Texas Instruments | DRV8899-Q1 Automotive Stepper Driver with Integrated Current Sense and 1/256 Micro-Stepping | Datasheet | Texas Instruments DRV8899-Q1 Automotive Stepper Driver with Integrated Current Sense and 1/256 Micro-Stepping Datasheet

Texas Instruments DRV8899-Q1 Automotive Stepper Driver with Integrated Current Sense and 1/256 Micro-Stepping Datasheet
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DRV8899-Q1
SLVSEE8 – NOVEMBER 2019
1 Features
3 Description
•
•
The DRV8899-Q1 is a stepper motor driver for
automotive applications. The device is fully integrated
with two N-channel power MOSFET H-bridge drivers,
a microstepping indexer, and integrated current
sensing. The DRV8899-Q1 is capable of driving up to
1-A full scale or 0.7-A rms output current (13.5-V and
TA = 25°C, dependent on PCB design).
1
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Qualified for Automotive Applications
AEC-Q100 Qualified With the Following Results:
– Device Temperature Grade 1: -40°C to 125°C
Ambient Operating Temperature Range
– Device HBM ESD Classification Level 3A
– Device CDM ESD Classification Level C4B
PWM microstepping stepper motor driver
– Up to 1/256 microstepping
Integrated current sense functionality
– No sense resistors required
Smart tune decay technology,
Fixed slow, and mixed decay options
4.5 to 45-V Operating supply voltage range
Low RDS(ON): 1200 mΩ HS + LS at 13.5 V, 25°C
High current capacity per bridge
– 1.7-A peak, 1-A full-scale, 0.7-A rms
Configurable off-time PWM chopping
– 7-μs, 16-μs, 24-μs, or 32-μs.
Simple STEP/DIR interface
SPI with daisy chain support
Low-current sleep mode (2 μA)
Spread spectrum clocking and output slew rate
control minimizes EMI
Small package and footprint
Protection features
– VM undervoltage lockout (UVLO)
– Charge pump undervoltage (CPUV)
– Overcurrent protection (OCP)
– Open load detection
– Overtemperature warning (OTW)
– Undertemperature warning (UTW)
– Thermal shutdown (OTSD)
– Fault condition indication pin (nFAULT)
The DRV8899-Q1 uses an internal current sense
architecture to eliminate the need for two external
power sense resistors, saving PCB area and system
cost. The DRV8899-Q1 uses an internal PWM current
regulation scheme selectable between smart tune,
slow, and mixed decay options. Smart tune decay
technology automatically adjusts for optimal current
regulation performance and compensates for motor
variation and aging effects. A torque DAC feature
allows the controller to scale the output current
without needing to scale the VREF voltage reference.
A simple STEP/DIR interface allows an external
controller to manage the direction and step rate of the
stepper motor. The device can be configured in
different step modes ranging from full-step to 1/256
microstepping. A low-power sleep mode is provided
for very low standby quiescent standby current using
a dedicated nSLEEP pin. The device features full
duplex, 4-wire synchronous SPI communication, with
daisy chain support for up to 63 devices connected in
series, for configurability and detailed fault reporting.
Device Information(1)
PART NUMBER
PACKAGE
BODY SIZE (NOM)
DRV8899QWRGERQ
1
VQFN (24)
(Wettable Flank)
4.00 mm × 4.00 mm
(1) For all available packages, see the orderable addendum at
the end of the data sheet.
2 Applications
•
•
•
•
•
Automotive bipolar stepper motors
Headlight position adjustment
Head-up display (HUD)
HVAC stepper motors
Electronic fuel injection (EFI)
Simplified Schematic
1
An IMPORTANT NOTICE at the end of this data sheet addresses availability, warranty, changes, use in safety-critical applications,
intellectual property matters and other important disclaimers. ADVANCE INFORMATION for pre-production products; subject to
change without notice.
ADVANCE INFORMATION
DRV8899-Q1 Automotive Stepper Driver with Integrated Current Sense and 1/256 MicroStepping
DRV8899-Q1
SLVSEE8 – NOVEMBER 2019
www.ti.com
Table of Contents
1
2
3
4
5
6
Features ..................................................................
Applications ...........................................................
Description .............................................................
Revision History.....................................................
Pin Configuration and Functions .........................
Specifications.........................................................
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
7
7.5 Programming........................................................... 35
7.6 Register Maps ......................................................... 40
1
1
1
2
3
5
8
8.1 Application Information............................................ 47
8.2 Typical Application .................................................. 47
9
ADVANCE INFORMATION
Overview .................................................................
Functional Block Diagram .......................................
Feature Description.................................................
Device Functional Modes........................................
Power Supply Recommendations...................... 51
9.1 Bulk Capacitance ................................................... 51
Absolute Maximum Ratings ...................................... 5
ESD Ratings.............................................................. 5
Recommended Operating Conditions....................... 6
Thermal Information .................................................. 6
Electrical Characteristics........................................... 7
SPI Timing Requirements ......................................... 9
Indexer Timing Requirements................................. 10
10 Layout................................................................... 52
10.1 Layout Guidelines ................................................. 52
10.2 Layout Example .................................................... 53
11 Device and Documentation Support ................. 54
11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
11.6
Detailed Description ............................................ 11
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
Application and Implementation ........................ 47
11
12
13
34
Documentation Support ........................................
Receiving Notification of Documentation Updates
Community Resources..........................................
Trademarks ...........................................................
Electrostatic Discharge Caution ............................
Glossary ................................................................
54
54
54
54
54
54
12 Mechanical, Packaging, and Orderable
Information ........................................................... 54
4 Revision History
NOTE: Page numbers for previous revisions may differ from page numbers in the current version.
2
DATE
REVISION
NOTES
November 2019
*
Initial release.
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5 Pin Configuration and Functions
ADVANCE INFORMATION
RGE Package
24-Pin VQFN With Exposed Thermal Pad
Top View
Pin Functions
PIN
NAME
NO.
I/O
TYPE
DESCRIPTION
VQFN
AOUT1
3
O
Output
Winding A output. Connect to stepper motor winding.
AOUT2
4
O
Output
Winding A output. Connect to stepper motor winding.
PGND
2, 7
—
Power
Power ground. Both PGND pins are shorted internally. Connect to system
ground on PCB.
BOUT1
6
O
Output
Winding B output. Connect to stepper motor winding
BOUT2
5
O
Output
Winding B output. Connect to stepper motor winding
CPH
23
CPL
22
—
Power
Charge pump switching node. Connect a X7R, 0.022-µF, VM-rated ceramic
capacitor from CPH to CPL.
DIR
19
I
Input
Direction input. Logic level sets the direction of stepping; internal pulldown
resistor.
DRVOFF
20
I
Input
Logic high to disable device outputs; logic low to enable; internal pullup to
DVDD.
DVDD
10
GND
9
VREF
Power
Logic supply voltage. Connect a X7R, 0.47-µF, 6.3-V or 10-V rated ceramic
capacitor to GND.
—
Power
Device ground. Connect to system ground.
12
I
Input
Current set reference input. Maximum value 2.2 V. DVDD can be used to
provide VREF through a resistor divider.
SCLK
17
I
Input
Serial clock input. Serial data is shifted out and captured on the corresponding
rising and falling edge on this pin.
SDI
16
I
Input
Serial data input. Data is captured on the falling edge of the SCLK pin
SDO
15
O
Push Pull Serial data output. Data is shifted out on the rising edge of the SCLK pin.
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Pin Functions (continued)
PIN
NO.
NAME
I/O
TYPE
DESCRIPTION
VQFN
Step input. A rising edge causes the indexer to advance one step; internal
pulldown resistor.
ADVANCE INFORMATION
STEP
18
I
Input
VCP
24
—
Power
Charge pump output. Connect a X7R, 0.22-μF, 16-V ceramic capacitor to VM.
VM
1, 8
—
Power
Power supply. Connect to motor supply voltage and bypass to GND with two
0.01-µF ceramic capacitors (one for each pin) plus a bulk capacitor rated for
VM.
VSDO
14
Power
Supply pin for SDO output. Connect to 5-V or 3.3-V depending on the desired
logic level.
nFAULT
11
O
Open
Drain
Fault indication. Pulled logic low with fault condition; open-drain output
requires an external pullup resistor.
nSCS
13
I
Input
Serial chip select. An active low on this pin enables the serial interface
communications. Internal pullup to DVDD.
nSLEEP
21
I
Input
Sleep mode input. Logic high to enable device; logic low to enter low-power
sleep mode; internal pulldown resistor.
-
-
-
PAD
4
Thermal pad. Connect to system ground.
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6 Specifications
6.1 Absolute Maximum Ratings
MIN
MAX
UNIT
Power supply voltage (VM)
–0.3
50
V
Charge pump voltage (VCP, CPH)
–0.3
VM + 7
V
Charge pump negative switching pin (CPL)
–0.3
VM
V
Charge pump negative switching pin (nSLEEP)
–0.3
VM
V
Internal regulator voltage (DVDD)
–0.3
5.5
V
SDO output reference voltage (VSDO)
–0.3
5.5
V
Control pin voltage (STEP, DIR, DRVOFF, nFAULT, SDI, SDO, SCLK, nSCS)
–0.3
5.5
V
Open drain output current (nFAULT)
0
10
mA
Reference input pin voltage (VREF)
–0.3
5.5
V
Continuous phase node pin voltage (AOUT1, AOUT2, BOUT1, BOUT2)
–1.0
VM + 1.0
V
Transient 100 ns phase node pin voltage (AOUT1, AOUT2, BOUT1, BOUT2)
–3.0
VM + 3.0
V
Peak drive current (AOUT1, AOUT2, BOUT1, BOUT2)
Internally Limited
A
Operating ambient temperature, TA
–40
125
°C
Operating junction temperature, TJ
–40
150
°C
Storage temperature, Tstg
–65
150
°C
(1)
Stresses beyond those listed under Absolute Maximum Ratings may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings
only, which do not imply functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated under Recommended
Operating Conditions. Exposure to absolute-maximum-rated conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
6.2 ESD Ratings
VALUE
V(ESD)
(1)
Electrostatic
discharge
Human body model (HBM), per AEC Q100–002
(1)
Charged device model (CDM), per AEC Q100–011
UNIT
±2000
±500
V
AECQ100–002 indicates that HBM stressing shall be in accordance with the ANSI/ESDA/JEDEC JS–001specification.
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ADVANCE INFORMATION
over operating free-air temperature range (unless otherwise noted) (1)
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6.3 Recommended Operating Conditions
over operating free-air temperature range (unless otherwise noted)
MIN
VVM
Supply voltage range for normal (DC) operation
VI
Logic level input voltage
VSDO
SDO buffer supply voltage
VVREF
VREF voltage
MAX
UNIT
4.5
45
V
0
5.3
V
2.9
5.3
V
0.05
2.2
V
(1)
ƒSTEP
Applied STEP signal (STEP)
0
IFS
Motor full-scale current (xOUTx)
0
1 (2)
A
Irms
Motor RMS current (xOUTx)
0
0.7 (2)
A
TA
Operating ambient temperature
–40
125
°C
TJ
Operating junction temperature
–40
150
°C
(1)
(2)
100
kHz
STEP input can operate up to 500 kHz, but system bandwidth is limited by the motor load
Power dissipation and thermal limits must be observed
6.4 Thermal Information
DRV8899-Q1
ADVANCE INFORMATION
THERMAL METRIC
(1)
RGE (VQFN)
UNIT
24 PINS
RθJA
Junction-to-ambient thermal resistance
40.7
°C/W
RθJC(top)
Junction-to-case (top) thermal resistance
31.1
°C/W
RθJB
Junction-to-board thermal resistance
17.9
°C/W
ψJT
Junction-to-top characterization parameter
0.6
°C/W
ψJB
Junction-to-board characterization parameter
17.8
°C/W
RθJC(bot)
Junction-to-case (bottom) thermal resistance
4.3
°C/W
(1)
6
For more information about traditional and new thermalmetrics, see the Semiconductor and IC Package Thermal Metrics application
report.
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6.5 Electrical Characteristics
Over recommended operating conditions unless otherwise noted. Typical limits apply for TJ = 25°C and VVM = 13.5 V
PARAMETER
TEST CONDITIONS
MIN
4.5
TYP
MAX
UNIT
POWER SUPPLIES (VM, DVDD, VSDO)
VVM
VM operating voltage
Supply voltage range for normal (DC)
operation
IVM
VM operating supply current
DRVOFF = 0, nSLEEP = 1, No motor
load
IVMQ
VM sleep mode supply current
nSLEEP = 0
tSLEEP
Sleep time
nSLEEP = 0 to sleep-mode
75
tRESET
nSLEEP reset pulse
nSLEEP low to only clear fault
registers
18
tWAKE
Wake-up time
nSLEEP = 1 to output transition
tON
Turn-on time
VM > UVLO to output transition
VDVDD
Internal regulator voltage
No external load, 6 V < VVM < 45 V
4.5
45
V
5
6.5
mA
2
4
μA
μs
35
μs
0.6
0.9
ms
0.6
0.9
ms
5
5.5
V
CHARGE PUMP (VCP, CPH, CPL)
VCP operating voltage
f(VCP)
Charge pump switching
frequency
VM + 5
VVM > UVLO; nSLEEP = 1
V
400
ADVANCE INFORMATION
VVCP
kHz
LOGIC-LEVEL INPUTS (STEP, DIR, nSLEEP, nSCS, SCLK, SDI, DRVOFF)
VIL
Input logic-low voltage
0
VIH
Input logic-high voltage
VHYS
Input logic hysteresis
IIL1
Input logic-low current
VIN = 0 V (nSCS, DRVOFF)
IIL2
Input logic-low current
VIN = 0 V
IIH1
Input logic-high current
VIN = DVDD (nSCS, DRVOFF)
IIH2
Input logic-high current
VIN = 5 V
0.6
1.5
V
5.3
150
8
V
mV
12
–1
μA
1
μA
500
nA
50
μA
Ω
PUSH-PULL OUTPUT (SDO)
RPD,SDO
Internal pull-down resistance
5mA load, with respect to GND
40
75
RPU,SDO
Internal pull-up resistance
5mA load, with respect to VSDO
30
60
Ω
ISDO
SDO Leakage Current
SDO = VSDO and 0V
1
μA
-1
CONTROL OUTPUTS (nFAULT)
VOL
Output logic-low voltage
IO = 5 mA
IOH
Output logic-high leakage
VVM = 13.5 V
–1
0.4
V
1
μA
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Electrical Characteristics (continued)
Over recommended operating conditions unless otherwise noted. Typical limits apply for TJ = 25°C and VVM = 13.5 V
PARAMETER
TEST CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNIT
MOTOR DRIVER OUTPUTS (AOUT1, AOUT2, BOUT1, BOUT2)
RDS(ONH)
RDS(ONL)
tSR
High-side FET on resistance
Low-side FET on resistance
Output slew rate
VM = 13.5 V, TJ = 25°C, IO = -1 A
600
730
mΩ
VM = 13.5 V, TJ = 125°C, IO = -1 A
900
1100
mΩ
VM = 13.5 V, TJ = 150°C, IO = -1 A
1040
1250
mΩ
VM = 13.5 V, TJ = 25°C, IO = -1 A
600
730
mΩ
VM = 13.5 V, TJ = 125°C, IO = -1 A
900
1100
mΩ
VM = 13.5 V, TJ = 150°C, IO = -1 A
1040
1250
mΩ
SR = 00b, VM = 13.5 V, IO = 0.5 A
10
SR = 01b, VM = 13.5 V, IO = 0.5 A
35
SR = 10b, VM = 13.5 V, IO = 0.5 A
50
SR = 11b, VM = 13.5 V, IO = 0.5 A
105
V/µs
PWM CURRENT CONTROL (VREF)
KV
Transimpedance gain
ADVANCE INFORMATION
tOFF
PWM off-time
Current trip accuracy
ΔITRIP
AOUT and BOUT current
matching
IO,CH
2.2
TOFF = 00b
7
TOFF = 01b
16
TOFF = 10b
24
TOFF = 11b
32
V/A
μs
IO = 1 A, 10% to 20% current setting
–13
IO = 1 A, 20% to 67% current setting
–8
10
8
IO = 1 A, 67% to 100% current setting
-7.5
7.5
IO = 1 A
–2.5
2.5
VM falling, UVLO falling
4.15
4.25
4.35
VM rising, UVLO rising
4.25
4.35
4.45
%
%
PROTECTION CIRCUITS
VUVLO
VM UVLO lockout
VUVLO,HYS
Undervoltage hysteresis
Rising to falling threshold
VRST
VM UVLO reset
VM falling, device reset, no SPI
communications
VCPUV
Charge pump undervoltage
VCP falling; CPUV report
IOCP
Overcurrent protection
Current through any FET
tOCP
Overcurrent deglitch time
tRETRY
Overcurrent retry time
OCP_MODE = 1b
tOL
Open load detection time
EN_OL = 1b
IOL
Open load current threshold
TOTW
Overtemperature warning
Die temperature TJ
135
150
165
°C
TUTW
Undertemperature warning
Die temperature TJ
-25
-10
5
°C
TOTSD
Thermal shutdown
Die temperature TJ
150
165
180
°C
THYS_OTSD
Thermal shutdown hysteresis
Die temperature TJ
20
°C
THYS_OTW
Overtemperature warning
hysteresis
Die temperature TJ
20
°C
THYS_UTW
Undertemperature warning
hysteresis
Die temperature TJ
10
°C
8
100
mV
3.9
VM + 2
A
3
VVM >= 37 V
μs
0.5
4
ms
200
30
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V
V
1.7
VVM < 37 V
V
ms
mA
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6.6 SPI Timing Requirements
MIN
t(READY)
SPI ready, VM > VRST
t(CLK)
SCLK minimum period
t(CLKH)
NOM
MAX
1
UNIT
ms
100
ns
SCLK minimum high time
50
ns
t(CLKL)
SCLK minimum low time
50
ns
tsu(SDI)
SDI input setup time
20
ns
th(SDI)
SDI input hold time
30
ns
td(SDO)
SDO output delay time, SCLK high to SDO valid, CL = 20 pF
tsu(nSCS)
nSCS input setup time
50
ns
th(nSCS)
nSCS input hold time
50
ns
t(HI_nSCS)
nSCS minimum high time before active low
tdis(nSCS)
nSCS disable time, nSCS high to SDO high impedance
30
2
µs
ns
ADVANCE INFORMATION
10
ns
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6.7 Indexer Timing Requirements
Over recommended operating conditions unless otherwise noted. Typical limits apply for TJ = 25°C and VVM = 13.5 V
NO.
(1)
MIN
MAX
UNIT
1
ƒSTEP
Step frequency
2
tWH(STEP)
Pulse duration, STEP high
970
ns
3
tWL(STEP)
Pulse duration, STEP low
970
ns
4
tSU(DIR, Mx)
Setup time, DIR to STEP rising
200
ns
5
tH(DIR,
Hold time, DIR to STEP rising
200
ns
Mx)
500
(1)
kHz
STEP input can operate up to 500 kHz, but system bandwidth islimited by the motor load.
ADVANCE INFORMATION
Figure 1. STEP and DIR Timing Diagram
Figure 2. SPI Slave-Mode Timing Definition
10
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7 Detailed Description
7.1 Overview
The DRV8899-Q1 device is an integrated motor-driver solution for bipolar stepper motors. The device integrates
two N-channel power MOSFET H-bridges, integrated current sense and regulation circuitry, and a microstepping
indexer. The DRV8899-Q1 device can be powered with a supply voltage from 4.5 to 45 V and is capable of
providing an output current up to 1.7-A peak, 1-A full-scale, or 0.7-A root mean square (rms). The actual fullscale and rms current depends on the ambient temperature, supply voltage, and PCB thermal capability.
A simple STEP/DIR interface allows for an external controller to manage the direction and step rate of the
stepper motor. The internal indexer can execute high-accuracy microstepping without requiring the external
controller to manage the winding current level. The indexer is capable of full step, half step, and 1/4, 1/8, 1/16,
1/32, 1/64, 1/128 and 1/256 microstepping. In addition to a standard half stepping mode, a noncircular half
stepping mode is available for increased torque output at higher motor RPM.
The current regulation is configurable between several decay modes. The decay mode can be selected as a
slow-mixed, mixed decay, smart tune Ripple Control, or smart tune Dynamic Decay current regulation scheme.
The slow-mixed decay mode uses slow decay on increasing steps and mixed decay on decreasing steps. The
smart tune decay modes automatically adjust for optimal current regulation performance and compensate for
motor variation and aging effects. Smart tune Ripple Control uses a variable off-time, ripple control scheme to
minimize distortion of the motor winding current. Smart tune Dynamic Decay uses a fixed off-time, dynamic
decay percentage scheme to minimize distortion of the motor winding current while also minimizing frequency
content. In smart tune Ripple Control mode, the device can detect a motor overload stall condition or an end-ofline travel, by detecting back-emf phase shift between rising and falling current quadrants of the motor current.
The device integrates a spread spectrum clocking feature for both the internal digital oscillator and internal
charge pump. This feature combined with output slew rate control minimizes the radiated emissions from the
device.
A torque DAC feature allows the controller to scale the output current without needing to scale the VREF voltage
reference. The torque DAC is accessed using a digital input pin which allows the controller to save system power
by decreasing the motor current consumption when high output torque is not required.
A low-power sleep mode is included which allows the system to save power when not actively driving the motor.
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ADVANCE INFORMATION
The device uses an integrated current-sense architecture which eliminates the need for two external power
sense resistors. This architecture removes the power dissipated in the sense resistors by using a current mirror
approach and using the internal power MOSFETs for current sensing. The current regulation set point is adjusted
by the voltage at the VREF pin. These features reduces external component cost, board PCB size, and system
power consumption.
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7.2 Functional Block Diagram
ADVANCE INFORMATION
12
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7.3 Feature Description
Table 1 lists the recommended external components for the DRV8899-Q1 device.
Table 1. DRV8899-Q1 External Components
COMPONENT
PIN 1
PIN 2
RECOMMENDED
CVM1
VM
GND
Two X7R, 0.01-µF, VM-rated ceramic capacitors
CVM2
VM
GND
Bulk, VM-rated capacitor
CVCP
VCP
VM
X7R, 0.22-µF, 16-V ceramic capacitor
CSW
CPH
CPL
X7R, 0.022-µF, VM-rated ceramic capacitor
CDVDD
DVDD
GND
X7R, 0.47-µF to 1-µF, 6.3-V ceramic capacitor
RnFAULT
VCC
(1)
nFAULT
RREF1
VREF
VCC
RREF2 (Optional)
VREF
GND
Resistor to limit chopping current. It is recommended that the value of parallel
combination of RREF1 and RREF2 should be less than 50-kΩ.
VCC is not a pin on the DRV8899-Q1 device, but a VCC supply voltage pullup is required for open-drain output nFAULT; nFAULT may
be pulled up to DVDD
7.3.1 Stepper Motor Driver Current Ratings
Stepper motor drivers can be classified using three different numbers to describe the output current: peak, rms,
and full-scale.
7.3.1.1 Peak Current Rating
The peak current in a stepper driver is limited by the overcurrent protection trip threshold IOCP. The peak current
describes any transient duration current pulse, for example when charging capacitance, when the overall duty
cycle is very low. In general the minimum value of IOCP specifies the peak current rating of the stepper motor
driver.
For the DRV8899-Q1 device, the peak current rating is 1.7 A per bridge.
7.3.1.2 rms Current Rating
The rms (average) current is determined by the thermal considerations of the IC. The rms current is calculated
based on the RDS(ON), rise and fall time, PWM frequency, device quiescent current, and package thermal
performance in a typical system at 25°C. The actual operating rms current may be higher or lower depending on
heatsinking and ambient temperature.
For the DRV8899-Q1 device, the rms current rating is 0.7 A per bridge.
7.3.1.3 Full-Scale Current Rating
The full-scale current describes the top of the sinusoid current waveform while microstepping. Because the
sinusoid amplitude is related to the rms current, the full-scale current is also determined by the thermal
considerations of the device. The full-scale current rating is approximately √2 × IRMS.
For the DRV8899-Q1 device, the full-scale current rating is 1 A per bridge.
Full-scale current
Output Current
RMS current
AOUT
BOUT
Step Input
Figure 3. Full-Scale and RMS Current
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(1)
>4.7-kΩ resistor
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7.3.2 PWM Motor Drivers
The device has drivers for two full H-bridges to drive the two windings of a bipolar stepper motor. Figure 4 shows
a block diagram of the circuitry.
VM
xOUT1
Current
Sense
Microstepping and
Current Regulation
Logic
VM
Gate
Drivers
xOUT2
ADVANCE INFORMATION
Current
Sense
PGND
Figure 4. PWM Motor Driver Block Diagram
7.3.3 Microstepping Indexer
Built-in indexer logic in the device allows a number of different step modes. The MICROSTEP_MODE bits in the
SPI register are used to configure the step mode as shown in Table 2.
Table 2. Microstepping Settings
14
MICROSTEP_MODE
STEP MODE
0000b
Full step (2-phase excitation) with 100%
current
0001b
Full step (2-phase excitation) with 71% current
0010b
Non-circular 1/2 step
0011b
1/2 step
0100b
1/4 step
0101b
1/8 step
0110b
1/16 step
0111b
1/32 step
1000b
1/64 step
1001b
1/128 step
1010b
1/256 step
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Table 3 shows the relative current and step directions for full-step (71% current), 1/2 step, 1/4 step and 1/8 step
operation. Higher microstepping resolutions follow the same pattern. The AOUT current is the sine of the
electrical angle and the BOUT current is the cosine of the electrical angle. Positive current is defined as current
flowing from the xOUT1 pin to the xOUT2 pin while driving.
At each rising edge of the STEP input the indexer travels to the next state in the table. The direction is shown
with the DIR pin logic high. If the DIR pin is logic low, the sequence is reversed.
NOTE
If the step mode is changed on the fly while stepping, the indexer advances to the next
valid state for the new step mode setting at the rising edge of STEP.
The home state is an electrical angle of 45°. This state is entered after power-up, after exiting logic undervoltage
lockout, or after exiting sleep mode.
Table 3. Relative Current and Step Directions
1/8 STEP
1/4 STEP
1/2 STEP
1
1
1
FULL
STEP
71%
2
3
2
4
5
3
2
1
6
7
4
8
9
5
3
10
11
6
12
13
7
4
2
14
15
8
16
17
9
5
18
19
10
20
21
11
6
22
23
12
24
25
13
7
26
3
AOUT CURRENT
(% FULL-SCALE)
BOUT CURRENT
(% FULL-SCALE)
ELECTRICAL
ANGLE (DEGREES)
0
100
0
20
98
11
38
92
23
56
83
34
71
71
45
83
56
56
92
38
68
98
20
79
100
0
90
98
–20
101
92
–38
113
83
–56
124
71
–71
135
56
–83
146
38
–92
158
20
–98
169
0
–100
180
–20
–98
191
–38
–92
203
–56
–83
214
–71
–71
225
–83
–56
236
–92
–38
248
–98
–20
259
–100
0
270
–98
20
281
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NOTE
While DIR = 0 and the electrical angle is at a full step angle (45, 135, 225, or 315
degrees), two rising edge pulses on the STEP pin are required in order to advance the
indexer after changing from any microstep mode to the full step mode. The first pulse will
induce no change in the electrical angle, the second pulse will move the indexer to the
next full step angle.
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Table 3. Relative Current and Step Directions (continued)
1/8 STEP
1/4 STEP
27
14
FULL
STEP
71%
1/2 STEP
28
29
15
8
4
30
31
16
32
AOUT CURRENT
(% FULL-SCALE)
BOUT CURRENT
(% FULL-SCALE)
ELECTRICAL
ANGLE (DEGREES)
–92
38
293
–83
56
304
–71
71
315
–56
83
326
–38
92
338
–20
98
349
Table 4 shows the full step operation with 100% full-scale current. This stepping mode consumes more power
than full-step mode with 71% current, but provides a higher torque at high motor RPM.
Table 4. Full Step with 100% Current
FULL
STEP
100%
ADVANCE INFORMATION
AOUT CURRENT
(% FULL-SCALE)
BOUT CURRENT
(% FULL-SCALE)
ELECTRICAL ANGLE
(DEGREES)
1
100
100
45
2
-100
100
135
3
-100
-100
225
4
100
–100
315
Table 5 shows the noncircular 1/2–step operation. This stepping mode consumes more power than circular 1/2step operation, but provides a higher torque at high motor RPM.
Table 5. Non-Circular 1/2-Stepping Current
NON-CIRCULAR 1/2-STEP
AOUT CURRENT
(% FULL-SCALE)
BOUT CURRENT
(% FULL-SCALE)
ELECTRICAL ANGLE
(DEGREES)
1
0
100
0
2
100
100
45
3
100
0
90
4
100
–100
135
5
0
–100
180
6
–100
–100
225
7
–100
0
270
8
–100
100
315
7.3.4 Controlling VREF with an MCU DAC
In some cases, the full-scale output current may need to be changed between many different values, depending
on motor speed and loading. The voltage of the VREF pin can be adjusted in the system to change the full-scale
current.
In this mode of operation, as the DAC voltage increases, the full-scale regulation current increases as well. For
proper operation, the output of the DAC should not rise above 2.2 V.
16
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Figure 5. Controlling VREF with a DAC Resource
ADVANCE INFORMATION
The VREF pin can also be adjusted using a PWM signal and low-pass filter. The R-C time constant for the lowpass filter should be less than 200 ns.
Figure 6. Controlling VREF With a PWM Resource
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7.3.5 Current Regulation
The current through the motor windings is regulated by a PWM current-regulation circuit. When an H-bridge is
enabled, current rises through the winding at a rate dependent on the DC voltage, inductance of the winding, and
the magnitude of the back EMF present. When the current hits the current regulation threshold, the bridge enters
a decay mode for a period of time determined by the TOFF register setting and the selected decay mode to
decrease the current. After the off-time expires, the bridge is re-enabled, starting another PWM cycle.
ADVANCE INFORMATION
Figure 7. Current Chopping Waveform
The PWM regulation current is set by a comparator which monitors the voltage across the current sense
MOSFETs in parallel with the low-side power MOSFETs. The current sense MOSFETs are biased with a
reference current that is the output of a current-mode sine-weighted DAC whose full-scale reference current is
set by the voltage at the VREF pin. In addition, the TRQ_DAC register can further scale the reference current.
Use Equation 1 to calculate the full-scale regulation current.
(1)
The TRQ_DAC is adjusted via the SPI register. Table 6 lists the current scalar value for different inputs.
Table 6. Torque DAC Settings
18
TRQ_DAC
CURRENT SCALAR (TRQ)
0000b
100%
0001b
93.75%
0010b
87.5%
0011b
81.25%
0100b
75%
0101b
68.75%
0110b
62.5
0111b
56.25%
1000b
50%
1001b
43.75%
1010b
37.5%
1011b
31.25%
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Table 6. Torque DAC Settings (continued)
CURRENT SCALAR (TRQ)
1100b
25%
1101b
18.75%
1110b
12.5%
1111b
6.25%
ADVANCE INFORMATION
TRQ_DAC
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7.3.6 Decay Modes
During PWM current chopping, the H-bridge is enabled to drive through the motor winding until the PWM current
chopping threshold is reached. This is shown in Figure 8, Item 1.
Once the chopping current threshold is reached, the H-bridge can operate in two different states, fast decay or
slow decay. In fast decay mode, once the PWM chopping current level has been reached, the H-bridge reverses
state to allow winding current to flow in a reverse direction. The opposite FETs are turned on; as the winding
current approaches zero, the bridge is disabled to prevent any reverse current flow. Fast decay mode is shown in
Figure 8, item 2. In slow decay mode, winding current is re-circulated by enabling both of the low-side FETs in
the bridge. This is shown in Figure 8, Item 3.
ADVANCE INFORMATION
Figure 8. Decay Modes
The decay mode is selected by the DECAY register as shown in Table 7.
Table 7. Decay Mode Settings
20
DECAY
INCREASING STEPS
000b
Slow decay
DECREASING STEPS
Slow decay
001b
Slow decay
Mixed decay: 30% fast
010b
Slow decay
Mixed decay: 60% fast
011b
Slow decay
Fast decay
100b
Mixed decay: 30% fast
Mixed decay: 30% fast
101b
Mixed decay: 60% fast
Mixed decay: 60% fast
110b
Smart tune Dynamic Decay
Smart tune Dynamic Decay
111b (default)
Smart tune Ripple Control
Smart tune Ripple Control
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AOUT Current
Figure 9 defines increasing and decreasing current. For the slow-mixed decay mode, the decay mode is set as
slow during increasing current steps and mixed decay during decreasing current steps. In full step and
noncircular 1/2-step operation, the decay mode corresponding to decreasing steps is always used.
Increasing
Decreasing
Increasing
Decreasing
STEP Input
Decreasing
ADVANCE INFORMATION
BOUT Current
AOUT Current
Increasing
Increasing
Decreasing
STEP Input
Figure 9. Definition of Increasing and Decreasing Steps
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7.3.6.1 Slow Decay for Increasing and Decreasing Current
Increasing Phase Current (A)
ITRIP
tBLANK
tOFF
tBLANK
tOFF
tDRIVE
ADVANCE INFORMATION
Decreasing Phase Current (A)
tDRIVE
ITRIP
tBLANK
tOFF
tDRIVE
tBLANK
tDRIVE
tOFF
tBLANK
tDRIVE
Figure 10. Slow/Slow Decay Mode
During slow decay, both of the low-side FETs of the H-bridge are turned on, allowing the current to be
recirculated.
Slow decay exhibits the least current ripple of the decay modes for a given tOFF. However on decreasing current
steps, slow decay will take a long time to settle to the new ITRIP level because the current decreases very slowly.
If the current at the end of the off time is above the ITRIP level, slow decay will be extended for another off time
duration and so on, till the current at the end of the off time is below ITRIP level.
In cases where current is held for a long time (no input in the STEP pin) or at very low stepping speeds, slow
decay may not properly regulate current because no back-EMF is present across the motor windings. In this
state, motor current can rise very quickly, and may require a large off-time. In some cases this may cause a loss
of current regulation, and a more aggressive decay mode is recommended.
22
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7.3.6.2 Slow Decay for Increasing Current, Mixed Decay for Decreasing Current
Increasing Phase Current (A)
ITRIP
tOFF
tBLANK
tOFF
tDRIVE
Decreasing Phase Current (A)
tDRIVE
tBLANK
tDRIVE
ITRIP
tBLANK
tDRIVE
tFAST
tBLANK
tOFF
tFAST
tDRIVE
tOFF
Figure 11. Slow-Mixed Decay Mode
Mixed decay begins as fast decay for a time, followed by slow decay for the remainder of the tOFF time. In this
mode, mixed decay only occurs during decreasing current. Slow decay is used for increasing current.
This mode exhibits the same current ripple as slow decay for increasing current, because for increasing current,
only slow decay is used. For decreasing current, the ripple is larger than slow decay, but smaller than fast decay.
On decreasing current steps, mixed decay settles to the new ITRIP level faster than slow decay.
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tBLANK
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7.3.6.3 Mode 4: Slow Decay for Increasing Current, Fast Decay for Decreasing current
Increasing Phase Current (A)
ITRIP
tBLANK
tOFF
tBLANK
tOFF
tBLANK
tDRIVE
tDRIVE
tDRIVE
ADVANCE INFORMATION
Decreasing Phase Current (A)
Please note that these graphs are not the same scale; tOFF is the same
ITRIP
tBLANK
tOFF
tDRIVE
tBLANK
tOFF
tDRIVE
tBLANK
tOFF
tDRIVE
Figure 12. Slow/Fast Decay Mode
During fast decay, the polarity of the H-bridge is reversed. The H-bridge will be turned off as current approaches
zero in order to prevent current flow in the reverse direction. In this mode, fast decay only occurs during
decreasing current. Slow decay is used for increasing current.
Fast decay exhibits the highest current ripple of the decay modes for a given tOFF. Transition time on decreasing
current steps is much faster than slow decay since the current is allowed to decrease much faster.
24
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7.3.6.4 Mixed Decay for Increasing and Decreasing Current
Increasing Phase Current (A)
ITRIP
tBLANK
tOFF
tDRIVE
Decreasing Phase Current (A)
tDRIVE
tBLANK
tDRIVE
ITRIP
tBLANK
tDRIVE
tFAST
tBLANK
tOFF
tFAST
tDRIVE
tOFF
Figure 13. Mixed-Mixed Decay Mode
Mixed decay begins as fast decay for a time, followed by slow decay for the remainder of tOFF. In this mode,
mixed decay occurs for both increasing and decreasing current steps.
This mode exhibits ripple larger than slow decay, but smaller than fast decay. On decreasing current steps,
mixed decay settles to the new ITRIP level faster than slow decay.
In cases where current is held for a long time (no input in the STEP pin) or at very low stepping speeds, slow
decay may not properly regulate current because no back-EMF is present across the motor windings. In this
state, motor current can rise very quickly, and requires an excessively large off-time. Increasing or decreasing
mixed decay mode allows the current level to stay in regulation when no back-EMF is present across the motor
windings.
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tOFF
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7.3.6.5 Smart tune Dynamic Decay
The smart tune current regulation schemes are advanced current-regulation control methods compared to
traditional fixed off-time current regulation schemes. Smart tune current regulation schemes help the stepper
motor driver adjust the decay scheme based on operating factors such as the ones listed as follows:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Motor winding resistance and inductance
Motor aging effects
Motor dynamic speed and load
Motor supply voltage variation
Motor back-EMF difference on rising and falling steps
Step transitions
Low-current versus high-current dI/dt
The device provides two different smart tune current regulation modes, named smart tune Dynamic Decay and
smart tune Ripple Control.
tBLANK
tBLANK
tOFF
tBLANK
tOFF
tDRIVE
tDRIVE
tDRIVE
ITRIP
Decreasing Phase Current (A)
ADVANCE INFORMATION
Increasing Phase Current (A)
ITRIP
tBLANK
tOFF
tBLANK
tDRIVE
tDRIVE
tBLANK
tOFF
tFAST
tDRIVE
tFAST
Figure 14. Smart tune Dynamic Decay Mode
Smart tune Dynamic Decay greatly simplifies the decay mode selection by automatically configuring the decay
mode between slow, mixed, and fast decay. In mixed decay, smart tune dynamically adjusts the fast decay
percentage of the total mixed decay time. This feature eliminates motor tuning by automatically determining the
best decay setting that results in the lowest ripple for the motor.
The decay mode setting is optimized iteratively each PWM cycle. If the motor current overshoots the target trip
level, then the decay mode becomes more aggressive (add fast decay percentage) on the next cycle to prevent
regulation loss. If a long drive time must occur to reach the target trip level, the decay mode becomes less
aggressive (remove fast decay percentage) on the next cycle to operate with less ripple and more efficiently. On
falling steps, smart tune Dynamic Decay automatically switches to fast decay to reach the next step quickly.
Smart tune Dynamic Decay is optimal for applications that require minimal current ripple but want to maintain a
fixed frequency in the current regulation scheme.
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7.3.6.6 Smart tune Ripple Control
Increasing Phase Current (A)
ITRIP
IVALLEY
tBLANK
tOFF
tBLANK
tOFF
tDRIVE
Decreasing Phase Current (A)
tDRIVE
tBLANK
tOFF
tDRIVE
tDRIVE
ITRIP
IVALLEY
tBLANK
tOFF
tBLANK
tOFF
tDRIVE
tDRIVE
tBLANK
tOFF
tDRIVE
Figure 15. Smart tune Ripple Control Decay Mode
Smart tune Ripple Control operates by setting an IVALLEY level alongside the ITRIP level. When the current level
reaches ITRIP, instead of entering slow decay until the tOFF time expires, the driver enters slow decay until IVALLEY
is reached. Slow decay operates similar to mode 1 in which both low-side MOSFETs are turned on allowing the
current to recirculate. In this mode, tOFF varies depending on the current level and operating conditions.
This method allows much tighter regulation of the current level increasing motor efficiency and system
performance. Smart tune Ripple Control can be used in systems that can tolerate a variable off-time regulation
scheme to achieve small current ripple in the current regulation.
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7.3.7 Blanking Time
After the current is enabled (start of drive phase) in an H-bridge, the current sense comparator is ignored for a
period of time (tBLANK) before enabling the current-sense circuitry. The blanking time also sets the minimum drive
time of the PWM. When the device goes into a drive phase at the end of a slow-decay phase, the blanking time
is roughly 500 ns. If the device goes into drive phase at the end of a fast-decay phase, the approximate blanking
time is as shown in the following table Table 8. Blanking Time
SLEW_RATE
Blanking Time (tBLANK)
00b
5.6 µs
01b
2 µs
10b
1.5 µs
11b
860 ns
7.3.8 Charge Pump
ADVANCE INFORMATION
A charge pump is integrated to supply a high-side N-channel MOSFET gate-drive voltage. The charge pump
requires a capacitor between the VM and VCP pins to act as the storage capacitor. Additionally a ceramic
capacitor is required between the CPH and CPL pins to act as the flying capacitor.
VM
VM
0.22 …F
VCP
CPH
0.022 …F
VM
Charge
Pump
Control
CPL
Figure 16. Charge Pump Block Diagram
28
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7.3.9 Linear Voltage Regulators
A linear voltage regulator is integrated into the device. The DVDD regulator can be used to provide a reference
voltage. DVDD can supply a maximum of 2 mA load. For proper operation, bypass the DVDD pin to GND using a
ceramic capacitor.
Figure 17. Linear Voltage Regulator Block Diagram
If logic level inputs must be tied permanently high, tying the input to the DVDD pin instead of an external
regulator is preferred. This method saves power when the VM pin is not applied or in sleep mode: the DVDD
regulator is disabled and current does not flow through the input pulldown resistors. For reference, logic level
inputs have a typical pulldown of 200 kΩ.
The nSLEEP pin cannot be tied to DVDD, else the device will never exit sleep mode.
7.3.10 Logic Level Pin Diagrams
Figure 18 shows the input structure for the logic-level pins STEP, DIR, nSLEEP, SDI, and SCLK.
Figure 18. Logic-Level Input Pin Diagram
Figure 19 shows the input structure for the logic-level pins DRVOFF, and nSCS.
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ADVANCE INFORMATION
The DVDD output is nominally 5-V. When the DVDD LDO current load exceeds 2 mA, the output voltage drops
significantly.
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Figure 19. Logic-Level with Internal Pull-up Input Pin Diagram
7.3.10.1 nFAULT Pin
The nFAULT pin has an open-drain output and should be pulled up to a 5-V or 3.3-V supply. When a fault is
detected, the nFAULT pin is logic low. nFAULT pin will be high after power-up. For a 5-V pullup, the nFAULT pin
can be tied to the DVDD pin with a resistor. For a 3.3-V pullup, an external 3.3-V supply must be used.
ADVANCE INFORMATION
Output
nFAULT
Figure 20. nFAULT Pin
7.3.11 Protection Circuits
The device is fully protected against supply undervoltage, charge pump undervoltage, output overcurrent, device
overtemperature, and open load events.
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ADVANCE INFORMATION
7.3.11.1 VM Undervoltage Lockout (UVLO)
Figure 21. Supply Voltage Ramp Profile
Figure 22. Supply Voltage Ramp Profile
If at any time the voltage on the VM pin falls below the UVLO falling threshold voltage, all the outputs are
disabled (High-Z) and the charge pump (CP) is disabled. Normal operation resumes (motor driver and charge
pump) when the VM voltage recovers above the UVLO rising threshold voltage.
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When the voltage on the VM pin falls below the UVLO falling threshold voltage (4.25 V typical), but is above the
VM UVLO reset voltage (VRST, 3.9 V maximum), SPI communication is available, the digital core of the device is
alive, the FAULT and UVLO bits are made high in the SPI registers and the nFAULT pin is driven low, as shown
in Figure 21. From this condition, if the VM voltage recovers above the UVLO rising threshold voltage (4.35 V
typical), nFAULT pin is released (is pulled-up to the external voltage), and the FAULT bit is reset, but the UVLO
bit remains latched high until cleared through the CLR_FLT bit or an nSLEEP reset pulse.
When the voltage on the VM pin falls below the VM UVLO reset voltage (VRST, 3.9 V maximum), SPI
communication is unavailable, the digital core is shutdown, the FAULT and UVLO bits are low and the nFAULT
pin is high. During the subsequent power-up, when the VM voltage exceeds the VRST voltage, the digital core
comes alive, UVLO bit stays low but the FAULT bit is made high; and the nFAULT pin is pulled low, as shown in
Figure 22. When the VM voltage exceeds the VM UVLO rising threshold, FAULT bit is reset, UVLO bit stays low
and the nFAULT pin is pulled high.
7.3.11.2 VCP Undervoltage Lockout (CPUV)
ADVANCE INFORMATION
If at any time the voltage on the VCP pin falls below the CPUV voltage, all the outputs are disabled, and the
nFAULT pin is driven low. The charge pump remains active during this condition. The FAULT and CPUV bits are
made high in the SPI registers. Normal operation resumes (motor-driver operation and nFAULT released) when
the VCP undervoltage condition is removed. The CPUV bit remains set until it is cleared through the CLR_FLT
bit or an nSLEEP reset pulse.
7.3.11.3 Overcurrent Protection (OCP)
An analog current-limit circuit on each FET limits the current through the FET by removing the gate drive. If this
current limit persists for longer than the tOCP time, the FETs in that particular H-bridge are disabled and the
nFAULT pin is driven low. The FAULT and OCP bits are latched high in the SPI registers. For xOUTx to VM
short, corresponding OCP_LSx_x bit goes high in the DIAG Status 1 register. Similarly, for xOUTx to ground
short, corresponding OCP_HSx_x bit goes high. For example, for AOUT1 to VM short, OCP_LS1_A bit goes
high; and for BOUT2 to ground short, the OCP_HS2_B bit goes high. The charge pump remains active during
this condition. The overcurrent protection can operate in two different modes: latched shutdown and automatic
retry.
Errata: When the device is configured in smart tune ripple control decay mode, one output node in each Hbridge switches between VM and ground. For example, if current is flowing from AOUT1 to AOUT2, the AOUT1
node switches between VM and ground. If this particular output node is shorted to VM, there is a possibility that
the overcurrent protection takes longer than usual time to trigger, leading to damage of the device. This behavior
will be corrected when the final version samples are available. This behavior is specific to short-to-VM faults in
smart tune ripple control mode, the device is protected as expected in all other decay modes and during other
types of shorts (short to ground, short output nodes together etc.).
7.3.11.3.1 Latched Shutdown (OCP_MODE = 0b)
In this mode, after an OCP event, the relevant outputs are disabled and the nFAULT pin is driven low. Normal
operation resumes after nSLEEP cycling or a power cycling. This is the default mode for an OCP event for the
device.
7.3.11.3.2 Automatic Retry (OCP_MODE = 1b)
In this mode, after an OCP event, the relevant outputs are disabled and the nFAULT pin is driven low. Normal
operation resumes automatically (motor-driver operation and nFAULT released) after the tRETRY time has elapsed
and the fault condition is removed.
32
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7.3.11.4 Open-Load Detection (OL)
If the winding current in any coil drops below the open load current threshold (IOL) and the ITRIP level set by the
indexer, and if this condition persists for more than the open load detection time (tOL), an open-load condition is
detected. The EN_OL bit must be '1' to enable open load detection. When an open load fault is detected, the OL
and FAULT bits are latched high in the SPI register and the nFAULT pin is driven low. If the OL_A bit is high, it
indicates an open load fault in winding A, between AOUT1 and AOUT2. Similarly, an open load fault between
BOUT1 and BOUT2 causes the OL_B bit to go high. Normal operation resumes and the nFAULT line is released
when the open load condition is removed and a clear faults command has been issued either through the
CLR_FLT bit or an nSLEEP reset pulse. The fault also clears when the device is power cycled or comes out of
sleep mode.
7.3.11.5 Thermal Shutdown (OTSD)
If the die temperature exceeds the thermal shutdown limit (TOTSD) all MOSFETs in the H-bridge are disabled, and
the nFAULT pin is driven low. The charge pump is disabled in this condition. In addition, the FAULT, TF and
OTS bits are latched high. This protection feature cannot be disabled. The overtemperature protection can
operate in two different modes: latched shutdown and automatic recovery.
In this mode, after a OTSD event all the outputs are disabled and the nFAULT pin is driven low. The FAULT, TF
and OTS bits are latched high in the SPI register. Normal operation resumes after nSLEEP cycling or a power
cycling. This mode is the default mode for a OTSD event.
7.3.11.5.2 Automatic Recovery (OTSD_MODE = 1b)
In this mode, after a OTSD event all the outputs are disabled and the nFAULT pin is driven low. The FAULT, TF
and OTS bits are latched high in the SPI register. Normal operation resumes (motor-driver operation and the
nFAULT line released) when the junction temperature falls below the overtemperature threshold limit minus the
hysteresis (TOTSD – THYS_OTSD). The FAULT, TF and OTS bits remains latched high indicating that a thermal
event occurred until a clear faults command is issued either through the CLR_FLT bit or an nSLEEP reset pulse.
7.3.11.6 Overtemperature Warning (OTW)
If the die temperature exceeds the trip point of the overtemperature warning (TOTW), the OTW and TF bits are set
in the SPI register. The device performs no additional action and continues to function. When the die temperature
falls below the hysteresis point (THYS_OTW) of the overtemperature warning, the OTW and TF bits clear
automatically. The OTW bit can also be configured to report on the nFAULT pin, and set the FAULT bit in the
device, by setting the TW_REP bit to 1b through the SPI registers. The charge pump remains active during this
condition.
7.3.11.7 Undertemperature Warning (UTW)
If the die temperature falls below the trip point of the undertemperature warning (TUTW), the UTW and TF bits are
set in the SPI register. The device performs no additional action and continues to function. When the die
temperature exceeds the hysteresis point (THYS_UTW) of the undertemperature warning, the UTW and TF bits
clear automatically. The UTW bit can also be configured to report on the nFAULT pin, and set the FAULT bit in
the device, by setting the TW_REP bit to 1b through the SPI registers. The charge pump remains active during
this condition.
Table 9. Fault Condition Summary
FAULT
CONDITION
CONFIGU
RATION
ERROR
REPORT
H-BRIDGE
CHARGE
PUMP
INDEXER
LOGIC
RECOVERY
VM undervoltage
(UVLO)
VM < VUVLO
(max 4.35 V)
—
nFAULT /
SPI
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
Reset
(VDVDD <
3.2 V)
Automatic: VM >
VUVLO
(max 4.45 V)
VCP undervoltage
(CPUV)
VCP < VCPUV
(typ VM + 2.25 V)
—
nFAULT /
SPI
Disabled
Operating
Operating
Operating
VCP > VCPUV
(typ VM + 2.7 V)
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7.3.11.5.1 Latched Shutdown (OTSD_MODE = 0b)
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Table 9. Fault Condition Summary (continued)
FAULT
CONDITION
Overcurrent (OCP)
IOUT > IOCP
(min 1.7 A)
Open Load (OL)
Overtemperature
Warning (OTW)
CONFIGU
RATION
ERROR
REPORT
ADVANCE INFORMATION
H-BRIDGE
CHARGE
PUMP
INDEXER
LOGIC
RECOVERY
OCP_MO
DE = 0b
nFAULT /
SPI
Disabled
Operating
Operating
Operating
Latched: CLR_FLT
/ nSLEEP
OCP_MO
DE = 1b
nFAULT /
SPI
Disabled
Operating
Operating
Operating
Automatic retry:
tRETRY
EN_OL =
1b
nFAULT /
SPI
Operating
Operating
Operating
Operating
Report only
TW_REP
= 1b
nFAULT /
SPI
Operating
Operating
Operating
Operating
No action
TW_REP
= 0b
SPI
Operating
Operating
Operating
Operating
Automatic: TJ <
TOTW - THYS_OTW
TW_REP
= 1b
nFAULT /
SPI
Operating
Operating
Operating
Operating
No action
TW_REP
= 0b
SPI
Operating
Operating
Operating
Operating
Automatic: TJ >
TUTW + THYS_UTW
OTSD_MO
DE = 0b
nFAULT /
SPI
Disabled
Disabled
Operating
Operating
Latched: CLR_FLT
/ nSLEEP
OTSD_MO
DE = 1b
SPI
Disabled
Disabled
Operating
Operating
Automatic: TJ <
TOTSD - THYS_OTSD
No load detected
TJ > TOTW
Undertemperature
Warning (UTW)
TJ < TUTW
Thermal Shutdown
(OTSD)
TJ > TOTSD
7.4 Device Functional Modes
7.4.1 Sleep Mode (nSLEEP = 0)
The device state is managed by the nSLEEP pin. When the nSLEEP pin is low, the device enters a low-power
sleep mode. In sleep mode, all the internal MOSFETs are disabled, the DVDD regulator is disabled, the charge
pump is disabled, and the SPI is disabled. The tSLEEP time must elapse after a falling edge on the nSLEEP pin
before the device enters sleep mode. The device is brought out of sleep automatically if the nSLEEP pin is
brought high. The tWAKE time must elapse before the device is ready for inputs.
7.4.2 Disable Mode (nSLEEP = 1, DRVOFF = 1)
The DRVOFF pin is used to enable or disable the half bridge in the device. When the DRVOFF pin is high, the
output drivers are disabled in the Hi-Z state.
7.4.3 Operating Mode (nSLEEP = 1, DRVOFF = 0)
When the nSLEEP pin is high, the DRVOFF pin is low, and VM > UVLO, the device enters the active mode. The
tWAKE time must elapse before the device is ready for inputs.
7.4.4 nSLEEP Reset Pulse
In addition to the CLR_FLT bit in the SPI register, a latched fault can be cleared through a quick nSLEEP pulse.
This pulse width must be greater than 18 µs and shorter than 35 µs. If nSLEEP is low for longer than 35 µs but
less than 75 µs, the faults are cleared and the device may or may not shutdown, as shown in the timing diagram
(see Figure 23). This reset pulse resets any SPI faults and does not affect the status of the charge pump or other
functional blocks.
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Device Functional Modes (continued)
Figure 23. nSLEEP Reset Pulse
Table 10 lists a summary of the functional modes.
CONDITION
CONFIGURA
TION
H-BRIDGE
DVDD
Regulator
CHARGE PUMP
INDEXER
Logic
Sleep mode
4.5 V < VM < 45 V
nSLEEP pin
=0
Disabled
Disbaled
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
Operating
4.5 V < VM < 45 V
nSLEEP pin
=1
DRVOFF pin
=0
Operating
Operating
Operating
Operating
Operating
Disabled
4.5 V < VM < 45 V
nSLEEP pin
=1
DRVOFF pin
=1
Disabled
Operating
Operating
Operating
Operating
7.5 Programming
7.5.1 Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) Communication
The device SPI has full duplex, 4-wire synchronous communication. This section describes the SPI protocol, the
command structure, and the control and status registers. The device can be connected with the MCU in the
following configurations:
• One slave device
• Multiple slave devices in parallel connection
• Multiple slave devices in series (daisy chain) connection
7.5.1.1 SPI Format
The SDI input data word is 16 bits long and consists of the following format:
• 1 read or write bit, W (bit 14)
• 5 address bits, A (bits 13 through 9)
• 8 data bits, D (bits 7 through 0)
The SDO output-data word is 16 bits long and the first 8 bits make up the Status Register (S1). The Report word
(R1) is the content of the register being accessed.
For a write command (W0 = 0), the response word on the SDO pin is the data currently in the register being
written to.
For a read command (W0 = 1), the response word is the data currently in the register being read.
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Table 10. Functional Modes Summary
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Programming (continued)
Table 11. SDI Input Data Word Format
R/W
DON'T
CARE
ADDRESS
DATA
B15
B14
B13
B12
B11
B10
B9
B8
B7
B6
B5
B4
B3
B2
B1
B0
0
W0
A4
A3
A2
A1
A0
X
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
Table 12. SDO Output Data Word Format
STATUS
REPORT
B15
B14
B13
B12
B11
B10
B9
B8
B7
B6
B5
B4
B3
B2
B1
B0
1
1
UVLO
CPUV
OCP
RSVD
TF
OL
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
7.5.1.2 SPI for a Single Slave Device
ADVANCE INFORMATION
The SPI is used to set device configurations, operating parameters, and read out diagnostic information. The SPI
operates in slave mode. The SPI input-data (SDI) word consists of a 16-bit word, with 8 bits command and 8 bits
of data. The SPI output data (SDO) word consists of 8 bits of status register with fault status indication and 8 bits
of register data. Figure 24 shows the data sequence between the MCU and the SPI slave driver.
nSCS
A1
D1
S1
R1
SDI
SDO
Figure 24. SPI Transaction Between MCU and the device
A
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
36
valid frame must meet the following conditions:
The SCLK pin must be low when the nSCS pin goes low and when the nSCS pin goes high.
The nSCS pin should be taken high for at least 500 ns between frames.
When the nSCS pin is asserted high, any signals at the SCLK and SDI pins are ignored, and the SDO pin is
in the high-impedance state (Hi-Z).
Full 16 SCLK cycles must occur.
Data is captured on the falling edge of the clock and data is driven on the rising edge of the clock.
The most-significant bit (MSB) is shifted in and out first.
If the data word sent to SDI pin is less than 16 bits or more than 16 bits, a frame error occurs and the data
word is ignored.
For a write command, the existing data in the register being written to is shifted out on the SDO pin following
the 8-bit command data.
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Figure 25. Three DRV8899-Q1 Devices Connected in Parallel Configuration
7.5.1.4 SPI for Multiple Slave Devices in Daisy Chain Configuration
The DRV8899-Q1 device can be connected in a daisy chain configuration to keep GPIO ports available when
multiple devices are communicating to the same MCU. Figure 26 shows the topology when three devices are
connected in series.
Figure 26. Three DRV8899-Q1 Devices Connected in Daisy Chain
The first device in the chain receives data from the MCU in the following format for 3-device configuration: 2
bytes of header (HDRx) followed by 3 bytes of address (Ax) followed by 3 bytes of data (Dx).
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7.5.1.3 SPI for Multiple Slave Devices in Parallel Configuration
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nSCS
HDR1
HDR2
A3
A2
A1
D3
D2
D1
S1
HDR1
HDR2
A3
A2
R1
D3
D2
S2
S1
HDR1
HDR2
A3
R2
R1
D3
S3
S2
S1
HDR1
HDR2
R3
R2
R1
SDI1
SDO1 / SDI2
SDO2 / SDI3
SDO3
All Address bytes
reach destination
ADVANCE INFORMATION
Status response here
All Data bytes
reach destination
Reads executed here
Writes executed here
Figure 27. SPI Frame With Three Devices
After the data has been transmitted through the chain, the MCU receives the data string in the following format
for 3-device configuration: 3 bytes of status (Sx) followed by 2 bytes of header followed by 3 bytes of report (Rx).
nSCS
HDR1
HDR2
A3
A2
A1
D3
D2
D1
S3
S2
S1
HDR1
HDR2
R3
R2
R1
SDI
SDO
Figure 28. SPI Data Sequence for Three Devices
The header bytes contain information of the number of devices connected in the chain, and a global clear fault
command that will clear the fault registers of all the devices on the rising edge of the chip select (nSCS) signal.
Header values N5 through N0 are 6 bits dedicated to show the number of devices in the chain. Up to 63 devices
can be connected in series for each daisy chain connection.
The 5 LSBs of the HDR2 register are don’t care bits that can be used by the MCU to determine integrity of the
daisy chain connection. Header bytes must start with 1 and 0 for the two MSBs.
HDR 1
1
0
N5
N4
N3
HDR 2
N2
N1
No. of devices in the chain
(up to 26 ± 1= 63)
N0
1
0
CLR
x
x
1 = global FAULT clear
0 = GRQ¶W FDUH
x
x
x
'RQ¶W FDUH
Figure 29. Header Bytes
The status byte provides information about the fault status register for each device in the daisy chain so that the
MCU does not have to initiate a read command to read the fault status from any particular device. This keeps
additional read commands for the MCU and makes the system more efficient to determine fault conditions
flagged in a device. Status bytes must start with 1 and 1 for the two MSBs.
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Figure 30. Contents of Header, Status, Address, and Data Bytes for DRV8899-Q1
When data passes through a device, it determines the position of itself in the chain by counting the number of
status bytes it receives followed by the first header byte. For example, in this 3-device configuration, device 2 in
the chain receives two status bytes before receiving the HDR1 byte which is then followed by the HDR2 byte.
From the two status bytes, the data can determine that its position is second in the chain. From the HDR2 byte,
the data can determine how many devices are connected in the chain. In this way, the data only loads the
relevant address and data byte in its buffer and bypasses the other bits. This protocol allows for faster
communication without adding latency to the system for up to 63 devices in the chain.
The address and data bytes remain the same with respect to a 1-device connection. The report bytes (R1
through R3), as shown in Figure 28, are the content of the register being accessed.
nSCS
SCLK
SDI
X
MSB
LSB
X
SDO
Z
MSB
LSB
Z
Capture
Point
Propagate
Point
Figure 31. SPI Transaction
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7.6 Register Maps
Table 13 lists the memory-mapped registers for the DRV8899-Q1 device. All register addresses not listed in
Table 13 should be considered as reserved locations and the register contents should not be modified.
Table 13. Memory Map
Register
Name
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Access
Type
Address
FAULT Status
FAULT
SPI_ERROR
UVLO
CPUV
OCP
RSVD
TF
OL
R
0x00
DIAG Status 1
OCP_LS2_B
OCP_HS2_B
OCP_LS1_B
OCP_HS1_B
OCP_LS2_A
OCP_HS2_A
OCP_LS1_A
OCP_HS1_A
R
0x01
DIAG Status 2
UTW
OTW
OTS
OL_B
OL_A
R
0x02
RW
0x03
RW
0x04
RW
0x05
RW
0x06
CTRL1
RSVD
TRQ_DAC [3:0]
CTRL2
DIS_OUT
CTRL3
DIR
CTRL4
CLR_FLT
RSVD
RSVD
STEP
SLEW_RATE [1:0]
TOFF [1:0]
SPI_DIR
DECAY [2:0]
SPI_STEP
MICROSTEP_MODE [3:0]
LOCK [2:0]
EN_OL
OCP_MODE
OTSD_MODE
TW_REP
CTRL5
RSVD
RW
0x07
CTRL6
RSVD
RW
0x08
CTRL7
RSVD
R
0x09
ADVANCE INFORMATION
Complex bit access types are encoded to fit into small table cells. Table 14 shows the codes that are used for
access types in this section.
Table 14. Access Type Codes
Access Type
Code
Description
R
Read
W
Write
Read Type
R
Write Type
W
Reset or Default Value
-n
40
Value after reset or the default
value
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7.6.1 Status Registers
The status registers are used to reporting warning and fault conditions. Status registers are read-only registers
Table 15 lists the memory-mapped registers for the status registers. All register offset addresses not listed in
Table 15 should be considered as reserved locations and the register contents should not be modified.
Table 15. Status Registers Summary Table
Address
Register Name
Section
0x00
FAULT status
Go
0x01
DIAG status 1
Go
0x02
DIAG status 2
Go
7.6.1.1 FAULT Status Register Name (address = 0x00)
FAULT status is shown in Figure 32 and described in Table 16.
Read-only
7
FAULT
R-0b
6
SPI_ERROR
R-0b
5
UVLO
R-0b
4
CPUV
R-0b
3
OCP
R-0b
2
RSVD
R-0b
1
TF
R-0b
0
OL
R-0b
Table 16. FAULT Status Register Field Descriptions
Bit
Field
Type
Default
Description
7
FAULT
R
0b
When nFAULT pin is at 1, FAULT bit is 0. When nFAULT pin is
at 0, FAULT bit is 1.
6
SPI_ERROR
R
0b
Indicates SPI protocol errors, such as more SCLK pulses than
are required or SCLK is absent even though nSCS is low.
Becomes high in fault and the nFAULT pin is driven low. Normal
operation resumes when the protocol error is removed and a
clear faults command has been issued either through the
CLR_FLT bit or an nSLEEP reset pulse.
5
UVLO
R
0b
Indicates an undervoltage lockout fault condition.
4
CPUV
R
0b
Indicates charge pump undervoltage fault condition.
3
OCP
R
0b
Indicates overcurrent fault condition
2
RSVD
R
0b
Reserved.
1
TF
R
0b
Logic OR of the overtemperature warning, undertemperature
warning and overtemperature shutdown.
0
OL
R
0b
Indicates open-load condition.
7.6.1.2 DIAG Status 1 (address = 0x01)
DIAG Status 1 is shown in Figure 33 and described in Table 17.
Read-only
Figure 33. DIAG Status 1 Register
7
OCP_LS2_B
R-0b
6
OCP_HS2_B
R-0b
5
OCP_LS1_B
R-0b
4
OCP_HS1_B
R-0b
3
OCP_LS2_A
R-0b
2
OCP_HS2_A
R-0b
1
OCP_LS1_A
R-0b
0
OCP_HS1_A
R-0b
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Figure 32. FAULT Status Register
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Table 17. DIAG Status 1 Register Field Descriptions
Bit
ADVANCE INFORMATION
Field
Type
Default
Description
7
OCP_LS2_B
R
0b
Indicates overcurrent fault on the low-side FET of half bridge 2
in BOUT
6
OCP_HS2_B
R
0b
Indicates overcurrent fault on the high-side FET of half bridge 2
in BOUT
5
OCP_LS1_B
R
0b
Indicates overcurrent fault on the low-side FET of half bridge 1
in BOUT
4
OCP_HS1_B
R
0b
Indicates overcurrent fault on the high-side FET of half bridge 1
in BOUT
3
OCP_LS2_A
R
0b
Indicates overcurrent fault on the low-side FET of half bridge 2
in AOUT
2
OCP_HS2_A
R
0b
Indicates overcurrent fault on the high-side FET of half bridge 2
in AOUT
1
OCP_LS1_A
R
0b
Indicates overcurrent fault on the low-side FET of half bridge 1
in AOUT
0
OCP_HS1_A
R
0b
Indicates overcurrent fault on the high-side FET of half bridge 1
in AOUT
7.6.1.3 DIAG Status 2 (address = 0x02)
DIAG Status 2 is shown in Figure 34 and described in Table 18.
Read-only
Figure 34. DIAG Status 2 Register
7
UTW
R-0b
6
OTW
R-0b
5
OTS
R-0b
4
3
RSVD
R-000b
2
1
OL_B
R-0b
0
OL_A
R-0b
Table 18. DIAG Status 2 Register Field Descriptions
Bit
Field
Type
Default
Description
7
UTW
R
0b
Indicates undertemperature warning.
6
OTW
R
0b
Indicates overtemperature warning.
5
OTS
R
0b
Indicates overtemperature shutdown.
4-2
RSVD
R
000b
Reserved.
1
OL_B
R
0b
Indicates open-load detection on BOUT
0
OL_A
R
0b
Indicates open-load detection on AOUT
7.6.2 Control Registers
The IC control registers are used to configure the device. Status registers are read and write capable.
Table 19 lists the memory-mapped registers for the control registers. All register offset addresses not listed in
Table 19 should be considered as reserved locations and the register contents should not be modified.
Table 19. Control Registers Summary Table
Address
42
Register Name
Section
0x03
CTRL1
Go
0x04
CTRL2
Go
0x05
CTRL3
Go
0x06
CTRL4
Go
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Table 19. Control Registers Summary Table (continued)
Address
Register Name
Section
0x07
CTRL5
Go
0x08
CTRL6
Go
0x09
CTRL7
Go
7.6.2.1 CTRL1 Control Register (address = 0x03)
CTRL1 control is shown in Figure 35 and described in Table 20.
Read/Write
Figure 35. CTRL1 Control Register
7
6
5
4
3
TRQ_DAC [3:0]
R/W-0000b
2
1
0
SLEW_RATE [1:0]
R/W-00b
RSVD
R/W-00b
Field
Type
Default
Description
7-4
TRQ_DAC [3:0]
R/W
0000b
0000b = 100%
ADVANCE INFORMATION
Table 20. CTRL1 Control Register Field Descriptions
Bit
0001b = 93.75%
0010b = 87.5%
0011b = 81.25%
0100b = 75%
0101b = 68.75%
0110b = 62.5%
0111b = 56.25%
1000b = 50%
1001b = 43.75%
1010b = 37.5%
1011b = 31.25%
1100b = 25%
1101b = 18.75%
1110b = 12.5%
1111b = 6.25%
3-2
RSVD
R/W
00b
Reserved
1-0
SLEW_RATE [1:0]
R/W
00b
00b = 10-V/µs
01b = 35-V/µs
10b = 50-V/µs
11b = 105-V/µs
7.6.2.2 CTRL2 Control Register (address = 0x04)
CTRL2 is shown in Figure 36 and described in Table 21.
Read/Write
Figure 36. CTRL2 Control Register
7
DIS_OUT
R/W-0b
6
5
RSVD
R/W-00b
4
3
TOFF [1:0]
R/W-01b
2
1
DECAY [2:0]
R/W-111b
0
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Table 21. CTRL2 Control Register Field Descriptions
Bit
Field
Type
Default
Description
DIS_OUT
R/W
0b
Write '1' to Hi-Z all outputs. OR'ed with DRVOFF pin. Ensure OL
fault detection is disabled by writing '0' to EN_OL bit, before
making the outputs Hi-Z by writing '1' to DIS_OUT.
6-5
RSVD
R/W
00b
Reserved
4-3
TOFF [1:0]
R/W
01b
00b = 7 µs
7
01b = 16 µs
10b = 24 µs
11b = 32 µs
2-0
DECAY [2:0]
R/W
111b
000b = Increasing SLOW, decreasing SLOW
001b = Increasing SLOW, decreasing MIXED 30%
010b = Increasing SLOW, decreasing MIXED 60%
011b = Increasing SLOW, decreasing FAST
100b = Increasing MIXED 30%, decreasing MIXED 30%
101b = Increasing MIXED 60%, decreasing MIXED 60%
ADVANCE INFORMATION
110b = Smart tune Dynamic Decay
111b = Smart tune Ripple Control
7.6.2.3 CTRL3 Control Register (address = 0x05)
CTRL3 is shown in Figure 37 and described in Table 22.
Read/Write
Figure 37. CTRL3 Control Register
7
DIR
R/W-0b
6
STEP
R/W-0b
5
SPI_DIR
R/W-0b
4
SPI_STEP
R/W-0b
3
2
1
MICROSTEP_MODE [3:0]
R/W-0000b
0
Table 22. CTRL3 Control Register Field Descriptions
Bit
Field
Type
Default
Description
7
DIR
R/W
0b
Direction input. Logic '1' sets the direction of stepping, when
SPI_DIR = 1.
6
STEP
R/W
0b
Step input. Logic '1' causes the indexer to advance one step,
when SPI_STEP = 1.
5
SPI_DIR
R/W
0b
0b = Outputs follow input pin for DIR
4
SPI_STEP
R/W
0b
MICROSTEP_MODE [3:0]
R/W
0000b
1b = Outputs follow SPI registers DIR
0b = Outputs follow input pin for STEP
1b = Outputs follow SPI registers STEP
3-0
0000b = Full step (2-phase excitation) with 100% current
0001b = Full step (2-phase excitation) with 71% current
0010b = Non-circular 1/2 step
0011b = 1/2 step
0100b = 1/4 step
0101b = 1/8 step
0110b = 1/16 step
0111b = 1/32 step
1000b = 1/64 step
1001b = 1/128 step
1010b = 1/256 step
1011b to 1111b = Reserved
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7.6.2.4 CTRL4 Control Register (address = 0x06)
CTRL4 is shown in Figure 38 and described in Table 23.
Read/Write
Figure 38. CTRL4 Control Register
7
CLR_FLT
R/W-0b
6
5
LOCK [2:0]
R/W-011b
4
3
EN_OL
R/W-0b
2
OCP_MODE
R/W-0b
1
OTSD_MODE
R/W-0b
0
TW_REP
R/W-0b
Table 23. CTRL4 Control Register Field Descriptions
Bit
7
6-4
Field
Type
Default
Description
CLR_FLT
R/W
0b
Write '1' to this bit to clear all latched fault bits. This bit
automatically resets after being written.
LOCK [2:0]
R/W
011b
Write 110b to lock the settings by ignoring further register writes
except to these bits and address 0x06h bit 7 (CLR_FLT). Writing
any sequence other than 110b has no effect when unlocked.
3
EN_OL
R/W
0b
Write '1' to enable open load detection
2
OCP_MODE
R/W
0b
0b = Overcurrent condition causes a latched fault
1
OTSD_MODE
R/W
0b
1b = Overcurrent condition causes an automatic retrying fault
0b = Overtemperature condition will cause latched fault
1b = Overtemperature condition will cause automatic recovery
fault
0
TW_REP
R/W
0b
0b = Overtemperature or undertemperature warning is not
reported on the nFAULT line
1b = Overtemperature or undertemperature warning is reported
on the nFAULT line
7.6.2.5 CTRL5 Control Register (address = 0x07)
CTRL5 control is shown in Figure 39 and described in Table 24.
Read/Write
Figure 39. CTRL5 Control Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
RSVD
R/W-00001000b
Table 24. CTRL5 Control Register Field Descriptions
Bit
Field
Type
Default
Description
7-0
RSVD
R/W
00001000
b
Reserved. Should always be '00001000'.
7.6.2.6 CTRL6 Control Register (address = 0x08)
CTRL6 is shown in Figure 40 and described in Table 25.
Read/Write
Figure 40. CTRL6 Control Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
RSVD
R/W-00001111b
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ADVANCE INFORMATION
Write 011b to this register to unlock all registers. Writing any
sequence other than 011b has no effect when locked.
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Table 25. CTRL6 Control Register Field Descriptions
Bit
Field
Type
Default
Description
7-0
RSVD
R/W
00001111
b
Reserved.
7.6.2.7 CTRL7 Control Register (address = 0x09)
CTRL7 is shown in Figure 41 and described in Table 26.
Read-only
Figure 41. CTRL7 Control Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
RSVD
R-11111111b
Table 26. CTRL7 Control Register Field Descriptions
ADVANCE INFORMATION
46
Bit
Field
Type
Default
Description
7-0
RSVD
R
11111111
b
Reserved.
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8 Application and Implementation
NOTE
Information in the following applications sections is not part of the TI component
specification, and TI does not warrant its accuracy or completeness. TI’s customers are
responsible for determining suitability of components for their purposes. Customers should
validate and test their design implementation to confirm system functionality.
8.1 Application Information
The DRV8899-Q1 device is used in bipolar stepper control.
8.2 Typical Application
ADVANCE INFORMATION
The following design procedure can be used to configure the DRV8899-Q1 device.
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Typical Application (continued)
ADVANCE INFORMATION
Figure 42. Typical Application Schematic (VQFN package)
8.2.1 Design Requirements
Table 27 lists the design input parameters for system design.
Table 27. Design Parameters
DESIGN PARAMETER
EXAMPLE VALUE
VM
13.5 V
Motor winding resistance
RL
2.6 Ω/phase
Motor winding inductance
Motor full step angle
Target microstepping level
48
REFERENCE
Supply voltage
LL
1.4 mH/phase
θstep
1.8°/step
nm
1/8 step
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Table 27. Design Parameters (continued)
DESIGN PARAMETER
Target motor speed
Target full-scale current
REFERENCE
EXAMPLE VALUE
v
120 rpm
IFS
1A
8.2.2 Detailed Design Procedure
8.2.2.1 Stepper Motor Speed
The first step in configuring the device requires the desired motor speed and microstepping level. If the target
application requires a constant speed, then a square wave with frequency ƒstep must be applied to the STEP pin.
If the target motor speed is too high, the motor does not spin. Make sure that the motor can support the target
speed.
The value of θstep can be found in the stepper motor data sheet, or written on the motor.
For the DRV8899-Q1 device, the microstepping level is set by the MICROSTEP_MODE bits in the SPI register
and can be any of the settings listed in Table 28. Higher microstepping results in a smoother motor motion and
less audible noise, but increases switching losses and requires a higher ƒstep to achieve the same motor speed.
Table 28. Microstepping Indexer Settings
MICROSTEP_MODE
STEP MODE
0000b
Full step (2-phase excitation) with 100%
current
0001b
Full step (2-phase excitation) with 71% current
0010b
Non-circular 1/2 step
0011b
1/2 step
0100b
1/4 step
0101b
1/8 step
0110b
1/16 step
0111b
1/32 step
1000b
1/64 step
1001b
1/128 step
1010b
1/256 step
For example, the motor is 1.8°/step for a target of 120 rpm at 1/8 microstep mode.
120 rpm u 360q / rot
¦step VWHSV V
N+]
1.8q / step u 1/ 8 steps / microstep u 60 s / min
(3)
8.2.2.2 Current Regulation
In a stepper motor, the full-scale current (IFS) is the maximum current driven through either winding. This quantity
depends on the VREF voltage and the TRQ setting.
The maximum allowable voltage on the VREF pin is 2.2 V. DVDD can be used to provide VREF through a
resistor divider.
During stepping, IFS defines the current chopping threshold (ITRIP) for the maximum current step.
(4)
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ADVANCE INFORMATION
Use Equation 2 to calculate ƒstep for a desired motor speed (v), microstepping level (nm), and motor full step
angle (θstep)
v (rpm) u 360 (q / rot)
¦step VWHSV V
Tstep (q / step) u nm (steps / microstep) u 60 (s / min)
(2)
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NOTE
The IFS current must also follow Equation 4 to avoid saturating the motor. VM is the motor
supply voltage, and RL is the motor winding resistance.
IFS (A)
RL (:)
VM (V)
2 u RDS(ON) (:)
(5)
8.2.2.3 Decay Modes
The device supports eight different decay modes, as shown in Table 7. The current through the motor windings
is regulated using an adjustable fixed-time-off scheme which means that after any drive phase, when a motor
winding current has hit the current chopping threshold (ITRIP), the device places the winding in one of the eight
decay modes for tOFF. After tOFF, a new drive phase starts.
ADVANCE INFORMATION
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9 Power Supply Recommendations
The device is designed to operate from an input voltage supply (VM) range from 4.5 V to 45 V. A 0.01-µF
ceramic capacitor rated for VM must be placed at each VM pin as close to the device as possible. In addition, a
bulk capacitor must be included on VM.
9.1 Bulk Capacitance
Having appropriate local bulk capacitance is an important factor in motor drive system design. It is generally
beneficial to have more bulk capacitance, while the disadvantages are increased cost and physical size.
The inductance between the power supply and motor drive system will limit the rate current can change from the
power supply. If the local bulk capacitance is too small, the system will respond to excessive current demands or
dumps from the motor with a change in voltage. When adequate bulk capacitance is used, the motor voltage
remains stable and high current can be quickly supplied.
The data sheet generally provides a recommended value, but system-level testing is required to determine the
appropriate sized bulk capacitor.
The voltage rating for bulk capacitors should be higher than the operating voltage, to provide margin for cases
when the motor transfers energy to the supply.
Power Supply
Parasitic Wire
Inductance
Motor Drive System
VM
+
±
+
Motor
Driver
GND
Local
Bulk Capacitor
IC Bypass
Capacitor
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Figure 43. Example Setup of Motor Drive System With External Power Supply
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ADVANCE INFORMATION
The amount of local capacitance needed depends on a variety of factors, including:
• The highest current required by the motor system
• The power supply’s capacitance and ability to source current
• The amount of parasitic inductance between the power supply and motor system
• The acceptable voltage ripple
• The type of motor used (brushed DC, brushless DC, stepper)
• The motor braking method
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10 Layout
10.1 Layout Guidelines
The VM pin should be bypassed to GND using a low-ESR ceramic bypass capacitor with a recommended value
of 0.01 µF rated for VM. This capacitor should be placed as close to the VM pin as possible with a thick trace or
ground plane connection to the device GND pin.
The VM pin must be bypassed to ground using a bulk capacitor rated for VM. This component can be an
electrolytic capacitor.
A low-ESR ceramic capacitor must be placed in between the CPL and CPH pins. A value of 0.022 µF rated for
VM is recommended. Place this component as close to the pins as possible.
A low-ESR ceramic capacitor must be placed in between the VM and VCP pins. A value of 0.22 µF rated for 16
V is recommended. Place this component as close to the pins as possible.
Bypass the DVDD pin to ground with a low-ESR ceramic capacitor. A value of 0.47 µF rated for 6.3 V is
recommended. Place this bypassing capacitor as close to the pin as possible.
The thermal PAD must be connected to system ground.
ADVANCE INFORMATION
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ADVANCE INFORMATION
10.2 Layout Example
Figure 44. QFN Layout Recommendation
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11 Device and Documentation Support
11.1 Documentation Support
11.1.1 Related Documentation
For related documentation see the following:
• Texas Instruments, Calculating Motor Driver Power Dissipation application report
• Texas Instruments, Current Recirculation and Decay Modes application report
• Texas Instruments, How AutoTune™ regulates current in stepper motors white paper
• Texas Instruments, Industrial Motor Drive Solution Guide
• Texas Instruments, PowerPAD™ Made Easy application report
• Texas Instruments, PowerPAD™ Thermally Enhanced Package application report
• Texas Instruments, Stepper motors made easy with AutoTune™ white paper
• Texas Instruments, Understanding Motor Driver Current Ratings application report
11.2 Receiving Notification of Documentation Updates
ADVANCE INFORMATION
To receive notification of documentation updates, navigate to the device product folder on ti.com. In the upper
right corner, click on Alert me to register and receive a weekly digest of any product information that has
changed. For change details, review the revision history included in any revised document.
11.3 Community Resources
TI E2E™ support forums are an engineer's go-to source for fast, verified answers and design help — straight
from the experts. Search existing answers or ask your own question to get the quick design help you need.
Linked content is provided "AS IS" by the respective contributors. They do not constitute TI specifications and do
not necessarily reflect TI's views; see TI's Terms of Use.
11.4 Trademarks
E2E is a trademark of Texas Instruments.
11.5 Electrostatic Discharge Caution
This integrated circuit can be damaged by ESD. Texas Instruments recommends that all integrated circuits be handled with
appropriate precautions. Failure to observe proper handling and installation procedures can cause damage.
ESD damage can range from subtle performance degradation to complete device failure. Precision integrated circuits may be more
susceptible to damage because very small parametric changes could cause the device not to meet its published specifications.
11.6 Glossary
SLYZ022 — TI Glossary.
This glossary lists and explains terms, acronyms, and definitions.
12 Mechanical, Packaging, and Orderable Information
The following pages include mechanical, packaging, and orderable information. This information is the most
current data available for the designated devices. This data is subject to change without notice and revision of
this document. For browser-based versions of this data sheet, refer to the left-hand navigation.
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PACKAGE OUTLINE
VQFN - 1 mm max height
RGE0024N
PLASTIC QUAD FLATPACK-NO LEAD
4.1
3.9
B
A
4.1
3.9
PIN 1 INDEX AREA
0.1 MIN
(0.13)
ADVANCE INFORMATION
SECTION A-A
TYPICAL
C
1 MAX
SEATING PLANE
0.08 C
0.05
0.00
2X 2.5
2.45±0.1
(0.2) TYP
7
12
6
13
A
SYMM
25
2X
2.5
1
18
20X 0.5
24
PIN 1 ID
(OPTIONAL)
SYMM
(0.16)
A
19
24X 0.3
0.2
0.1
0.05
C A B
C
24X 0.5
0.3
4224736/A 12/2018
NOTES:
1.
2.
3.
All linear dimensions are in millimeters. Any dimensions in parenthesis are for reference only. Dimensioning and tolerancing
per ASME Y14.5M.
This drawing is subject to change without notice.
The package thermal pad must be soldered to the printed circuit board for optimal thermal and mechanical performance.
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EXAMPLE BOARD LAYOUT
VQFN - 1 mm max height
RGE0024N
PLASTIC QUAD FLATPACK-NO LEAD
2X (3.8)
2X (2.5)
(
2.45)
24
19
24X (0.6)
24X (0.25)
1
18
20X (0.5)
25
SYMM
ADVANCE INFORMATION
2X
(2.5)
2X
(3.8)
2X
(0.975)
6
13
(R0.05) TYP
7
2X (0.975)
(Ø 0.2) VIA
TYP
12
SYMM
LAND PATTERN EXAMPLE
EXPOSED METAL SHOWN
SCALE: 18X
0.07 MIN
ALL AROUND
0.07 MAX
ALL AROUND
METAL
METAL UNDER
SOLDER MASK
SOLDER MASK
OPENING
SOLDER MASK
OPENING
SOLDER MASK
DEFINED
NON SOLDER MASK
DEFINED
(PREFERRED)
SOLDER MASK DETAILS
4224736/A 12/2018
NOTES: (continued)
4.
5.
This package is designed to be soldered to a thermal pad on the board. For more information, see Texas Instruments literature
number SLUA271 (www.ti.com/lit/slua271) .
Vias are optional depending on application, refer to device data sheet. If any vias are implemented, refer to their locations shown
on this view. It is recommended that vias under paste be filled, plugged or tented.
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EXAMPLE STENCIL DESIGN
VQFN - 1 mm max height
RGE0024N
PLASTIC QUAD FLATPACK-NO LEAD
2X (3.8)
2X (2.5)
4X
( 1.08)
24
19
24X (0.6)
24X (0.25)
1
25
18
SYMM
2X
(2.5)
ADVANCE INFORMATION
20X (0.5)
2X
(3.8)
2X (0.64)
6
13
(R0.05) TYP
METAL
TYP
7
2X (0.64)
12
SYMM
SOLDER PASTE EXAMPLE
BASED ON 0.125 mm THICK STENCIL
EXPOSED PAD
78% PRINTED COVERAGE BY AREA
SCALE: 18X
4224736/A 12/2018
NOTES: (continued)
6.
Laser cutting apertures with trapezoidal walls and rounded corners may offer better paste release. IPC-7525 may have alternate
design recommendations.
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PACKAGE OPTION ADDENDUM
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22-Nov-2019
PACKAGING INFORMATION
Orderable Device
Status
(1)
Package Type Package Pins Package
Drawing
Qty
Eco Plan
Lead/Ball Finish
MSL Peak Temp
(2)
(6)
(3)
Op Temp (°C)
Device Marking
(4/5)
DRV8899QWRGERQ1
PREVIEW
VQFN
RGE
24
3000
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-2-260C-1 YEAR
-40 to 125
PDRV8899QWRGERQ1
ACTIVE
VQFN
RGE
24
3000
TBD
Call TI
Call TI
-40 to 125
DRV
8899
(1)
The marketing status values are defined as follows:
ACTIVE: Product device recommended for new designs.
LIFEBUY: TI has announced that the device will be discontinued, and a lifetime-buy period is in effect.
NRND: Not recommended for new designs. Device is in production to support existing customers, but TI does not recommend using this part in a new design.
PREVIEW: Device has been announced but is not in production. Samples may or may not be available.
OBSOLETE: TI has discontinued the production of the device.
(2)
RoHS: TI defines "RoHS" to mean semiconductor products that are compliant with the current EU RoHS requirements for all 10 RoHS substances, including the requirement that RoHS substance
do not exceed 0.1% by weight in homogeneous materials. Where designed to be soldered at high temperatures, "RoHS" products are suitable for use in specified lead-free processes. TI may
reference these types of products as "Pb-Free".
RoHS Exempt: TI defines "RoHS Exempt" to mean products that contain lead but are compliant with EU RoHS pursuant to a specific EU RoHS exemption.
Green: TI defines "Green" to mean the content of Chlorine (Cl) and Bromine (Br) based flame retardants meet JS709B low halogen requirements of <=1000ppm threshold. Antimony trioxide based
flame retardants must also meet the <=1000ppm threshold requirement.
(3)
MSL, Peak Temp. - The Moisture Sensitivity Level rating according to the JEDEC industry standard classifications, and peak solder temperature.
(4)
There may be additional marking, which relates to the logo, the lot trace code information, or the environmental category on the device.
(5)
Multiple Device Markings will be inside parentheses. Only one Device Marking contained in parentheses and separated by a "~" will appear on a device. If a line is indented then it is a continuation
of the previous line and the two combined represent the entire Device Marking for that device.
(6)
Lead/Ball Finish - Orderable Devices may have multiple material finish options. Finish options are separated by a vertical ruled line. Lead/Ball Finish values may wrap to two lines if the finish
value exceeds the maximum column width.
Important Information and Disclaimer:The information provided on this page represents TI's knowledge and belief as of the date that it is provided. TI bases its knowledge and belief on information
provided by third parties, and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of such information. Efforts are underway to better integrate information from third parties. TI has taken and
continues to take reasonable steps to provide representative and accurate information but may not have conducted destructive testing or chemical analysis on incoming materials and chemicals.
TI and TI suppliers consider certain information to be proprietary, and thus CAS numbers and other limited information may not be available for release.
In no event shall TI's liability arising out of such information exceed the total purchase price of the TI part(s) at issue in this document sold by TI to Customer on an annual basis.
Addendum-Page 1
Samples
GENERIC PACKAGE VIEW
RGE 24
VQFN - 1 mm max height
PLASTIC QUAD FLATPACK - NO LEAD
Images above are just a representation of the package family, actual package may vary.
Refer to the product data sheet for package details.
4204104/H
IMPORTANT NOTICE AND DISCLAIMER
TI PROVIDES TECHNICAL AND RELIABILITY DATA (INCLUDING DATASHEETS), DESIGN RESOURCES (INCLUDING REFERENCE
DESIGNS), APPLICATION OR OTHER DESIGN ADVICE, WEB TOOLS, SAFETY INFORMATION, AND OTHER RESOURCES “AS IS”
AND WITH ALL FAULTS, AND DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS AND IMPLIED, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION ANY
IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR NON-INFRINGEMENT OF THIRD
PARTY INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS.
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