Texas Instruments | JTAG Advanced Capabilities and System Design | Application notes | Texas Instruments JTAG Advanced Capabilities and System Design Application notes

Texas Instruments JTAG Advanced Capabilities and System Design Application notes
SCANSTA101,SCANSTA111,SCANSTA112,
SCANSTA476
JTAG Advanced Capabilities and System Design
Literature Number: SNLA211
SIGNAL PATH designer
®
Tips, tricks, and techniques from the analog signal-path experts
No. 117
Feature Article ............... 1-6
Comms Applications .........2
JTAG Advanced Capabilities
and System Design
— By David Morrill, Principal Applications Engineer
T
he JTAG bus, originally intended for board-level manufacturing test,
has evolved into a multipurpose bus also used for In-System Programming (ISP) of FPGAs, FLASH, and processor emulation. This article’s
intent is to provide a brief overview of JTAG. Several system-level design
options will be proposed, from the simplest board-level JTAG chain through
a complex embedded multidrop system. Finally, an appendix is included that
contains some useful definitions.
Overview: What is JTAG?
The Joint Test Action Group (JTAG) is an industry group formed in 1985
to develop a method to test populated circuit boards after manufacture.
The group’s work resulted in the IEEE 1149.1 standard entitled Standard
Test Access Port and Boundary-Scan Architecture. The terms 1149.1, JTAG,
“dot 1”, and SCAN all refer to the same thing, the IEEE 1149.1 Standard for
Boundary Scan Test.
What is JTAG and what does it do?
1) It is a serial test bus.
2) It adds a Test Access Port (TAP) consisting of four pins to an IC
(five with optional RESET) as shown in Figure 1.
– TDI (Test Data In)
– TDO (Test Data Out)
– TCK (Test Clock)
– TMS (Test Mode Select)
– TRST (Test Reset)
JTAG provides access to interconnected digital cells on an IC:
1) with a method of access for test and diagnostics and the
– ability to do factory and remote testing and diagnostics,
– ability to perform software debug, and
– reduce “No-Fault-Found” problems
2) with a method for in-circuit upgrades and the
– ability to remotely perform system-wide firmware upgrades
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SIGNAL PATH designer
JTAG Advanced Capabilities and System Design
BSC
BSC
BSC
BSC
BSC
BSC
BSC
BSC
BSC
BSC
BSC
BSC
– Serial data in/out
make one big loop
through all chips
BSC
Traditional
Circuit
Test Access Port (TAP)
BSC
BSC
BSC
BSC
BSC
BSC
BSC
BSC
BSC
BSC
BSC
BSC
BSC
BSC
Traditional
Circuit
Test Access Port (TAP)
BSC
BSC
Traditional
Circuit
BSC
Test Access Port (TAP)
– Clock, mode, and
reset signals shared
by all all chips
TDI
Serial Data
Input
TCK TMS TRST
Clock
Mode
TDO
/RESET
Serial Data
Output
Figure 1. Basic JTAG Chain Interconnect
Basic JTAG Application
Figure 2 shows a basic JTAG chain consisting of
JTAG-enabled devices connected in series through
TDI and TDO. TCK, TMS, and TRST are common to each device and are not shown. This chain
is very simple and relatively easy to implement, but
it is slow and does not provide focused testing. For
example to access ASIC2, data must be serially shifted through the backplane interface, microprocessor
(µP), ASIC2, ASIC1, FPGA, and the daughter card.
In this simple example five devices can be seen on
a chain. On a typical card, there can be dozens of
devices. FLASH can also be programmed via the
JTAG chain.
national.com/spdesigner
FPGA
TDO
Daughter
Card
TDI
Backplane
Interface
RAM
FLASH
ASIC2
μP
Backplane Bus
Test device ➞ Chip 1 TDI
Chip 1 TDO ➞ Chip 2 TDI
Chip 2 TDO ➞ Chip 3 TDI
…
Chip n-1 TDO ➞ Chip n TDI
Chip n TDO ➞ Test device
ASIC1
Test Bus
All chips are driven by one TMS, TCLK, and TRST
signal from the test device. The TDI and TDO
signals are daisy-chained together serially as shown
in Figure 1 and below:
Local Bus
Figure 2. Basic Board with JTAG
Figure 3 shows how a JTAG chain can be partitioned to increase speed, access, and flexibility. The
SCANSTA111/112 is an addressable JTAG port
(also known as “bridge”) that allows the JTAG bus
to be partitioned onto local scan ports (LSP) to
reduce the size of the individual JTAG chains. This
means the JTAG master can select one or more of
these chains via LSP for focused testing or, in the
case of FPGAs and FLASH memory, (re)programming. This is necessary for multi-board testing and
highly desirable for FPGA programming. Breaking
one long JTAG chain into smaller chains also can
improve access/test time significantly. The LSPs can
3
SIGNAL PATH designer
JTAG Advanced Capabilities and System Design
FPGA
ASIC
Daughter
Card
STA112
FLASH
ASIC
STA101
μP
Daughter
Card
Local Bus
STA112
Backplane
Interface
ASIC
μP
Test Bus
FLASH
Backplane Bus
RAM
Local Bus
Figure 3. Board with Partitioned JTAG
Chains using SCANSTA112
Embedded JTAG Master
Assuming board-level or system-level JTAG test
capability exists, the next level of capability is to
develop an embedded JTAG system. Embedded
JTAG provides a means to implement self diagnostics and reconfiguration, system-level test, and
remote test/upgrades. This can be done with the
on-host processor. However, this process is not
automated and requires custom and costly development effort. This is a tedious task that is difficult to
both debug and ensure full test coverage.
In contrast, the SCANSTA101-embedded JTAG
test master enables system designers to embed
their test vectors easily from their automatic test
pattern generator (ATPG) tools into the production
system. National Semiconductor provides a free
SCANEASE conversion utility to port the ATPG
vectors directly to the SCANSTA101. As shown in
Figure 4, the SCANSTA101 interfaces between the
host processor and the serial JTAG bus. It offloads
this work from the host processor and drives the
JTAG bus with test vectors.
4
Figure 4. Board with SCANSTA101-Embedded Master
and Partitioned JTAG Chains using SCANSTA112
Multidrop JTAG
Next, the multidrop system will be discussed. This
multidrop system consists of a backplane and test
bus with several add-in cards as shown in Figure 5.
The cards contain partitioned chains and, if needed,
a STA101 master. A configuration of this type allows
access and testing of the interconnect, ASICs,
FLASH/RAM (via the local bus), FPGAs, daughter
cards, the backplane interface, and the local buses of
all boards on the backplane bus. The STA111/112’s
address masks allow all boards to be accessed in
parallel if desired, which greatly increases speed.
A STA101 could be added to the second board for
redundancy.
RAM
RAM
ASIC
FLASH
FPGA
ASI C
μP
FPGA
ASI C
μP
Daughter
Card
STA101
ASIC
FLASH
Local Bus
FPGA
Local Bus
ASIC
Backplane Bus
Backplane
Interface
RAM
Test Bus
be accessed in parallel via an address mask for bulk
programming/testing. The SCANSTA111 can be
used for up to three partitions; the SCANSTA112
up to seven. The devices also can be cascaded; for
example, a STA112 connected to a LSP of another
STA112.
Daughter
Card
STA112
STA112
Backplane
Interface
Backplane
Interface
Test Bus
Backplane Bus
Figure 5. Multidrop System with SCANSTA101-Embedded
Master and Partitioned JTAG Chains using SCANSTA112
SIGNAL PATH designer
analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The digital
result is stored in a JTAG register, all accessible via a
fully 1149.1-compliant digital TAP. Figure 6 shows
a block diagram of the SCANSTA476. Having the
ability to add voltage measurement capability to a
system through a JTAG chain is a powerful tool for
the system designer.
Analog
Inputs
Differential Signals, AC Coupling, and JTAG
Most modern systems use high-speed, AC-coupled
differential pairs. While 1149.1 is an excellent tool
for testing and diagnosing digital systems, it was
designed for DC-coupled, TTL-level nets. AC
coupling and differential signals are not compatible
with 1149.1. An IEEE working group studied the
problem and developed a solution that became
IEEE1149.6.
Digital
Output
Figure 6. Block Diagram of SCANSTA476
Analog Monitoring via JTAG
It would be useful to have voltage measurement
capability during board/system testing through
IEEE1149.1. For example, it may be necessary to
measure critical power supplies during development
and factory test. Access to analog nodes that don’t
have physical access, or even require online voltage
testing for health monitoring and prognostics may
be required. The SCANSTA476 is an analog voltage
monitor that has eight inputs that are fed to an
The solution required edge detectors to be added to
both polarities of the differential pair receiver as
shown in Figure 7. During a JTAG test, the 1149.6enabled transmitter produces pulses under the
control of the Boundary Scan Register (BSR)
instead of static DC levels (as was done in 1149.1).
Pulse Generator
C1
1
Boundary
SCAN
Register
2
Pulse Generator
1
1
2
1
2
R
+
1
2
2
Boundary
SCAN
Register
-
Edge Detector
C2
TX1
Edge Detector
RX1
1
TX1 pin1 open
6
TX1 pins 1,2 shorted together
11
RX1 pins 1,2 shorted
2
C1 pin2 open
7
C1 pins 1,2 shorted together
12
TX1 pin1 short to TX2 pin1
3
RX1 pin1 open
8
C1 pin 1 short to C2 pin 2
13
RX1 pin1 short to RX2 pin1
4
TX1 pin1 short to VDD
9
RX1 pin1 short to VDD
14
R (term) pin1 open
5
TX1 pin1 short to GND
10
RX1 pin1 short to GND
Figure 7. Schematic Showing Potential Defects Detectable by an 1149.6Enabled Device for an AC-Coupled Differential Transmission Line
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5
SIGNAL PATH designer
JTAG Advanced Capabilities and System Design
These pulses pass through the ACcoupling capacitor resulting in an edge
at the receiver. The receiver detects these
edges and passes this information to the
BSR which can be read to determine if a
defect is present.
A very important consideration is that
IEEE1149.6 uses the identical protocol
and TAP as IEEE1149.1, making it
compatible with existing JTAG systems.
National offers an entire array of 1149.6
products including cross points, mux
buffers, and SerDes.
High-Speed
Card-to-Card
Communication
(LVDS)
SCAN92L Vxxxx
IEEE 1149.1
Multidrop
System
Test Bus
Access to
IEEE 1149.1
Reconfigurable
CPLDs/FPGAs
SCANSTA101
Master Drives
Test Vectors
Analog and
Mixed-Signal
Test STA476
Putting It All Together
Figure 8 provides an example of how a typical highperformance telecom or datacom system might
look. Much of the design and component selection
has been driven by the requirements of the market
place such as high performance, flexibility, and very
high availability. Thus, there are many components
with JTAG and built-in-test features as well as dense
FPGAs for quick turn and flexibility. These test
features and the ability to reconfigure components
during manufacturing and in the field provide a
cost-effective solution to the demanding requirements of deployed systems.
The JTAG test bus is used to access the test features
on each board. The STA101 interfaces to the processor bus and drives the JTAG bus with ATPG
vectors. The STA111/112 bridge is used to convert
the IEEE JTAG test bus to a multidrop addressable
environment and adds partitioning capabilities for
JTAG path management. JTAG is used to access
CPLDs for reconfiguration/programming, BIST features, and embedded test features for other complex
devices. Card-to-card, AC-coupled differential interconnects are tested with 1149.6 enabled devices,
and analog nodes are sampled with the STA476.
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SCANSTA111/112
Bridge Partitions
Multi-Card Systems
Embedded
µP Running
ScanEASE
LVDS Backplane
Interconnect Test
via IEEE1149.6
Access to BIST and
Embedded Test Features
Figure 8. Total System
Conclusion
System-level JTAG can be a powerful tool, allowing manufacturing, remote test, diagnostics, and
re-configuration. The system designer should pay
careful attention to the level of access and speed
required when designing a system, and use the
proposed architectures as a starting point when
beginning a design. National provides products,
software, and support for simple through complex
embedded JTAG systems and can provide access
and interconnect test to digital, analog, and differential nets.
Appendix: Useful Definitions
• JTAG –Joint Test Action Group
• ISP – In-System Programming
• TAP – Test Access Port
• BSDL –Boundary Scan Description Language
• BSR – Boundary Scan Register
• ATPG –Automated Test Program Generation
• BIST –Built-In Self Test
• SCANEASE –National Semiconductor’s SVF Converter
• SVF – Serial Vector Format
• LSP – Local Scan Port
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