Texas Instruments | Replacement of Input Main Sensing Transformer in Inverters with Isolate Amplifie | Application notes | Texas Instruments Replacement of Input Main Sensing Transformer in Inverters with Isolate Amplifie Application notes

Texas Instruments Replacement of Input Main Sensing Transformer in Inverters with Isolate Amplifie Application notes
Application Report
SLAA552 – August 2012
AMC1100: Replacement of Input Main Sensing
Transformer in Inverters with Isolated Amplifier
Ambreesh Tripathi and Harmeet Singh
Analog/Digital Converters
ABSTRACT
This application note describes isolation amplifier design principles that can be used in
Input AC main voltage sensing in Inverters. It describes the circuit operation along with the
details of some examples. It is intended to give designers an alternative to bulky
transformers for many industrial applications apart from Inverters.
Galvanic isolation is required for many circuits found in Telecommunication, Industrial,
Medical and Instrumentation systems. This has been traditionally accomplished by means
of transformers and optocouplers with transformers being used to couple AC signals and
optocouplers used primarily for DC signal coupling. Operator safety and signal quality are
also ensured with isolated interconnection.
Introduction
In the current design of Commercial 600 VA - 5 KVA inverters, the AC mains voltage is sensed
by stepping down through a bulky 50 Hz transformer by the microcontroller which is powered up
by battery through linear regulators. To ensure the operator safety (personal handling battery
etc) and signal integrity, galvanic isolation is needed in the design.
Input A/C voltage Sensing
Through transformer
Figure 1.
The input AC Voltage Sensing is required in Inverters for changing to inverter mode through
relay operation when A/C mains fall below the designated voltage level. Further comparators are
also used in addition with transformer for location of zero crossing point of sinusoidal A/C signal.
Fly-Buck is a trademark of Texas Instruments
SLAA552
a) Inverter Block Diagram
INV O/P
SWITCH
L
1
INPUT
AC
N
C2
4
T1
5
H-BRIDGE
BATTERY
8
Figure 2.
The diagram in Figure 2 shows the operation of Inverter. Input AC voltage is fed to the
transformer through a switch (relay). When input AC is present and is within valid range, the
switch is closed and the input AC directly goes to the output load (INV O/P). The same AC fed to
transformer, is used to drive the H-bridge consisting of mosfets or IGBTs to charge the battery. If
the AC fails or is out of valid range (AC Voltage Sense is required), the switch opens. H-bridge
circuit converts battery DC voltage into AC using high frequency PWM (5 kHz to15 KHz) thus
feeding the same transformer which is being used for charging in the first case. The output of
transformer contains a capacitor which filters it to make 50 Hz AC.
b) Current Circuit Design for Relay operation (Switching to Inverter or Mains mode
by Sensing Input AC)
Figure 3.
2
AMC1100: Replacement of Input Main Sensing Transformer in Inverters with Isolated Amplifier
SLAA552
As seen in Figure 3, a traditional 50 Hz transformer is used to generate a smaller replica of input AC
voltage and then rectified further. Main_Sense signal is fed to the ADC of controller which controls the
relay operation (Switch to inverter or mains mode). Also, comparators are used to locate the zero
crossing of input AC signal and are given to the controller for generating PWM signals to be given to
MOSFETS for controlling the charging.
Presenting an Innovative Input AC Voltage Sensing In Inverters
A precision isolation amplifier such as TI’s AMC1100 with an output separated from the input circuitry
by a silicon dioxide (SiO2) barrier is highly resistant to magnetic interference. This barrier has been
certified to provide galvanic isolation of up to 4000 VPEAK according to UL1577 and IEC60747-5-2.
Used in conjunction with isolated power supplies, this device can prevent noise currents on a high
common-mode voltage line from entering the local ground and interfering with or damaging sensitive
circuitry.
Figure 4.
The linearity and the noise performance of the device are ensured only when the differential analog
input voltage remains within ±250 mV.
a) Application Schematic
Figure 5.
AMC1100: Replacement of Input Main Sensing Transformer in Inverters with Isolated Amplifier
3
SLAA552
b) Easy Design Guidelines:
1.
From the AC mains input, a cap drop supply (C1, D1, D2, and C2) of 5 V is made with the
help of 5.6 V Zener. For tighter regulation LDO can also be added.
2.
Range of AC voltage to be sensed is determined. For inverters, it is generally between
90 VAC to 300 VAC.
3.
Choose resistor divider at positive pin such that at the maximum AC input, the voltage at
the VINP is less than +/- 250 mV. At 300 VAC, the peak value is at 425 V and hence
resistor divider (R4 and R5) gives approximate peak of 190 mV at VINP, which is under
250 mV range
4.
Based on the input pins (VINN and VINP) at VDD1/2 Volts ie in this case at 2.5 V and
this is achieved through R1 and R2.
5.
The analog output has a nominal gain of 8 through the AMC1100 isolation amplifier. With
an input voltage of ±250 mV, the nominal output is therefore 2 V. The output voltage is
centered on 1.29 V for 3.3 V Secondary Supply and provides a convenient analog input
range to the embedded analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) the microcontroller.
c) Layout Guidelines
Figure 6.
1.
2.
4
To maintain the isolation barrier and the high common mode transient immunity
of the device, the distance between the high-side ground (GND1) and the low-side
ground (GND2) should be kept at maximum; that is, the entire area underneath the
device should be kept free of any conducting materials.
It is recommended placing the bypass and filtering capacitors as close as possible to the
AMC1100 to ensure best performance.
AMC1100: Replacement of Input Main Sensing Transformer in Inverters with Isolated Amplifier
SLAA552
Test Results
a) At 270 VAC Input
1. VINP-VINN
2.
VOUTP and Zero Crossing
AMC1100: Replacement of Input Main Sensing Transformer in Inverters with Isolated Amplifier
5
SLAA552
b) At 220VAC Input
1.
2.
6
VINP-VINN
VOUTP and Zero Crossing
AMC1100: Replacement of Input Main Sensing Transformer in Inverters with Isolated Amplifier
SLAA552
C) At 90 VAC Input
1. VINP-VINN
2.
VOUTP and Zero Crossing
AMC1100: Replacement of Input Main Sensing Transformer in Inverters with Isolated Amplifier
7
SLAA552
D) At 70VAC Input
1. VINP-VINN
2.
VOUTP and Zero Crossing
Future Development – Cap Drop Replacement with Isolated Fly- Buck
based Primary side Supply
The Cap Drop power supply will die down at low AC voltages (It does not matter in an inverter
application as voltages of interest is in the range of 100 VAC-265 VAC) and hence isolated 5 V from
the 12 V battery is required to power up the primary side. Generally 5 V or 3.3 V is available in inverters
which is used to power up microcontroller, comparator etc. A simple topology is needed which takes
5 V input and generates 5 V isolated output.
8
AMC1100: Replacement of Input Main Sensing Transformer in Inverters with Isolated Amplifier
SLAA552
The Isolated Fly-Buck™ Topology with the Primary side feedback can be used to provide regulated
output voltage.
12V Battery
5V supply to AMC
Secondary (same
Ground as that of
battery)
Fly Buck for AMC
primary Supply (isolated
ground)
Figure 7.
TI’s TPS55010 is a transformer driver that can be used in this application, designed to provide isolated
power for isolated interfaces, from 3.3 V or 5 V input supply.
Figure 8.
More Details on the device application can be found in www.ti.com
AMC1100: Replacement of Input Main Sensing Transformer in Inverters with Isolated Amplifier
9
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