Texas Instruments | Designing With TI Ultra-Low-Voltage CMOS (AUC) Octals and Widebus Devices | Application notes | Texas Instruments Designing With TI Ultra-Low-Voltage CMOS (AUC) Octals and Widebus Devices Application notes

Texas Instruments Designing With TI Ultra-Low-Voltage CMOS (AUC) Octals and Widebus Devices Application notes
Application Report
SCEA033 - April 2003
Designing With TI Ultra-Low-Voltage CMOS (AUC)
Octals and Widebus Devices
Sagir Hasnain, Gene Hinterscher, and Will Hutchinson
Standard Linear & Logic
ABSTRACT
System designers are continuously seeking ways to improve signal integrity, increase speed,
and reduce power consumption in personal computers, telecommunication equipment, and
other electronic systems. The Texas Instruments (TI) next-generation Advanced
Ultra-low-voltage CMOS (AUC) octals and Widebus devices are designed to achieve these
goals. These devices are designed for a 0.8-V to 2.7-V power supply and are optimized for
1.8-V operation. With the help of a unique output structure, the AUC logic devices achieve
excellent signal integrity, while maintaining the highest possible speed in the industry.
Contents
1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2
AUC Logic Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1 Novel Output Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 Overvoltage Tolerance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3 Power-Off Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4 Bus-Hold Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3
AUC Logic-Device Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.1 Input Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.2 Electrical Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.2.1 AC Performance: Faster Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.2.2 Dynamic vs DC Drive: Faster Speed, Low Transition Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.3 Power Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4
Design Issues and AUC Logic Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.1 Signal Integrity at Faster Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.2 Simultaneous Switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4.2.1 Simultaneous-Switching Noise of AUC Widebus Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4.2.2 Simultaneous-Switching Noise of AUC Octals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
4.3 Voltage-Translation Support With the AUC Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
4.3.1 Bidirectional Data Transfer With Level Translation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
4.3.2 Unidirectional Data Transfer With Level Translation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
5
Features and Benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
6
Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
7
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
8
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
3
3
4
4
5
Widebus and Widebus+ are trademarks of Texas Instruments.
1
SCEA033
List of Figures
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
AUC Output Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Simplified Partial-Power-Down System With AUC Logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
AUCH Input With Bus-Hold Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
AUCH16244 Input VI-II Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
VI vs ICC Characteristics of AUC Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
AUC vs Different CMOS Logic Families TI Offers as a Migration Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Test Loads for Propagation Delays at Different VCC Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
tpd vs CL at 2.5-V, 1.8-V, and 1.5-V VCC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
tpd vs CL at 1.2-V and 0.8-V VCC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
VOH vs IOH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
VOL vs IOL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Typical Current Consumption of AUC Logic Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Power Consumption of the AUC16374 and AUCH16374 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Laboratory Setup for Testing AUC Signal Integrity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.8-V VCC High-to-Low Switching, With All 16 Bits Switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.5-V VCC High-to-Low Switching, With All 16 Bits Switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.5-V VCC Low-to-High Transition, With All 16 Bits Switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1.8-V VCC Low-to-High Switching, With All 16 Bits Switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Noise Coupling at the VCC and GND Rails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Simultaneous-Switching Noise of AUC16245 in Different Packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Simultaneous-Switching Noise of the AUC245 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
AUC Logic Operating at 2.5-V VCC for Bidirectional Switching
Between 3.3-V I/Os and 2.5-V I/Os . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Unidirectional Data Transfer With CMOS Buffer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
List of Tables
1
2
3
4
2
Input and Output Capacitance of AUC Octals and Widebus Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Timing Characteristics of AUC Logic Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
System Power-Consumption Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Features and Benefits of AUC Logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Designing With TI Ultra-Low-Voltage CMOS (AUC) Octals and WidebusE Devices
SCEA033
1
Introduction
The Advanced Ultra-low-voltage CMOS (AUC) devices from Texas Instruments (TI) are the
industry’s first logic family that is optimized at 1.8-V VCC, but is operational from 0.8 V to 2.7 V,
with a tolerance of 3.6 V. This sub-1-V family operates at low power and high speed, while
maintaining overall system signal integrity for use in telecommunications equipment,
high-performance workstations, and portable consumer electronics. The AUC offers Ioff, which
protects the device while supporting partial-power-down applications. Selected AUC devices
offer the bus-hold feature, which eliminates the need for an external pullup or pulldown resistor
when there is no active driver on the bus.
This application report discusses AUC Widebus and octal device features, characteristics, and
applications. The use of AUC logic in this application report refers to the AUC Widebus and octal
devices. Please refer to the application report, Texas Instruments AUC Sub-1-V Little Logic
Devices, literature number SCEA027, for information specific to the AUC Little Logic devices.
2
AUC Logic Features
The AUC logic devices are designed for high-speed applications with optimum signal integrity.
With a unique output structure (see section 2.1), the AUC device switches very fast and still
maintains very low transition noise. Among the noted features, the characteristic output
structure, level-translation support capability, bus hold, and partial-power-down support features
of the AUC devices facilitate their use in the target applications.
2.1
Novel Output Structure
The AUC Widebus and octal devices feature a unique output driver that minimizes the switching
noise in high-speed applications. The output driver achieves this by using three impedance
phases during the output transition.
To achieve the three impedance phases, the AUC output employs a three-branch, p-channel,
upper-output and a three-branch, n-channel, lower-output structure (see Figure 1). The first
branch, the ac branch (ACB), which uses a diode in the output structure, provides the high
dynamic current required to drive through the threshold. This initial high drive provides the quick
transition to the desired logic level and ensures that system timing is preserved. The second
branch, the transmission line branch (TLB), which contains a series resistor, provides optimized
impedance matching into the transmission line to help minimize ringing and to optimize signal
integrity. The third branch, the dc branch (DCB), provides the additional dc current drive for
applications requiring more than 4-mA output drive current at 1.8-V VCC.
For a detailed description of the AUC output driver, please refer to the application report, Texas
Instruments AUC Sub-1-V Little Logic Devices, literature number SCEA027.
Designing With TI Ultra-Low-Voltage CMOS (AUC) Octals and WidebusE Devices
3
SCEA033
ACB
TLB
DCB
Control
Feedback
Internal
Node
VOUT
Control
Feedback
Figure 1. AUC Output Structure
2.2
Overvoltage Tolerance
The AUC logic family can handle up to a 3.6-V signal at the input, output, or I/O port with the
operating VCC range from 0.8 V to 2.7 V. The AUC output, or I/O port, can handle a signal with a
magnitude greater than the VCC when the output buffer of that port is in the high-impedance
state. This overvoltage tolerance allows the AUC logic to interface with 3.3-V logic and leads to
an easy migration path from 3.3-V logic to 2.5-V, or lower, voltage nodes.
NOTE: In the absolute maximum ratings and recommended operating conditions tables of the
AUC data sheet, the maximum overvoltage specification is 3.6 V. In practice, the AUC safely can
handle a 3.6-V dc level at the input, output, and I/O ports, while the output buffer is in the
high-impedance state.
2.3
Power-Off Support
Rapid development of hand-held consumer electronics increases the demand for low power
consumption. To achieve low-power goals, the off-state leakage current (Ioff) feature has been
added to the AUC device family. The Ioff feature limits the current into or out of the device when
the device VCC = 0 V (see Figure 2). The AUC device can handle valid logic signals at both the
input and the output ports when VCC = 0. This feature is particularly helpful for
partial-power-down systems.
4
Designing With TI Ultra-Low-Voltage CMOS (AUC) Octals and WidebusE Devices
SCEA033
Live System
Powered-Down System
VCC
VCC = 0 V
On/Off
Ioff < ±10 µA
AUC
Input/Output
On/Off
Figure 2. Simplified Partial-Power-Down System With AUC Logic
The output buffers of the AUC devices are designed with a blocking diode in the
reversed-current path to VCC. The input buffer, without the bus-hold circuit, does not provide any
current path from the input to the VCC rail. The bus-hold input has a blocking diode in the
reverse-current path to VCC. With these configurations, the maximum leakage current into or out
of the input or output transistors, when forcing the input or output to 3.3 V and VCC = 0 V, is
negligible. This Ioff is small enough to allow the device to remain electrically connected to a bus
during partial-power-down conditions without loading the remaining live circuits. This feature
also allows the use of this family in a mixed-voltage environment.
2.4
Bus-Hold Feature
The totem-pole structure of the CMOS input (see Figure 3c) requires that input voltage be close
to GND or VCC to reduce the ICC current through the device. The bus-hold circuit at the CMOS
input (see Figure 3b) helps to solve the problem of floating inputs and eliminates the need for
pullup and pulldown resistors. The basic construction of a bus-hold circuit includes a weak
inverter whose output is connected to the CMOS input (see Figure 3a). Selected AUC octals and
Widebus devices are offered with the bus-hold option. The protection diode at the bus-hold
circuit helps to maintain the overvoltage tolerance characteristics and the Ioff specifications of
the AUC inputs.
VCC
VCC
(a)
(b)
(c)
Figure 3. AUCH Input With Bus-Hold Circuit
Designing With TI Ultra-Low-Voltage CMOS (AUC) Octals and WidebusE Devices
5
SCEA033
3
AUC Logic-Device Characteristics
3.1
Input Characteristics
The input capacitance of logic devices can influence system performance in the following two
ways:
•
In terms of loading, CMOS inputs can be represented by the Ci or the Cio parameter, with
some limitations. A device with low input capacitance allows a given driver to drive a large
number of inputs.
•
For a specific driver, if the load capacitance increases, the output slew rate decreases. The
slower transitions at the CMOS input may increase the system power consumption because
the signal stays in the high-current region longer (see Figure 5).
The AUC logic maintains a low input capacitance compared to other high-performance CMOS
logic devices. (see Table 1)
Table 1. Input and Output Capacitance
of AUC Octals and Widebus Devices
DEVICE
Ci (pF)
Co or Cio (pF)
TYP
MAX
TYP
SN74AUC245
2.5
3
7.5
8
SN74AUCH245
2.5
3
8
8.5
SN74AUC16245
3
4
7
SN74AUC16501
3.5
4.5
6
MAX
7.5
SN74AUC16240
3
4
5.5
6
SN74AUC16244
3.5
4.5
6
7.5
SN74AUCH16244
3
4.5
4
7
SN74AUC16374
3
4
5
Figure 4 shows the input characteristics of an AUC device with the bus-hold feature. The data in
Figure 4 has been taken from the SPICE simulation of the AUCH16244. In Figure 4, the typical
data was taken at nominal process and temperature with VCC = 1.8 V. The minimum and
maximum values are the corners of process, voltage, and temperature at the 1.8-V VCC node.
The input voltage range from 0 V to 3.3 V is highlighted to show the bus-hold characteristics. For
an input without bus hold (for example, AUC16244), the entire highlighted input-voltage range
maintains a leakage current less than the data-sheet-specified II. The flat region of the VI–II
curve (VCC to 3.6 V) indicates that input voltage can be raised above VCC without increasing the
leakage current.
6
Designing With TI Ultra-Low-Voltage CMOS (AUC) Octals and WidebusE Devices
SCEA033
MAX
TYP
MIN
MIN
TYP
MAX
Figure 4. AUCH16244 Input VI-II Characteristics
NOTE: In many applications, it is common to observe undershoot due to transmission-line
mismatch. One way to estimate whether this undershoot is unsafe is to look at the VI-II curve to
see if the undershoot draws the transient input current above the data-sheet absolute-maximum
ratings. However, to ensure device reliability, the best practice is to reduce the undershoot in the
application. The VI-II curve for the TI logic device can be found in the corresponding IBIS file.
Figure 5 shows the input voltage vs ICC current of the AUC family. The data was taken from
laboratory tests, with the nominal material of AUC16245 and AUC16244 at 1.8-V VCC and
TA = 25°C. The input voltage vs ICC curve of a CMOS input indicates the amount of excess
supply current drawn if a CMOS input floats.
High-Current
Region
20
AUC16245
I CC – mA
15
AUC16244
10
5
0
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
Input Voltage – V
Figure 5. VI vs ICC Characteristics of AUC Devices
Designing With TI Ultra-Low-Voltage CMOS (AUC) Octals and WidebusE Devices
7
SCEA033
3.2
3.2.1
Electrical Characteristics
AC Performance: Faster Speed
The AUC family has been optimized for speed. With the help of special output circuitry, an AUC
device can operate faster, while maintaining very good signal integrity. Figure 6 shows the
performance comparison and the low-voltage migration path for different CMOS logic families
offered by TI.
Figure 6. AUC vs Different CMOS Logic Families TI Offers as a Migration Path
In most electronic-system applications, it is important for the IC drivers to provide a balanced
high and low drive during the ac transition. This ensures balanced output edge rates and
improved signal integrity. Also, balanced high and low drive ensures that the difference between
the low-to-high transition time (tPLH) and the high-to-low transition time (tPHL) is minimized. In
general, as the supply voltage decreases, the p-channel transistor becomes weaker at a faster
rate than the n-channel transistor due to their respective positive and negative
carrier-mobility-degradation characteristics. For devices with active p-channel pullups, this
causes tPLH to increase at a faster rate than tPHL; consequently, the |tPLH – tPHL| increases,
respectively. The three-branch AUC output minimizes this effect across VCC by distributing the
high drive across the ron of the transistor with that of the resistor, i.e., the resistor in the TLB
branch (see Figure 1). The resistance of the resistor does not vary with the supply voltage, thus
reducing the effective variation in ron of the high and low drives.
Table 2 shows the propagation delay for different AUC logic devices operating at different
voltage nodes. These results are the output of laboratory tests using the standard load
specifications in the parameter measurement information of the data sheet (see Figure 7).
8
Designing With TI Ultra-Low-Voltage CMOS (AUC) Octals and WidebusE Devices
SCEA033
Table 2. Timing Characteristics of AUC Logic Devices
VCC = 1.2 V
±0.1 V
VCC = 0.8 V
VCC = 1.5 V
±0.1 V
VCC = 1.8 V
±0.15 V
VCC = 2.5 V
±0.2 V
FROM
(INPUT)
TO
(OUTPUT)
TYP
MIN
MAX
MIN
MAX
MIN
TYP
MAX
MIN
MAX
SN74AUC245
A or B
B or A
5
1
3.2
0.6
2
0.6
1.3
2.2
0.5
1.8
SN74AUC16245
A or B
B or A
5.6
0.5
3.1
0.5
2
0.5
1.5
2
0.4
1.9
SN74AUC16501
A or B
B or A
8.5
0.9
4
1
2.8
0.3
2
2.8
0.1
2.3
SN74AUC16240
A
Y
5.8
0.9
2.6
0.7
1.8
0.6
1.4
2
0.4
1.6
SN74AUC16244
A
Y
5.4
0.8
2.8
0.6
1.9
0.7
1.3
1.8
0.5
1.8
SN74AUC16374
CLK
Q
7.3
1
4.5
0.8
2.9
0.7
1.5
2.8
0.7
2.2
DEVICE
tpd TEST LOAD
AUC
Output
CL
RL
VCC
CL
RL
0.8 V
15 pF
2 kΩ
1.2 V ± 0.1 V
15 pF
2 kΩ
2 kΩ
1.5 V ± 0.1 V
15 pF
1.8 V ± 0.15 V
30 pF
1 kΩ
2.5 V ± 0.2 V
30 pF
500 Ω
Figure 7. Test Loads for Propagation Delays at Different VCC Nodes
AUC logic has been designed and optimized at VCC = 1.8 V. But, it has good timing
characteristics at the other VCC nodes as well (see Table 2).
In an actual customer application, the load capacitance varies, depending on the number of
receivers and the input characteristics of the receiver. Figures 8 and 9 show the variation of AUC
propagation delays with the load capacitance at different VCC nodes. The data was taken from
the SPICE simulation of AUC16245 at the lumped capacitive loads, nominal process, and
25°C ambient temperature. Because the data was taken using the same reference loads,
Figures 8 and 9 show a true comparison of the propagation delays at different voltage nodes.
Designing With TI Ultra-Low-Voltage CMOS (AUC) Octals and WidebusE Devices
9
SCEA033
t pd – ns
2.5
VCC = 1.5 V
2
VCC = 1.8 V
1.5
VCC = 2.5 V
1
0.5
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
CL – Capacitive Load – pF
Figure 8. tpd vs CL at 2.5-V, 1.8-V, and 1.5-V VCC
12
t pd – ns
10
VCC = 0.8 V
8
6
4
VCC = 1.2 V
2
0
0
20
40
60
80
CL – Capacitive Load – pF
Figure 9. tpd vs CL at 1.2-V and 0.8-V VCC
3.2.2
Dynamic vs DC Drive: Faster Speed, Low Transition Noise
For a typical CMOS logic device, the VOH–IOH and VOL–IOL characteristics represent the dc
drive capability of the device. Because of the special output structure, the AUC VOH–IOH and
VOL–IOL characteristics are unique. The VO vs IO performance demonstrates the dc drive
performance of the output circuit, but does not relate directly to the ac performance. The output
drive uses three impedance phases during the transition (see section 2.1). Figures 10 and 11
show the typical VO vs IO dc drive performance and dynamic (ac) drive performance. The
dynamic-drive data was taken from the SPICE simulation with all three branches of the AUC
output turned on. This situation represents the initial phase of the transition when all three legs
are turned on. The parallel combination of ron of all three legs provides very low impedance. The
IOH and IOL values recommended in the AUC data sheet correspond to the dc curves in
Figures 10 and 11. When the AUC device switches from one logic state to another, the initial
drive strength corresponds to the dynamic drive curve, as shown in Figures 10 and 11. This high
drive enables faster transition to the desired logic state. As the output approaches the desired
logic level, the drive capability shrinks to the dc drive level to reduce the transition noise.
10
Designing With TI Ultra-Low-Voltage CMOS (AUC) Octals and WidebusE Devices
SCEA033
2.0
DC_R0_M0/VOUT
VCC = 1.8 V
TJ = 25°C
Nominal Process
1.8
1.6
DC_R0_M0/VOUT
Dynamic Drive
1.4
V OH – V
1.2
1.0
0.8
DC Drive
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
IOH – A
Figure 10. VOH vs IOH
2.0
DC_R0_M0/VOUT
VCC = 1.8 V
TJ = 25°C
Nominal Process
1.8
1.6
DC_R0_M0/VOUT
V OH – V
1.4
1.2
DC Drive
1.0
0.8
0.6
Dynamic Drive
0.4
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
IOL – A
Figure 11. VOL vs IOL
Designing With TI Ultra-Low-Voltage CMOS (AUC) Octals and WidebusE Devices
11
SCEA033
On the VOH–IOH and VOL–IOL plots, a small step function is present outside the drive conditions
of the data sheet. This step in the waveform should not cause any problems in device
performance because it occurs at the point when both ACB and DCB are turned off and affects
only the ac signal-integrity performance for which it is designed (see section 2.1).
3.3
Power Consumption
One of the major goals for a system designer is to reduce overall system power consumption.
Table 3 shows a number of ways in which a logic device can contribute to the total system power
consumption, along with solutions the AUC family offers.
Table 3. System Power-Consumption Modes
DESCRIPTION OF THE
OPERATING MODE
THE AUC SOLUTION
Standby mode
Device power is turned on, but it does
not participate in active data transfer.
The AUC device is designed with IOZ,
ICC, II specifications for this operating
mode.
Power-down mode
Device power is turned off, but there
are active signals at the input, output,
and I/O ports.
The Ioff specification of the AUC
device allows live signals at the input,
output, or I/O ports when VCC is
turned off.
Floating input
When the signal level is not at the VCC
or GND level at the CMOS input,
The AUC offers the bus-hold feature
excess through current might flow
(see section 2.4)
through the device (see Figure 5).
MODE OF OPERATION
If the output rise/fall time of a logic
driver is too slow, the CMOS receiver
Slow rise/fall rate at the output consumes excess through current,
causing an increase in system power
consumption.
Dynamic power
Device power consumption when
driving a load at the operating
frequency
The AUC output delivers much of its
drive at the beginning of the transition,
resulting in faster transition. It takes
away the excess drive at the end of
the transition to reduce the transition
noise.
The AUC family is optimized for faster
speed, signal integrity, and low
dynamic power, compared to the other
high-performance CMOS families.
Please refer to the data-sheet Cpd
values.
Figure 12 shows the laboratory test results of supply current vs frequency for different AUC
devices. For each of the devices, only one input was switching from 0 V to 1.8 V, with an input
ramp rate of 1 V/ns. Note the increase in supply current as the operating frequency increases.
The tests were performed at 25°C ambient temperature with VCC = 1.8 V.
12
Designing With TI Ultra-Low-Voltage CMOS (AUC) Octals and WidebusE Devices
SCEA033
12
AUC16501
10
AUC16374
AUC16240
I CC – mA
8
AUC16245
6
4
2
0
1
15
40
70
100
175
Frequency – Mhz
Figure 12. Typical Current Consumption of AUC Logic Devices
The bus-hold input is a weak inverter connected at the CMOS input (see section 2.4). One
possible concern with bus hold is the excess drive current consumption to overdrive a bus-hold
circuit. Figure 13 shows the AUC device ICC current consumption between bus-hold and
non-bus-hold inputs. For each device, the laboratory test was done with only one input switching
from 0 V to 1.8 V, with an input ramp rate of 1 V/ns. There is no significant difference in power
consumption between the two cases. This test also was performed with a 1.8-V power supply at
25°C.
10
9
AUC16374
8
ICC – mA
7
AUCH16374
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
15
40
70
100
175
Frequency – Mhz
Figure 13. Power Consumption of the AUC16374 and AUCH16374
Designing With TI Ultra-Low-Voltage CMOS (AUC) Octals and WidebusE Devices
13
SCEA033
4
Design Issues and AUC Logic Solutions
4.1
Signal Integrity at Faster Speed
System designers continually pursue low-power high-speed solutions. The increase in system
speed may conflict with the low-power requirement. For a given push-pull type CMOS output
buffer, higher speed calls for higher drive strength, resulting in the increase of power dissipation,
overshoot, and undershoot. As the system operating VCC decreases, achieving the balance
between speed and power consumption becomes easier. At low VCC, the signal swing is smaller,
resulting in lower transition time. But the low signal swing requires better signal integrity as the
noise margin gets smaller with lower VCC. TI AUC logic approaches the challenge of higher
speed and improved signal integrity at lower VCC nodes with the help of the unique output
structure (see section 2.1). In addition to the requirement for better signal integrity and faster
speed, system designers, especially for portable applications, need a solution that requires no
external termination, i.e., damping resistors, clamping diodes, pullup resistors, etc. Additional
components use valuable board space, where space also is at a premium in portable
applications. AUC logic devices provide the best solution for systems with these design
constraints.
Figure 14 shows a laboratory setup to compare the AUC logic with the competitor’s high-end
CMOS logic device. AUC16245 and the competitor’s “x16245” were tested on a 10-cm, 50-Ω
transmission line with a 5-pF capacitive load. The test was performed at room temperature with
several samples of nominal material.
10-cm, 50-Ω Transmission Line
AUC
5 pF
Figure 14. Laboratory Setup for Testing AUC Signal Integrity
Figures 15, 16, 17, and 18 show the laboratory data at 1.8-V VCC and 2.5-V VCC. The data
was taken with all 16 bits of the AUC16245 and the “x16245” switching simultaneously.
The AUC16245 operates at a faster speed, while maintaining good signal integrity. Note in
Figures 15, 16, 17, and 18 that the AUC is optimized at 1.8 V, but performs equally well at the
2.5-V node. The dc drive specification of the AUC16245 at VCC = 2.5 V is ±9 mA. The “x16245”
drive at VCC = 2.5 V is ±18 mA. The AUC transition rate is comparable to, or faster than, the
competitor’s part, which specifies double dc drive. (see section 3.2.2). The faster transition
ensures that the CMOS receiver that the AUC is driving suffers less through current, resulting in
overall system power savings.
14
Designing With TI Ultra-Low-Voltage CMOS (AUC) Octals and WidebusE Devices
SCEA033
2
x16245
Input
1
Voltage – V
AUC16245
0
–1
–5
0
5
10
15
20
Time – ns
Figure 15. 1.8-V VCC High-to-Low Transition, With All 16 Bits Switching
3
Voltage – V
2
Input
AUC16245
1
x16245
0
–1
–2
–5
0
5
10
15
20
Time – ns
Figure 16. 2.5-V VCC High-to-Low Transition, With All 16 Bits Switching
Designing With TI Ultra-Low-Voltage CMOS (AUC) Octals and WidebusE Devices
15
SCEA033
4.5
x16245
3.5
Voltage – V
Input
2.5
AUC16245
1.5
0.5
–0.5
–5
0
5
10
15
20
Time – ns
Figure 17. 2.5-V VCC Low-to-High Transition, With All 16 Bits Switching
2.8
Voltage – V
Input
1.8
AUC16245
x16245
0.8
–0.2
–5
0
5
10
15
20
Time – ns
Figure 18. 1.8-V VCC Low-to-High Transition, With All 16 Bits Switching
16
Designing With TI Ultra-Low-Voltage CMOS (AUC) Octals and WidebusE Devices
SCEA033
4.2
Simultaneous Switching
When multiple outputs of a logic device switch at the same time, the excessive current drawn
from the power supply can produce significant noise in the power and ground rails. This noise is
termed simultaneous-switching (SS) noise. Figure 19 demonstrates the mechanism of SS noise.
When the input VI(2) switches between high and low logic levels, noise is injected into the VCC
and GND lines. The amount of noise depends on a number of factors, such as drive strength,
driver edge rate, package parasitic, number of GND and VCC pins, etc. The amount of noise
increases as the number of switching drivers increases.
VCC
VCC
On
VI (1) = GND
On/Off
VO (1) = VCC
Off
VI (2)
Off
VO (2) VI (3) = VCC
Off/On
GND
VO (3) = GND
On
GND
Figure 19. Noise Coupling at the VCC and GND Rails
The output structure of the AUC device helps reduce simultaneous-switching noise. Because all
three legs of the AUC output are turned on at the initial phase of the transition (see section 2.1),
the output starts to switch with maximum drive strength. During the second phase of the
transition, the ACB and the DCB are turned off, which helps reduce the noise injected at the VCC
and GND lines.
4.2.1
Simultaneous-Switching Noise of AUC Widebus Devices
Figure 20 shows the simultaneous-switching performance of AUC Widebus devices. The data
was taken from a SPICE simulation of the AUC16245 with three different packages (TSSOP,
TVSOP, and VFBGA). In the simulation, one of the 16 outputs was kept at dc high or low level,
and the other 15 outputs were switching. Because AUC Widebus devices are offered in
packages with multiple GND and VCC pins, all package options show good signal-integrity
performance.
Designing With TI Ultra-Low-Voltage CMOS (AUC) Octals and WidebusE Devices
17
SCEA033
2.5
2.5
TVSOP
VFBGA
SSOP
Volts
1.5
AUC16245
15 Outputs Switching
1 Quiet High
Process Nominal
TJ = 40°C
RL = 1 kΩ
CL = 30 pF
1.0
0.5
2.0
1.5
Volts
2.0
TVSOP
SSOP
VFBGA
1.0
0.5
0.0
AUC16245
15 Outputs Switching
1 Quiet High
Process Nominal
TJ = 40°C
RL = 1 kΩ
CL = 30 pF
0.0
SSSOP, TVSOP, and VFBGA
Package Comparison
–0.5
SSSOP, TVSOP, and VFBGA
Package Comparison
–0.5
70
80
90
20
30
Time – ns
50
60
2.5
2.5
1.5
1.0
AUC16245
15 Outputs Switching
1 Quiet Low
Process Nominal
TJ = 40°C
RL = 1 kΩ
CL = 30 pF
2.0
1.5
Volts
AUC16245
15 Outputs Switching
1 Quiet Low
Process Nominal
TJ = 40°C
RL = 1 kΩ
CL = 30 pF
2.0
Volts
40
Time – ns
1.0
TVSOP
0.5
VFBGA TVSOP
0.5
VFBGA SSOP
SSOP
0.0
0.0
SSSOP, TVSOP, and VFBGA
Package Comparison
–0.5
70
80
Time – ns
90
SSSOP, TVSOP, and VFBGA
Package Comparison
–0.5
20
30
40
Time – ns
50
60
Figure 20. Simultaneous-Switching Noise of the AUC16245 in Different Packages
4.2.2
Simultaneous-Switching Noise of AUC Octals
The standard 20-pin package for octal logic devices accommodates only one VCC and one GND
pin. This makes the octal devices more susceptible to simultaneous-switching noise. TI offers
the AUC245 in the advanced QFN package. The QFN package has several advantages over
traditional SOIC, SSOP, TSSOP, and TVSOP packages. The QFN package physically is smaller,
has a smaller routing area, improved thermal performance, and improved electrical parasitics,
while giving customers a pinout scheme that is consistent with the four previously mentioned
packages. Additionally, the absence of external leads eliminates bent-lead concerns and issues.
Figure 21 shows the simultaneous-switching performance of the AUC245 with the QFN
package.
18
Designing With TI Ultra-Low-Voltage CMOS (AUC) Octals and WidebusE Devices
SCEA033
NOTE: For a detailed description of the QFN package, please refer to the application report,
Quad Flatpack No-Lead Logic Packages, literature number SCBA017.
2.5
2.5
2.0
2.0
Volts
1.0
0.5
1.5
Volts
AUC245
7 Outputs Switching
1 Quiet High
Process Nominal
TJ = 40°C
RL = 1 kΩ
CL = 30 pF
VCC = 1.8 V
1.5
AUC245
7 Outputs Switching
1 Quiet High
Process Nominal
TJ = 40°C
RL = 1 kΩ
CL = 30 pF
VCC = 1.8 V
1.0
0.5
0.0
0.0
–0.5
–0.5
70
80
90
30
Time – ns
2.5
50
60
50
60
2.5
1.5
1.0
2.0
1.5
Volts
AUC245
7 Outputs Switching
1 Quiet Low
Process Nominal
TJ = 40°C
RL = 1 kΩ
CL = 30 pF
VCC = 1.8 V
2.0
Volts
40
Time – ns
1.0
0.5
0.5
0.0
0.0
–0.5
AUC245
7 Outputs Switching
1 Quiet Low
Process Nominal
TJ = 40°C
RL = 1 kΩ
CL = 30 pF
VCC = 1.8 V
–0.5
70
80
Time – ns
90
30
40
Time – ns
Figure 21. Simultaneous-Switching Noise of the AUC245
Designing With TI Ultra-Low-Voltage CMOS (AUC) Octals and WidebusE Devices
19
SCEA033
4.3
Voltage-Translation Support With the AUC Family
As the system designers convert core processors, ASICs, and memories of their designs to
lower voltages, the AUC family presents excellent solutions for their interface needs. But, the
migration toward lower-voltage nodes does not happen simultaneously in all segments of the
design. The mix of different voltage nodes in the systems requires proper interfaces between the
buses with incompatible logic levels. Voltage-level translation is necessary to allow
interconnections, with the flexibility to provide a future migration path to lower-voltage I/O levels.
4.3.1
Bidirectional Data Transfer With Level Translation
Figure 22 shows bidirectional switching of AUC logic between 3.3-V LVTTL and 2.5-V LVCMOS
interfaces. The inputs of the AUC device are 3.6-V tolerant and accept LVTTL switching levels.
The outputs of the AUC device, powered at 2.5-V VCC under worst-case conditions, are
accepted as valid switching levels at the input of a 3.3-V LVTTL device, provided the dc output
current is limited (refer to the data sheet VOH specifications at IOH = 100 µA). This kind of level
translation with the AUC is possible, provided the following conditions are met:
•
The I/O ports of the 3.3-V interface are CMOS type. The typical input leakage current for a
CMOS buffer is within the 5-µA to10-µA range. The AUC VOH level remains above the
LVTTL VIH level if the dc drive current is less than 100 µA.
•
The input buffer of the 3.3-V interface does not have a bus-hold circuit. With the bus-hold
circuit, the CMOS input leakage is considerably larger if the VOH level of the driver is below
the 3.3-V rail (see Figure 4). This excess leakage current may try to over drive the 2.5-V
driver VOH level to the 3.3-V rail. The presence of a bus-hold circuit at the 2.5-V AUC
interface does not cause a problem.
•
The increase in supply current at the 3.3-V interface, with the logic-high input signal not
being at the VCC rail, is not significant.
VCC = 3.3 V
VCC = 3.3 V
VCC = 2.5 V
VOH = 2.4 V
VIH = 2 V
1.65 V
Vt
VCC = 2.5 V
VOH = VCC – 0.1 V
VIH = 1.7 V
3.3-V
LVTTL
Interface
0 V–3.3 V
AUC
1.25 V
VIL = 0.8 V
VOL = 0.4 V
GND
Vt
0 V–2.5 V
GND
VIL = 0.7 V
VOL = 0.2 V
Figure 22. AUC Logic Operating at 2.5-V VCC for Bidirectional Switching
Between 3.3-V I/Os and 2.5-V I/Os
20
Designing With TI Ultra-Low-Voltage CMOS (AUC) Octals and WidebusE Devices
SCEA033
4.3.2
Unidirectional Data Transfer With Level Translation
Utilizing the 3.6-V-tolerance feature, the AUC driver, powered with 0.8-V, 1.2-V, 1.5-V, or 1.8-V
VCC, can be used to down translate from a higher voltage node to the voltage node of the supply
voltage.
One potential drawback with down translation is the duty-cycle shift (see Figure 23) when the
difference between input and output voltage is larger. At a lower operating VCC, the input
threshold voltage lowers proportionately. For example, if the operating VCC = 1.2 V, the input
threshold is close to 0.6 V. With very slowly rising or falling input waveforms, this lower input
threshold may cause significant duty-cycle shift at the output waveforms. A faster transition at
the input should eliminate this problem.
VCC = 1.2 V
Input
Vt ~ 0.6 V
0-V to 3.3-V
Input Signal
0-V to 1.2-V
Output Signal
Output
Figure 23. Unidirectional Data Transfer With CMOS Buffer
AUC logic has very low input capacitance, which helps a given driver switch at a faster transition
rate. Use of the AUC buffer (instead of the AUC transceiver) is recommended in this situation.
The input capacitance of the AUC buffer is ~3 pF, and the I/O capacitance of the AUC
transceiver is ~6.5 pF (see Table 1).
5
Features and Benefits
Table 4 summarizes the features and benefits of AUC logic.
Table 4. Features and Benefits of AUC Logic
FEATURES
6
BENEFITS
Faster speed, better signal integrity
Use in very high-speed data transfer
Supports Ioff at inputs
Use in applications that require partial-power-down modes
3.6-V I/O tolerant
Use in level-translation applications. Eases the migration to
lower-voltage nodes. Enhances system safety.
Sub-1-V operable
Flexibility for future migration. Being operable at lower-voltage
nodes means lower power consumption.
Bus hold
Eliminates the need for external pullup or pulldown resistors.
Conclusion
AUC logic devices provide the highest performance among the CMOS logic families across the
industry. If a system solution requires faster speed and smoother transitions to low-voltage
nodes, an AUC device is the right choice for the logic interface. The AUC family features 3.6-V
I/O tolerance, bus-hold circuits, low power consumption, and partial-power-down support. The
AUC product family offers a broad line of Widebus, Widebus+, octal, single, and dual-gate
solutions.
Designing With TI Ultra-Low-Voltage CMOS (AUC) Octals and WidebusE Devices
21
SCEA033
7
References
1. Application of the Texas Instruments AUC Sub-1-V Little Logic Devices application report,
literature number SCEA027.
2. Simultaneous-Switching Noise Analysis for Texas Instruments FIFO Products application
report, literature number SCAA008.
3. AVC Logic Family Technology and Applications application report, literature number SCEA006.
4. Quad Flatpack No-Lead Logic Packages application report, literature number SCBA017.
8
22
Glossary
ac
Alternating current
ACB
ac branch
AUC
Advanced ultra-low-voltage CMOS
CMOS
Complementary metal-oxide-silicon: a device technology that has
balanced drive outputs and low power consumption
dc
Direct current
DCB
dc branch
EMI
Electromagnetic interference
IBIS
I/O Buffer Information Specification
I/O
Input or output
IOFF
Maximum leakage current into or out of the input or output transistors
when forcing the input or output to 2.7 V and VCC = 0 V
IOH
High-level output current. Output current with input conditions applied that,
according to the product specification, establishes a high level at the
output.
IOK
Output clamp current. The absolute maximum current that can be
sourced from an output pin when the voltage is taken below 0 V.
IOL
Low-level output current. The current into an output with input conditions
applied that, according to the product specification, establishes a low level
at the output.
LOP
Lower output transistor
LVCMOS
Low-voltage complementary metal-oxide silicon
PDP
Power-delay product
ron
On-state resistance
Designing With TI Ultra-Low-Voltage CMOS (AUC) Octals and WidebusE Devices
SCEA033
SPICE
Simulation program with integrated-circuit emphasis
TLB
Transmission-line branch
tpd
Propagation delay time. The time between the specified reference points
on the input and output voltage waveforms, with the output changing from
one defined level (high or low) to the other defined level (tpd = tPHL or
tPLH).
tPHL
Propagation delay time, high-to-low level output. The time between the
specified reference points on the input and output voltage waveforms, with
the output changing from the defined high level to the defined low level.
tPLH
Propagation delay time, low-to-high level output. The time between the
specified reference points on the input and output voltage waveforms, with
the output changing from the defined low level to the defined high level.
TTL
Transistor-transistor logic
VOH
High-level output voltage. The voltage at an output terminal with input
conditions applied that, according to product specification, establishes a
high level at the output.
VOL
Low-level output voltage. The voltage at an output terminal with input
conditions applied that, according to product specification, establishes a
low level at the output.
Designing With TI Ultra-Low-Voltage CMOS (AUC) Octals and WidebusE Devices
23
IMPORTANT NOTICE
Texas Instruments Incorporated and its subsidiaries (TI) reserve the right to make corrections, modifications,
enhancements, improvements, and other changes to its products and services at any time and to discontinue
any product or service without notice. Customers should obtain the latest relevant information before placing
orders and should verify that such information is current and complete. All products are sold subject to TI’s terms
and conditions of sale supplied at the time of order acknowledgment.
TI warrants performance of its hardware products to the specifications applicable at the time of sale in
accordance with TI’s standard warranty. Testing and other quality control techniques are used to the extent TI
deems necessary to support this warranty. Except where mandated by government requirements, testing of all
parameters of each product is not necessarily performed.
TI assumes no liability for applications assistance or customer product design. Customers are responsible for
their products and applications using TI components. To minimize the risks associated with customer products
and applications, customers should provide adequate design and operating safeguards.
TI does not warrant or represent that any license, either express or implied, is granted under any TI patent right,
copyright, mask work right, or other TI intellectual property right relating to any combination, machine, or process
in which TI products or services are used. Information published by TI regarding third–party products or services
does not constitute a license from TI to use such products or services or a warranty or endorsement thereof.
Use of such information may require a license from a third party under the patents or other intellectual property
of the third party, or a license from TI under the patents or other intellectual property of TI.
Reproduction of information in TI data books or data sheets is permissible only if reproduction is without
alteration and is accompanied by all associated warranties, conditions, limitations, and notices. Reproduction
of this information with alteration is an unfair and deceptive business practice. TI is not responsible or liable for
such altered documentation.
Resale of TI products or services with statements different from or beyond the parameters stated by TI for that
product or service voids all express and any implied warranties for the associated TI product or service and
is an unfair and deceptive business practice. TI is not responsible or liable for any such statements.
Mailing Address:
Texas Instruments
Post Office Box 655303
Dallas, Texas 75265
Copyright  2003, Texas Instruments Incorporated
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertising