Texas Instruments | Intrinsically Static-Dissipative Reel (Rev. A) | Application notes | Texas Instruments Intrinsically Static-Dissipative Reel (Rev. A) Application notes

Texas Instruments Intrinsically Static-Dissipative Reel (Rev. A) Application notes
Application Report
SZZA041A - January 2004
Intrinsically Static-Dissipative Reel
Albert Escusa and Lance Wright
Standard Linear & Logic
ABSTRACT
Polystyrene, black, intrinsically static-dissipative (ISD) reels and polystyrene
antistatic-coated reels used for shipping integrated circuits in tape-and-reel configuration
were tested for surface-resistance performance at low (11.7%) and high (50.3%) relative
humidity (RH) after 1 hour and 48 hours, respectively. Static-charge decay also was
measured under low-humidity conditions. The test results show that the antistatic-coated or
dipped reels have poor surface resistance at low RH and acceptable surface resistance at
high RH. The ISD reel’s surface resistance is independent of relative humidity. As for static
decay, the dipped reel had a 1000-V to 100-V decay time of ~20 seconds, whereas the ISD
reel’s static decay time was 0.01 second. Due to surface-resistance characteristics, TI uses
the ISD reel at all assembly/test sites to improve ESD protection for components packed with,
and without, moisture-barrier bags.
Contents
1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2
Plastic Conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.1 Impregnating the Polymer With Electronically Conductive Additives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.2 Surface Application of an Antistatic Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3
Test Plan and Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1 Equipment List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2 Test Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.1 Surface-Resistance Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.2 Charge-Decay Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4
Data and Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
5
Discussion of Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
6
Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
7
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
8
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
9
Acknowledgment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
5
5
5
5
7
Trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
1
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List of Figures
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Carbon-Black/Polymer Composite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Material Coated With Antistatic Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resistance-Measurement Locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resistance-Measurement Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measuring Surface Resistance on the Inner Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measuring Resistance on the Outer Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trek 156 Charge-Plate Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3
4
6
6
6
7
8
List of Tables
1
2
3
4
1
Antistatic-Coated Reel, Dipped, Blue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Intrinsically Static-Dissipative (ISD) Reel, Carbon-Loaded Polystyrene, Black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Static-Charge Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
ESD Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Introduction
Static electricity is a natural phenomenon. Delicate electronic components easily are damaged
by electrostatic discharge (ESD), and resultant faults in assembled finished products can be
costly. Packing media used to protect products delivered to customers against ESD include
trays, tape and reel, tubes or magazines, boxes, and bags. These items should have a surface
resistance in the static-dissipative range of greater than 1 × 104 W, but less than 1 × 1011 W, per
ANSI/EOS/ESD S11.11-93, in order to control a discharge. If the surface resistance is too small,
a charge can dissipate too quickly and electrically overstress the integrated circuits (ICs) within
the packing medium.
Currently, tape and reel is the most common packing medium in use at Texas Instruments, and
testing has shown that the current method’s level of ESD protection decreases as the relative
humidity (RH) decreases. The traditional reel is constructed of glass-filled ABS or polystyrene
and is dipped in an antistatic agent to provide conductivity. This type of coating easily wears
through by contact with electronic components or general handling and no longer provides the
needed ESD protection. For example, unreeling the carrier tape from a reel rubs and abrades
the static-dissipative coating on the inside surface of the flanges. Additionally, the coating easily
can be removed by washing and does not work effectively at low relative humidity due to lack of
moisture in the air. Low relative humidity is of concern because this condition (below 12% RH) is
present within a sealed moisture-barrier bag with desiccant. This is why reels with an antistatic
coating need tight surface-resistance (SR) monitoring to ensure compliance to original
specifications. A better alternative is the intrinsically static-dissipative (ISD) reels because they
maintain a constant surface resistance, regardless of relative humidity.
This application report shows the surface-resistance performance of ISD reels versus topically
coated antistatic dipped reels, at room conditions and at low humidity, to simulate the
environment inside and outside a moisture-barrier bag. Additionally, by reviewing how surface
resistance is controlled for each type of reel, this application report explains why ISD reels can
better protect electrostatic-sensitive devices from being electrically overstressed.
2
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2
Plastic Conductivity
Various methods can be used to alter the electrical characteristics of plastics to prevent charge
buildup or to provide surface resistance within the static-dissipative range; that is, integrating
electrically conductive additives, surface application of antistatic agents, or incorporating internal
chemical antistatic agents. The first two are discussed because these are the two in use on reels
shipped by Texas Instruments.
2.1
Impregnating the Polymer With Electrically Conductive Additives
The most common additives used are carbon-black powder, graphite fiber, and metallized fillers.
These inert conductive fillers have antistatic properties, independent of atmospheric humidity.
Carbon black is an electrical conductor made of finely divided particles of amorphous carbon
produced by incomplete combustion of petroleum or natural gas. Typically, carbon black is used
in plastics for four reasons:
•
It is an electrically conductive filler.
•
It is a black pigment.
•
It absorbs ultraviolet radiation.
•
It obstructs transmission of radiant energy.
Polymers filled with carbon black, above a certain concentration, become conductive. Loadings
of 10% or more are required for conductivity, but at this level, mechanical and physical
properties of the plastics are degraded and need an impact modifier (Imod) to maintain strength
properties. This 10% also will make the reel color black.
Electron flow through a carbon-black/polymer composite is achieved when the carbon black
forms a conductive network within the polymer. In theory, electron flow occurs when the
carbon-black aggregates are in contact or are separated by very small gaps. The electrons
tunnel through the resistive polymer from aggregate to aggregate, creating connections that
allow electrical conductivity (see Figure 1). The more aggregates that are in contact, or close
enough for tunneling to occur, the greater the composite’s electrical conductivity, up to the
concentration point. The surface area and structure of the carbon black heavily influences the
concentration point.
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Closely packed carbon black
particles in the composite
create a network to conduct
electricity.
Figure 1. Carbon-Black/Polymer Composite
Intrinsically Static-Dissipative Reel
3
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The main disadvantage of carbon black is sloughing, which is the shedding of carbon particles.
Depending upon the level of handling, carbon-black composites may not be suitable for
cleanroom applications due to the shedding of carbon particles. This type of contamination has
not been an issue with the ISD reel.
2.2
Surface Application of an Antistatic Agent
Topical antistatic agents applied to the surface of plastics usually are transparent, so that the
base polymer color is unaffected. The coating combines with moisture in the air to provide a
conductive surface. As previously mentioned, this type of coating is very fragile and easily can
be washed or rubbed off. As the coating is diminished, so is the ESD protection.
Antistatic agents have two halves of opposite chemical nature: a hydrophilic head and a
hydrophobic tail. The top portion of the antistatic agent, or head, is polarized and attracts water,
ions, and salts from the surroundings onto the surface of the reel to form a conductive layer, as
shown in Figure 2.[1] This type of antistatic agent is widely used because it is cheap and
performs well in high-humidity environments. If there is not enough moisture, such as in a
moisture-barrier bag, there is a poorly conducting layer on the surface of the reel. The tail
(everything below the hydrophilic head) buries itself in the plastic body to provide an easily
removable anchor. Another drawback of antistatic agents is that they tend to have a greasy feel,
which makes them less suitable for cleanroom applications because of the potential for ionic and
chemical contamination.[1]
ÂÂÂÂÂ ÂÂ ÂÂ Â
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 Â Â ÂÂ
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Water molecules in
the air
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 Â ÂÂ
 Â Â ÂÂ
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Insulative
base material
Topical antistatic agent
applied (dipped) on the
surface conducts electricity by
absorbing water molecules in
the environment.
Figure 2. Material Coated With Antistatic Agent
Both methods of imparting conductivity to the reels have their advantages and disadvantages.
When all the factors are considered, the impregnation method is the clear choice because the
ESD protection cannot be worn, washed off, or affected by the amount of relative humidity.
Although the carbon does have sloughing, there is not enough to be concerned about when
packaging assembled integrated circuits.
4
Intrinsically Static-Dissipative Reel
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3
Test Plan and Equipment
Measuring surface resistance under low- and high-humidity conditions quantifies how much the
topical (dipped) coating is degraded by low relative humidity and ensures that the material is
static dissipative. A static-decay test ensures that the material meets industry standards for
charge decay, so that the material does not hold a charge that can damage the ICs. These tests,
along with other tests outlined in TI’s quality standard (QSS 003-008), qualifies the ISD reel for
use within TI.
Surface-resistance tests are performed using a PRS 801 meter, 5-LB NFPA probe, and dry
chamber. The Trek 156 Charge-Plate Monitor is used to measure static decay. Each is
described in section 3.1.
3.1
3.2
Equipment List
•
PRS 801 meter – an instrument for measuring the surface resistance of a given material
•
5-LB NFPA probe – a concentric-ring probe specified in ANSI/EOS/ESD S11.11-93. This
probe weighs 5 pounds and standardizes the pressure applied by the probe on the
specimen.
•
Dry chamber – an enclosed dry compartment for conditioning specimens in a low-humidity
environment
•
Trek 156 Charge-Plate Monitor – an instrument for measuring a material’s ability to dissipate
the induced voltage through the material with proper grounding
Test Procedure
3.2.1
Surface-Resistance Measurement
3.2.1.1
Resistance Measurement at Ambient Relative Humidity
Use this procedure to measure resistance of two reels at ambient relative humidity:
1. Clearly mark the plastic-reel surfaces to identify the specimen’s orientation, e.g.,
inner-surface A, inner-surface B, inner-surface C, outer-surface A, outer-surface B,
outer-surface C, and outer-surface D (see Figure 3).
2. Based on the ANSI/EOS/ESD S.11.11 test method, connect the electrode assembly to the
instrumentation (see Figure 4).
3. Place the reel on the specimen support, and position the concentric-ring electrode
assembly in the approximate center of the marked surface (see Figures 5 and 6).
4. Energize the instrumentation at 10 V. If the indicated resistance is less than 1 × 106 W,
record the value after 5 seconds, then proceed to step 6.
5. If the indicated resistance is equal to or greater than 1 × 106 W, adjust the voltage source
to 100 V. Resistance readings higher than 1 × 106 W need a higher voltage for
measurement accuracy. Record the surface resistance indicated.
6. Repeat steps 3 through 5 for the remaining marked surfaces.
7. Repeat the above test procedure for the other reel.
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5
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Outer-surface D
Inner-surface A
Outer-surface A
Inner-surface C
Outer-surface B
Inner-surface B
Outer-surface C
Outer Surface of the Flange
Inner Surface of the Opposite Flange
Figure 3. Resistance-Measurement Locations
AMMETER
(SENSE)
PRS801
Reel Under Test
VOLTAGE
SOURCE
Electrode, 5-LB NFPA Probe
Specimen
Support
Figure 4. Resistance-Measurement Setup
Figure 5. Measuring Surface Resistance on the Inner Surface
6
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Figure 6. Measuring Resistance on the Outer Surface
3.2.1.2
Resistance Measurement Under Low-Humidity Conditions
Use this procedure to measure resistance of two reels under low-humidity conditions:
1. Condition the reels in a dry chamber at 12% ±3% relative humidity and 23°C ±3°C for a
minimum of 48 hours. This condition simulates the actual relative humidity inside a
dry-packed (MBB) bag.
2. Repeat steps 3 through 7 of section 3.2.1.1, with the reels inside the dry chamber.
3.2.1.3
Data Reporting
Record the minimum, maximum, and mean surface resistances for each reel tested, indicating
the temperature, relative humidity, and duration of the test.
3.2.2
Charge-Decay Measurement
The charge-decay test measures the rate of decay of a charged isolated object to 10% of its
original value. Federal Test Method Standard No. 101, Test Method Number 4046, specifies that
the charged object at ±5000 V should drain the voltage to ±500 V in less than 2 seconds. This
test has fixtures for planar objects, which poses a difficult problem in measuring charge decay of
reels due to their complex construction. Because there is not enough plane surface to set up the
test fixtures, the charge-plate monitor (CPM) was used to measure the reel’s capability to
dissipate the induced voltage, with proper grounding. A charged object at ±1000 V should drain
to ±100 V in less than 2 seconds. One advantage of the CPM is its capability to measure the
rate of decay through the material, from top to bottom.
Use the Trek 156 Charge-Plate Monitor to measure the static decay time (see Figure 7):
1. Using the same preconditioned reels used in section 3.2.1.2, measure the time it takes for
the reels charged at +1000 V to drain to +100 V, and record the results. Tests should be
done inside the dry chamber.
2. Repeat step 1 to drain –1000 V to –100 V and record the results.
Intrinsically Static-Dissipative Reel
7
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Figure 7. Trek 156 Charge-Plate Monitor
4
Data and Results
Table 1. Antistatic-Coated Reel, Dipped, Blue
Surface Resistance (W)
Sample Location
8
Ambient Conditions
(50.3% RH, 71.55F)
Low Relative Humidity
(48-Hour Soak at 11.7% RH, 73.25F)
1. Inner-surface A
4.9 × 1010
9 × 1012
2. Inner-surface B
1.3 × 1011
3.3 × 1013
3. Inner-surface C
1.3 × 109
1.5 × 1011
4. Outer-surface A
4.5 × 1010
4.1 × 1012
5. Outer-surface B
9.6 × 1010
1.9 × 1013
6. Outer-surface C
2.2 × 1010
7.4 × 1012
7. Outer-surface D
1.1 × 1011
4.7× 1011
Average
6.47 × 1010
1.04 × 1013
Minimum
1.3 × 109
1.5 × 1011
Maximum
1.3 × 1011
3.3 × 1013
Std. Dev.
4.79 × 1010
1.18 × 1013
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Table 2. Intrinsically Static-Dissipative (ISD) Reel, Carbon-Loaded Polystyrene, Black
Surface Resistance (W)
Sample Location
Ambient Conditions
(50.3% RH, 71.55F)
Low Relative Humidity
(48-Hour Soak at 11.7% RH, 73.25F)
1. Inner-surface A
7.5 × 108
4.1 × 1010
2. Inner-surface B
1.1 × 109
8.1 × 109
3. Inner-surface C
7.8 × 109
3 × 1010
4. Outer-surface A
4.5 × 109
1.1 × 1011
5. Outer-surface B
1.1 × 107
6.1 × 1010
6. Outer-surface C
9.8 × 1010
4.1 × 1011
7. Outer-surface D
5.4 × 106
5.9 × 109
Average
1.6 × 1010
9.51 × 1010
Minimum
5.4 × 106
5.9 × 109
Maximum
9.8 × 1010
4.1 × 1011
Std. Dev.
3.62 × 1010
1.43 × 1011
Table 3. Static-Charge Decay
Decay from +1000 V
to +100 V†
(seconds)
Decay from −1000 V
to −100 V†
(seconds)
Antistatic-coated reel, blue
20.36
16.5
ISD reel, carbon-loaded polystyrene, black
0.01
0.36
Description
† Reels were conditioned at 11.7% RH, 73.2°F in a dry chamber for 48 hours before testing.
5
Discussion of Results
In practical applications where the devices are dry-packed at a condition below 12% RH, the
intrinsically static-dissipative (ISD) reel performs better than the antistatic-coated reel. The ISD
reel was slightly affected by the low-humidity environment and, except for a few cases, remained
in the static-dissipative range, while the antistatic-coated reel became insulative (see Table 4). A
lower concentration of carbon at surfaces A and C is attributed to the surface resistance falling
outside the static-dissipative range for the ISD reel. These localized insulative zones do not
affect the overall performance of the reel. At ambient conditions, both reels were in the static
dissipative range, with the ISD reel having a lower average surface resistance and standard
deviation. With regard to static decay, the ISD reel drains the static-voltage charge to less than
10% of the original value in less than 2 seconds, while the antistatic-coated reels failed to meet
the 2-second requirement for static-dissipative material, as defined by Federal Test Method
Standard 101.
These results indicate that the ISD reel provides better ESD protection than the topically coated
reel at low humidity and ambient conditions. In essence, the ISD reel minimizes tribo-electric
charging and dissipates any charge that is generated. This cannot be said for the topically
coated reel, which allows for the possibility that the ICs it is protecting could be electrically
overstressed.
Intrinsically Static-Dissipative Reel
9
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In this evaluation, a concentric-ring fixture was used to measure the surface resistance in ohms.
ANSI/EOS/ESD S.11.11 specifies the inner electrode diameter (D1) to be 1.2 inches (30.48 mm)
and the outer electrode inner diameter (D2) to be 2.25 inches (57.15 mm). Using this
concentric-ring geometry, the resistance can be converted to an equivalent surface resistivity in
ohms per square by multiplying the resistance value by 10. If the ring geometry is different, use
this equation:
Surface resistivity, ρs = 2pR/In(D2/D1)
Table 4 shows ESD resistance in ohms and ohms/square in terms of material classification. The
conversion is provided because most TI quality standards rate ESD materials in terms of surface
resistivity. This helps in making an accurate comparison.
Table 4. ESD Resistance
Measurement
6
Conductive
Static Dissipative
Insulative
Reference
Resistance (W)
<1 × 104
Greater than 1 × 104,
but less than 1 × 1011
>1 × 1011
ANSI/EOS/ESD S11.11-93
Surface resistivity (W/square)
<1 × 105
Greater than 1 × 105,
but less than 1 × 1012
>1 × 1012
EIA 541
Conclusions
The ISD reel is static dissipative in low- and high-humidity environments and can dissipate 90%
of a charge within 2 seconds, whereas the antistatic-coated reel is very dependent upon the
amount of relative humidity, may become insulative at <12% RH, and does not meet the static
decay standard for static-dissipative materials. Therefore, it is concluded that, when
semiconductor devices are packed in tape and reel, they receive better ESD protection with the
ISD reel, with or without drypacking, than with the topically coated reel. The test results support
qualification of the ISD reel and implementation at all TI assembly/test sites. The TI Worldwide
Packing Team is working with its subcontractors so that all TI products are shipped using the
ISD reel.
7
Glossary
Amorphous: having no real or apparent crystalline form
Anion: the ion in an electrolyzed solution that migrates to the anode; broadly: a negatively
charged ion
Cation: the ion in an electrolyzed solution that migrates to the cathode; broadly: a positively
charged ion
Hydroscopic: readily taking up and retaining moisture under some conditions of humidity and
temperature
Hydrophilic: having a strong affinity for water
Hydrophobic: lacking affinity for water
Impact Modifier (Imod): A compound used to improve impact, toughness, ozone resistance,
ultraviolet resistance, and heat resistance of polymers
10
Intrinsically Static-Dissipative Reel
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Micropore: a very fine pore
Nonionic: not ionic; especially: not dependent on a surface-active anion for effect
Polymer: substance containing a large number of structural units joined by the same type of
linkage. These substances often form a chain-like structure.
Polymerization: chemical reaction in which two or more molecules combine to form a larger
molecule that contains repeating structural units
Surfactant (or surface-active): Altering the properties, especially lowering the tension at the
surface of contact between phases. Wetting agents are typical surface-active substances.
8
References
1. Methods to Increase Plastic Conductivity, Dr. Lian Na, Cpak PTE Ltd.
2. For Protection of Electrostatic Discharge Susceptible Items − Surface Resistance Measurement
of Static Dissipative Planar Materials, EOS/ESD-S11.11-1993.
3. Conductive Materials for ESD Applications: An Overview, Robert B. Rosner,
http://www.ce-mag.com/archive/01/spring/rosner.html.
9
Acknowledgment
The authors thank Tom Diep, TI ESD Specialist, for his consultation; Bob Vermillion, Bob
Vermillion and Associates, for conducting these tests; and Mike Hayden, WPL World-Wide
Packing Commodity Manager, for his guidance.
Intrinsically Static-Dissipative Reel
11
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amplifier.ti.com
Audio
www.ti.com/audio
Data Converters
dataconverter.ti.com
Automotive
www.ti.com/automotive
DSP
dsp.ti.com
Broadband
www.ti.com/broadband
Interface
interface.ti.com
Digital Control
www.ti.com/digitalcontrol
Logic
logic.ti.com
Military
www.ti.com/military
Power Mgmt
power.ti.com
Optical Networking
www.ti.com/opticalnetwork
Microcontrollers
microcontroller.ti.com
Security
www.ti.com/security
Telephony
www.ti.com/telephony
Video & Imaging
www.ti.com/video
Wireless
www.ti.com/wireless
Mailing Address:
Texas Instruments
Post Office Box 655303 Dallas, Texas 75265
Copyright  2004, Texas Instruments Incorporated
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