Texas Instruments | Voltage Translation Between 3.3-V, 2.5-V, 1.8-V, and 1.5-V Logic Standards (Rev. B) | Application notes | Texas Instruments Voltage Translation Between 3.3-V, 2.5-V, 1.8-V, and 1.5-V Logic Standards (Rev. B) Application notes

Texas Instruments Voltage Translation Between 3.3-V, 2.5-V, 1.8-V, and 1.5-V Logic Standards (Rev. B) Application notes
Application Report
SCEA030B – December 2002 – Revised April 2015
Voltage Translation Between
3.3-V, 2.5-V, 1.8-V, and 1.5-V Logic Standards
Mac McCaughey, Emrys Maier, and Craig Spurlin ................................................ Standard Linear and Logic
ABSTRACT
Due to rapid migration to lower power-supply voltages, bus translators are often necessary as an interface
between separately powered components of a logic system. This application report is focused on the
features of the Texas Instruments AVCA164245 and AVCB164245 (herein referred to as AVCx164245)
dual-supply bus-translating transceivers, with some information on other translation parts from the LV1T,
LSF, TXB, and TXS families. Each family name here links to a separate application note for additional
voltage translation information.
The LV1T family of devices is unique, combining a wide VIH range with a wide VCC range. The LV1T family
was created to allow unidirectional up or down voltage translation with only one power rail.
The LSF family of devices consists of passive FET switches that use pullup resistors (external for
LSF010x) to allow fast and flexible bidirectional translation between voltage levels.
The TXB push-pull buffered type architecture uses autodirection sensing to remove the requirement for a
DIR control signal to establish the direction of data flow. This architecture is designed to exclusively be
connected and interfaced with a push-pull CMOS driver and is capable of driving capacitive or high
impedance loads in applications such as Secure Digital (SD) or Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI).
The TXS translators also use autodirection sensing and offer system designers a good solution to remedy
mixed-voltage system incompatibilities when interfacing with open-drain drivers in applications such as
I2C.
The AVC devices provide active buffered bidirectional translation of logic signals between standard powersupply ranges of 3.3 V, 2.5 V, 1.8 V, and 1.5 V. Common problems associated with voltage translation in
dual-supply systems are introduced. These problems can be solved by using features of these devices,
such as translation, overvoltage tolerance, configurability, input switching levels, bus hold, power-supply
isolation, and partial power down.
Keywords: LV1T, LSF, TXB, AVC, AVCA, AVCB, 164245, logic, translation, buffer, overvoltage tolerant,
Ioff, partial power down, 1.5 V, 1.8 V, 2.5 V, 3.3 V, bus hold, configurable
spacer
spacer
spacer
spacer
spacer
spacer
spacer
spacer
spacer
spacer
spacer
spacer
SCEA030B – December 2002 – Revised April 2015
Submit Documentation Feedback
Selecting the Right Level-Translation Solution
Copyright © 2002–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated
1
www.ti.com
1
2
3
4
5
6
Contents
Introduction ................................................................................................................... 3
Interface Problems Without Level Shifting................................................................................ 3
2.1
High-Voltage Device Driving a Lower-Voltage Device ......................................................... 3
2.2
Low-Voltage Device Driving a Higher-Voltage Device ......................................................... 4
Standard Solutions for Level Shifting and Configurability .............................................................. 5
3.1
TI's LV1T Solution .................................................................................................. 6
3.2
TI's LSF Solution .................................................................................................... 6
3.3
TI's TXB Solution ................................................................................................... 6
3.4
TI's TXS Solution ................................................................................................... 6
3.5
TI’s AVCx164245 Solution ......................................................................................... 7
3.6
Bus-Hold Options.................................................................................................. 14
3.7
Package Options .................................................................................................. 14
Conclusion .................................................................................................................. 15
Glossary ..................................................................................................................... 15
Texas Instruments Literature ............................................................................................. 16
List of Figures
1
Examples of Circuits That Are Not Overvoltage Tolerant .............................................................. 4
2
Examples of a Low-Voltage Device Driving a Higher-Voltage Device ................................................ 4
3
Standard Input Logic Levels Accepted by the AVCx164245 ........................................................... 8
4
A-to-B Switching Waveforms With VCCA (Input) = 3.6 V ................................................................. 9
5
A-to-B Switching Waveforms with VCCA (Input) = 1.4
6
7
8
9
10
................................................................... 9
Propagation Delays vs VCCA and VCCB .................................................................................... 10
Typical AVCx164245 Output Switching Waveform .................................................................... 10
Graphical Depiction of ICC and I/O Port States for Partial-Power-Down Conditions (A-to-B Mode) ............. 13
Partial-Power-Down Supply Current (ICC) vs VCC ....................................................................... 14
Bus-Hold Circuit ............................................................................................................ 14
List of Tables
1
AVCx164245 Function Table (each 8-bit section) ....................................................................... 7
2
Parameters That Specify Partial-Power-Down Mode Device Currents
3
2
.............................................
Package Options ...........................................................................................................
Selecting the Right Level-Translation Solution
12
15
SCEA030B – December 2002 – Revised April 2015
Submit Documentation Feedback
Copyright © 2002–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated
Introduction
www.ti.com
1
Introduction
Migration to lower power-supply voltages in integrated-circuit logic components and systems is occurring
at a faster rate than ever before. This is due, in part, to the increased demand for low-power mobile
technologies and the development of advanced small-geometry integrated-circuit (IC) processes to
support high-speed applications. Due to this rapid migration, components for these systems often are not
available at a single-voltage supply node, and probably will not be for several years, resulting in the need
for mixed-voltage designs. Dual-supply bus-translating transceivers provide a solution for interfacing these
components, giving the system designer more flexibility in choosing the functionality needed in the design.
The Texas Instruments AVCA164245 and AVCB164245 (1) provide such a solution for translation between
logic levels in the 3.3-V, 2.5-V, 1.8-V, and 1.5-V power-supply ranges. These devices are fully
configurable for translation between any two of the above logic standards, in either the A-to-B or B-to-A
direction. The OE and DIR pins are controlled by VCCA on the AVCA device, and by VCCB on the AVCB
device. An output driver with slew-rate control provides high dynamic-drive capability, while reducing
switching noise. The device supports partial-power-down applications by incorporating overvoltage-tolerant
inputs and outputs, power-supply isolation, and powered-down (VCC = 0 V) 3-state mode. Bus-hold options
also are available.
2
Interface Problems Without Level Shifting
When interfacing between components using different logic-level standards, two obvious conditions arise:
• A high-voltage device may drive a lower-voltage device.
• A low-voltage device may drive a higher-voltage device.
Each condition presents a unique set of problems that affect proper operation of the system.
2.1
High-Voltage Device Driving a Lower-Voltage Device
High-voltage logic often can reliably drive lower-voltage logic without special translation circuitry as long as
two conditions are met:
• The input pins of the receiving device must be specified to be tolerant to the higher voltage.
• The logic swing must pass through the VIL and VIH voltage levels specified for the receiving device.
For example, a 3.3-V device with a CMOS output buffer can drive a 2.5-V device if the latter is overvoltage
tolerant because the output rail-to-rail logic swing of 0 V to 3.3 V passes through the 2.5-V device input
levels of VIL = 0.7 V and VIH = 1.7 V.
However, several factors might make a receiving device intolerant of a high input voltage:
• The integrated circuit fabrication process may not support the high voltage due to gate-oxide reliability
issues (illustrated schematically in Figure 1(a), TOX represents the transistor gate-oxide thickness).
• The input may incorporate an ESD protection diode that provides a current path to VCC (see
Figure 1(b)).
• The data input may be a transceiver I/O port that has a parasitic diode to VCC, or output PMOS device
that can turn on (see Figure 1(c)). Any of these conditions necessitates the addition of translation
circuitry in the interface between the two devices.
(1)
The AVCA and AVCB versions are referred to collectively as the AVCx164245 throughout the remainder of this application report.
SCEA030B – December 2002 – Revised April 2015
Submit Documentation Feedback
Selecting the Right Level-Translation Solution
Copyright © 2002–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated
3
Interface Problems Without Level Shifting
www.ti.com
TOX
TOX
(a) Oxide Integrity
(b) Input ESD Diode
(c) I/O Port Parasitic Diode
Figure 1. Examples of Circuits That Are Not Overvoltage Tolerant
2.2
Low-Voltage Device Driving a Higher-Voltage Device
Low-voltage logic typically cannot drive higher-voltage logic without special translation circuitry. Two
problems can occur when attempting to do so. One problem is that, if the voltage difference is large, the
low-voltage signal simply does not have enough logic swing to pass through the input VIH level of the
receiving device, causing the system to become nonfunctional. For example, in Figure 2(a), a 1.5-V device
output driver is shown driving a 3.3-V device input circuit. The logic swing at the input buffer never passes
through the required VIH level of 2.0 V, so the input buffer may not switch.
A second problem is that, even if the logic swing is sufficient to switch the receiving device, the VIH level
may not be sufficiently high to completely turn off the PMOS device in the input buffer. In the example of
Figure 2(b), a logic swing of 2.5 V does exceed VIH of the receiver, so the receiver should switch.
However, this condition results in high static power dissipation in the receiver. This is known as the ΔICC
condition. Figure 2(c) shows how a CMOS device supply current increases as its input logic level varies
from the VCC or GND rail. The closer the input voltage is to a rail voltage, the lower the ΔICC current will be.
Under normal operating conditions, that is, rail-to-rail swings and fast input edge rates, the device
operates outside the high-current region most of the time.
3.3 V
2.5 V
1.5 V
2.5 V
0V
I CC
3.3 V
1.5 V
0V
0
V IL
Vt
V IH
V CC
VI
(a) Nonfunctional
(V OH = 1.5 V, V IH = 2.0 V)
(b) Functional, High I CC
(V OH = 2.5 V, V IH = 2.0 V)
(c) Δ I CC Curve
Typical V IL and V IH Shown
Figure 2. Examples of a Low-Voltage Device Driving a Higher-Voltage Device
4
Selecting the Right Level-Translation Solution
SCEA030B – December 2002 – Revised April 2015
Submit Documentation Feedback
Copyright © 2002–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated
Standard Solutions for Level Shifting and Configurability
www.ti.com
3
Standard Solutions for Level Shifting and Configurability
Open-collector and open-drain devices offer one solution for voltage translation. The output of such a
device can be connected through a pullup resistor to a second power supply. The output VOH is then
compatible with the logic levels of the second power-supply system. There are two basic disadvantages to
this method:
• When the output is low, a constant current flows in the resistor, increasing system power dissipation. A
high resistor value is desired to minimize this power.
• The low-to-high signal transition is not an “active” transition, that is, it is determined by the RC time
constant of the resistor and the load, and can be slow. A low resistor value is desired to minimize
transition time.
Another solution may be FET switches. In addition to their normal use as bus-isolation devices, they can
be used for voltage translation in systems where active buffering is not required. TI’s CBT, CBTD, and
TVC devices offer near-zero propagation delay, with bus-isolation capability. However, they inherently
translate only in the downward direction, with a translation difference equal to the threshold voltage of the
FET, approximately 1 V. The resulting logic level may or may not be compatible with the desired logic
standard, without adjustment, using external components. Unlike an active driver, the FET output
impedance becomes very high as the output voltage approaches VCC. This property prevents its use in
applications requiring balanced drive. See the CBT application notes listed in the literature section for
more details.
To solve these problems, the industry has developed dual-supply voltage-translating buffers and
transceivers with active output drivers. These have been most commonly available in 5 V-to-3.3 V and 3.3
V-to-2.5 V versions, although system power-supply voltages are continuing on a downward trend. Many
devices on the market are not fully configurable or bidirectional. That is, one VCC and its associated data
ports are fixed at the higher power-supply voltage, while the other VCC and associated data ports are fixed
at the lower power-supply voltage. Also, many devices may present a current load to the system during
partial-power-down applications, and require stringent power-sequencing precautions.
TI has many voltage level translation solutions that cover unidirectional, bidirectional, logic gates, and
specific applications. The more popular translation families are summarized in TI's Voltage Level
Translation Solutions and the following sections.
TI's Voltage Level Translation Solutions
Unidirectional
Bidirectional
Direction Controlled
Logic
Application Specific
VCC
A
VCC
VCC
A
VCC
VCC
A
B
VCC
B
VCC
A
VCC
A
VCC
B
VCC
B
VCC
B
A
A
A
B
A
B
B
A
B
B
Y
DIR
1, 2, 4, 16, 24, 32 bit
Push-pull IOs
1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 16, 24, 32
bit
Push-pull IOs and Opendrain IOs
High frequency support
1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 16, 24, 32
bit
Push-pull IOs
Logic input
Multiple logic functions
AUP1T, AVC, CD4000,
LV-A
GTL, LSF, TXB, TXS
AVC, GTL, LVC
AUP1T, LV1T, LV-A
SCEA030B – December 2002 – Revised April 2015
Submit Documentation Feedback
A
B
C
SD Card
SIM Card
Smart Card
IC-USB
CF Card
Audio Codec
Selecting the Right Level-Translation Solution
Copyright © 2002–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated
5
Standard Solutions for Level Shifting and Configurability
3.1
www.ti.com
TI's LV1T Solution
The LV1T family of devices is unique, combining a wide VIH range with a wide VCC range. The LV1T family
was created to allow up or down voltage translation with only one power rail. The family has overvoltage
tolerant inputs that allow down translation from 5.5 V to VCC, which can be as low as 1.65 V. This family
has an optimized and balanced output drive of 7 mA at 3.3-V VCC, which reduces line reflection, overshoot
and undershoot, and eliminates the need for a damping resistor. Compared to other logic families, the
LV1T family is the most well-rounded and universal in terms of specifications. While there are other logic
devices with wide-VIH TTL inputs, the LV1T family also has the widest VCC range. The family also has a
lowered switching threshold that make it capable of translating signals from as low as 2.1 V up to 5.5 V at
VCC = 5 V.
More information on the LV1T family is found in "LV1T Family of Single Supply Translators" (SCEA047).
3.2
TI's LSF Solution
The LSF family of devices consists of passive FET switches that use external pullup resistors to translate
between voltage levels. The engineer controls the switching threshold of the device by changing Vref A. Vref
B must be ≥0.8 V higher than Vref A with a max Vref B of 5 V, tied to EN (for LSF010x only), and pulled up to
its supply voltage through a 200-kΩ resistor (for LSF010x only). The LSF devices are best suited for
translating signals with fast edge rates, and perform well at frequencies up to 200 MHz (down translation)
and 100 MHz (up translation). In some special down-translation applications, LSF devices do not require
any pullups.
More information on the LSF family is found in "Voltage-Level Translation with the LSF Family,"
(SLVA675).
3.3
TI's TXB Solution
If a processor GPIO input direction-control signal is not available or if one is not desired, an auto-direction
sensing voltage translator can provide a robust solution. As the name implies, this type of translator does
not require the use of a direction control signal, and each channel supports independent transmission or
reception of data. This eliminates the need for a processor GPIO to control a DIR input, resulting in
simplified software driver development as well as smaller device packaging due to reduced pin-count.
The TXB push-pull buffered type architecture does not require a DIR control signal to establish the
direction of data flow. This architecture is designed to exclusively be connected and interfaced with a
push-pull CMOS driver and is capable of driving capacitive or high impedance loads in applications such
as Secure Digital (SD) or Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI). The TXB010x devices are not intended for use
in open-drain applications. The TXB translators are fully specified for partial-power-down applications
using the Ioff feature and VCC isolation feature. The TXB devices are suited for translating signals with fast
edge rates, and perform well at high data rates up to 100 Mbps.
More information on the TXB family is found in "A Guide to Voltage Translation With TXB-Type
Translators," (SCEA043).
3.4
TI's TXS Solution
The TXS translators offer system designers a good solution to remedy mixed-voltage system
incompatibilities when interfacing with open-drain drivers in applications such as I2C. These translators
eliminate the need for provisioning a GPIO of a processor, since they change the direction of the data flow
automatically without the use of a direction control pin. This can simplify software driver development and
allows for solutions in smaller packages because of this direction control pin savings.
The TXS (where the "S" indicates switch-type) translators are designed to interface with open-drain drivers
and can be used in applications such as I2C. The TXS translators are fully specified for partial-power-down
applications using the Ioff feature and VCC isolation feature.
More information on the TXS family is found in "A Guide to Voltage Translation With TXS-Type
Translators," (SCEA044).
6
Selecting the Right Level-Translation Solution
SCEA030B – December 2002 – Revised April 2015
Submit Documentation Feedback
Copyright © 2002–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated
Standard Solutions for Level Shifting and Configurability
www.ti.com
3.5
TI’s AVCx164245 Solution
The AVCx164245 addresses these constraints by employing a 3.6-V-tolerant process and unique circuitry.
The device is designed to translate between logic levels in the 3.3-V, 2.5-V, 1.8-V, and 1.5-V powersupply ranges in either the A-to-B or B-to-A direction. Circuitry is included to simplify bus control and
power concerns during power-supply sequencing. Two versions offer control of the OE and DIR pins by
VCCA logic levels (on the AVCA device), or VCCB logic levels (on the AVCB device).
In addition to translation between two power-supply levels, the AVCx164245 also operates when VCCA and
VCCB are equal. Although this is not the target application for a voltage-translating device in a mature
single-supply system, it allows more flexibility in selection of components when making board-level
revisions and eases the transition between single-supply and dual-supply systems.
3.5.1
AVCx164245 Features and Operation
The AVCx164245 is a 16-bit (dual-octal) noninverting bus transceiver configured as two banks of 8-bit
transceivers. Each bank has its own OE and DIR for independent control. The device uses two separate
configurable power-supply rails (VCCA and VCCB). The A-side I/O port is designed to track VCCA, which
accepts any supply voltage from 1.4 V to 3.6 V. The B-side I/O port is designed to track VCCB, and also
accepts the 1.4-V to 3.6-V supply-voltage range. Bidirectional level shifting is done internally, and is
actively buffered, such that the outputs have full-voltage logic swings on both ports. This allows for
universal low-voltage bidirectional translation between any of the 1.5-V, 1.8-V, 2.5-V, and 3.3-V voltage
nodes.
The device is designed for asynchronous communication between data buses at different voltage levels.
Data is transmitted from the A bus to the B bus, or from the B bus to the A bus, depending on the logic
level at the direction-control (DIR) input. The output-enable (OE) input, when low, disables the outputs so
the buses are effectively isolated. The data sheet describes the logic function of the OE and DIR pins
according to the function table (see Table 1).
Table 1. AVCx164245 Function Table (each 8-bit
section)
Inputs
3.5.1.1
Operation
OE
DIR
L
L
H
L
H
X
B data to A bus
A data to B bus
Isolation
Input Switching Levels
The AVCx164245 is designed to accommodate power-supply voltages and signal swings in the standard
ranges shown in Figure 3. The input switching thresholds, VT, are designed to linearly track their
respective power-supply voltages appropriate to each port, that is, VT of the A-port and B-port will track
VCCA and VCCB, respectively. The device interprets signals above VIH as a logic high and interprets signals
below VIL as a logic low. The device can operate throughout the continuous range of 1.4 V to 3.6 V,
although it is characterized and specified at only the four standard voltage ranges shown.
SCEA030B – December 2002 – Revised April 2015
Submit Documentation Feedback
Selecting the Right Level-Translation Solution
Copyright © 2002–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated
7
Standard Solutions for Level Shifting and Configurability
www.ti.com
3.5
V CC
3.0
2.5
V CC
VI – V
2.0
V IH = 2.0 V
V IH = 1.7 V
1.5
V CC
V t = 1.5 V
V CC
V t = 1.2 V
1.0
V IH = 1.17 V
V IH = 0.98 V
V t = 0.75 V
V IL = 0.53 V
V t = 0.9 V
V IL = 0.8 V
V IL = 0.7 V
0.5
V IL = 0.63 V
0.0
3.3
2.5
1.8
V CC – V
1.5
NOTE : Each standard VCC range also has a ± tolerance per the data sheet.
Figure 3. Standard Input Logic Levels Accepted by the AVCx164245
3.5.1.2
Noise Margins
For optimal noise margins, the input voltages to the AVCx164245 should switch rail to rail, which usually is
the case for CMOS interfaces. Then, the primary noise-margin concern becomes switching-induced
transients, such as ringing, undershoot, overshoot, or transmission-line reflections. This noise should not
fall into the voltage range from VIL to VIH specified for the chosen switching standard, otherwise data
corruption may result. From Figure 3, the logic-high noise margin is VCC – VIH, and the logic-low noise
margin is VIL – GND. If the driving device is dc terminated, the VCC and GND voltages in these expressions
should be substituted by using VOH and VOL levels per the data sheet, determined by the dc drive current,
resulting in reduced noise margin.
Because the A-port and B-port thresholds track their respective VCC voltages, determination of noise
margin is straightforward. However, because the OE and DIR pins may be driven from either VCCA or VCCB
logic levels (see Section 3.5.1.3), care must be taken to observe the proper noise margin based on the
device type chosen (AVCA or AVCB).
3.5.1.3
Configurability
In general, the AVCA device should be chosen if the OE and DIR control signals are referenced to VCCA,
or the AVCB device should be chosen for VCCB-referenced control signals. However, the configurability of
the OE and DIR pins can be enhanced for future system modification by choosing the device version that
matches the lowest voltage power supply of the system. For example, if VCCA is lowest, choose the AVCA
device. If VCCB is lowest, choose AVCB. Due to the overvoltage tolerance of the input pins, this allows the
OE and DIR inputs to be driven from either VCCA or VCCB logic levels if a system revision requires it.
This down-translation feature of the control inputs is an advantage offered by any overvoltage-tolerant
device. Overdriving these inputs does not cause a problem, and the device functions properly, as long as
rail-to-rail logic swings, with adequate noise margins, are applied. The system designer then is free to
apply either a VCCA- or VCCB-referenced signal level without causing the interface problems discussed
previously. This may eliminate the need to include additional control-signal translation hardware in the
system. The configurability offered by these two devices, plus the symmetrical bidirectional properties of
the translators, offer greater flexibility in PC board routing, component selection and placement, and
voltage-supply migration, resulting in overall savings in system costs.
8
Selecting the Right Level-Translation Solution
SCEA030B – December 2002 – Revised April 2015
Submit Documentation Feedback
Copyright © 2002–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated
Standard Solutions for Level Shifting and Configurability
www.ti.com
3.5.1.4
Switching Waveforms
Examples of switching waveforms during translation in the A-to-B direction are shown in Figure 4 and
Figure 5. Waveforms in the B-to-A direction look identical because device operation is symmetrical. Logic
levels at the extreme limits were chosen to better illustrate the translation feature. Industry standards
define a different test load for each power-supply range, and are specified in the data sheet. Buffering
from A (3.6 V) to B (3.6 V), with the standard test load of 500 Ω and 50 pF, is shown in Figure 4(a), while
translation from A (3.6 V) to B (1.4 V), with the standard test load of 2 kΩ and 15 pF, is shown in
Figure 4(b).
Translation from A (1.4 V) to B (3.6 V), with the standard test load of 500 Ω and 50 pF, is shown in
Figure 5(a), while buffering from A (1.4 V) to B (1.4 V), with the standard test load of 2 kΩ and 15 pF, is
shown in Figure 5(b).
A-Input
A-Input
B-Output
B-Output
(a) VCCB = 3.6 V
(b) VCCB = 1.4 V
Figure 4. A-to-B Switching Waveforms With VCCA (Input) = 3.6 V
A-Input
A-Input
B-Output
B-Output
(a) VCCB = 3.6 V
(b) VCCB = 1.4 V
Figure 5. A-to-B Switching Waveforms with VCCA (Input) = 1.4
3.5.1.5
Propagation Delays at Different Supply Voltages
As with any CMOS logic device, propagation delay is affected by the power-supply voltage (VCC). The
AVCx164245 is optimized for a 1.8-V to 3.3-V translation, where tpd is specified at 4.3 ns max, and for a
2.5-V to 3.3-V translation, where tpd is specified at 3.4 ns max. Other combinations throughout the 1.4-V to
3.6-V range were characterized to determine data-sheet limits. Generally, the lower the VCC, the slower a
CMOS device switches. In a voltage translator, an additional effect, related to the difference in magnitude
between the two supply voltages can occur. Figure 6 illustrates this effect.
SCEA030B – December 2002 – Revised April 2015
Submit Documentation Feedback
Selecting the Right Level-Translation Solution
Copyright © 2002–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated
9
Standard Solutions for Level Shifting and Configurability
www.ti.com
Figure 6(a) shows that the A-to-B tpd, when VCCB = 3.0 V actually becomes slower than that at VCCB = 2.3 V
as VCCA is lowered to 1.4 V, because the VCC difference is greater. Figure 6(b) shows a similar effect on
the VCCB = 1.4 V curve for the B-to-A direction. These plots show simulated worst-case propagation delays
at 85°C and weak-process conditions. A constant 15-pF, 2-kΩ load was used in this analysis to observe
the VCC dependence, keeping all other factors constant. Due to the difference in test load, these results
may not agree with the data-sheet limits. Consult the data sheet for parameter values at specified test
conditions.
(a) tpd vs VCCA and VCCB (A to B)
(b) tpd vs VCCA and VCCB (B to A)
Figure 6. Propagation Delays vs VCCA and VCCB
3.5.1.6
Output Circuit With Slew-Rate Control
The AVCx164245 employs a unique output driver common to other members of TI'’s AVC logic family.
During a signal transition (see Figure 7), this circuit initially lowers the slew rate to reduce switching noise,
then lowers the output impedance to provide high-current drive and, finally, near the end of the transition,
raises the impedance to limit the overshoot and undershoot noise inherent in high-speed, high-current
devices. This allows a single device to have characteristics similar to series-damping-resistor outputs
during static conditions, and similar to high-current outputs during dynamic conditions, eliminating the
need for series-damping resistors. Due to the unique characteristics of this output, the dc drive-current
specifications, IOL and IOH, are not useable as a relative indicator of the dynamic performance. However,
the dynamic drive capability is equivalent to standard outputs with IOL and IOH of ±24 mA at 2.5-V VCC.
2.5
2.25
Output Voltage (V)
2
1.75
High Impedance
1.5
1.25
1
0.75
Low Impedance
0.5 High Impedance
0.25
0
20
20.7 21.4 22.1 22.8 23.5 24.2 24.9 25.6 26.3
Switching Time (ns)
27
D007
Figure 7. Typical AVCx164245 Output Switching Waveform
10
Selecting the Right Level-Translation Solution
SCEA030B – December 2002 – Revised April 2015
Submit Documentation Feedback
Copyright © 2002–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated
Standard Solutions for Level Shifting and Configurability
www.ti.com
3.5.1.7
Power Dissipation
Two data-sheet parameters are used to calculate power dissipation: ICC – for static (nonswitching) power
and Cpd – for dynamic (switching) power. Both of these parameters are specified separately for each of the
two power supplies. A calculation of the total power dissipation of the device should include the effects of
both power-supply currents, as well as load currents, if applicable.
3.5.1.7.1
Static Power
The static current of CMOS devices typically is a result of only the reverse-biased junction leakages within
the integrated circuit. As a result, these devices have very low static-power dissipation. The AVCx164245
includes a low-power bias circuit that enables its unique partial-power-down features, but adds a small
amount of ICC. Even so, the data-sheet ICC maximum limit for each supply at 3.6 V is a low 40 µA and
lower than that for reduced VCC levels. The maximum total static power dissipation at 3.6 V can be
calculated as:
PTOTAL = (ICCA)(VCCA) + (ICCB)(VCCB) = (40 µA)(3.6 V) + (40 µA)(3.6 V) = 288 µW
Because the A-port circuitry is isolated and independent of the B-port circuitry, this calculation can be
performed in the same manner for all specified combinations of VCC. Note that ICC is specified with no dc
load. If a dc load is applied, additional power dissipation may occur in each output driver due to IOL or IOH
current (in active mode), or IOZ or Ioff leakage (in high-impedance mode, typically negligible). In active
mode, the power calculation is:
PTOTAL = (ICCA)(VCCA) + (ICCB)(VCCB) + (IOL)(VOL)(NL) + (IOH)(VCC – VOH)(NH)
Where:
NL = number of outputs low
NH = number of outputs high
VCC = supply voltage of driver port
3.5.1.7.2
Dynamic Power
The dynamic current of a CMOS device is the result of switching transients within the device. Several
factors specific to a given application contribute to dynamic power dissipation, such as VCC, frequency,
number of outputs switching, and load. The power-dissipation capacitance parameters, CpdA and CpdB, are
provided on the data sheet as a convenient method for calculation of dynamic power dissipation,
considering all the above factors. As an example, consider an AVCx164245 operating in the A-to-B
direction with VCCA = 3.6 V, VCCB = 2.5 V, frequency = 20 MHz, and one-half of the 16 outputs switching
into a 30-pF load. Note that one-half of the outputs switching is a generally recognized principle for
calculating typical power consumption over an extended period of time with random data patterns.
Ptotal = Pdevice + Pload
Pdevice = [(CPDA × VCCA2) + (CPDB x VCCB2)] × f × Nsw
Pdevice = [(14 pF)(3.6 V)2 + (20 pF)(2.5 V)2](20 MHz)(8) = 49 mW
Pload = CL × VCCB2 × f × Nsw = (30 pF)(2.5 V)2(20 MHz)(8) = 30 mW
Ptotal = 49 mW + 30 mW = 79 mW
Cpd is specified in the data sheet at 3.3 V only. However, for the recommended operating range of VCC for
this device, Cpd is proportional to VCC, and so can be extrapolated for other voltage ranges. The total
power dissipation also includes the static component, but in this case, as for most CMOS devices, it is
negligible compared to the dynamic component. For more details, see the TI application note CMOS
Power Consumption and CPD Calculation, (SCAA035B).
SCEA030B – December 2002 – Revised April 2015
Submit Documentation Feedback
Selecting the Right Level-Translation Solution
Copyright © 2002–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated
11
Standard Solutions for Level Shifting and Configurability
3.5.1.8
www.ti.com
Partial Power-Down Applications
In multiple power-supply systems, a major concern is the behavior of the various parts of the system as
the voltage supplies are powered up or powered down. The power-up/power-down sequence can cause
some components to be active while others are in power-down mode. This can affect data integrity, power
dissipation, and reliability of system components. To avoid these problems, devices operating from
different supplies must not present a current load to the system when they are powered down, and their
input and output ports must present a high impedance to the bus. That is, the device must block current
flow from the I/O ports to VCC or GND. The AVCx164245 is fully specified for partial-power-down
applications using the parameters IOZ, Ioff, and ICC.
3.5.1.8.1
Power-Down 3-State and Ioff
The AVCx164245 is designed such that, if one VCC is at 0 V while the other VCC remains active, the
powered port will be in the high-impedance state, regardless of the state of the OE or DIR pins. When a
port is in the high-impedance state, whether controlled by the OE or DIR pin, or by a partial-power-down
VCC level, that port can be driven by voltages higher than VCCA or VCCB, up to 3.6 V (recommended 4.6-V
absolute maximum). This is made possible by the Ioff circuitry, which disables the outputs, preventing
damaging reverse current through the upper output transistor and its parasitic diode when it is powered
down. The IOZ and Ioff parameters in the data sheet (see Table 2) specify the maximum leakage to be less
than 12.5 µA into the high-impedance port under these disabled conditions.
3.5.1.8.2
Floating Inputs and VCC Pins
In general, input pins of logic devices should not be left open or floating, with no applied voltage bias.
However, the AVCx164245 is designed to allow data ports to float as long as their associated VCC pins
also are floating, that is, not connected to any power supply or other source of current. This causes the
other (powered) port to go into the high-impedance state, regardless of the state of the OE or DIR control
pins. This feature is useful in applications where a circuit board or cable may need to be left disconnected
from a socket providing power. The floating ports are disabled so that high power dissipation and/or
oscillations typically associated with CMOS floating inputs do not occur. However, the powered ports
should continue to be driven by valid logic levels to prevent similar problems on those ports.
3.5.1.8.3
Voltage-Supply Isolation
The two power supplies of the AVCx164245 are isolated electrically from each other, which means that
practically no current will flow between the VCCA and VCCB pins under recommended operating conditions,
including partial power down. This is specified in the data sheet as a subset of the ICC parameter (see
Table 2). The current of the VCC supply that is powered up is specified as a positive 40-µA maximum (at
3.6 V), and accounts for internal leakage and bias currents. The current of the VCC supply that is powered
down (0 V) is specified as a negative 10 µA to account for internal leakage between supplies. Note that,
by convention, positive current is into the pin, and negative current is out of the pin.
Table 2. Parameters That Specify Partial-Power-Down Mode Device Currents
Parameter
A or B ports
IOZ
B port
A port
Ioff
A port
Test Conditions
VO = VCCO or GND, VI = VIH or VIL, OE = VIH
VO = VCCO or GND, VI = VIH or VIL, OE = VIH or VIL
VI or VO = 0 to 3.6 V
B port
12
ICCA
VI = VCCI or GND, IO = 0
ICCB
VI = VCCI or GND, IO = 0
Selecting the Right Level-Translation Solution
VCCA
VCCB
MIN
MAX
3.6 V
3.6 V
±12.5
0V
3.6 V
±12.5
3.6 V
0V
±12.5
0V
0 to 3.6
V
±10
0 to 3.6 V
0V
±10
0V
3.6 V
–10
3.6 V
0V
40
0V
3.6 V
40
3.6 v
0v
–10
Unit
µA
µA
µA
µA
SCEA030B – December 2002 – Revised April 2015
Submit Documentation Feedback
Copyright © 2002–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated
Standard Solutions for Level Shifting and Configurability
www.ti.com
Figure 8 graphically depicts ICC and I/O port states during the partial-power-down conditions mentioned
previously. Figure 8(a) shows the normal operating mode with both VCC supplies powered up. Assuming
that OE and DIR are selecting the A-to-B mode, the A port is configured as an input, and the B-port is an
output. Both VCC pins sink ICC current per the data-sheet specification. Figure 8(b) and Figure 8(c) show
what happens when one VCC is powered down (VCC = 0 V). All output drivers are disabled into the highimpedance state. The inputs referenced to the 0-V supply are disabled. The inputs referenced to the
powered-up side are enabled and, as such, should be biased with valid logic signals to avoid high ΔICC
currents or oscillations. Figure 8(d) shows that when both power supplies are powered down, all inputs
and outputs are disabled in the high-impedance state.
3.3V
3.3 V
40 µA
Input
Enabled
V CCA
10 µA
Input
Enabled
V CCB
A
Input
Disabled
B
V CCA
Input
Enabled
B
Output
High-Z
(b)
0.0 V
0.0 V
Input
Disabled
V CCB
A
Input
Disabled
B
Output
High-Z
0.0 V
0 µA
10 µA
V CCA
Input
Enabled
V CCB
Output
High-Z
(a)
40 µA
40 µA
A
Output
Active
Output
High-Z
3.3 V
3.3V
0.0 V
40 µA
0 µA
V CCA
A
Output
High-Z
Input
Disabled
V CCB
B
Output
High-Z
Output
High-Z
(c)
(d)
Figure 8. Graphical Depiction of ICC and I/O Port States
for Partial-Power-Down Conditions (A-to-B Mode)
3.5.1.8.4
Power-Up/Power-Down Sequencing Precautions
The AVCx164245 is quite tolerant of power-supply sequencing. However, a few precautions should be
observed to ensure that bus contention, excessive currents, or oscillations do not occur:
1. Connect ground before any supply voltage is applied.
2. Either VCC can be powered up first. Inputs associated with that VCC should receive valid logic levels.
The other VCC, at 0 V, causes all outputs to be in the high-impedance state.
3. DIR should ramp with VCCA (AVCA) or VCCB (AVCB), or the highest of the two (see the Configurability
section) for A-to-B mode, or should be at ground for B-to-A mode.
4. Power up the second VCC. A pullup resistor from OE to VCCA (AVCA) or VCCB (AVCB) ensures that both
ports remain in the high-impedance state. The minimum value of the resistor is determined by the
current-sinking capability of the driver.
5. Reverse the above sequence for a power-down operation.
Typical laboratory data of partial-power-down supply currents versus a ramping VCC is shown in Figure 9.
The device was in A-to-B mode, DIR tied to VCCA, OE grounded, and no dc load on the outputs. As
expected, ICC of the ramping supply increases with supply voltage. ICC of the steady supply remains fairly
constant, with the exception of a small spike below the recommended operating conditions, where the
power-down 3-state circuit deactivates.
SCEA030B – December 2002 – Revised April 2015
Submit Documentation Feedback
Selecting the Right Level-Translation Solution
Copyright © 2002–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated
13
Standard Solutions for Level Shifting and Configurability
www.ti.com
Figure 9. Partial-Power-Down Supply Current (ICC) vs VCC
3.6
Bus-Hold Options
The AVCx164245 also is available in a bus-hold version, designated as the AVCxH164245. Bus hold
essentially is a weak latch integrated into each I/O port to prevent floating inputs. In the input schematic of
Figure 10, transistors Q3 and Q4 form the bus-hold drivers for the input inverter composed of transistors
Q1 and Q2. Diode D2 is added to prevent current flow through parasitic diode D3 and transistor Q3 during
overvoltage or partial-power-down events. This circuit will hold an attached bus in its previous logic state if
the bus is not driven by another device. This prevents the voltage on the high-impedance bus from drifting
to an intermediate state between logic 0 and logic 1, which could lead to oscillations and high power
dissipation in devices attached to the bus.
The AVCxH164245, with bus hold, is more robust for partial-power-down applications because it holds the
enabled inputs at a valid logic level until another device takes control of the bus. Integrated bus hold
eliminates the need for external pullup/pulldown resistors on the I/O ports. In fact, resistors are not
recommended because they may form a voltage divider with the bus-hold circuit, presenting an invalid
logic state on the bus. For a detailed description of the bus-hold feature, see TI application report BusHold Circuit, (SCLA015).
V CC
Q1
Q3
D3
D2
Input
D1
Internal
Circuit
D4
Q2
Q4
GND
Figure 10. Bus-Hold Circuit
3.7
Package Options
The AVCx164245 pin layout was designed to be compatible with other standard SN74xxx16245 devices,
further easing the transition from single-power-supply to dual-power-supply systems. The VCCA and VCCB
pins simply can be connected together for single-supply applications. The flow-through data path simplifies
printed-circuit-board layout, and the distributed power and ground pins help minimize switching noise. The
device is available in the packages shown in Table 3.
14
Selecting the Right Level-Translation Solution
SCEA030B – December 2002 – Revised April 2015
Submit Documentation Feedback
Copyright © 2002–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated
Conclusion
www.ti.com
Table 3. Package Options
4
Pins
Description
TI Designator
Lead Pitch (mm)
Dimensions (mm)
48
TSSOP
DGG
0.50
12.6 × 8.3
48
TVSOP
DGV
0.40
9.8 × 6.6
56
VFBGA
GQL
0.65
7.1 × 4.6
Conclusion
Common problems associated with voltage translation in dual-supply logic systems, with VCC ranging from
1.4 V to 3.6 V, can be solved by incorporating TI’s voltage translation parts from the LV1T, LSF, and TXB
families or the AVCA(B)164245 or AVCA(B)H164245 dual-supply bus-translating transceivers in the logic
interface. These devices are configurable, symmetrical, and bidirectional, to drive full-rail logic signals on
both ports, and include features that enable robust partial-power-down applications.
The AVCx164245 devices are members of the Texas Instruments Widebus™ family. TI’s advanced 0.5micron Enhanced-Performance Implanted CMOS (EPIC™) fabrication process is used to produce the
devices.
5
Glossary
AVC
AVCA
AVCB
CBT
CBTD
DMOS
Advanced very-low-voltage CMOS family
AVC translator with control inputs referenced to VCCA
AVC translator with control inputs referenced to VCCB
Cross-bar technology (family of FET switches)
Cross-bar technology with integrated diode
Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (process for fabricating integrated
circuits).
ΔICC
The difference in power-supply current when a CMOS input pin is biased at a
voltage less than full rail versus biased at full rail
ESD
Electrostatic discharge
FET
Field-effect transistor
ICC
Power-supply current (from VCC)
Ioff
The maximum leakage current into or out of an input or output port when
biased to a specified voltage while VCC = 0 V
IOH
High-level output current
IOL
Low-level output current
LVTTL
Low-voltage transistor-transistor logic
Noise margin
For logic low (high) signals, the difference between the signal amplitude,
including noise, and the VIL (VIH) specification of the receiving device
Overvoltage tolerant The capability of a device input pin or output pin to be subjected to a voltage
higher than its power-supply voltage without being damaged
TSSOP
Thin shrink small-outline package
TVC
Translation voltage clamp (family of FET switches)
TVSOP
Thin very small-outline package
VCC
Power-supply voltage (sometimes referred to as VDD)
VFBGA
Very-thin fine-pitch ball grid array (package)
VIH
High-level input voltage, above which a logic high is defined
VIL
Low-level input voltage, below which a logic low is defined
VOH
High-level output voltage
VOL
Low-level output voltage
VT
Threshold voltage
SCEA030B – December 2002 – Revised April 2015
Submit Documentation Feedback
Selecting the Right Level-Translation Solution
Copyright © 2002–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated
15
Texas Instruments Literature
6
www.ti.com
Texas Instruments Literature
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Texas Instruments Voltage-Level-Translation Devices ( SCEA021)
Benefits and Issues on Migration of 5-V and 3.3-V Logic to Lower-Voltage Supplies ( SDAA011A).
Implications of Slow or Floating CMOS Inputs ( SCBA004C).
Bus-Hold Circuit ( SCLA015)
Flexible Voltage-Level Translation With CBT Family Devices ( SCDA006)
5-V to 3.3-V Translation With the SN74CBTD3384 ( SCDA003B).
3.3-V to 2.5-V Translation with Texas Instruments Crossbar Technology ( SCDA004A)
Revision History
Changes from A Revision (July 2004) to B Revision ..................................................................................................... Page
•
•
•
Changed document title. ................................................................................................................. 1
Added text in the Abstract highlighting the LV1T and LSF device families, TXB architecture, TXS translators, and the AVC
devices. ..................................................................................................................................... 1
Added information theTI's Voltage Level Translation Solutions table. ............................................................. 5
NOTE: Page numbers for previous revisions may differ from page numbers in the current version.
16
Revision History
SCEA030B – December 2002 – Revised April 2015
Submit Documentation Feedback
Copyright © 2002–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated
IMPORTANT NOTICE
Texas Instruments Incorporated and its subsidiaries (TI) reserve the right to make corrections, enhancements, improvements and other
changes to its semiconductor products and services per JESD46, latest issue, and to discontinue any product or service per JESD48, latest
issue. Buyers should obtain the latest relevant information before placing orders and should verify that such information is current and
complete. All semiconductor products (also referred to herein as “components”) are sold subject to TI’s terms and conditions of sale
supplied at the time of order acknowledgment.
TI warrants performance of its components to the specifications applicable at the time of sale, in accordance with the warranty in TI’s terms
and conditions of sale of semiconductor products. Testing and other quality control techniques are used to the extent TI deems necessary
to support this warranty. Except where mandated by applicable law, testing of all parameters of each component is not necessarily
performed.
TI assumes no liability for applications assistance or the design of Buyers’ products. Buyers are responsible for their products and
applications using TI components. To minimize the risks associated with Buyers’ products and applications, Buyers should provide
adequate design and operating safeguards.
TI does not warrant or represent that any license, either express or implied, is granted under any patent right, copyright, mask work right, or
other intellectual property right relating to any combination, machine, or process in which TI components or services are used. Information
published by TI regarding third-party products or services does not constitute a license to use such products or services or a warranty or
endorsement thereof. Use of such information may require a license from a third party under the patents or other intellectual property of the
third party, or a license from TI under the patents or other intellectual property of TI.
Reproduction of significant portions of TI information in TI data books or data sheets is permissible only if reproduction is without alteration
and is accompanied by all associated warranties, conditions, limitations, and notices. TI is not responsible or liable for such altered
documentation. Information of third parties may be subject to additional restrictions.
Resale of TI components or services with statements different from or beyond the parameters stated by TI for that component or service
voids all express and any implied warranties for the associated TI component or service and is an unfair and deceptive business practice.
TI is not responsible or liable for any such statements.
Buyer acknowledges and agrees that it is solely responsible for compliance with all legal, regulatory and safety-related requirements
concerning its products, and any use of TI components in its applications, notwithstanding any applications-related information or support
that may be provided by TI. Buyer represents and agrees that it has all the necessary expertise to create and implement safeguards which
anticipate dangerous consequences of failures, monitor failures and their consequences, lessen the likelihood of failures that might cause
harm and take appropriate remedial actions. Buyer will fully indemnify TI and its representatives against any damages arising out of the use
of any TI components in safety-critical applications.
In some cases, TI components may be promoted specifically to facilitate safety-related applications. With such components, TI’s goal is to
help enable customers to design and create their own end-product solutions that meet applicable functional safety standards and
requirements. Nonetheless, such components are subject to these terms.
No TI components are authorized for use in FDA Class III (or similar life-critical medical equipment) unless authorized officers of the parties
have executed a special agreement specifically governing such use.
Only those TI components which TI has specifically designated as military grade or “enhanced plastic” are designed and intended for use in
military/aerospace applications or environments. Buyer acknowledges and agrees that any military or aerospace use of TI components
which have not been so designated is solely at the Buyer's risk, and that Buyer is solely responsible for compliance with all legal and
regulatory requirements in connection with such use.
TI has specifically designated certain components as meeting ISO/TS16949 requirements, mainly for automotive use. In any case of use of
non-designated products, TI will not be responsible for any failure to meet ISO/TS16949.
Products
Applications
Audio
www.ti.com/audio
Automotive and Transportation
www.ti.com/automotive
Amplifiers
amplifier.ti.com
Communications and Telecom
www.ti.com/communications
Data Converters
dataconverter.ti.com
Computers and Peripherals
www.ti.com/computers
DLP® Products
www.dlp.com
Consumer Electronics
www.ti.com/consumer-apps
DSP
dsp.ti.com
Energy and Lighting
www.ti.com/energy
Clocks and Timers
www.ti.com/clocks
Industrial
www.ti.com/industrial
Interface
interface.ti.com
Medical
www.ti.com/medical
Logic
logic.ti.com
Security
www.ti.com/security
Power Mgmt
power.ti.com
Space, Avionics and Defense
www.ti.com/space-avionics-defense
Microcontrollers
microcontroller.ti.com
Video and Imaging
www.ti.com/video
RFID
www.ti-rfid.com
OMAP Applications Processors
www.ti.com/omap
TI E2E Community
e2e.ti.com
Wireless Connectivity
www.ti.com/wirelessconnectivity
Mailing Address: Texas Instruments, Post Office Box 655303, Dallas, Texas 75265
Copyright © 2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Related manuals

Download PDF

advertising