in their use either in a homogeneous 3.3V
CAN network or in a mixed 3.3V and 5V CAN network.
Overview of 3.3V CAN (Controller Area Network) Transceivers
11
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