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Texas Instruments AN-912 Common Data Transmission Parameters and their Definitions (Rev. A) Application notes
Application Report
SNLA036A – May 2004 – Revised May 2004
AN-912 Common Data Transmission Parameters and their
Definitions
.....................................................................................................................................................
ABSTRACT
The scope of this application note is to introduce common data transmission parameters and to provide
their definitions. This application note is subdivided into five sections, which are:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Contents
Overview .....................................................................................................................
Voltage Parameters .........................................................................................................
2.1
INPUT VOLTAGE PARAMETERS ..............................................................................
Output Voltage Parameters ................................................................................................
Current Parameters .........................................................................................................
Timing Parameters ..........................................................................................................
Miscellaneous Parameters .................................................................................................
Truth Table Explanantions .................................................................................................
References ...................................................................................................................
2
2
2
4
5
8
9
9
9
List of Figures
1
Common Mode Voltage .................................................................................................... 2
2
Differential Input Voltage ................................................................................................... 3
3
Threshold Voltages ......................................................................................................... 3
4
Hysteresis Voltage .......................................................................................................... 3
5
VOD Test Circuit .............................................................................................................. 4
6
VOH Test Circuit .............................................................................................................. 4
7
VOL Test Circuit .............................................................................................................. 4
8
VOS Test Circuit .............................................................................................................. 5
9
Differential Output Steady State Voltage
10
VT Test Circuit ............................................................................................................... 5
11
IOS Test Circuit ............................................................................................................... 6
12
IOZ Test Circuit ............................................................................................................... 6
13
IOX Test Circuit ............................................................................................................... 7
14
Differential Output Current ................................................................................................. 7
................................................................................
5
TRI-STATE is a registered trademark of Texas Instruments.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
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Overview
1
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Overview
The scope of this application note is to introduce common data transmission parameters and to provide
their definitions. This application note is subdivided into five sections, which are:
• Voltage Parameters
• Current Parameters
• Timing Parameters
• Miscellaneous Parameters
• Truth Table Explanations
Each parameter definition typically includes the following information: symbol, full name, description of
measurement, measurement diagram, and a list of alternate names where applicable. Due to historical
reasons (Fairchild origin, National origin, second sourcing, etc.) some devices use alternate symbols for
the same parameters. Whenever possible, a list of common alternate symbols is provided for cross
reference. New and future devices from National's Data Transmission Products Group will use the
parameters as described in this application note for consistency and clarity reasons and to limit confusion.
This application note will be revised to add new parameters as required by new product definition.
In this application note the following symbols are used in test circuit diagrams. The measured parameter
symbol represents a PMU—Precision Measurement Unit located at the test points illustrated in the test
circuit. The PMU symbol also includes the parameter's name that is under test. The forced condition
represents a forced voltage or current which is required to make the parameter measurement. Once
again, it includes the parameter symbol that is being forced.
2
Voltage Parameters
2.1
INPUT VOLTAGE PARAMETERS
VCL—Input Clamp Voltage. An input voltage in a region of relatively low differential resistance that serves
to limit the input voltage swing.
VCM—Common Mode Voltage. The algebraic mean of the two voltages applied to the referenced
terminals, for example the receiver's input terminals. This voltage is referenced to circuit common
(ground). This parameter is illustrated in Figure 1 along with its mathematical equation.
Figure 1. Common Mode Voltage
VDIFF—Differential Input Voltage. The potential difference between the input terminals of the device
(receiver) with respect to one of the inputs (typically the inverting input terminal). This parameter may be a
positive or negative voltage, and commonly specifies the minimum operating voltage and the absolute
maximum differential input voltage. See Figure 2. VDIFF is also known as VID for input differential voltage.
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Voltage Parameters
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Figure 2. Differential Input Voltage
VIH—High-Level Input Voltage. An input voltage within the more positive (less negative) of the two
ranges of values used to represent the binary variables. For example an input voltage between 2.0V and
5.0V in the case of standard TTL logic.
NOTE: A minimum is specified that is the least positive value of the high-level input voltage for
which operation of the logic element within specification limits is guaranteed.
VIL—Low-Level Input Voltage. An input voltage within the less positive (more negative) of the two ranges
of values used to represent the binary variables. For example an input voltage between 0.0V and 0.8V in
the case of standard TTL logic.
NOTE: A maximum is specified that is the most positive value of the low-level input voltage for
which operation of the logic element within specification limits is guaranteed.
VTH—Positive-Going Threshold Voltage. The voltage level at a transition-operated input that causes
operation of the logic element according to specification, as the input voltage rises from a level below the
negative-going threshold voltage, VTL. See Figure 3. Note that VTH has also been used in the past to
specifiy both thresholds in one parameter. In this case, VTH represents the Threshold Voltages and
supports a minimum and maximum limit, for example, ±200 mV.
Figure 3. Threshold Voltages
VTL—Negative-Going Threshold Voltage. The voltage level at a transition-operated input that causes
operation of the logic element according to specification, as the input voltage falls from a level above the
positive-going threshold voltage, VTH. See Figure 3 above.
VHYS—Hysteresis. The absolute difference in voltage value between the positive going threshold and the
negative going threshold. See Figure 4. Hysteresis is the most widely symbolized parameter. Alternate
symbols include: VHY, VT+−VT−, VHYST, ΔVTH, VTH−VTL, and VHST.
Figure 4. Hysteresis Voltage
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Output Voltage Parameters
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Output Voltage Parameters
VOD—Output Differential Voltage. The output voltage between the output terminals of a differential driver
with input conditions applied that, according to the product specification, will establish a voltage level at
the output. This voltage is measured with respect to the inverting output of the differential driver. VOD is
defined as the voltage at true output (A, DOUT+, or DO) minus the voltage at the inverting output (B, DOUT−,
or DO*). Commonly an alpha-numeric suffix is added to designate specific test conditions. For example
the case of different resistive loads. Also a star “*” or over-score bar is used with the parameter to
designate the parameters' value with the opposite input state applied. This parameter has also been
designated Terminated Output Voltage (VT) in some datasheets.
Figure 5. VOD Test Circuit
ΔVOD—Output Voltage Unbalance. The change in magnitude of the differential output voltage between
the output terminals of a differential driver with opposite input conditions applied. ΔVOD is defined as:
ΔVOD=|VOD|−|VOD*|.
VOH—High Level Output Voltage. The output voltage at an output terminal with input conditions applied
that, according to the product specification, will establish a logic high level at the output. This voltage is
measured with respect to circuit common (ground). See Figure 6.
Figure 6. VOH Test Circuit
VOL—Low Level Output Voltage. The output voltage at an output terminal with input conditions applied
that, according to the product specification, will establish a logic low level at the output. This voltage is
measured with respect to circuit common (ground). See Figure 7.
Figure 7. VOL Test Circuit
VOS—Offset Voltage. The center point output voltage between the output terminals of a differential driver
with input conditions applied that, according to the product specification, will establish a voltage level at
the output. This voltage is measured with respect to the driver's circuit common (ground). Commonly a
star “*” or over-score bar is used with the parameter to designate the parameter's value with the opposite
input state applied (see Figure 8). This parameter is also referred to as VOC—Common Mode Voltage.
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Figure 8. VOS Test Circuit
ΔVOS—Offset Voltage Unbalance. The change in magnitude of the offset voltage at the output terminals
of a differential driver with opposite input conditions applied. ΔVOS is defined as:
ΔVOS=|VOS|−|VOS*|.
(1)
VSS—Steady State Output Voltage. The steady state differential output voltage is defined as |VOD|+|VOD*|.
This is typically a calculated parameter only, based on the formula shown above. The VOD parameter is
defined above and illustrated in Figure 5. VSS is equal to twice the magnitude of VOD and is shown in
Figure 9.
Figure 9. Differential Output Steady State Voltage
VT—Terminated Output Voltage. The output voltage at an output terminal with input conditions applied
that, according to the product specification, will establish a known logic level at the output. This voltage is
measured with respect to circuit common (ground) with a stated resistance, and may be a positive or
negative voltage. This parameter is typically used in conjunction with single-ended (unbalanced) line
drivers. See Figure 10.
Figure 10. VT Test Circuit
ΔVT—Terminated Output Voltage Unbalance. The change in magnitude of the terminated output voltage
at the output terminal of a single-ended line driver with opposite input conditions applied. ΔVT is defined
as:
ΔVT=|VT|−|VT*|.
4
(2)
Current Parameters
NOTE: Current is specified as magnitude value only, with the sign denoting the current direction
only. A negative sign defines current flowing out of a device pin, while a positive sign defines
current flowing into a device pin. The largest current limit is specified as a maximum, and
zero (0) by default is the smallest minimum. All future DTP datasheets will follow this
convention, and only some existing datasheets follow this convention.
IIH—High-Level Input Current. The current into (out of) an input when a high-level voltage is applied to
that input. Note that current out of a device pin is given as a negative value. Typically this parameter
specifies a positive maximum value for bipolar devices.
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Current Parameters
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IIL—Low-Level Input Current. The current into (out of) an input when a low-level voltage is applied to that
input. Note that current out of a device pin is given as a negative value.
II—Maximum Input Current. The current into (out of) an input when the maximum specified input voltage
is applied to that input. Note that current out of a device pin is given as a negative value.
IIN—Input Current. The current into (out of) a receiver input when a specified input voltage, or voltage
range is applied to that input. Note that current out of a device pin is given as a negative value. This
parameter is typically tested at the maximum voltage specified for the input. For differential receivers the
other input (not under test) is held at 0V (in the case of RS-422/3 and 485 receivers).
IING—Input Current, Power Up Glitch. The current into (out of) an input when a specified input voltage, or
voltage range is applied to that input. Note that current out of a device pin is given as a negative value.
This parameter applies to transceivers (RS-485) only, and is actually specifying the driver's performance
at a specific power supply level. Additionally the driver is biased such that it is enabled, with the specified
power supply voltage applied. This parameter assures that the driver is disabled by an internal circuit at
the specified power supply level, even though the enable pin is active. If the driver was enabled, IOS
current would be observed, instead of the combined measured current of driver TRI-STATE® leakage (IOZ)
plus receiver input current (IIN). For example VCC=3.0V is commonly referenced to represent a single point
in a power up/down cycle. (See AN-905 for more information on this parameter).
IOS—Output Short Circuit Current. The current into (out of) an output when that output is short-circuited
to circuit common (ground) or any other specified potential, with input conditions as noted, typically such
that the output logic level is the furthest potential from the applied voltage. This parameter commonly
includes an identifying suffix. For example IOSD represents the output short circuit current of a driver, while
IOSR represents the receiver's output short circuit current. Output short circuit current is also designated by
the following symbols: IO+, ISC, and IS. See Figure 11.
Figure 11. IOS Test Circuit
IOZ—TRI-STATE Output Current. The current into (out of) a TRI-STATE output having input (control)
conditions applied that, according to the product specification, will establish a high impedance state at the
output. This parameter commonly includes an identifying suffix. For example, IOZD represents the TRISTATE output current of a driver, while IOZR represents the receiver's TRI-STATE output current. In
addition IOZH and IOZL are also commonly used and denote the forced voltage (logic) level. See Figure 12.
Figure 12. IOZ Test Circuit
IOX—Power Off Leakage Current. The current flowing into (out of) an output with input conditions applied
that, according to the product specification, will establish a high impedance state at the output. Commonly
a known state is required on the power supply pin as an input condition. For example, power supply
terminal (VCC) equal to zero volts may be a required condition of an IOX parameter. See Figure 13.
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Figure 13. IOX Test Circuit
IOD—Differential Output Current. The current flowing between the output terminals of a differential line
driver with an external differential load applied that, according to the product specification, will establish a
known state at the output. See Figure 14.
Figure 14. Differential Output Current
IOH—High-Level Output Current. The current into (out of) an output terminal with input conditions applied
that, according to the product specification, will establish a logic high level at the corresponding output.
Note that current out of a terminal is given as a negative value.
IOL—Low-Level Output Current. The current into (out of) an output terminal with input conditions applied
that, according to the product specification, will establish a logic low level at the corresponding output.
Note that current out of a terminal is given as a negative value.
ICC—Supply Current. The current into the VCC supply terminal of the integrated circuit. Normally the
parameter is measured with all loads removed. It may also include a suffix that denotes that state of the
device. For example:
ICCD = Power Supply Current
(drivers enabled, receivers disabled)
ICCR = Power Supply Current
(receivers enabled, drivers disabled)
ICCZ = Power Supply Current
(drivers and receivers disabled)
ICCX = Power Supply Current
(sleep or shutdown mode)
IEE—Supply Current. The current into the VEE supply terminal of the integrated circuit. Normally the
parameter is measured with all loads removed. It may also include a suffix that denotes that state of the
device. Note that current out of a terminal is given as a negative value. For example:
IEED = Power Supply Current
(drivers enabled, receivers disabled)
IEER = Power Supply Current
(receivers enabled, drivers disabled)
IEEZ = Power Supply Current
(drivers and receivers disabled)
IEEX = Power Supply Current
(sleep or shutdown mode)
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Timing Parameters
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Timing Parameters
tPLH—Propagation Delay Time, Low-to-High-Level Output. The time between specified reference points
on the input and output voltage waveforms with the output changing from a logic low level to a logic high
level.
tPHL—Propagation Delay Time, High-to-Low-Level Output. The time between specified reference points
on the input and output voltage waveforms with the output changing from a logic high level to a logic low
level.
tSK—Propagation Delay Skew. The magnitude difference between complementary propagation delays.
Skew is defined as |tPLH−tPHL|. This specification is a per channel parameter unless specified otherwise.
tPLHD—Differential Propagation Delay Time, Low-to-High-Level Output. The time between specified
reference points on the input and output differential voltage waveforms with the output changing from a
logic low level to a logic high level.
tPHLD—Differential Propagation Delay Time, High-to-Low-Level Output. The time between specified
reference points on the input and output differential voltage waveforms with the output changing from a
logic high level to a logic low level.
tSKD—Differential Propagation Delay Skew. The magnitude difference between complementary
differential propagation delays. Skew is defined as |tPLHD−tPHLD|. This specification is a per channel
parameter unless specified otherwise.
tPZH—Output Enable Time. The propagation delay time between the specified reference points on the
input (control) and output voltage waveforms with the TRI-STATE output changing from a high impedance
(off) state to a logic high level.
tPZL—Output Enable Time. The propagation delay time between the specified reference points on the
input (control) and output voltage waveforms with the TRI-STATE output changing from a high impedance
(off) state to a logic low level.
tPHZ—Output Disable Time. The propagation delay time between the specified reference points on the
input (control) and output voltage waveforms with the TRI-STATE output changing from logic high level to
a high impedance (off) state.
tPLZ—Output Disable Time. The propagation delay time between the specified reference points on the
input (control) and output voltage waveforms with the TRI-STATE output changing from logic low level to a
high impedance (off) state.
tPSH—Propagation Delay Time, Sleep-to-High-Level Output. The propagation delay time between the
specified reference points on the input (control) and output voltage waveforms with the output changing
from an off state to a logic high level.
tPSL—Propagation Delay Time, Sleep-to-Low-Level Output. The propagation delay time between the
specified reference points on the input (control) and output voltage waveforms with the output changing
from an off state to a logic low level.
tPHS—Propagation Delay Time, High-Level Output to Sleep. The propagation delay time between the
specified reference points on the input (control) and output voltage waveforms with the output changing
from logic high level to an off state.
tPLS—Propagation Delay Time, Low-Level Output to Sleep. The propagation delay time between the
specified reference points on the input (control) and output voltage waveforms with the output changing
from logic low level to an off state.
tr—Rise Time. The time between two specified reference points on an input waveform, normally between
the 10% and 90% or the 20% and 80% points, that is changing from low to high. Note, also commonly
specified as transition time (tTLH).
tf—Fall Time. The time between two specified reference points on an input waveform, normally between
the 10% and 90% or the 20% and 80% points, that is changing from high to low. Note, also commonly
specified as transition time (tTHL).
tTLH—Transition Time Low to High. The time between two specified reference points on an input
waveform, normally between the 10% and 90% or the 20% and 80% points, that is changing from low to
high. Note, also commonly specified as rise time (tr).
8
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tTHL—Transition Time High to Low. The time between two specified reference points on an output
waveform, normally between the 10% and 90% or the 20% and 80% points, that is changing from high to
low. Note, also commonly specified as fall time (tf).
tNW—Noise Pulse Width. The width in time of a pulse applied to a device. The parameter is commonly
specified with receivers that feature low pass noise filters. tNW is the pulse width assumed to be noise and
guaranteed to be rejected.
6
Miscellaneous Parameters
SR—Slew Rate. The time between two specified reference points on an output waveform, normally
between the ±3V level for TIA/EIA-232 (RS-232) drivers, divided by the voltage difference. Note, this
parameter is normally specified in Volts per microsecond (V/μs). A suffix may be added to denote different
loading conditions.
RIN—Input Resistance. The slope of the input voltage vs. input current curve of an input when a specified
voltage range is applied to that input and the current is measured. Note, that two points must be
measured for the parameter to be calculated correctly as RIN is defined as ΔV/ΔI not V/I.
ROUT—Output Impedance. The resulting output impedance calculated from measured currents at applied
voltages.
7
Truth Table Explanantions
Symbols generally associated with functional truth tables are listed below:
H or 1 = Logic High Level (steady state)
L or 0 = Logic Low Level (steady state)
Z = TRI-STATE® (high impedance off state)
X = irrelevant (input, including transitions)
8
References
ALS/AS IC Device Testing, ALS/AS Logic Databook. National Semiconductor Corp., 1990
Glossary of Terms, ALS/AS Logic Databook. National Semiconductor Corp., 1990
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