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Texas Instruments Live Insertion with Differential Interface Products Application notes
Application Report
SLLA107 - February 2002
Live Insertion With Differential Interface Products
Chris Sterzik
High Performance Linear Interface Products
ABSTRACT
This document discusses concerns, ramifications, and solutions for applications involving
live-insertion of interface circuits. Relevant and sometimes misused terms are defined,
including live-insertion, hot-plugging, and glitch-free operation. Elements of the circuit
solutions include failsafe receivers, drivers that are high impedance when disabled, and ESD
protection.
Contents
1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2
Part Destruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
3
Data Corruption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1 Glitch-Free Power Up/Down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2 Driver Disable: Eliminating Bus Contention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3 Rejection of Insertion Noise (Common-Mode Rejection) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4 Failsafe Receivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4
Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
5
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4
4
5
7
8
List of Figures
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
ESD Event . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ideal Contact Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Glitches in Power Up/Down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SN65LVDS050 Glitch-Free Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bus Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bus Contention During Insertion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Driver Disabled During Insertion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3
3
5
5
6
6
7
1
SLLA107
1
Introduction
Live insertion, hot plugging and hot swap are all terms that describe adding or removing devices
to or from a common data bus without removing power from the entire bus. Depending on the
source, each term may take on a different significance related to a level of performance or
isolation. In the context of this paper, the term live insertion is used in a general sense meaning
both insertion and removal of connections to an active bus and power cycling of connected
devices.
Convenience and high availability are two of the requirements that have brought about the need
for live insertion. The convenience of live insertion is found in the PC environment where
peripheral devices can be added without powering down the computer. Another arena of live
insertion is in high-availability systems, such as in telecommunications or data storage
environments, where redundancy and live insertion allow the performance of maintenance
without powering down or halting system activity.
The scope of live insertion design encompasses power management1 as well as integrated
circuit design, influencing all levels of design from system architecture to component selection.
Two primary concerns of designing live insertion devices are part destruction and data
corruption. The focus of this document is to look at integrated circuits (IC) solutions that address
these concerns and identify Texas Instruments(TI) low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS),
RS–485, and controller area network (CAN) interface features that provide these solutions.
2
Part Destruction
The first consideration should be the electrostatic discharge (ESD) experienced during insertion.
ESD is the most common cause of part failure and destruction. Figure 1 shows a possible ESD
event that could occur during live insertion, between a host and remote system due to connector
misalignment or a variance in the connector pin length. This event is not dependent upon a
power source, so ESD damage can also occur when no power is present (cold swap). From a
system standpoint, the most straightforward way of preventing the event is eliminating any
differences in potentials by establishing a ground connection before any other connection is
made. The ground connection provides a path for any current that might otherwise pass through
an IC. In Figure 2, the ground leads are longer than the other leads, ensuring a ground contact
first.
1TI offers several power management devices for hot swap applications. For more information regarding hot swap power
distribution devices refer to Power Management at TI’s homepage, http//www.ti.com.
2
Live Insertion With Differential Interface Products
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Contact
Sequence
Remote
GND
4
V CC
3
Signal+
2
Signal–
1
Host
VCC
GND
+
V (Potential)
–
Figure 1. ESD Event
Contact
Sequence
Remote
GND
1
VCC
2
Signal+
3
Signal–
3
Host
Figure 2. Ideal Contact Sequence
The use of an extended ground pin is not always a design option or useful in high-impedance
circuits. In cases where grounding does not remove the accumulated charge(s) it is very
important to pay attention to the interface IC and its ESD tolerance. The interface can be a
specialized interface IC or integrated in a more complicated structure, such as a field
programmable gate array (FPGA). The disadvantage of using an interface integrated with
higher-level functions is that, generally, input/output (IO) size limitations prevent high levels of
ESD tolerance. Specialized interface ICs are not restricted to standard IO pads and can
dedicate more silicon to dissipating destructive transient energy. When weighed against the cost
of system downtime or servicing, specialized interface ICs are often more cost effective over the
product lifetime.
Protection and specification against all potential noise transients is likely impossible and, at the
least, very expensive. A relative measure of the robustness of an interface is its ESD ratings.
The ESD capabilities are most often rated in terms of the human body model (HBM) and the
charged-device model (CDM). The CDM and HBM are described in JEDEC Standard 22 test
method C101 and test method A114–A, respectively and MIL–STD–883C. TI offers many
interface products with an HBM rating of 15 kV or higher. Although the HBM is intended as a
measure of tolerance to ESD events during handling, high HBM ESD ratings correlate to
robustness to other types of transient events including live insertion. These ratings are typically
specified for the bus pins with respect to ground.
Live Insertion With Differential Interface Products
3
SLLA107
3
Data Corruption
In addition to part destruction from ESD, another concern in live insertion applications is data
corruption. During live insertion, data corruption can occur for a number of reasons; glitches
during power up, bus contention, insertion noise, and indeterminate inputs.
A simple solution for preventing data corruption during live insertion is to halt bus activity during
live insertion. A drawback to this solution is the need to identify when a node is going to be
removed or inserted; but more importantly, the suspended bus activity precludes the use of this
solution in high-availability applications. In telecommunications, where redundancy and high
availability are critical components, the ability to replace or remove redundant devices without
impacting service or corrupting data is key to providing the five 9s of availability (99.999%).
If high availability requirements make halting the bus during insertion unattractive, then the
characteristics of the interface devices become critical. Key features to consider in part selection
of high availability systems are fail-safe, common-mode noise rejection, high impedance drivers,
and glitch-free power up/down.
3.1
Glitch-Free Power Up/Down
After ESD considerations, the next concern is data corruption due to the application of power to
an unpowered device. For example, in buses with a single transmitting node, a receiving node
may remain powered during live insertion (or power cycling) of the transmitter. Here, the driver
may be continuously enabled and an oscillation or glitch on a driver output during power up or
down may be interpreted as valid data. In this case, it is important that the driver output change
monotonically. The definition of glitch-free drivers is that the output makes only one transition,
from high impedance to a low or high state when powering up, and the reverse when powering
down. Figure 3 shows the glitches in a CMOS device during power up and power down, while
Figure 4 demonstrates the glitch-free operation of the SN65LVDS050. Ch4 is the Vcc of the
device, Ch1 and Ch3 are the differential driver outputs, and M1 is the differential voltage,
Ch1–Ch3. A more detailed explanation of how glitches occur can be found in SLLA065, A
Comparison of LinBiCMOS and CMOS Process Technology in LVDS Integrated Circuits.
4
Live Insertion With Differential Interface Products
SLLA107
Ch4 = VCC
Glitches
M1 = Ch1–Ch3
Ch1 = VCC
Ch3 = Out–
Ch3 = Out–
Ch3 = Out+
Ch3 = Out+
Figure 3. Glitches in Power Up/Down
3.2
Figure 4. SN65LVDS050 Glitch-Free Feature
Driver Disable: Eliminating Bus Contention
Unlike the single driver systems, which benefit from the glitch-free feature, multipoint systems
require multiple drivers with enable functions in order to prevent data corruption. In multipoint
systems a possible scenario of data corruption during live insertion is when a node being
inserted exerts a logic level on the bus while the bus is being driven to the opposite level by
another node. This is referred to as bus contention.
Bus contention can be demonstrated in the simple bus circuit shown in Figure 5. One end of a
bus is being driven by a transceiver, device A. The bus is terminated at both ends and Ch1 and
Ch2 monitor each conductor at the end of the bus opposite driver A. When another transceiver
(device B) is inserted onto the bus, and before the local controller can set control and data
inputs, the inserted device transitions from a high impedance state to a logic low.
Live Insertion With Differential Interface Products
5
SLLA107
PRBS
Input Open Circuit
A
B
A
Ch4
B
Ch1
Ch2
Pseudo – Random Bit Sequence (PRBS)
A
B
High
Impedance
Output of Device B Defaults to Logic
Low When Input is Open Circuit
Time at Which Ch4 (VCC) Exceeds
Threshold to Turn on Device.
Figure 5. Bus Configuration
There is contention, as shown in Figure 6, when device B tries to drive the bus low and device A
drives the bus high. This contention occurs immediately after Vcc of the inserted device (Ch4)
reaches the power-on reset threshold. Figure 6 also shows the increased voltage differential
when both are driving the same logic state.
Time When Driver B Leaves
High Impedance State
Ch4
Ch1
Driver A Alone is
Communicating on Bus
Bus A and Bus B
are in Contention.
Bus A is in a High
State and Bus B
is in a Low State
Both Bus A
and Bus B are
in High States,
Thus Adding
Ch2
Figure 6. Bus Contention During Insertion
6
Live Insertion With Differential Interface Products
SLLA107
Keeping the transceiver outputs (of the device being inserted) in a high-impedance state during
insertion and local controller initialization is required to prevent bus contention. TI transceivers
provide several features to help prevent bus contention during this transition period. First, most
driver enables are active high and have an internal pull-down resistor to disable the outputs with
no input. Second, power-on/reset circuits maintain a VCC threshold as high as possible such that
inputs are ignored and outputs kept in a high impedance state until this VCC threshold is
attained. The assumption is that the device controlling the enable pins of the transceiver has
become stable before the Vcc threshold is reached. If this is not the case, power management
devices can be used to control when VCC is supplied to the transceiver. In either case,
predictable output behavior from the interface circuit is desirable.
NOTE: Characteristics of the interface circuit should be verified in its data sheet.
Figure 7 is the result from a setup similar to Figure 5, but with the driver disabled when the
transceiver is inserted. Bus contention is also possible after insertion, however bus arbitration is
a function of the controller and not the interface devices.
Ch4
This is the Time When Driver B is Active
in This Scenario Driver B is Disabled
and Therefore Never Leaves The High
Impedance State.
Ch1
No Contention is Seen
Beyond The Power up of
Driver B Because The Output
is Held in a High Impedance
State.
Ch2
Figure 7. Driver Disabled During Insertion
3.3
Rejection of Insertion Noise (Common-Mode Rejection)
Insertion noise, due to bus-pin capacitance, can corrupt data in two ways. First, when inserted
onto an active bus, the capacitance can draw current that is being used to transmit a signal,
resulting in noise or ringing on the line. Second, the total capacitance of the node (pin,
connector, trace, IC) influences the characteristic impedance of the bus (Z=L/C) and will result in
noise on the line (reflections).
Live Insertion With Differential Interface Products
7
SLLA107
In a single-ended environment the noise from an insertion can corrupt the signal and justify the
need for extra circuitry to precharge the bus-pin capacitance. However, in differential
applications, this noise is seen equally on both sides of the differential pair, assuming that the
bus pins connect nearly simultaneously and do not disturb the differential signal. The
common-mode rejection, inherent to differential receivers, rejects the noise that is common to
both conductors, thus allowing for live insertion without additional design considerations for
precharging or other compensations. For a more in depth look at common-mode noise and
rejection refer to TI Application Note SLLA057, A Statistical Survey of Common Mode Noise.
3.4
Failsafe Receivers
In most data buses, there are periods when there is no input provided to the line receivers. A
predictable response to this condition is termed failsafe. The benefit of failsafe receivers is the
provision of a deterministic output instead of a random logic state or oscillation between states
due to noise on the line. During live insertion, all drivers are often disabled, allowing the bus to
settle to some voltage. If this voltage is near the receiver input voltage threshold, random noise
may cause the receivers to switch. The failsafe features of TI’s LVDS, RS–485, and CAN
products vary in complexity. The most basic failsafe feature is the output of a deterministic logic
state when the inputs to the receiver are open circuited. Other failsafe structures deal with input
voltages within the input voltage threshold range. The most advanced failsafe operation is the
patented active failsafe provided in the SN65LVDS33 and SN65LVDS34. The active failsafe
handles conditions of open- and short-circuited inputs. See reference 6 for detailed information
about failsafe and the active failsafe feature.
4
Conclusion
When choosing an interface device for live insertion applications the following should be taken
into consideration:
1. ESD Protection—TI offers many interface products with 15–kV or higher HBM ESD rating.
Although the HBM is intended as a measure of tolerance to ESD events during handling,
high HBM ESD ratings correlate to robustness to transient events including live insertion.
2. Glitch-free power up/down—Oscillations (glitches) can be seen on the outputs of a driver
while the device is being inserted (power up) or removed (power down) and the driver tries
to operate in suboptimal state. TI offers many interface products that provide glitch-free
power up and power down operation.
3. High Impedance State—The TI transceivers provide enable features to maintain a high
impedance state and prevent bus contention.
4. Common-Mode Rejection (Differential Signaling)—The common-mode rejection inherent
to differential line receivers (and the TI LVDS, RS–485, and CAN products) greatly
reduces false triggering or data corruption due to the insertion noise.
5. Failsafe Receivers—The response of line receivers to loss of input should be considered
during design. TI offers a variety of line receivers with failsafe features. These include
open-circuited and short-circuited inputs.
8
Live Insertion With Differential Interface Products
SLLA107
5
References
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Hot Swapping Signals, EDN Magazine, July 5, 2001
ESD Program Management, Ted Dangelmayer, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1990
SDYA012, Live Insertion, October 1996
SLLA057, A Statistical Survey of Common Mode Noise, December 1999
SLLA065, A Comparison of LinBiCMOS and CMOS Process Technology in LVDS Integrated
Circuits, March 2000
6. SLLA082B, Active Failsafe in TI’s LVDS Receivers, October 2001
Live Insertion With Differential Interface Products
9
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