Texas Instruments | AN-643 EMI/RFI Board Design (Rev. B) | Application notes | Texas Instruments AN-643 EMI/RFI Board Design (Rev. B) Application notes

Texas Instruments AN-643 EMI/RFI Board Design (Rev. B) Application notes
Application Report
SNLA016B – May 2004 – Revised May 2004
AN-643 EMI/RFI Board Design
.....................................................................................................................................................
ABSTRACT
The control and minimization of Electro-Magnetic Interference (EMI) is a technology that is, out of
necessity, growing rapidly. EMI will be defined shortly but, for now, you might be more familiar with the
terms Radio Noise, Electrical Noise, or Radio Frequency Interference (RFI). The technology's explorations
include a wide frequency spectrum, from dc to 40 GHz. It also deals with susceptibility to EMI as well as
the emissions of EMI by equipment or components. Emission corresponds to that potential EMI which
comes out of a piece of equipment or component. Susceptibility, on the other hand, is that which couples
from the outside to the inside.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
Contents
INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................ 3
DESCRIPTION OF NOISE ................................................................................................ 3
2.1
ElectroMagnetic Interference ..................................................................................... 3
2.2
ElectroMagnetic Compatibility .................................................................................... 4
2.3
Inter-System EMI ................................................................................................... 4
2.4
Coupling Paths ..................................................................................................... 5
2.5
Conducted Interference ........................................................................................... 5
2.6
Radiated Interference ............................................................................................. 6
NOISE SOURCES .......................................................................................................... 7
Cables and Connectors .................................................................................................... 7
Components ................................................................................................................. 8
Power Supply Noise ........................................................................................................ 8
High-Speed CMOS Logic Switching .................................................................................... 11
Signal Crosstalk ........................................................................................................... 12
Signal Interconnects ...................................................................................................... 13
Ground Bounce ............................................................................................................ 13
NOISE SUPPRESSION TECHNIQUES ................................................................................ 14
Intra-System EMI-Control Techniques .................................................................................. 15
12.1 Shielding ........................................................................................................... 15
12.2 Filtering ............................................................................................................ 16
12.3 Wiring .............................................................................................................. 16
12.4 Inter-System EMI Control Techniques ......................................................................... 18
DESIGN GUIDELINES ................................................................................................... 19
Logic Selection ............................................................................................................. 19
Component Layout ........................................................................................................ 20
Power Supply Bussing .................................................................................................... 21
Decoupling ................................................................................................................. 23
Proper Signal Trace Layout .............................................................................................. 24
Ground Bounce ............................................................................................................ 25
Components ................................................................................................................ 26
Cables and Connectors ................................................................................................... 26
Special Considerations with Development Tools ...................................................................... 27
NOISE MEASUREMENT ................................................................................................. 28
Environment ................................................................................................................ 28
Instrumentation ............................................................................................................ 29
All trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
SNLA016B – May 2004 – Revised May 2004
Submit Documentation Feedback
AN-643 EMI/RFI Board Design
Copyright © 2004, Texas Instruments Incorporated
1
www.ti.com
26
27
28
Cost ......................................................................................................................... 29
SUMMARY ................................................................................................................. 30
REFERENCES ............................................................................................................. 30
List of Figures
1
ElectroMagnetic Interference Situation ................................................................................... 4
2
Intra-System EMI Manifestations
3
Simple Circuit Consisting of a Signal Source, VS, and a Load, RL
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
......................................................................................... 4
................................................... 5
Differential-Mode Interference ............................................................................................. 5
Common-Mode Interference ............................................................................................... 6
Field-to-Cable Coupling .................................................................................................... 6
Cable-to-Cable Coupling ................................................................................................... 7
Common-Mode Impedance Coupling .................................................................................... 7
Cables and Connectors .................................................................................................... 8
Diode Recovery Periods and Spikes ..................................................................................... 8
................................................................................................................................ 9
Switching Transients........................................................................................................ 9
Switching Transients When the Load Capacitance, CL, is 15 pF ..................................................... 9
Switching Transients When the Load Capacitance, CL, is 50 pF ................................................... 10
Switching Transients When the Load Capacitance, CL, is 100 pF .................................................. 10
ICC Current for a NAND Gate ............................................................................................. 10
17
Top Trace Shows Noise Induced on the High Logic Level Signal and the Bottom Trace Shows Noise
Induced on the Low Logic Level Signal ................................................................................ 11
18
Illustrates How Noise Affects a 74HC74's Clock Input ............................................................... 12
19
Crosstalk .................................................................................................................... 12
20
Ground Bounce ............................................................................................................ 14
21
Intra-System EMI Manifestations ........................................................................................ 15
22
Filtering
23
Board Layout ............................................................................................................... 21
24
33
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
Series Termination ........................................................................................................
Parallel Termination .......................................................................................................
AC Parallel Termination ..................................................................................................
Thevenin Termination .....................................................................................................
Connectors .................................................................................................................
Alternating Signal Returns Minimizes Radiation ......................................................................
Single Signal Return Maximizes Radiation ............................................................................
1
Logic Family Comparisions
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
.....................................................................................................................
16
22
23
24
24
25
25
25
26
26
27
List of Tables
2
3
4
2
..............................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
Electromagnetic Interference Coupling Paths ........................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
AN-643 EMI/RFI Board Design
11
16
18
22
SNLA016B – May 2004 – Revised May 2004
Submit Documentation Feedback
Copyright © 2004, Texas Instruments Incorporated
INTRODUCTION
www.ti.com
1
INTRODUCTION
The control and minimization of Electro-Magnetic Interference (EMI) is a technology that is, out of
necessity, growing rapidly. EMI will be defined shortly but, for now, you might be more familiar with the
terms Radio Noise, Electrical Noise, or Radio Frequency Interference (RFI). The technology's explorations
include a wide frequency spectrum, from dc to 40 GHz. It also deals with susceptibility to EMI as well as
the emissions of EMI by equipment or components. Emission corresponds to that potential EMI which
comes out of a piece of equipment or component. Susceptibility, on the other hand, is that which couples
from the outside to the inside.
In HPC designs to date, we have looked at noise situations ranging from 2 MHz to 102 MHz. EMI, in some
cases, can affect radio reception, TV reception, accuracy of navigation equipment, etc. In severe cases,
EMI might even affect medical equipment, radar equipment, and automotive systems.
This Application Note will define ElectroMagnetic Interference and describe how it relates to the
performance of a system. We will look at examples of Inter-system noise and Intra-system noise and
present techniques that can be used to ensure ElectroMagnetic Compatibility throughout a system and
between systems.
We will investigate and study the sources of noise between systems through wire-harness and backplane
cables and connectors. Active circuit components can be contributors of noise and be susceptible to it.
The fast switching times of CMOS devices fabricated in today's technology can cause incredible noise in a
system. This noise typically is made up of crosstalk, power supply spiking, transient noise, and ground
bounce.
The minimization and suppression of EMI can be obtained by utilizing proper control techniques. Intrasystem noise, noise within a single module, sometimes can be controlled with methods such as filtering,
shielding, careful selection of components, and following good wiring and grounding procedures.
Controlling noise between systems, Inter-system noise, uses subtler techniques such as frequency
management and time management, etc.
Appropriate time and resources should be spent during the design of a system or systems to insure that
no problems will be encountered due to effects of EMI. Design guidelines will be presented that can be
used to increase ElectroMagnetic Compatibility between systems by reducing the effects of noise between
them. Above all, don't forget that the development tools used are also systems and are important to
consider in your planning.
A brief look will be taken at the environment and tools required for different levels of noise testing. Relative
risk-costs between preparing for EMC or excluding EMI concerns from the project will be listed.
2
DESCRIPTION OF NOISE
2.1
ElectroMagnetic Interference
EMI is a form of electrical-noise pollution. Think of the time when an electric drill or some other power tool
jammed a nearby radio with buzzing or crackling noises. Sometimes it got so bad that it prevented you
from listening to the radio while the tool was in use. Or the ignition of an automobile idling outside your
house caused interference to your TV picture making lines across the screen or even losing sync
altogether making the picture flip. These examples are quite annoying but not catastrophic.
More serious, how about a sudden loss in telephone communication caused by electrical interference or
noise while you are negotiating an important business deal? Now EMI can be economically damaging.
The results of EMI incidences can be even farther reaching than these examples. Aircraft navigation
errors resulting from EMI or interruption of air traffic controller service and maybe even computer memory
loss due to noise could cause two aircraft to collide resulting in the loss of lives and property.
These were just a few examples to help you identify the results of EMI in a familiar context. To help
understand an ElectroMagnetic Interference situation, the problem can be divided into three categories.
They are the source, the victim, and the coupling path. Secondary categories involve the coupling path
itself. It the source and victim are separated by space with no hard wire connection, then the coupling path
is a radiated path and we are dealing with radiated noise. If the source and victim are connected together
through wires, cables, or connectors, then the coupling path is a conducted path and we are dealing with
conducted noise. Incidentally, both types of noise can exist at the same time.
SNLA016B – May 2004 – Revised May 2004
Submit Documentation Feedback
AN-643 EMI/RFI Board Design
Copyright © 2004, Texas Instruments Incorporated
3
DESCRIPTION OF NOISE
www.ti.com
Figure 1. ElectroMagnetic Interference Situation
2.2
ElectroMagnetic Compatibility
If you think about the examples given, one can understand that EMI or electrical noise is of national
concern. The Government and certain industry bodies have issued specifications with which all electrical,
electromechanical, and electronic equipment must comply. These specifications and limitations are an
attempt to ensure that proper EMC techniques are followed by manufactures during the design and
fabrication of their products. When these techniques are properly applied, the product can then operate
and perform with other equipment in a common environment such that no degradation of performance
exists due to internally or externally conducted or radiated electromagnetic emissions. This is defined as
ElectroMagnetic Compatibility or EMC.
2.3
Inter-System EMI
For the purpose of this Application Note, when the source of noise is a module, board, or system and the
victim is a different and separate module, board, or system under the control of a different user, that is
considered to be an inter-system interference situation. Examples of inter-system interference situations
could be a Personal Computer interfereing with the operation of a TV or an anti-lock brake module in a car
causing interference in the radio. This type of interference is more difficult to contain because, as
mentioned earlier, the systems are generally not under the control of a single user. However, design
methods and control techniques used to contain the intra-system form of EMI, which are almost always
under the control of a single user, will inherently help reduce the inter-system noise.
Figure 2. Intra-System EMI Manifestations
This Application Note will address problems and solutions in the area of intra-system noise. Intra-system
interference situations are when the sources, victims, and coupling paths are entirely within one system or
module or PC board. Systems may provide emissions that are conducted out power lines or be
susceptible to emissions conducted in through them. Systems may radiate emissions through space as
well as be susceptible to radiated noise. Noise conducted out antenna leads turns into radiated noise. By
the same token, radiated noise picked up by the antenna is turned into conducted noise within the system.
A perfect example is ground loops on a printed circuit board. These loops make excellent antennas. The
system itself is capable of degrading performance due to its own internal generation of conducted and
radiated noise and its susceptibility to it.
4
AN-643 EMI/RFI Board Design
SNLA016B – May 2004 – Revised May 2004
Submit Documentation Feedback
Copyright © 2004, Texas Instruments Incorporated
DESCRIPTION OF NOISE
www.ti.com
Some results of EMI within a system: Noise on power line causing false triggering of logic circuits, rapidly
changing signals causing “glitches” on adjacent steady state signal lines (crosstalk) causing erratic
operation, mutiple simultaneously switching logic outputs propagating ground bounce noise throughout
system, etc.
2.4
Coupling Paths
The modes of coupling an emitter source to a receptor victim can become very complicated. Remember,
each EMI situation can be classified into two categories of coupling, conducted and radiated. Coupling can
also result from a combination of paths. Noise can be conducted from an emitter to a point of radiation at
the source antenna, then picked up at the receptor antenna by induction, and re-conducted to the victim.
A further complication that multiple coupling paths presents is that it makes it difficult to determine if
eliminating a suspected path has actually done any good. If two or more paths contribute equally to the
problem, eliminating only one path may provide little apparent improvement.
2.5
Conducted Interference
In order to discuss the various ways in which EMI can couple from one system to another, it is necessary
to define a few terms. When dealing with conducted interference, there are two varieties that we are
concerned with. The first variety is differential-mode interference. That is an interference signal that
appears between the input terminals of a circuit. The other variety of conducted interference is called
common-mode interference. A common-mode interference signal appears between each input terminal
and a third point; that third point is called the common-mode reference. That reference may be the
equipment chassis, an earth ground, or some other point.
Let's look at each type of interference individually. In Figure 3 we show a simple circuit consisting of a
signal source, VS, and a load, RL. In Figure 4 we show what happens when differential-mode interference
is introduced into the circuit by an outside source. As is shown, an interference voltage, VD, appears
between the two input terminals, and an interference current, ID, flows in the circuit. The result is noise at
the load. If, for instance, the load is a logic gate in a computer, and the amplitude of VD is sufficiently high,
it is possible for the gate to incorrectly change states.
Figure 3. Simple Circuit Consisting of a Signal Source, VS, and a Load, RL
Figure 4. Differential-Mode Interference
Figure 5 shows what happens when a ground loop is added to our circuit. Ground loops, which are
undesirable current paths through a grounded body (such as a chassis), are usually caused by poor
design or by the failure of some component. In the presence of an interference source, common-mode
currents, IC, and a common-mode voltage, VC, can develop, with the ground loop acting as the commonmode reference. The common-mode current flows on both input lines, and has the same instantaneous
polarity and direction (the current and voltage are in phase), and returns through the common-mode
reference. The common-mode voltage between each input and the common-mode reference is identical.
SNLA016B – May 2004 – Revised May 2004
Submit Documentation Feedback
AN-643 EMI/RFI Board Design
Copyright © 2004, Texas Instruments Incorporated
5
DESCRIPTION OF NOISE
www.ti.com
Figure 5. Common-Mode Interference
Figure 6. Field-to-Cable Coupling
2.6
Radiated Interference
Radiated coupling itself can take place in one of several ways. Some of those include field-to-cable
coupling, cable-to-cable coupling, and common-mode impedance coupling. Let's look at those types of
coupling one at a time.
The principle behind field-to-cable coupling is the same as that behind the receiving antenna. That is,
when a conductor is placed in a time-varying electromagnetic field, a current is induced in that conductor.
That is shown in Figure 6. In this figure, we see a signal source, VS, driving a load, RL. Nearby there is a
current carrying wire (or other conductor). Surrounding the wire is an electromagnetic field induced by the
current flowing in the wire. The circuit acts like a loop antenna in the presence of this field. As such, an
interference current, IN, and an interference voltage, VN, are induced in the circuit. The magnitude of the
induced interference signal is roughly proportional to the frequency of the incoming field, the size of the
loop, and the total impedance of the loop.
Cable-to-cable coupling occurs when two wires or cables are run close to one another. Figure 7 shows
how cable-to-cable coupling works. Figure 7a shows two lengths of cable (or other conductors) that are
running side-by-side. Because any two conducting bodies have capacitance between them, called stray
capacitance, a time-varying signal in one wire can couple via that capacitance into the other wire. That is
referred to as capacitive coupling. This stray capacitance, as shown in Figure 7c makes the two cables
behave as if there were a coupling capacitor between them. Another mechanism of cable-to-cable
coupling is mutual inductance. Any wire carrying a time-varying current will develop a magnetic field
around it. If a second conductor is placed near enough to that wire, that magnetic field will induce a similar
current in the second conductor. That type of coupling is called inductive coupling. Mutual inductance, as
shown in Figure 7b, makes the cables behave as if a poorly wound transformer were connected between
them. In cable-to-cable coupling, either or both of those mechanisms may be responsible for the existance
of an interference condition. Though there is no physical connection between the two cables, the
properties we have just described make it possible for the signal on one cable to be coupled to the other.
6
AN-643 EMI/RFI Board Design
SNLA016B – May 2004 – Revised May 2004
Submit Documentation Feedback
Copyright © 2004, Texas Instruments Incorporated
NOISE SOURCES
www.ti.com
Figure 7. Cable-to-Cable Coupling
Either or both of the above-mentioned properties cause the cables to be electromagnetically coupled such
that a time-varying signal present on one will cause a portion of that signal to appear on the other. The
“efficiency” of the coupling increases with frequency and inversely with the distance between the two
cables. One example of cable-to-cable coupling is telephone “crosstalk”, in which several phone
conversations can be overheard at once. The term crosstalk is now commonly used to describe all types
of cable-to-cable coupling.
Common-mode impedance coupling occurs when two circuits share a common bus or wire. In Figure 8 we
show a circuit that is susceptible to that type of coupling. In that figure a TL092 op-amp and a 555 timer
share a common return or ground. Since any conductor (including a printed circuit board trace) is not
ideal, that ground will have a non-zero impedance, Z. Because of that, the current, I, from pin 1 of the 555
will cause a noise voltage, VN, to develop; that voltage is equal to I × Z. That noise voltage will appear in
series with the input to the op-amp. If that voltage is of sufficient amplitude, a noise condition will result.
While not all inclusive, these coupling paths account for, perhaps, 98% of all intra-system EMI situations.
Figure 8. Common-Mode Impedance Coupling
3
NOISE SOURCES
In this Application Note, we will look at sources of EMI which involve components that may conduct or
radiate electromagnetic energy. These sources, component emitters, are different from the equipment and
subsystems we have been talking about. Component emitters are sources of EMI which emanate from a
single element rather than a combination of components such as was previously described. Actually,
these component emitters require energy and connecting wires from other sources to function. Therefore,
they are not true sources of EMI, but are EMI Transducers. They convert electrical energy to electrical
noise.
4
Cables and Connectors
The three main concerns regarding the EMI role of cables are conceptualized in Figure 9. They act as (1)
radiated emission antennas, (2) radiated susceptibility antennas, and (3) cable-to-cable or crosstalk
couplers. Usually, whatever is done to harden a cable against radiated emission will also work in reverse
for controlling EMI radiated susceptibility. The reason for the word usually, is that when differential-mode
radiated emission or susceptibility is the failure mode, twisting leads and shielding cables reduces EMI. If
the failure mechanism is due to common-mode currents circulating in the cable, twisting leads has
SNLA016B – May 2004 – Revised May 2004
Submit Documentation Feedback
AN-643 EMI/RFI Board Design
Copyright © 2004, Texas Instruments Incorporated
7
Components
www.ti.com
essentially no effect on the relationship between each conductor and the common-mode reference. Also
cable shields may help or aggravate EMI depending upon the value of the transfer impedance of the cable
shield. Transfer impedance is a figure of merit of the quality of cable shield performance defined as the
ratio of coupled voltage to surface current in ohms/meter. A good cable shield will have a low transfer
impedance. The effectiveness of the shield also depends on whether or not the shield is terminated and, if
so, how it is terminated.
Figure 9. Cables and Connectors
Connectors usually are needed to terminate cables. When no cable shields or connector filters or
absorbers are used, connectors play essentially no role in controlling EMI. The influence of connector
types, however, can play a major role in the control of EMI above a few MHz. This applies especially when
connectors must terminate a cable shield and/or contain lossy ferrites or filter-pins.
Connectors and cables should be viewed as a system to cost-effectively control EMI rather than to
consider the role of each separately, even though each offers specific interference control opportunities.
5
Components
Under conditions of forward bias, a semiconductor stores a certain amount of charge in the depletion
region. If the diode is then reverse-biased, it conducts heavily in the reverse direction until all of the stored
charge has been removed as shown in Figure 10. The duration, amplitude, and configuration of the
recovery-time pulse (also called switching time or period) is a function of the diode characteristics and
circuit parameters. These current spikes generate a broad spectrum of conducted transient emissions.
Diodes with mechanical imperfections may generate noise when physically agitated. Such diodes may not
cause trouble if used in a vibration-free environment.
Figure 10. Diode Recovery Periods and Spikes
6
Power Supply Noise
Power-supply spiking is perhaps the most important contributor to system noise. When any element
switches logic states, it generates a current spike that produces a voltage transient. It these transients
become too large, they can cause logic errors because the supply voltage drop upsets internal logic, or
because a supply spike on one circuit's output feeds an extraneous noise voltage into the next device's
input.
8
AN-643 EMI/RFI Board Design
SNLA016B – May 2004 – Revised May 2004
Submit Documentation Feedback
Copyright © 2004, Texas Instruments Incorporated
Power Supply Noise
www.ti.com
With CMOS logic in its quiescent state, essentially no current flows between VCC and ground. But when an
internal gate or an output buffer switches state, a momentary current flows from VCC to ground. The
switching transient caused by an unloaded output changing state typically equals 20 mA peak. Using the
circuit shown in Figure 11, you can measure and display these switching transients under different load
conditions.
Figure 11.
Figure 12 shows the current and voltage spikes resulting from switching a single unloaded (CL = 0 in
Figure 11) NAND gate. These current spikes, seen at the switching edges of the signal on VIN, increase
when the output is loaded. Figure 13, Figure 14, and Figure 15 show the switching transients when the
load capacitance, CL, is 15 pF, 50 pF, and 100 pF, respectively. The large amount of ringing results from
the test circuit's transmission line effects. This ringing occurs partly because the CMOS gate switches
from a very high impedance to a very low one and back again. Even for medium-size loads, load
capacitance current becomes a major current contributor.
Figure 12. Switching Transients
Figure 13. Switching Transients When the Load Capacitance, CL, is 15 pF
SNLA016B – May 2004 – Revised May 2004
Submit Documentation Feedback
AN-643 EMI/RFI Board Design
Copyright © 2004, Texas Instruments Incorporated
9
Power Supply Noise
www.ti.com
Figure 14. Switching Transients When the Load Capacitance, CL, is 50 pF
Figure 15. Switching Transients When the Load Capacitance, CL, is 100 pF
Although internal logic generates current spikes when switching, the bulk of a spike's current comes from
output circuit transitions. Figure 16 shows the ICC current for a NAND gate, as shown in the test circuit,
with one input switching and the other at ground resulting in no output transitions. Note the very small
power-supply glitches provoked by the input-circuit transitions.
Figure 16. ICC Current for a NAND Gate
10
AN-643 EMI/RFI Board Design
SNLA016B – May 2004 – Revised May 2004
Submit Documentation Feedback
Copyright © 2004, Texas Instruments Incorporated
High-Speed CMOS Logic Switching
www.ti.com
7
High-Speed CMOS Logic Switching
The magnitude of noise which can be tolerated in a system relates directly to the worst case noise
immunity specified for the logic family. Noise immunity can be described as a device's ability to prevent
noise on its input from being transferred to its output. It is the difference between the worst case output
levels (VOH and VOL) of the driving circuit and the worst case input voltage requirements (VIH and VIL,
respectively) of the receiving circuit.
Using Table 1 as a guide, it can be seen that for TTL (LS or ALS) devices the worst case noise immunity
is typically 700 mV for the high logic level and 300 mV for the low logic level. For HCMOS devices the
worst case noise immunity is typically 1.75V for high logic levels and 800 mV for low logic levels. AC high
speed CMOS logic families have noise immunity of 1.75V for high logic levels and 1.25V for low logic
levels. ACT CMOS logic families have noise immunity of 2.9V for high logic levels and 700 mV for low
logic levels.
Table 1. Logic Family Comparisions
Characteristic
LS/ALS TTL
HCMOS
AC
ACT
Input Voltage
(Limits)
VIH (Min)
Symbol
2.0V
3.15V
3.15V
2.0V
VIL (Max)
0.8V
0.9V
1.35V
0.8V
Output Voltage
(Limits)
VOH (Min)
2.7V
VCC−0.1
VCC−0.1
VCC−0.1
VOL (Max)
0.5V
0.1V
0.1V
0.1V
To illustrate noise margin and immunity, Figure 17 shows the output that results when you apply several
types of simulated noise to a 74HC00's input. Typically, even 2V or more input noise produces little
change in the output. The top trace shows noise induced on the high logic level signal and the bottom
trace shows noise induced on the low logic level signal.
Figure 17. Top Trace Shows Noise Induced on the High Logic Level Signal and the Bottom Trace Shows
Noise Induced on the Low Logic Level Signal
Figure 18 shows how noise affects a 74HC74's clock input. Again, no logic errors occur with 2V or more of
noise on the clock input.
SNLA016B – May 2004 – Revised May 2004
Submit Documentation Feedback
AN-643 EMI/RFI Board Design
Copyright © 2004, Texas Instruments Incorporated
11
Signal Crosstalk
www.ti.com
When using high speed CMOS, even with its greater noise immunity, crosstalk, induced supply noise and
noise transients become factors. Higher speeds allow the device to respond more quickly to externally
induced noise transients and accentuate the parasitic interconnection inductances and capacitances that
increase self-induced noise and crosstalk.
Figure 18. Illustrates How Noise Affects a 74HC74's Clock Input
8
Signal Crosstalk
The problem of crosstalk and how to deal with it is becoming more important as system performance and
board densities increase. Our discussion on cable-to-cable coupling described crosstalk as appearing due
to the distributed capacitive coupling and the distributed inductive coupling between two signal lines.
When crosstalk is measured on an undriven sense line next to a driven line (both terminated at their
characteristic impedances), the near end crosstalk and the far end crosstalk have quite distinct features,
as shown in Figure 19. It should be noted that the near end component reduces to zero at the far end and
vice versa. At any point in between, the crosstalk is a fractional sum of the near and far end crosstalk
waveforms as shown in the figure. It also can be noted that the far end crosstalk can have either polarity
whereas the near end crosstalk always has the same polarity as the signal causing it.
The amplitude of the noise generated on the undriven sense line is directly related to the edge rates of the
signal on the driven line. The amplitude is also directly related to the proximity of the two lines. This is
factored into the coupling constants KNE and KFEby terms that include the distributed capacitance per unit
length, the distributed inductance per unit length, and the length of the line. The lead-to-lead capacitance
and mutual inductance thus created causes “noise” voltages to appear when adjacent signal paths switch.
Figure 19. Crosstalk
Several useful observations that apply to a general case can then be made:
12
AN-643 EMI/RFI Board Design
SNLA016B – May 2004 – Revised May 2004
Submit Documentation Feedback
Copyright © 2004, Texas Instruments Incorporated
Signal Interconnects
www.ti.com
•
•
•
•
•
The crosstalk always scales with the signal amplitude V I.
Absolute crosstalk amplitude is proportional to slew rate V I/tr, not just 1/tr.
Far end crosstalk width is always tr.
For tr < 2 TL, where tris the transition time of the signal on the driven line and TLis the propagation or
bus delay down the line, the near end crosstalk amplitude VNE expressed as a fraction of signal
amplitude VI is KNE which is a function of physical layout only.
The higher the value of “tr”(slower transition times) the lower the percentage of crosstalk (relative to
signal amplitude).
Although all circuit conductors have transmission line properties, these characteristics become significant
when the edge rates of the drivers are equal to or less than about three times the propagation delay of the
line. Significant transmission line properties may be exhibited, for example, where devices having edge
rates of 3 ns are used to drive traces of 8 inches or greater, assuming propagation delays of 1.7 ns/ft for
an unloaded printed circuit trace.
9
Signal Interconnects
Of the many properties of transmission lines, two are of major interest to the system designer: Zoe, the
effective equivalent impedance of the line, and tpde, the effective propagation delay down the line. It should
be noted that the intrinsic values of line impedance and propagation delay, Zo and tpd, are geometrydependent. Once the intrinsic values are known, the effects of gate loading can be calculated. The loaded
values for Zoe and tpde can be calculated with:
Zoe = Zo/(1 + Ct /Ci)**0.5
tpde = tpd * (1 + Ct/Ci)**0.5
(1)
(2)
where Ci = intrinsic line capacitance
Ct = additional capacitance due to gate loading.
These formulas indicate that the loading of lines decreases the effective impedance of the line and
increases the propagation delay. As was mentioned earlier, lines that have a propagation delay greater
than one third the rise time of the signal driver should be evaluated for transmission line effects. When
performing transmission line analysis on a bus, only the longest, most heavily loaded and the shortest,
least loaded lines need to be analyzed. All lines in a bus should be terminated equally; if one line requires
termination, all lines in the bus should be terminated. This will ensure similar signals on all of the lines.
10
Ground Bounce
Ground bounce occurs as a result of the intrinsic characteristics of the leadframes and bondwires of the
packages used to house CMOS devices. As edge rates and drive capability increase in advanced logic
families, the effects of these intrinsic electrical characteristics become more pronounced. One of these
parasitic electrical characteristics is the inductance found in all leadframe materials.
Figure 20 shows a simple circuit model for a CMOS device in a leadframe driving a standard test load.
The inductor L1 represents the parasitic inductance in the ground lead of the package; inductor L2
represents the parasitic inductance in the power lead of the package; inductor L3 represents the parasitic
inductance in the output lead of the package; the resistor R1 represents the output impedance of the
device output, and the capacitor and resistor CLand RL represent the standard test load on the output of
the device.
SNLA016B – May 2004 – Revised May 2004
Submit Documentation Feedback
AN-643 EMI/RFI Board Design
Copyright © 2004, Texas Instruments Incorporated
13
NOISE SUPPRESSION TECHNIQUES
www.ti.com
Figure 20. Ground Bounce
The three waveforms shown represent how ground bounce is generated. The top waveform shows the
voltage (V) across the load as it is switched from a logic HIGH to a logic LOW. The output slew rate is
dependent upon the characteristics of the output transistor, and the inductors L1 and L3, and CL, the load
capacitance. In order to change the output from a HIGH to a LOW, current must flow to discharge the load
capacitance. The second waveform shows the current that is generated as the capacitor discharges [I =
−C L * (dV/dt)]. This current, as it changes, causes a voltage to be generated across the inductances in
the circuit. The formula for the voltage across an inductor is V = L(dI/dt). The third waveform shows the
voltage that is induced across the inductance in the ground lead due to the changing currents [VGB = L1 *
(dI/dt)]. This induced voltage creates what is known as ground bounce.
Because the inductor is between the external system ground and the internal device ground, the induced
voltage causes the internal ground to be at a different potential than the external ground. This shift in
potential causes the device inputs and outputs to behave differently than expected because they are
referenced to the internal device ground, while the devices which are either driving into the inputs or being
driven by the outputs are referenced to the external system ground. External to the device, ground bounce
causes input thresholds to shift and output levels to change.
Although this discussion is limited to ground bounce generated during HIGH-to-LOW transitions, it should
be noted that the ground bounce is also generated during LOW-to-HIGH transitions. This ground bounce
though, has a much smaller amplitude and therefore does not present the same concern.
There are many factors which affect the amplitude of the ground bounce. Included are:
• Number of outputs switching simultaneously: more outputs results in more ground bounce.
• Type of output load: capacitive loads generate two to three times more ground bounce than typical
system traces. Increasing the capacitive load to approximately 60–70 pF, increases ground bounce.
Beyond 70 pF, ground bounce drops off due to the filtering effect of the load itself. Moving the load
away from the output also reduces the ground bounce.
• Location of the output pin: outputs closer to the ground pin exhibit less ground bounce than those
further away due to effectively lower L1 and L3.
• Voltage: lowering VCC reduces ground bounce.
Ground bounce produces several symptoms:
• Altered device states.
• Propagation delay degradation.
• Undershoot on active outputs. The worst-case undershoot will be approximately equal to the worstcase quiet output noise.
11
NOISE SUPPRESSION TECHNIQUES
EMI control techniques involve both hardware implementations and methods and procedures. They may
also be divided into intra-system and inter-system EMI control. Our major concern in this Application Note
is intra-system EMI control, however, an overview of each may be appropriate at this time.
14
AN-643 EMI/RFI Board Design
SNLA016B – May 2004 – Revised May 2004
Submit Documentation Feedback
Copyright © 2004, Texas Instruments Incorporated
Intra-System EMI-Control Techniques
www.ti.com
Figure 21 illustrates the basic elements of concern in an intra-system EMI problem. The test specimen
may be a single box, an equipment, subsystem, or system (an ensemble of boxes with interconnecting
cables). From a strictly near-sighted or selfish point-of-view, the only EMI concern would appear to be
degradation of performance due to self jamming such as suggested at the top of the figure. While this
might be the primary emphasis, the potential problems associated with either (1) susceptibility to outside
conducted and/or radiated emissions or (2) tendency to pollute the outside world from its own undesired
emissions, come under the primary classification of intra-system EMI. Corresponding EMI-control
techniques, however, address themselves to both self-jamming and emission/susceptibility in accordance
with applicable EMI specifications. The techniques that will be discussed include filtering, shielding, wiring,
and grounding.
Inter-system EMI distinguishes itself by interference between two or more discrete and separate systems
or platforms which are frequently under independent user control. Culprit emissions and/or susceptibility
situations are divided into two classes: (1) antenna entry/exit and (2) back-door entry/exit. More than 95%
of inter-system EMI problems involve the antenna entry/exit route of EMI. We can group inter-system EMIcontrol techniques by four fundamental categories: frequency management, time management, location
management, and direction management.
Figure 21. Intra-System EMI Manifestations
The first step in locating a solution is to identify the problem as either an inter-system or intra-system EMI
situation. Generally, if the specimen has an antenna and the problem develops from what exits or enters
the antenna from another specimen or ambient, then the problem is identified as an inter-system EMI one.
Otherwise, it is an intra-system EMI situation which we will discuss now.
12
Intra-System EMI-Control Techniques
12.1 Shielding
Shielding is used to reduce the amount of electromagnetic radiation reaching a sensitive victim circuit.
Shields are made of metal and work on the principle that electromagnetic fields are reflected and/or
attenuated by a metal surface. Different types of shielding are needed for different types of fields. Thus,
the type of metal used in the shield and the shield's construction must be considered carefully if the shield
is to function properly. The ideal shield has no holes or voids, and, in order to accommodate cooling
vents, buttons, lamps, and access panels, special meshes and “EMI-hardened” components are needed.
Once a printed-circuit board design has been optimized for minimal EMI, residual interference can be
further reduced if the board is placed in a shielded enclosure. A box's shielding effectiveness in decibels
depends on three main factors: its skin, the control of radiation leakage through the box's apertures or
open areas (like cooling holes), and the use of filters or shields at entry or exit spots of cables.
A box skin is typically fabricated from sheet metal or metallized plastic. Normally sheet metal skin that is 1
mm thick is more than adequate; it has a shielding effectiveness of more than 100 dB throughout the highfrequency spectrum from 1 MHz to 20 GHz. Conductive coatings on plastic boxes are another matter.
Table 2 shows that at 10 MHz the shielding effectiveness can be as low as 27 dB if a carbon composite is
used, or it can run as high as 106 dB for zinc sprayed on plastic by an electric arc process. Plastic filled
materials or composites having either conductive powder, flakes, or filament are also used in box
shielding; they have an effectiveness similar to that of metallized plastics.
SNLA016B – May 2004 – Revised May 2004
Submit Documentation Feedback
AN-643 EMI/RFI Board Design
Copyright © 2004, Texas Instruments Incorporated
15
Intra-System EMI-Control Techniques
www.ti.com
Table 2.
Shielding Material
Silver Acrylic
Surface Resistance
Ohms/Square
(1)
Shielding Effectiveness, dB
,
At 10 MHz
At 100 MHz
At 1 GHz
0.004
67
93
97
0.1
59
81
87
0.05
57
82
89
3.0
35
47
57
10.0
27
35
41
0.002
106
92
98
N.A.
86
66
48
Paint
Silver Epoxy
Paint
Silver
Deposition
Nickel
Composite
Carbon
Composite
Arc-Sprayed
Zinc
Wire Screen
(0.64 mm Grid)
(1)
Effectiveness of shielding materials with 25-μm thickness and for frequencies for which the largest dimension of the shielding
plate is less than a quarter of a wavelength.
In many cases shielding effectiveness of at least 40 dB is required of plastic housings for microcontrollerbased equipment to reduce printed-circuit board radiation to a level that meets FCC regulations in the
United States or those of the VDE in Europe. Such skin shielding is easy to achieve. The problem is
aperture leakage. The larger the aperture, the greater its radiation leakage because the shield's natural
attenuation has been reduced. On the other hand, multiple small holes matching the same area as the
single large aperture can attain the same amount of cooling with little or no loss of attenuation properties.
12.2 Filtering
Filters are used to eliminate conducted interference on cables and wires, and can be installed at either the
source or the victim. Figure 22 shows an AC power-line filter. The values of the components are not
critical; as a guide, the capacitors can be between 0.01 and 0.001 μF, and the inductors are nominally 6.3
μH. Capacitor C1 is designed to shunt any high-frequency differential-mode currents before they can enter
the equipment to be protected. Capacitors C2 and C3 are included to shunt any common-mode currents
to ground. The inductors, L1 and L2, are called common-mode chokes, and are placed in the circuit to
impede any common-mode currents.
Figure 22. Filtering
12.3 Wiring
Now that the equipment in each box can be successfully designed to combat EMI emission and
susceptibility separately, the boxes may be connected together to form a system. Here the input and
output cables and, to a lesser extent, the power cable form an “antenna farm” that greatly threatens the
overall electromagnetic compatibility of the system. Most field remedies for EMI problems focus on the
coupling paths created by the wiring that interconnects systems. By this time most changes to the
individual equipment circuits are out of the question.
Let us address five coupling paths that are encountered in typical systems comprised of two or more
pieces of equipment connected by cables. These should adequately cover most EMI susceptibility
problems. They are:
16
AN-643 EMI/RFI Board Design
SNLA016B – May 2004 – Revised May 2004
Submit Documentation Feedback
Copyright © 2004, Texas Instruments Incorporated
Intra-System EMI-Control Techniques
www.ti.com
•
•
•
•
•
A common ground impedance coupling—a conducting path in which a common impedance is shared
between an undesired emission source and the receptor.
A common-mode, radiated field-to-cable coupling, in which electromagnetic fields penetrate a loop
formed by two pieces of equipment, a cable connecting them, and a ground plane.
A differential-mode, radiated field-to-cable coupling, in which the electromagnetic fields penetrate a
loop formed by two pieces of equipment and an interconnecting transmission line or cable.
A crosstalk coupling, in which signals in one transmission line or cable are capacitively or inductively
coupled into another transmission line.
A conductive paththrough power lines feeding the equipment.
The first coupling path is formed when two pieces of equipment are connected to the same ground
conductor at different points, an arrangement that normally produces a voltage difference between the two
points. If possible, connecting both pieces of equipment to a single-point ground eliminates this voltage.
Another remedy is to increase the impedance along a loop that includes the path between the ground
connections of the two boxes. Examples include the isolation of printed-circuit boards from their cabinet or
case, the use of a shielded isolation transformer in the signal path, or the insertion of an inductor between
one or both boxes and the ground conductor. The use of balanced circuits, differential line drivers and
receivers, and absorbing ferrite beads and rods on the interconnecting cable can further reduce currents
produced by this undesirable coupling path.
Common Ground Impedance Coupling
A balanced circuit is configured so its two output signal leads are electrically symmetrical with respect to
ground, as the signal increases on one output the signal on the other decreases. Differential line drivers
produce a signal that is electrically symmetrical with respect to ground from a single-ended circuit in which
only one lead is changing with respect to ground. Ferrite beads, threaded over electrical conductors,
substantially attentuate electromagnetic interference by turning radio-frequency energy into heat, which is
dissipated in them.
In the second coupling path, a radiated electromagnetic field is converted into a common-mode voltage in
the ground plane loop containing the interconnect cable and both boxes. This voltage may be reduced if
the loop area is trimmed.
Common-Mode, Radiated Field-to-Cable Coupling
The third coupling path produces a differential-mode voltage that appears across the input terminals of the
EMI receptor. One way of controlling this is to cancel or block the pickup of differential-mode radiation. In
a balanced transmission line, this is done by use of twisted-wire pairs and a shielded cable.
SNLA016B – May 2004 – Revised May 2004
Submit Documentation Feedback
AN-643 EMI/RFI Board Design
Copyright © 2004, Texas Instruments Incorporated
17
Intra-System EMI-Control Techniques
www.ti.com
As for crosstalk, the fourth coupling path—the reduction of capacitive coupling can be achieved by the
implementation of at least one of these steps:
• Reducing the spacing between wire pairs in either or both of the transmission lines.
• Increasing the separation between the two transmission lines.
• Reducing the frequency of operation of the source, if possible.
• Adding a cable shield over either or both transmission lines.
• Twisting the source's or receptor's wire pairs.
• Twisting both wire pairs in opposite directions.
The fifth coupling path conductively produces both common-mode and differential-mode noise pollution on
the power mains. Among several remedies that can suppress the EMI here are the filters and isolation
transformers.
There are only about 50 common practical remedies that can be used in most EMI situations. Of these,
about 10 suffice in 80 percent of the situations. Most engineers are aware of at least some of these
remedies—for example, twisting wires to reduce radiation pickup.
In order to attack the EMI problem, one can make use of the information contained in Table 3. First,
decide what coupling path has the worst EMI interference problem. From the 11 most common coupling
paths listed at the top of the table, find the problem coupling path. Using the numbers found in that table
entry, locate the recommended remedy or remedies from the 12 common EMI fixes identified at the
bottom of the table. This procedure should be repeated until all significant coupling paths have been
properly controlled and the design goal has been met.
12.4 Inter-System EMI Control Techniques
There are many EMI controls that may be carried out to enhance the chances of inter-system EMC. They
can be grouped into four categories which we will discuss briefly. The following discussion is not intended
to be complete but merely provide an overview of some EMI control techniques available to the
intersystem designer and user.
Frequency management suggests both transmitter emission control and improvement of receptors against
spurious responses. The object is to design and operationally maintain transmitters so that they occupy
the least frequency spectrum possible in order to help control electromagnetic pollution. For example, this
implies that long pulse rise and fall times should be used. Quite often one of the most convenient,
economic and rapid solutions to an EMI problem in the field, is to change frequency of either the victim
receiver or the culprit source.
In those applications where information is passed between systems, a possible time management
technique could be utilized where the amount of information transferred is kept to a minimum. This should
reduce the amount of time that the receptor is susceptible to any EMI. In communication protocols, for
example, essential data could be transmitted in short bursts or control information could be encoded into
fewer bits.
Location management refers to EMI control by the selection of location of the potential victim receptor with
respect to all other emitters in the environment. In this regard, separation distance between transmitters
and receivers is one of the most significant forms of control since interfering source emissions are reduced
greatly with the distance between them. The relative position of potentially interfering transmitters to the
victim receiver are also significant. If the emitting source and victim receiver are shielded by obstacles, the
degree of interference would be substantially reduced.
Direction management refers to the technique of EMI control by gainfully using the direction and attitude of
arrival of electromagnetic signals with respect to the potential victim's receiving antenna.
Table 3. Electromagnetic Interference Coupling Paths
Radiated Field to Interconnecting Cable
2, 7, 8, 9, 11
Radiated Field to Box
12, 13
2, 5, 6
Box to Radiated Field
12, 13
1, 3, 9, 11
Box-to-Box Radiation
12, 13
(Common-Mode)
Radiated Field to Interconnecting Cable
(Differential-Mode)
Interconnecting Cable to Radiated Field
18
AN-643 EMI/RFI Board Design
SNLA016B – May 2004 – Revised May 2004
Submit Documentation Feedback
Copyright © 2004, Texas Instruments Incorporated
DESIGN GUIDELINES
www.ti.com
Table 3. Electromagnetic Interference Coupling Paths (continued)
(Common-Mode)
Interconnecting Cable to Radiated Field
1, 3, 5, 6, 7
Box-to-Box Conduction
1, 2, 7, 8, 9
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 11
Power Mains to Box Conduction
4, 11
Box to Power Mains Conduction
4
(Differential-Mode)
Cable-to-Cable Crosstalk
Electromagnetic Interference Fixes
1. Insert Filter In Signal Source
2. Insert Filter in Signal Receptor
3. Insert Filter in Power Source
4. Insert Filter in Power Receptor
5. Twist Wire Pair
6. Shield Cable
7. Use Balanced Circuits
8. Install Differential Line Drivers and Receivers
9. Float Printed Circuit Board(s)
10. Separate Wire Pair
11. Use Ferrite Beads
12. Use a Multilayer Instead of a Single-Layer Printed Circuit Boards
13
DESIGN GUIDELINES
The growth of concern over electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) in electronic systems continues to rise in
the years since the FCC proclaimed that there shall be no more pollution of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Still, designers have not yet fully come to grips with a major source and victim of electromagnetic
interference—the printed circuit board. The most critical stage for addressing EMI is during the circuit
board design. Numerous tales of woe can be recounted about the eleventh hour attempt at solving an EMI
problem by retrofit because EMC was given no attention during design. This retrofit ultimately costs much
more than design stage EMC, holds up production, and generally makes managers unhappy. With these
facts in mind, let's address electromagnetic compatibility considerations in printed circuit board design.
14
Logic Selection
Logic selection can ultimately dictate how much attention must be given to EMC in the total circuit design.
The first guideline should be: use the slowest speed logic that will do the job. Logic speed refers to
transition times of output signals and gate responses to input signals. Many emissions and susceptibility
problems can be minimized if a slow speed logic is used. For example, a square wave clock or signal
pulse with a 3 ns rise time generates radio frequency (100 MHz and higher) energy that is gated about on
the PC board. It also means that the logic can respond to comparable radio frequency energy if it gets
onto the boards.
The type of logic to be used is normally an early design decision, so that control of edge speeds and,
hence, emissions and susceptibility is practical early. Of course, other factors such as required system
performance, speed, and timing considerations must enter into this decision. If possible, design the circuit
with a slow speed logic. The use of slow speed logic, however, does not guarantee that EMC will exist
when the circuit is built; so proper EMC techniques should still be implemented consistently during the
remainder of the circuit design.
SNLA016B – May 2004 – Revised May 2004
Submit Documentation Feedback
AN-643 EMI/RFI Board Design
Copyright © 2004, Texas Instruments Incorporated
19
Component Layout
15
www.ti.com
Component Layout
Component layout is the second stage in PC board design. Schematics tell little or nothing about how
systems will perform once the board is etched, stuffed, and powered. A circuit schematic is useful to the
design engineer, but an experienced EMC engineer refers to the PC board when troubleshooting. By
controlling the board layout in the design stage, the designer realizes two benefits: (1) a decrease in EMI
problems when the circuit or system is sent for EMI or quality assurance testing; and (2) the number of
EMI coupling paths is reduced, saving troubleshooting time and effort later on.
Some layout guidelines for arranging components according to logic speed, frequency, and function are
shown in Figure 23. These guidelines are very general. A particular circuit is likely to require a
combination and/or tradeoffs of the above arrangements. Isolation of the I/O from digital circuitry is
important where emissions or susceptibility may be a problem. For the case of emissions, a frequently
encountered coupling path involves a digital energy coupling through I/O circuitry and signal traces onto
I/O cables and wires, where the latter subsequently radiate. When susceptibility is a problem, it is common
for the EMI energy to couple from I/O circuits onto sensitive digital lines, even though the I/O lines may be
“opto-coupled” or otherwise supposedly isolated. In both situations, the solution often lies in the proper
electrical and physical isolation of analog and low speed digital lines from high speed circuits. When high
speed signals are designed to leave the board, the reduction of EMI is usually performed via shielding of
I/O cables and is not considered here.
Therefore, a major guideline in laying out boards is to isolate the I/O circuitry from the high speed logic.
This method applied even if the logic is being clocked at “only” a few MHz. Often, the fundamental
frequency is of marginal interest, with the harmonics generated from switching edges of the clock being
the biggest emission culprits. Internal system input/output PCB circuity should be mounted as close to the
edge connector as possible and capacitive filtering of these lines may be necessary to reduce EMI on the
lines.
High speed logic components should be grouped together. Digital interface circuitry and I/O circuitry
should be physically isolated from each other and routed on separate connectors, if possible as shown in
Figure 23d.
• No High Frequency Signals to the Backplane
20
AN-643 EMI/RFI Board Design
SNLA016B – May 2004 – Revised May 2004
Submit Documentation Feedback
Copyright © 2004, Texas Instruments Incorporated
Power Supply Bussing
www.ti.com
Figure 23. Board Layout
16
Power Supply Bussing
Power supply bussing is the next major concern in the design phase. Isolated digital and analog power
supplies must be used when mixing analog and digital circuitry on a board. The design preferably should
provide for separate power supply distribution for both the analog and digital circuitry. Single point
common grounding of analog and digital power supplies should be performed at one point and one point
only—usually at the motherboard power supply input for multi-card designs, or at the power supply input
edge connector on a single card system. The fundamental feature of good power supply bussing,
however, is low impedance and good decoupling over a large range of frequencies. A low impedance
distribution system requires two design features: (1) proper power supply and return trace layout and (2)
proper use of decoupling capacitors.
At high frequencies, PCB traces and the power supply busses (+VCC and 0V) are viewed as transmission
lines with associated characteristic impedance, ZO, as modeled in Figure 24. The goal of the designer is to
maximize the capacitance between the lines and minimize the self-inductance, thus creating a low ZO.
Table 4 shows the characteristic impedance of various two-trace configurations as a function of trace
width, W, and trace separation, h.
SNLA016B – May 2004 – Revised May 2004
Submit Documentation Feedback
AN-643 EMI/RFI Board Design
Copyright © 2004, Texas Instruments Incorporated
21
Power Supply Bussing
www.ti.com
Table 4.
(1)
(1)
*Mylar dielectric assumed: DC = 5.0; D≫ nearby ground plane
**Paper base phenolic or glass epoxy assumed: DC = 4.7
(3)
where LO and CO are, respectively, the distributed inductance and capacitance per unit length of the line
Figure 24.
Any one of the three configurations may be viewed as a possible method of routing power supply (or
signal) traces. The most important feature of Table 4 is the noticeable difference in impedance between
the parallel strips and strip over ground plane compared with the side-by-side configurations.
As an example of the amount of voltage that can be generated across the impedance of a power bus,
consider TTL logic which pulls a current of approximately 16 mA from a supply that has a 25Ω bus
impedance (this assumes no decoupling present). The transient voltage is approximately dV = 0.016 ×
25Ω = 400 mV, which is equal to the noise immunity level of the TTL logic. A 25Ω (or higher) impedance is
not uncommon in many designs where the supply and return traces are routed on the same side of the
board in a side-by-side fashion. In fact, it is not uncommon to find situations where the power supply and
return traces are routed quite a distance from each other, thereby increasing the overall impedance of the
distribution system. This is obviously a poor layout.
Power and ground planes offer the least overall impedance. The use of these planes leads the designer
closer to a multi-layer board. At the very least, it is recommended that all open areas on the PC board be
“landfilled” with a 0V reference plane so that ground impedance is minimized.
22
AN-643 EMI/RFI Board Design
SNLA016B – May 2004 – Revised May 2004
Submit Documentation Feedback
Copyright © 2004, Texas Instruments Incorporated
Decoupling
www.ti.com
Multi-layer boards offer a considerable reduction in power supply impedance, as well as other benefits. As
shown in Table 4, the impedance of a multi-layer power/ground plane bus grows very small (on the order
of an ohm or less), assuming a W/h ratio greater than 100. Multi-layer board designs also pay dividends in
terms of greatly reduced EMI, and they provide close control of line impedances where impedance
matching is important. In addition, shielding benefits can be realized. For high-density, high-speed logic
applications, the use of a multi-layer board is almost mandatory. The problem with multi-layer boards is
the increased cost of design and fabrication and increased difficulty in board repair.
17
Decoupling
High-speed CMOS has special decoupling and printed circuit board layout requirements. Adhering to
these requirements will ensure the maximum advantages are gained with CMOS devices in system
performance and EMC performance.
Local high frequency decoupling is required to supply power to the chip when it is transitioning from a
LOW to a HIGH value. This power is necessary to charge the load capacitance or drive a line impedance.
For most power distribution networks, the typical impedance can be between 50 and 100Ω. This
impedance appears in series with the load impedance and will cause a droop in the VCC at the part. This
limits the available voltage swing at the local node, unless some form of decoupling is used. This drooping
of rails will cause the rise and fall times to become elongated. Consider the example presented in
Figure 25 used to help calculate the amount of decoupling necessary. This circuit utilizes an octal buffer
driving a 100Ω bus from a point somewhere in the middle.
Figure 25.
Being in the middle of the bus, the driver will see two 100Ω loads in parallel, or an effective impedance of
50Ω. To switch the line from rail to rail, a drive of 94 mA is needed (4.8V/50Ω) and more than 750 mA will
be required if all eight lines switch at once. This instantaneous current requirement will generate a voltage
drop across the impedance of the power lines, causing the actual VCC at the chip to droop. This droop
limits the voltage swing available to the driver. The net effect of the voltage droop will be to lengthen
device rise and fall times and slow system operation. A local decoupling capacitor is required to act as a
low impedance supply for the driver chip during high current demands. It will maintain the voltage within
acceptable limits and keep rise and fall times to a minimum. The necessary values for decoupling
capacitors can be calculated with the formula given in Figure 26.
In this example, if the VCC droop is to be kept below 0.1V and the edge rate equals 4 ns, we can calculate
the value of the decoupling capacitor by use of the charge on a capacitor equation: Q = CV. The capacitor
must supply the high demand current during the transition period and is represented by I = C (dV/dt).
Rearranging this somewhat yields C = I (dt/dV).
SNLA016B – May 2004 – Revised May 2004
Submit Documentation Feedback
AN-643 EMI/RFI Board Design
Copyright © 2004, Texas Instruments Incorporated
23
Proper Signal Trace Layout
www.ti.com
Q = CV charge on capacitor
I = C dV/dt
C = I dt/dV = 750 mA x 4 ns / 0.1V = 0.030 μF
Select CB = 0.047 μF or greater
Figure 26.
Now, I = 750 mA assuming all 8 outputs switch simultaneously for worst case conditions, dt = switching
period or 4 ns, and dV is the specified VCC droop of 0.1V. This yields a calculated value of 0.030 μF for the
decoupling capacitor. So, a selection of 0.047 μF or greater should be sufficient.
It is good practice to distribute decoupling capacitors evenly throughout the logic on the board, placing one
capacitor for every package as close to the power and ground pins as possible. The parasitic induction in
the capacitor leads can be greatly reduced or eliminated by the use of surface mount chip capacitors
soldered directly onto the board at the appropriate locations. Decoupling capacitors need to be of the high
K ceramic type with low equivalent series resistance (ESR), consisting primarily of series inductance and
series resistance. Capacitors using 5ZU dielectric have suitable properties and make a good choice for
decoupling capacitors; they offer minimum cost and effective performance.
18
Proper Signal Trace Layout
Although crosstalk cannot be totally eliminated, there are some design techniques that can reduce system
problems resulting from crosstalk. In any design, the distance that lines run adjacent to each other should
be kept as short as possible. The best situation is when the lines are perpendicular to each other.
Crosstalk problems can also be reduced by moving lines further apart or by inserting ground lines or
planes between them.
For those situations where lines must run parallel as in address and data buses, the effects of crosstalk
can be minmized by line termination. Terminating a line in its characteristic impedance reduces the
amplitude of an initial crosstalk pulse by 50%. Terminating the line will also reduce the amount of ringing.
There are several termination schemes which may be used. They are series, parallel, AC parallel and
Thevenin terminations. AC parallel and series terminations are the most useful for low power applications
since they do not consume any DC power. Parallel and Thevenin terminations experience high DC power
consumption.
Series terminations are most useful in high-speed applications where most of the loads are at the far end
of the line. Loads that are between the driver and the end of the line will receive a two-step waveform. The
first wave will be the incident wave. The amplitude is dependent upon the output impedance of the driver,
the value of the series resistor and the impedance of the line according to the formula:
VW = V CC * Zoe/ (Zoe + RS + ZS)
(4)
Figure 27. Series Termination
The amplitude will be one-half the voltage swing if RS (the series resistor) plus the output impedance (ZS)
of the driver is equal to the line impedance (Zoe). The second step of the waveform is the reflection from
the end of the line and will have an amplitude equal to that of the first step. All devices on the line will
receive a valid level only after the wave has propagated down the line and returned to the driver.
Therefore, all inputs will see the full voltage swing within two times the delay of the line.
24
AN-643 EMI/RFI Board Design
SNLA016B – May 2004 – Revised May 2004
Submit Documentation Feedback
Copyright © 2004, Texas Instruments Incorporated
Ground Bounce
www.ti.com
Parallel terminations are not generally recommended for CMOS circuits due to their power consumption,
which can exceed the power consumption of the logic itself. The power consumption of parallel
terminations is a function of the resistor value and the duty cycle of the signal. In addition, parallel
termination tends to bias the output levels of the driver towards either V CC or ground depending on which
bus the resistor is connected to. While this feature is not desirable for driving CMOS inputs because the
trip levels are typically VCC/2, it can be useful for driving TTL inputs where level shifting is desirable in
order to interface with CMOS devices.
Figure 28. Parallel Termination
AC parallel terminations work well for applications where the increase in bus delays caused by series
terminations are undesirable. The effects of AC parallel terminations are similar to the effects of standard
parallel terminations. The major difference is that the capacitor blocks any DC current path and helps to
reduce power consumption.
Thevenin terminations are not generally recommended due to their power consumption.
Figure 29. AC Parallel Termination
Figure 30. Thevenin Termination
Like parallel terminations, a DC path to ground is created by the terminating resistors. The power
consumption of a Thevenin termination, though, will generally be independent of the signal duty cycle.
Thevenin terminations are more applicable for driving CMOS inputs because they do not bias the output
levels as paralleled terminations do. It should be noted that output lines with Thevenin terminations should
not be left floating since this will cause the undriven input levels to float between VCC and ground,
increasing power consumption.
19
Ground Bounce
Observing either one of the following rules is sufficient to avoid running into any of the problems
associated with ground bounce:
• First, use caution when driving asynchronous TTL-level inputs from CMOS octal outputs. Ground
bounce glitches may cause spurious inputs that will alter the state of non-clocked logic.
• Second, use caution when running control lines (set, reset, load, clock, chip select) which are glitchsensitive through the same devices that drive data or address lines.
– When it is not possible to avoid the above conditions, there are simple precautions available which
can minimize ground bounce noise. These are:
• Choose package outputs that are as close to the ground pin as possible to drive asynchronous TTLlevel inputs.
• Use the lowest VCC possible or separate the power supplies.
SNLA016B – May 2004 – Revised May 2004
Submit Documentation Feedback
AN-643 EMI/RFI Board Design
Copyright © 2004, Texas Instruments Incorporated
25
Components
•
20
www.ti.com
Use board design practices which reduce any additive noise sources, such as crosstalk, reflections,
etc.
Components
The interference effect by rectifier diodes, typically found in power supply sections of PC boards, can be
minmized by one or more of the following measures:
• Placing a bypass capacitor in parallel with each rectifier diode.
• Placing a resistor in series with each rectifier diode.
• Placing an R-F bypass capacitor to ground from one or both sides of each rectifier diode.
• Operating the rectifier diodes well below their rated current capability.
Figure 31. Connectors
21
Cables and Connectors
Several options are available to reduce EMI from a typical ribbon cable used to interconnect pieces of
equipment. These include:
• Reduce spacing between conductors (h in the figure) by reducing the size of wires used and reducing
the insulation thickness.
• Join alternate signal returns together at the connectors at each end of the cable.
• Twist parallel wire pairs in ribbon cables.
• Shield ribbon cable with metal foil cover (superior to braid).
• Replace discrete ribbon cable with stripline flexprint cable.
In the case of joining alternate signal returns, wire N is carryig the signal current, in, whereas its mates,
N−1 and N+1 wires are each carrying one half of the return currents, in−1 and in+1, respectively. Thus,
radiation from pair N and N−1 is out of phase with radiation from pair N and N+1 and will tend to cancel. In
practice, however, the net radiation is reduced by 20–30 dB with 30 dB being a good default value.
Figure 32. Alternating Signal Returns Minimizes Radiation
The opposite of this is to conserve signal returns by only using one, or two, wires to service N data lines in
a ribbon cable. For data lines farther from the return line, the differential mode radiation becomes so great
that this cable tends to maximize EMI radiation. Another disadvantage of this approach is poor impedance
control in the resulting transmission line. This could result in distortion of pulses and cause reflections,
especially for high-speed logic, and common return impedance noise in this single ground wire.
26
AN-643 EMI/RFI Board Design
SNLA016B – May 2004 – Revised May 2004
Submit Documentation Feedback
Copyright © 2004, Texas Instruments Incorporated
Special Considerations with Development Tools
www.ti.com
Figure 33. Single Signal Return Maximizes Radiation
Ideally, connectors should have negligible resistance for obvious reasons other than EMI control. They
should provide foolproof alignment to minimize the possibility of contact damage over time and use which
would increase the resistance and be prone to vibration and shock. Adequate force to provide good
mating between contacts which will insure low resistance and limit likelihood of damage. Connectors
should mate with little friction to minimize the effects of continual disconnections and connections
increasing the contact resistance with use as the contacts wear out. A contamination free design should
be used to avoid corrosion and oxidation increasing resistance and susceptibility to shock and vibration
causing intermittent contact.
22
Special Considerations with Development Tools
The following set of guidelines have been compiled from the experiences of the Development Systems
Group and the Microcontroller Applications Group in Santa Clara. They should be considered additional
techniques and guidelines to be followed concurrently with the standard ones already presented. Some
are general and some may be specific to development systems use.
Ground bounce prevention and minimization techniques presented in this Application Note should be
strictly adhered to when using '373 type transparent latches on the HPC's external address/data bus.
Multiple simultaneously switching outputs could produce ground bounce significant enough to cause false
latching. Observe good EMI planning by locating the latches as close to the HPC as possible. The use of
multi-layer printed circuit boards with good ground planes and following appropriate layout techniques is
also essential, especially if emulation will be done at frequencies above 10 MHz. With the foregoing
discussions about “antenna farms”, radiated noise, and ideal connector characteristics, it becomes
obvious that wire-wrap boards and the use of IC sockets is absolutely out of the question. The concern
here is not so much EMI affecting the outside world but EMI strangling the operation of the module itself.
The inputs to the buffers in a '244 type octal buffer package are placed adjacent or side-by-side outputs of
other buffers in the package. This configuration would tend to maximize the crosstalk or noise coupling
from the inputs to the outputs. On the other hand, the buffer inputs in a '544 type package are on one side
of the package and the outputs are on the other. The use of these package types in high speed designs
can facilitate board layout to help reduce the effects of crosstalk.
Use extra heavy ground wires between emulator and target board. Rely on the ground returns in the
emulator cable for reduction of differential-mode noise radiated from the cable but heavy-duty help is
required for reducing power line impedance in the integrated development system.
Unused HPC inputs, most importantly NMI and RDY/HLD, must be tied to VCC directly or through a pull-up
resistor. This not only tends to reduce power consumption, but will avoid noise problems triggering an
unwanted action.
In order to reduce the effects of noise generated by high speed signal changes, a sort of Frequency
Management technique might be applied. If possible, develop application hardware and software at a
slower crystal operating frequency. If ringing, crosstalk, or other combinations of radiated and conducted
noise problems exist, the result may be to move the problem from one point in the affected signal
waveform to a different point. Thus, apparent “noise glitches” that caused a latch to erroneously trigger
when the input data was still changing, may now come at a time when they are non-destructive such as at
a point when the input data is now stable.
Some applications require driving the HPC clock input, CKI, with an external signal. The emulator tools
are all clocked using a crystal network with the HPC so that the generation of the system timing is
contained on the tool itself. Consequently, there is no connection between the emulator cable connector
on the tool and the CKI pin at the HPC. However, when the emulator cable is now inserted into the target
board, the target board's clock signal travelling along the cable couples noise onto adjacent signal lines
causing symptoms pointing to an apparent failure of the emulator tool. The recommendation is to disable
the clock drive to the CKI pin at the HPC pad on the target board whenever the emulator tool is
SNLA016B – May 2004 – Revised May 2004
Submit Documentation Feedback
AN-643 EMI/RFI Board Design
Copyright © 2004, Texas Instruments Incorporated
27
NOISE MEASUREMENT
www.ti.com
connected. The emulator tools supply the system clock so there is no need for the clock on the target and
signal crosstalk on the emulator cable can be greatly reduced with minimal implementation. If one insists
that the emulator tool and the target be synchronous, then bring the clock signal from the target to the
emulator tool external to the emulator cable via twisted wire pair or coax cable. Remove the clock drive
connection to CKI at the target to prevent the signal from entering the cable. Finally, remove crystal
components on emulator tool to prevent problems with the signal.
Connecting boards and modules together to make a totally unique system in which EMC was practiced is
necessary to ensure little problem with the environment. But, connecting an emulator tool makes it an
entirely new and unique system, both in physical and electrical properties. Treat the emulator tool as part
of the system during the design phase and development phase.
23
NOISE MEASUREMENT
The basic purpose of FCC Part 15J is to minimize the jamming of commercial broadcasting systems by
computer devices. Toward this end, the FCC has established test limits, for both conducted and radiated
emissions, which must be met. These two tests together span the frequency range from 450 kHz to 1000
MHz. To accomplish FCC Part 15J testing requires the following equipment and associated support items:
• EMC Receivers or Spectrum Analyzers to cover the frequency range from 450 kHz to 1000 MHz.
• Dipole antennas (2) to cover the frequency range from 30 MHz to 1000 MHz.
• Masts or supports which will allow antenna elevation to be increased to at least 4 meters and also
allow the polarization to be changed.
• Line impedance stabilization networks (LISN) built in accordance with CISPR requirements. These are
50Ω, 50 μH devices and are inserted between power mains and test item to permit making repeatable
conducted EMI measurements.
• Power line filters.
• An appropriate test site.
24
Environment
The most controversial item on the test requirement list is the appropriate test site. The FCC required
emission limits are comparable with the ambient RF level. These low limits and the noisy ambient would
indicate that the tests should be made in a shielded enclosure. Unfortunately, all shielded enclosures
introduce significant errors into the radiated measurements because of room reflections, room
resonances, and antenna loading. To reduce the magnitude of these problems, the FCC has specified that
measurements should be made at an open-field test site. Open-field test sites frequently have high
ambient levels especially in the FM broadcast band. They may also have ground reflection variations as a
function of soil moisture.
The FCC will permit the use of anechoic shielded enclosures which have reduced reflections, provided an
error analysis is made to show correlation of interior RF levels with those of an open-field test site. The
cost of an anechoic enclosure is its major drawback. For measurements other than for certification, the
test site does not have to be in accordance with government regulations. There are also alternatives
where an agency or private company will perform the tests for you at their facility for a nominal fee.
Many manufacturers are using shielded enclosures that they have constructed on site or purchased from
one of the shielded enclosures manufacturers. The measurement requirement is that the RF ambient
levels should be 6 dB or more below the specifications limits. This may require 20 dB worth of aluminum
foil or 160 dB worth of electrical seals. Only a site survey can provide that answer. In any case, some
margin of safety should be made, 6–10 dB, plus periodic check for reflection problems.
28
AN-643 EMI/RFI Board Design
SNLA016B – May 2004 – Revised May 2004
Submit Documentation Feedback
Copyright © 2004, Texas Instruments Incorporated
Instrumentation
www.ti.com
25
Instrumentation
After the appropriate test site has been obtained, whether a room or a quiet open field, then the testing
can begin. If the equipment to be tested is not floor standing, the test sample is placed on a nonconducting stand 80 cm high and at least 40 cm from the wall of the enclosure. Antennas are then set up
so that radiated emission levels can be measured. The test sample should be loaded with full electrical
and mechanical loads and operated in a manner that closely approximates normal operation. During
operation of the equipment under test, the EMI measuring equipment is used to determine the amplitude
of the radiated emission.
At NSC, we have a spectrum analyzer than can be attached to a Personal Computer that runs software to
control experiments and report results. It automatically marks the computer display with FCC limits for
quick comparison with the amplitude of the emissions signal. This setup is outside the shielded enclosure
and can be used to determine if the equipment under test is failing any FCC requirements.
If the test sample fails, we can move inside the room and use near-field probes to help pinpoint the source
of emissions. The spectrum analyzer samples the signal generated by the source at many different
frequencies. The scale across the bottom of the screen is frequency and the scale along the side is signal
amplitude in dBuV/m. Thus, we can quickly determine where the peak amplitude of the generated noise is
located, read what level that is, and at what frequency it is being generated.
A little analysis and thought should then allow you to determine what signal could be the culprit. For
example, if the noise problem is at 16 MHz and the system clock is 16 MHz, then the basic clock signal is
causing the problem. If the noise problem is at even multiples of 16 MHz it could be caused by rise and
fall times on the 16 MHz clock or overshoot and undershoot on that clock. In the case of the HPC, since it
generates a clock output that is the system clock divided by 2 (CK2 = CKI/2), the noise frequency
generated at the multiple of the 16 MHz signal could also be due to CK2 or any device that is clocked by
that signal. Unfortunately for the investigator, everything else inside the part is clocked by CK2, which
includes bus transitions and input sampling.
26
Cost
Basically, the risks of no EMI control will include the following:
• Vehicle/System Performance Degradation
• Degradation to outside world equipment
• Personal Hazards
• Ordinance Hazards
• Acceptance Delays
The sum which can mean anything from a minor system or equipment performance compromise to the
total cancellation of a project.
The cost of EMI control will vary and include the following:
• Government procurement requirements
• Company proposal preparation
• EMI Control Plan
• Test Plan
• EMI Tests and Reports
A rough guideline that can be used might be:
1%–3% of $100 Million projects
3%–7% of $1 Million to $10 Million projects 7%–12% of small items
SNLA016B – May 2004 – Revised May 2004
Submit Documentation Feedback
AN-643 EMI/RFI Board Design
Copyright © 2004, Texas Instruments Incorporated
29
SUMMARY
27
www.ti.com
SUMMARY
The design and construction of an electromagnetically compatible printed circuit board does not
necessarily require a big change in current practices. On the contrary, the implementation of EMC
principles during the design process can fit in with the ongoing design. When EMC is designed into the
board, the requirements to shield circuitry, cables, and enclosures, as well as other costly eleventh hour
surprises, will be drastically reduced or even eliminated. Without EMC in the design stage, production can
be held up and the cost of the project increases.
28
REFERENCES
1. Atkinson, Kenn-Osburn, John-White, Donald, Taming EMI in Microprocessor Systems, IEEE
Spectrum, December 1985, pp 30–37
2. Balakrishnan, R. V., Reducing Noise on Microcomputer Buses, National Semiconductor Application
Note 337, May 1983
3. Brewer, Ron W., Test Methodology to Determine Levels of Conducted and Radiated Emissions from
Computer Systems, EMC Technology, July 1982, p 10
4. Engineering Staff, Don White Consultants, Inc., The Role of Cables & Connectors in Control of
EMI,EMC Technology, July 1982, pp 16–26
5. Fairchild Semiconductor, Design Considerations, Fairchild Advanced CMOS Technology Logic Data
Book, 1987, pp 4–3 to 4–12
6. Fairchild Semiconductor, Understanding and Minimizing Ground Bounce, Application Note DU-6,
August 1987
7. Interference Control Technology, Introduction to EMI/RFI/EMC, Course Notebook on
Electromagnetic Compatibility, August 1988
8. Violette, Michael F. and J.L., EMI Control in the Design and Layout of Printed Circuit Boards,EMC
Technology, March-April 1986, pp 19–32
9. Violette, Michael F., Curing Electromagnetic Interference, Radio-Electronics, November 1985, pp
50–56
10. Wakeman, Larry, High-Speed-CMOS Designs Address Noise and I/O Levels, National
Semiconductor Application Note 375, September 1984
11. White, Donald R. J., EMI Control Methods and Techniques, Electromagnetic Interference and
Compatibility — Vol 3, copyright 1988 by Interference Control Technologies
30
AN-643 EMI/RFI Board Design
SNLA016B – May 2004 – Revised May 2004
Submit Documentation Feedback
Copyright © 2004, Texas Instruments Incorporated
IMPORTANT NOTICE
Texas Instruments Incorporated and its subsidiaries (TI) reserve the right to make corrections, enhancements, improvements and other
changes to its semiconductor products and services per JESD46, latest issue, and to discontinue any product or service per JESD48, latest
issue. Buyers should obtain the latest relevant information before placing orders and should verify that such information is current and
complete. All semiconductor products (also referred to herein as “components”) are sold subject to TI’s terms and conditions of sale
supplied at the time of order acknowledgment.
TI warrants performance of its components to the specifications applicable at the time of sale, in accordance with the warranty in TI’s terms
and conditions of sale of semiconductor products. Testing and other quality control techniques are used to the extent TI deems necessary
to support this warranty. Except where mandated by applicable law, testing of all parameters of each component is not necessarily
performed.
TI assumes no liability for applications assistance or the design of Buyers’ products. Buyers are responsible for their products and
applications using TI components. To minimize the risks associated with Buyers’ products and applications, Buyers should provide
adequate design and operating safeguards.
TI does not warrant or represent that any license, either express or implied, is granted under any patent right, copyright, mask work right, or
other intellectual property right relating to any combination, machine, or process in which TI components or services are used. Information
published by TI regarding third-party products or services does not constitute a license to use such products or services or a warranty or
endorsement thereof. Use of such information may require a license from a third party under the patents or other intellectual property of the
third party, or a license from TI under the patents or other intellectual property of TI.
Reproduction of significant portions of TI information in TI data books or data sheets is permissible only if reproduction is without alteration
and is accompanied by all associated warranties, conditions, limitations, and notices. TI is not responsible or liable for such altered
documentation. Information of third parties may be subject to additional restrictions.
Resale of TI components or services with statements different from or beyond the parameters stated by TI for that component or service
voids all express and any implied warranties for the associated TI component or service and is an unfair and deceptive business practice.
TI is not responsible or liable for any such statements.
Buyer acknowledges and agrees that it is solely responsible for compliance with all legal, regulatory and safety-related requirements
concerning its products, and any use of TI components in its applications, notwithstanding any applications-related information or support
that may be provided by TI. Buyer represents and agrees that it has all the necessary expertise to create and implement safeguards which
anticipate dangerous consequences of failures, monitor failures and their consequences, lessen the likelihood of failures that might cause
harm and take appropriate remedial actions. Buyer will fully indemnify TI and its representatives against any damages arising out of the use
of any TI components in safety-critical applications.
In some cases, TI components may be promoted specifically to facilitate safety-related applications. With such components, TI’s goal is to
help enable customers to design and create their own end-product solutions that meet applicable functional safety standards and
requirements. Nonetheless, such components are subject to these terms.
No TI components are authorized for use in FDA Class III (or similar life-critical medical equipment) unless authorized officers of the parties
have executed a special agreement specifically governing such use.
Only those TI components which TI has specifically designated as military grade or “enhanced plastic” are designed and intended for use in
military/aerospace applications or environments. Buyer acknowledges and agrees that any military or aerospace use of TI components
which have not been so designated is solely at the Buyer's risk, and that Buyer is solely responsible for compliance with all legal and
regulatory requirements in connection with such use.
TI has specifically designated certain components as meeting ISO/TS16949 requirements, mainly for automotive use. In any case of use of
non-designated products, TI will not be responsible for any failure to meet ISO/TS16949.
Products
Applications
Audio
www.ti.com/audio
Automotive and Transportation
www.ti.com/automotive
Amplifiers
amplifier.ti.com
Communications and Telecom
www.ti.com/communications
Data Converters
dataconverter.ti.com
Computers and Peripherals
www.ti.com/computers
DLP® Products
www.dlp.com
Consumer Electronics
www.ti.com/consumer-apps
DSP
dsp.ti.com
Energy and Lighting
www.ti.com/energy
Clocks and Timers
www.ti.com/clocks
Industrial
www.ti.com/industrial
Interface
interface.ti.com
Medical
www.ti.com/medical
Logic
logic.ti.com
Security
www.ti.com/security
Power Mgmt
power.ti.com
Space, Avionics and Defense
www.ti.com/space-avionics-defense
Microcontrollers
microcontroller.ti.com
Video and Imaging
www.ti.com/video
RFID
www.ti-rfid.com
OMAP Applications Processors
www.ti.com/omap
TI E2E Community
e2e.ti.com
Wireless Connectivity
www.ti.com/wirelessconnectivity
Mailing Address: Texas Instruments, Post Office Box 655303, Dallas, Texas 75265
Copyright © 2012, Texas Instruments Incorporated
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertising