Texas Instruments | DVI on the Motherboard Using the TFP410 | Application notes | Texas Instruments DVI on the Motherboard Using the TFP410 Application notes

Texas Instruments DVI on the Motherboard Using the TFP410 Application notes
Application Brief
SLLA152 – SEPTEMBER 2003
DVI on the Motherboard Using the TFP410
Connectivity Solutions
ABSTRACT
Digital visual interface (DVI) may be thought of as a plug in card interface with significant
size and complexity. It can however, be easy to implement DVI on a motherboard using
the Intel 865G chipset and the TFP410 DVI transmitter. This application brief describes
some considerations for designers when implementing DVI on the 865G motherboard with
the TFP410.
Contents
General Description................................................................................................................................2
Fundamental Operation..........................................................................................................................2
Signal Connection ..................................................................................................................................3
Chipset Configuration........................................................................................................................3
Image Data Connections...................................................................................................................4
Voltage Reference ............................................................................................................................4
Configuration of the TFP410 .............................................................................................................5
I2C Operation ..........................................................................................................................................5
Level Shifting ..........................................................................................................................................5
Hot Plug Detection..................................................................................................................................5
Unused Inputs .........................................................................................................................................6
Driver Support.........................................................................................................................................6
Power Supply Decoupling......................................................................................................................6
DVI Routing High-Speed Differential Signal Traces ............................................................................7
DVI Connector Routing .....................................................................................................................7
Additional Components on DVI lines.................................................................................................8
PowerPadTM Connection.........................................................................................................................9
References.............................................................................................................................................10
Figure 1.
Figure 2.
Figures
DVI Transmitter Implementation Diagram........................................................................3
Power Supply Decoupling .................................................................................................7
Table 1.
Table 2.
Table 3.
Tables
Chipset Configuration Summary ......................................................................................4
Image Data Connections Between 865G Chipset and TFP410 ......................................4
TFP410 Configuration Pins ...............................................................................................5
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SLLA152 – SEPTEMBER 2003
General Description
The Texas Instruments TFP410 is one device in a family of TI PanelBusTM digital display
products that simplifies digital display systems design by offering value-added flexibility and
reliability to the system designer. The TFP410 is a DVI 1.0 compliant digital transmitter that
supports display resolutions ranging from VGA to UXGA in 24-bit, true-color pixel format. The
TFP410 can be configured to support 12-bit (dual edge) input mode for connection to the
graphics chipset DVO (Intel® Digital Video Output) port. Support is provided for the TFP410 in
Intel drivers.
The TFP410 combines PanelBusTM circuit innovation with TI’s advanced 0.18-um EPIC-5TM
CMOS process technology along with TI PowerPADTM package technology to achieve a reliable,
low-powered, low-noise, high-speed digital solution to digital visual interfacing.
Fundamental Operation
The TFP410 is a DVI (digital visual interface) compliant digital transmitter that is used in PC and
consumer electronics applications to encode and transmit T.M.D.S. encoded RGB pixel data
streams. In a digital display system, a host PC or workstation contains a DVI compliant
transmitter, like the TFP410. The TFP410 receives 24-bit pixel data along with appropriate
control signals from the DVO port of the graphics chipset and encodes them into a high-speed
low-voltage differential serial bit stream fit for transmission over a twisted-pair cable to a display
device. The display device, usually a flat-panel monitor or digital projector, requires a DVI
compliant receiver like the TI TFP401 to decode the serial bit stream back to the same 24-bit
pixel data and control signals that originated at the host. This decoded data can then be applied
directly to the display drive circuitry to produce an image on the display. Since the host and
display can be separated by distances up to 5 meters or more, serial transmission of the pixel
data is preferred. Configuration of the TFP410 is provided by I2C from the chipset. DDC for
the monitor is provided from the chipset. The TFP410 supports resolutions up to UXGA
(1600x1200.)
For details on the TFP410 transmitter, refer to the datasheet TFP410, PanelBus DVI Transmitter
(literature number SLDS145).
2
DVI on the Motherboard Using the TFP410
SLLA152 – SEPTEMBER 2003
865G
CHIPSET
DVO
TFP410
T.M.D.S.
DVI CONNECTOR
DVI CABLE
Level
shifter
DDC
DVI
MONITOR
CONFIGURATION
MOTHERBOARD DVI CIRCUITRY
Figure 1.
DVI Transmitter Implementation Diagram
Signal Connection
While the 865G chipset is referred to throughout this document, any chipset that uses the Intel
Extreme Graphics driver and has a DVO port will drive the TFP410. Refer to the appropriate
chipset datasheet and platform design guide.
Image data is available from the 865G chipset on the DVO lines multiplexed with the AGP signal
lines. When implementing DVI on the motherboard, the AGP signals are not used. The chipset
pin names use the AGP naming convention, but the DVO names are provided in the chipset
datasheet. Refer to the documentation for the chipset.
Chipset Configuration
The 865G chipset must be configured for DVO output to set the function of the multiplexed
AGP/DVO lines. Since the DVO mode could also drive an ADD (AGP Digital Display) card in
the AGP connector, configuration specific for the TFP410 transmitter on the motherboard is
needed. Table 1 shows a summary of the chipset configuration. Refer to the “Multiplexed Intel®
DVO Down” section of the Intel® 865G/865PE/865P Chipset Platform Design Guide for specific
requirements and the latest information.
DVI on the Motherboard Using the TFP410
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SLLA152 – SEPTEMBER 2003
Table 1.
Chipset Configuration Summary
Chipset signal
Connection
ADD_DET#
Pull low with 330 ohms
ADD_ID
Pull ADD_ID7 low with 330 ohms (ADD_ID = 0x7F)
GRCOMP
Pull to 1.5V with 43.2 ohms
GSWING
Not connected
GVREF
See the Voltage Reference section
Image Data Connections
The TFP410 can be connected to either of the DVO ports. Refer to the following table for signal
connections.
Table 2.
Image Data Connections Between 865G Chipset and TFP410
TFP410 Signal
Chipset Signal
Description
DATA[11:0]
DVOx_D[11:0]
Pixel data
HSYNC
DVOx_HSYNC
Horizontal sync
VSYNC
DVOx_VSYNC
Vertical sync
DE
DVOx_BLANK#
Video data enable
IDCK+
DVOx_CLK#
Pixel clock
IDCK-
DVOx_CLK
Pixel clock
Note: The “x” in the signal name refers to either the “B” or “C” port.
The differential clock should be connected as described to provide the proper data to the
TFP410 on the desired clock edge.
The trace length of data and control signals from the chipset to the transmitter should be kept as
close to equal as possible. Fast edges from data sources are expected to require consideration
of these traces as transmission lines. The transmitter does not provide termination of the signal
lines internal to the chip. Refer to routing and termination recommendations from the chipset
documentation.
Voltage Reference
The TFP410 must be operated in the low swing mode when connected to the DVO port of the
chipset. The TFP410 VREF input must be at the logic threshold voltage GVREF provided to the
chipset. This will be typically be provided by a divider from the logic voltage using 1-kohm
resistors. Refer to the “Multiplexed Intel® DVO Down” section of the Intel® 865G/865PE/865P
Chipset Platform Design Guide for specific requirements.
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DVI on the Motherboard Using the TFP410
SLLA152 – SEPTEMBER 2003
Configuration of the TFP410
The TFP410 is operated with I2C configuration when used with the 865G chipset and software
driver. All configuration signals for the TFP410 require 3.3-V signal levels. The configuration
pins should be used as shown in the following table. For additional information, refer to the
TFP410 datasheet.
Table 3.
Signal Name
TFP410 configuration pins
Terminal Number
Description
A[3:1]
6, 7, 8
I2C Address, tie to GND or leave open
to allow to default low.
ISEL/RST
13
Derived from system reset
BSEL/SCL
15
I2C clock, refer to the I2C section
DSLE/SDA
14
I2C data, refer to the I2C section
EDGE/HTPLG
9
Hot plug input, refer to the hot plug
section
PDz
10
Tie to ground
RESERVED
34
Tie to ground
DKEN
35
Tie to ground
TFADJ
19
Connect with 510 ohms to TVdd
I2C Operation
Two I2C busses are required from the chipset, one for configuration of the TFP410 and one for
the DDC lines. A level shifter is required for each. MI2C_DATA and MI2C_CLK should be used
for communication to the TFP410. MDVI_CLK and MDVI_DATA are used for the DDC line
communications. Refer to the chipset documentation for the latest recommendations on bus
use.
Level shifting
Intel has an application note describing level shifting of the I2C bus for DDC. The TI
SN74TVC3010 is a 10-bit voltage clamp that can be used for these level shifters. One side of
the device can be configured for the 1.5-V signals from the chipset, the other side can be used
for the 3.3-V signals for the TFP410 and the 5-V signals for the DDC bus.
Hot Plug Detection
The TFP410 can support the DVI hot plug pin with the HTPLG input. A voltage limiting circuit is
required to limit the high-level voltage (5 V) of the DVI connector to the maximum level for the
TFP410. Various circuits could be used, the simplest may be a few resistors and diodes. The
circuit should also ensure a low voltage at the TFP410 when the DVI cable is disconnected.
Interrupt support has been evolving with the drivers. If the hardware interrupt connection is
desired from the TFP410, the MSEN signal should be provided to the Chipset’s DVOBC_INTR#
signal. This connection was not tested on the ADD card on which this application brief is based.
DVI on the Motherboard Using the TFP410
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SLLA152 – SEPTEMBER 2003
Unused Inputs
Unused inputs to the TFP410 such as D[23:12] should be tied high or low and not be left
floating. For requirements of the chipset, refer to the 865G documentation.
Driver Support
The TFP410 is supported in the drivers for the 865G chipset starting with Intel(R) Extreme
Graphics Driver 13.0. When implementing the TFP410 on the motherboard, a SPD device is not
needed as on an ADD card. To provide information on the device for the driver, a Flex-AIM (.flx
file) is merged into the MBI (Modular BIOS Interface) portion of the SBIOS. Contact your Intel
FAE if assistance is need building the BIOS
Power Supply Decoupling
Power supply decoupling design can vary widely depending on the designer and system
requirements. Various techniques can give good results. It is important to provide a low
inductance path to the TFP410 power and ground pins as well as to the decoupling capacitors.
It is desirable to keep high frequency noise present on the system power out of the TFP410,
and also to keep any high-frequency currents generated by the TFP410 off the system supply.
The following suggestions may provide guidelines for the TFP410.
Use solid ground plane. If more than one ground plane is used, tie ground planes together with
as many vias as is practical. This provides a desirable return path for current. Each supply
should be on separate split power planes, where each power plane should be as large an area
as possible. Connect PanelBus transmitter power and ground pins and all by-pass capacitors
to the appropriate power or ground plane with a via. Vias should be as fat and short as
practical; the goal is to minimize the inductance.
The number and size of the decoupling capacitors required depends on the design of the circuit
board. The three power supplies for the chip, DVDD, PVDD, and TVDD should be treated
similarly:
Place one 0.1-uF capacitor as close as possible between each device power pin and ground.
A bulk decoupling capacitor such as a 10-uF or 22-uF tantalum capacitor should be placed on
the sub-plane between the supply and 0.1-uF capacitors.
A ferrite bead should be used to separate the sub-plane from the source.
Additional capacitors may be needed depending on the size of the sub-planes and impedance of
the ferrite beads and capacitors.
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DVI on the Motherboard Using the TFP410
SLLA152 – SEPTEMBER 2003
PanelBus
Transm itter
Ferrite
Bead
Power
supply
Power
Supply Pin
10uF
Figure 2.
.1uF
Power Supply Decoupling
DVI Routing High-Speed Differential Signal Traces
(TxC-, TxC+, Tx0-, Tx0+, Tx1-, Tx1+, Tx2-, Tx2+)
Trace impedance should be controlled for optimal performance, 50 ohms is recommended. Each
differential pair should be equal in length and symmetrical and should have equal impedance to
ground with a trace separation of 2x to 4x Height. A differential trace separation of 4X Height
yields about 6% cross-talk (6% effect on impedance).
We recommend that differential trace routing should be side-by-side, though it is not important
that the differential traces be tightly coupled together because tight coupling is not achievable on
PCB traces. Typical ratios on PCB’s are only 20-50%; 99.9% is the value of a well-balanced
twisted-pair cable.
Each differential trace should be as short as possible (<2” preferably) with no 90° angles. These
high-speed transmission traces should be on an outer layer with a continuous ground plane on
the next plane layer.
Operation at UXGA resolution requires careful construction of the transmission lines and
selection of high-quality cables and connectors.
DVI Connector Routing
Clear-out holes for connector pins should leave space between pins to allow continuous ground
through the pin field. Allow enough spacing in ground plane around signal pins vias, however.
Keep enough copper between vias to allow for ground current to flow between the vias. Avoid
creating a large ground plane slot around the entire connector; minimizing the via capacitance is
the goal.
DVI on the Motherboard Using the TFP410
7
SLLA152 – SEPTEMBER 2003
Additional Components on DVI Lines
TxC-, TxC+, Tx0-, Tx0+, Tx1-, Tx1+, Tx2-, Tx2+ signals all route directly from the device to the
DVI connector pins. Additional components are not recommended on these outputs. Most
components degrade the high-speed signal edges required for satisfactory operation at higher
DVI frequencies. If components are added, care must be taken to avoid stubs and capacitance
from mounting pads.
Reflections can occur from the DVI connector with a second reflection from the DVI transmitter.
This combination can affect the observed signal edge quality or cause symbol interference on
the DVI signal. Terminations may be considered to reduce these effects, but careful impedance
design, device placement, and trace routing are preferred methods. If terminations are
considered, various considerations should be made.
Parallel terminations reduce the signal swing and can cause violations of the DC specifications
on the DVI lines. Parallel termination also provides a low resistance DC path between the
transmitter system and DVI receiver system power supplies, which can produce problems when
trying to power down either system.
Series terminations may be ineffective in terminating the reflection at the transmitter since the
transmitter output will still be a high impedance. However they could potentially slow the signal
edge to avoid the reflection from the connector.
AC terminations prevent the DC current issues of the parallel termination; the added
capacitance of the components must be balanced against the termination benefit.
If ESD protection is added to the DVI lines, the protectors should be low capacitance. Care
should also be taken to insure the DVI termination voltage from the receiver does not feed
through the ESD device and power up the transmitting system.
Common-mode chokes designed for DVI may provide some benefit for the system designer.
8
DVI on the Motherboard Using the TFP410
SLLA152 – SEPTEMBER 2003
PowerPadTM Connection
The TFP410 is housed in a high-performance, thermally-enhanced, 64-terminal PAP
PowerPAD. package. Use of the PowerPAD package does not require any special
considerations except that the PowerPAD, which is an exposed die pad on the bottom of the
device, is a metallic thermal and electrical conductor. Therefore, if not implementing PowerPAD
PCB features, the use of solder masks (or other assembly techniques) may be required to
prevent any inadvertent shorting by the exposed PowerPAD of connection etches or vias under
the package. The recommended option, however, is to not run any etches or signal vias under
the device, but to have only a grounded thermal land as explained in the following sections.
Although the actual size of the exposed die pad may vary, the minimum recommended keepout
area for the TFP410 is 5.9 mm x 5.9 mm.
It is recommended that there be a thermal land, which is an area of solder-tinned-copper,
underneath the PowerPAD package. The thermal land varies in size, depending on the
PowerPAD package being used, the PCB construction, and the amount of heat that needs to be
removed. In addition, the thermal land may or may not contain numerous thermal vias
depending on PCB construction.
Other requirements for thermal lands and thermal vias are detailed in the TI application note
PowerPAD Thermally Enhanced Package Application Report, (SLMA002), available via the TI
Web pages at URL: http://www.ti.com.
For the TFP410, it is recommended that the PowerPAD be soldered to a thermal land grounded
to the low-impedance ground plane of the board. This improves not only thermal performance
but also the electrical grounding of the device. The recommended pad size for the grounded
thermal land is 5.9mm square minimum, centered in the device land pattern. The land size must
be as large as possible without shorting device signal terminals. The exposed PowerPAD may
be soldered to the thermal land using standard reflow soldering techniques.
DVI on the Motherboard Using the TFP410
9
SLLA152 – SEPTEMBER 2003
References
1.
2.
3.
4.
TFP410, PanelBus DVI Transmitter (SLDS145)
Intel® 865G/865PE/865P Chipset Platform Design Guide, Intel Corporation
Intel® 865G Chipset Datasheet, Intel Corporation
Design Recommendations for Display Compatibility on Intel® Integrated Graphics Chipsets,
Intel Corporation
5. PowerPAD Thermally Enhanced Package Application Report, (SLMA002)
6. Electro-static Discharge Protection of High Performance Integrated Circuits, AP-208, pages
13-14, California Micro Devices Corporation.
10
DVI on the Motherboard Using the TFP410
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