Texas Instruments | DRV8834 Dual-Bridge Stepper or DC Motor Driver (Rev. D) | Datasheet | Texas Instruments DRV8834 Dual-Bridge Stepper or DC Motor Driver (Rev. D) Datasheet

Texas Instruments DRV8834 Dual-Bridge Stepper or DC Motor Driver (Rev. D) Datasheet
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DRV8834
SLVSB19D – FEBRUARY 2012 – REVISED MARCH 2015
DRV8834 Dual-Bridge Stepper or DC Motor Driver
1 Features
3 Description
•
The DRV8834 provides a flexible motor driver
solution for toys, printers, cameras, and other
mechatronic applications. The device has two Hbridge drivers, and is intended to drive a bipolar
stepper motor or two DC motors.
1
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Dual-H-Bridge Current-Control Motor Driver
– Capable of Driving Two DC Motors or One
Stepper Motor
Two Control Modes:
– Built-In Indexer Logic With Simple
STEP/DIRECTION Control and Up to
1/32-Step Microstepping
– PHASE/ENABLE Control, With the Ability to
Drive External References for > 1/32-Step
Microstepping
Output Current 1.5-A Continuous, 2.2-A Peak per
H-Bridge (at VM = 5 V, 25°C)
Low RDS(ON): 305-mΩ HS + LS
(at VM = 5 V, 25°C)
Wide Power Supply Voltage Range:
2.5 V to 10.8 V
Dynamic tBLANK and Mixed Decay Modes for
Smooth Microstepping
PWM Winding Current Regulation and Limiting
Thermally Enhanced Surface-Mount Package
2 Applications
•
•
•
•
•
•
Battery-Powered Toys
POS Printers
Video Security Cameras
Office Automation Machines
Gaming Machines
Robotics
The output driver block of each H-bridge consists of
N-channel power MOSFETs configured as an Hbridge to drive the motor windings. Each H-bridge
includes circuitry to regulate or limit the winding
current.
With proper PCB design, each H-bridge of the
DRV8834 can driving up to 1.5-A RMS (or DC)
continuously, at 25°C with a VM supply of 5 V. The
device can support peak currents of up to 2.2 A per
bridge. Current capability is reduced slightly at lower
VM voltages.
Internal shutdown functions with a fault output pin are
provided for overcurrent protection, short-circuit
protection,
undervoltage
lockout
and
overtemperature. A low-power sleep mode is also
provided.
The DRV8834 is packaged in a 24-pin HTSSOP or
VQFN package with PowerPAD™ (Eco-friendly:
RoHS & no Sb/Br).
Device Information(1)
PART NUMBER
DRV8834
PACKAGE
BODY SIZE (NOM)
HTSSOP (24)
7.80 mm × 4.40 mm
VQFN (24)
4.00 mm × 4.00 mm
(1) For all available packages, see the orderable addendum at
the end of the data sheet.
4 Simplified Schematic
2.5 V to 10.8 V
DIR
Decay Mode
Step Size
nFAULT
Stepper
Motor
Driver
1/32 µstep
1.5
A
M
-
Controller
DRV8834
+
STEP
+
-
1.5
A
1
An IMPORTANT NOTICE at the end of this data sheet addresses availability, warranty, changes, use in safety-critical applications,
intellectual property matters and other important disclaimers. PRODUCTION DATA.
DRV8834
SLVSB19D – FEBRUARY 2012 – REVISED MARCH 2015
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Table of Contents
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Features ..................................................................
Applications ...........................................................
Description .............................................................
Simplified Schematic.............................................
Revision History.....................................................
Pin Configuration and Functions .........................
Specifications.........................................................
1
1
1
1
2
3
5
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
5
5
5
6
7
8
9
Absolute Maximum Ratings ......................................
ESD Ratings ............................................................
Recommended Operating Conditions.......................
Thermal Information .................................................
Electrical Characteristics...........................................
Timing Requirements ................................................
Typical Characteristics ..............................................
Detailed Description ............................................ 10
8.1 Overview ................................................................. 10
8.2 Functional Block Diagram ....................................... 11
8.3 Feature Description................................................. 11
8.4 Device Functional Modes........................................ 15
9
Application and Implementation ........................ 20
9.1 Application Information............................................ 20
9.2 Typical Application .................................................. 20
10 Power Supply Recommendations ..................... 29
10.1 Bulk Capacitance .................................................. 29
11 Layout................................................................... 30
11.1 Layout Guidelines ................................................. 30
11.2 Layout Example .................................................... 30
11.3 Thermal Considerations ........................................ 30
12 Device and Documentation Support ................. 32
12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
Documentation Support .......................................
Trademarks ...........................................................
Electrostatic Discharge Caution ............................
Glossary ................................................................
32
32
32
32
13 Mechanical, Packaging, and Orderable
Information ........................................................... 32
5 Revision History
Changes from Revision C (June 2013) to Revision D
Page
•
Added ESD Ratings table, Features Description section, Device Functional Modes, Application and Implementation
section, Power Supply Recommendations section, Layout section, Device and Documentation Support section, and
Mechanical, Packaging, and Orderable Information section .................................................................................................. 1
•
Deleted Ordering Information table. ....................................................................................................................................... 3
2
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6 Pin Configuration and Functions
PWP Package
24-Pin HTSSOP
Top View
RGE Package
24-Pin VQFN
Top View
BOUT1
9
16
nFAULT
nENBL / AENBL
10
15
CONFIG
STEP / BENBL
11
14
M1
DIR / BPHASE
12
13
M0 / APHASE
19
VCP
20
17
18
GND
AISEN
2
17
VINT
AOUT 2
3
16
VM
BOUT 2
4
15
VM
BISEN
5
14
VCP
BOUT 1
6
13
nFAULT
GND
(PPAD)
12
8
1
11
BISEN
AOUT 1
M1
VM
C O N FIG
18
21
7
M0 / APHASE
VM
BOUT2
22
19
GND
(PPAD)
10
6
23
VINT
AOUT2
9
20
D IR / B P H A S E
5
24
GND
AISEN
8
21
S TE P / B E N B L
4
7
AVREF
AOUT1
nE N B L / A E N B L
22
BVREF
3
AVREF
BVREF
ADECAY
V R E FO
VREFO
23
nS LE E P
24
2
ADECAY
1
BDECAY
nSLEEP
BDECAY
Pin Functions
PIN
NAME
HTSSOP
VQFN
I/O
DESCRIPTION
EXTERNAL COMPONENTS
OR CONNECTIONS
POWER AND GROUND
GND
21,
PPAD
18,
PPAD
—
Device ground
Both the GND pin and device PowerPAD
must be connected to ground
VM
18, 19
15, 16
—
Bridge A power supply
Connect to motor supply. A 10-µF (minimum)
capacitor to GND is recommended.
VINT
20
17
—
Internal supply
Bypass to GND with 2.2-μF (minimum), 6.3-V
capacitor. Can be used to provide logic high
voltage for configuration pins (except
nSLEEP).
VREFO
24
21
O
Reference voltage output
May be connected to AVREF/BVREF inputs.
Do not place a bypass capacitor on this pin.
VCP
17
14
O
High-side gate drive voltage
Connect a 0.01-μF, 16-V (minimum) X7R
ceramic capacitor to VM.
CONTROL (INDEXER MODE OR PHASE/ENABLE MODE)
nENBL/AENBL
10
7
I
Step motor enable/Bridge A enable
Indexer mode: Logic low enables all outputs.
Phase/enable mode: Logic high enables the
AOUTx outputs.
Internal pulldown.
STEP/BENBL
11
8
I
Step input/Bridge B enable
Indexer mode: Rising edge moves indexer to
next step.
Phase/enable mode: Logic high enables the
BOUTx outputs.
Internal pulldown.
DIR/BPHASE
12
9
I
Direction input/Bridge B Phase
Indexer mode: Level sets direction of step.
Phase/enable mode: Logic high sets BOUT1
high, BOUT2 low.
Internal pulldown.
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Pin Functions (continued)
PIN
NAME
M0/APHASE
M1
HTSSOP
13
14
VQFN
10
11
I/O
I
I
EXTERNAL COMPONENTS
OR CONNECTIONS
DESCRIPTION
Microstep mode/Bridge A phase
Indexer mode: Controls microstep mode (full,
half, up to 1/32-step) along with M1.
Phase/enable mode: Logic high sets AOUT1
high, AOUT2 low.
Internal pulldown.
Microstep mode/Disable state
Indexer mode: Controls microstep mode (full,
half, up to 1/32-step) along with M0.
Phase/enable mode: Determines the state of
the outputs when xENBL = 0.
Internal pulldown.
CONFIG
15
12
I
Device configuration
Logic high to put the device in indexer mode.
Logic low to put the device into phase/enable
mode. State is latched at power up and sleep
exit. Internal pulldown.
nSLEEP
1
22
I
Sleep mode input
Logic high to enable device, logic low to enter
low-power sleep mode and reset all internal
logic.
Bridge A current set reference input
Reference voltage for AOUT winding current.
In Indexer Mode, it should be tied to a
reference voltage for the internal DAC (for
example, VREFO). In Phase/Enable Mode, an
external DAC can drive it for microstepping.
AVREF
22
19
I
BVREF
23
20
I
Bridge B current set reference input
Reference voltage for BOUT winding current.
In Indexer Mode, it should be tied to a
reference voltage for the internal DAC (for
example, VREFO). In Phase/Enable Mode, an
external DAC can drive it for microstepping.
ADECAY
3
24
I
Decay mode for bridge A
Determines decay mode for H-Bridge A (or A
and B in indexer mode) – slow, fast or mixed
decay
BDECAY
2
23
I
Decay mode for bridge B
Determines decay mode for H-Bridge B –
slow, fast or mixed decay
16
13
OD
Fault output
Logic low when in fault condition (overtemp,
overcurrent, undervoltage)
AISEN
5
2
IO
Bridge A ground/Isense
Connect to current sense resistor for bridge A,
or GND if current control not needed
BISEN
8
5
IO
Bridge B ground/Isense
Connect to current sense resistor for bridge B,
or GND if current control not needed
AOUT1
4
1
O
Bridge A output 1
AOUT2
6
3
O
Bridge A output 2
BOUT1
9
6
O
Bridge B output 1
BOUT2
7
4
O
Bridge B output 2
STATUS
nFAULT
OUTPUT
4
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Connect to motor winding A
Connect to motor winding B
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7 Specifications
7.1 Absolute Maximum Ratings
over operating free-air temperature range (unless otherwise noted) (1) (2)
VM
MIN
MAX
UNIT
–0.3
11.8
V
–0.5
3.6
V
Digital input pin voltage
–0.5
7
V
xISEN pin voltage
–0.3
0.5
V
Power supply voltage
AVREF,
BVREF,
VINT,
Analog input pin voltage
ADECAY
,
BDECAY
Peak motor drive output current, t < 1 µs
Internally limited
A
TJ
Operating virtual junction temperature
–40
150
°C
Tstg
Storage temperature
–60
150
°C
(1)
(2)
Stresses beyond those listed under absolute maximum ratings may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings
only, and functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated under recommended operating
conditions is not implied. Exposure to absolute–maximum–rated conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
All voltage values are with respect to network ground terminal.
7.2 ESD Ratings
VALUE
Human body model (HBM), per ANSI/ESDA/JEDEC JS-001, all pins
V(ESD)
(1)
(2)
Electrostatic discharge
(1)
Charged device model (CDM), per JEDEC specification JESD22-C101, all
pins (2)
UNIT
±4000
V
±1500
JEDEC document JEP155 states that 500-V HBM allows safe manufacturing with a standard ESD control process.
JEDEC document JEP157 states that 250-V CDM allows safe manufacturing with a standard ESD control process.
7.3 Recommended Operating Conditions
TA = 25°C, over operating free-air temperature range (unless otherwise noted)
MIN
(1)
VM
Motor power supply voltage range
VREF
VREF input voltage range (2)
IVINT
VINT external load current
IVREF
VREF external load current
VDIGIN
Digital input pin voltage range
IOUT
Continuous RMS or DC output current per bridge (3)
(1)
(2)
(3)
MAX
UNIT
2.5
10.8
V
1
2.1
–0.3
NOM
V
1
mA
400
µA
5.75
V
1.5
A
RDS(ON) increases and maximum output current is reduced at VM supply voltages below 5 V.
Operational at VREF between 0 V and 1 V, but accuracy is degraded.
Power dissipation and thermal limits must be observed.
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7.4 Thermal Information
DRV8834
THERMAL METRIC (1)
PWP [HTSSOP]
RGE [VQFN]
24 PINS
24 PINS
RθJA
Junction-to-ambient thermal resistance
40.2
35.1
RθJC(top)
Junction-to-case (top) thermal resistance
23.7
36.6
RθJB
Junction-to-board thermal resistance
21.9
12.2
ψJT
Junction-to-top characterization parameter
0.7
0.6
ψJB
Junction-to-board characterization parameter
21.7
12.2
RθJC(bot)
Junction-to-case (bottom) thermal resistance
3.9
4
(1)
6
UNIT
°C/W
For more information about traditional and new thermal metrics, see the IC Package Thermal Metrics application report, SPRA953.
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7.5 Electrical Characteristics
TA = 25°C, over operating free-air temperature range (unless otherwise noted)
PARAMETER
TEST CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
VM = 5 V, excluding winding current
2.4
4
VM = 10 V, excluding winding current
2.75
UNIT
POWER SUPPLY
IVM
VM operating supply current
IVMQ
VM sleep mode supply current
VUVLO
VM undervoltage lockout voltage
VM = 5 V
0.6
VM = 10 V
9.6
VM falling
2
mA
μA
2.39
V
INTERNAL REGULATORS
VINT
VINT voltage
VM > 3.3 V, IOUT = 0 A to 1 mA
VREFO
VREF voltage
IOUT = 0 A to 400 µA
2.85
3
3.15
V
1.9
2
2.1
V
LOGIC-LEVEL INPUTS
VIL
Input low voltage
VIH
Input high voltage
VHYS
Input hysteresis
RPD
Input pulldown resistance
IIL
Input low current
IIN
Input current (M0)
IIH
Input high current
tDEG
Input deglitch time
nSLEEP
0.5
All other digital input pins
0.7
nSLEEP
2.5
All other digital input pins
V
2
nSLEEP
0.2
All except nSLEEP
0.4
nSLEEP
500
All except nSLEEP, M0
200
VIN = 0
-20
VIN = 3.3 V, nSLEEP
VIN = 3.3 V, all except nSLEEP
V
V
kΩ
1
μA
20
µA
6.6
13
16.5
33
312
468
μA
ns
nFAULT OUTPUT (OPEN-DRAIN OUTPUT)
VOL
Output low voltage
IO = 5 mA
IOH
Output high leakage current
VO = 3.3 V
0.5
V
1
μA
H-BRIDGE FETs
VM = 5 V, I
HS FET ON-resistance
RDS(ON)
LS FET ON-resistance
= 500 mA, TJ = 25°C
160
VM = 5 V, IO = 500 mA, TJ = 85°C
190
VM = 2.7 V, I O = 500 mA, TJ = 25°C
200
VM = 2.7 V, IO = 500 mA, TJ = 85°C
240
VM = 5 V, I
= 500 mA, TJ = 25°C
145
VM = 5 V, IO = 500 mA, TJ = 85°C
180
VM = 2.7 V, I O = 500 mA, TJ = 25°C
190
O
O
VM = 2.7 V, IO = 500 mA, TJ = 85°C
IOFF
Off-state leakage current
250
295
240
mΩ
285
235
–2
2
μA
MOTOR DRIVER
fPWM
Current control PWM frequency
Internal PWM frequency
42.5
VREF > 375 mV or DAC codes > 29%
2.4
VREF < 375 mV or DAC codes < 29%
1.6
kHz
tBLANK
Current sense blanking time
µs
tR
Rise time
VM = 5 V, 16 Ω to GND, 10% to 90% VM
120
ns
tF
Fall time
VM = 5 V, 16 Ω to GND, 10% to 90% VM
100
ns
PROTECTION CIRCUITS
IOCP
Overcurrent protection trip level
tOCP
Overcurrent protection period
2
A
VREF > 375 mV or DAC codes > 29%
1.6
VREF < 375 mV or DAC codes < 29%
1.1
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Electrical Characteristics (continued)
TA = 25°C, over operating free-air temperature range (unless otherwise noted)
PARAMETER
tTSD
TEST CONDITIONS
Thermal shutdown temperature
Die temperature
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNIT
150
160
180
°C
1
µA
CURRENT CONTROL
IREF
VREF input current
VREF = 3.3 V
–1
VTRIP
xISEN trip voltage
For 100% current step
AISENSE
Current sense amplifier gain
Reference only
xVREF/5
V
5
V/V
7.6 Timing Requirements
TA = 25°C, over operating free-air temperature range (unless otherwise noted)
NO.
PARAMETER
CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNIT
250
kHz
1
fSTEP
Step frequency
2
tWH(STEP)
Pulse duration, STEP high
1.9
µs
3
tWL(STEP)
Pulse duration, STEP low
1.9
µs
4
tSU(STEP)
Setup time, command to STEP rising
200
ns
5
tH(STEP)
Hold time, command to STEP rising
1
µs
6
tWAKE
Wake-up time, nSLEEP inactive to STEP
1
ms
1
2
3
STEP
DIR, M0, M1
4
5
nSLEEP
6
Figure 1. Timing Diagram
8
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7.7 Typical Characteristics
3.5
25.0
3.0
20.0
2.5
15.0
±40ƒC
25°C
IVMQ (uA)
IVM (mA)
85°C
2.0
10.0
1.5
5.0
±40ƒC
1.0
0.0
25°C
85°C
0.5
2.7
3.5
4.3
5.1
5.9
6.7
7.5
8.3
9.1
±5.0
9.9 10.7 11.5
VVM (V)
2.7
3.6
4.5
5.4
6.3
7.2
8.1
9.0
9.9
10.8
VVM (V)
C001
Figure 2. Operating Current
C002
Figure 3. Sleep Current
700
600
RDS(ON) (HS + LS) (mŸ)
RDS(ON) (HS + LS) (mŸ)
±40ƒC
600
500
400
300
2.7 V
200
5V
25°C
550
85°C
500
450
400
350
11.5 V
100
300
±40
±20
0
20
40
Temperature (ƒC)
60
80
2.7
C003
Figure 4. RDS(ON)
3.5
4.3
5.1
5.9
6.7
7.5
8.3
9.1
9.9 10.7 11.5
VVM (V)
C004
Figure 5. RDS(ON)
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8 Detailed Description
8.1 Overview
The DRV8834 supports two configurations: phase/enable mode, where the outputs are controlled by phase
(direction) and enable signals for each H-bridge, and indexer mode, which allow control of a stepper motor using
simple step and direction inputs.
DC motors can only be controlled in phase/enable mode; indexer mode is not applicable to DC motors.
Stepper motors can be controlled using either phase/enable load, or indexer mode.
The device is configured to be controlled either way using CONFIG pin. Logic HIGH on the CONFIG pin puts the
device in the STEP/DIR mode; logic LOW lets the motor to be controlled using the xPHASE/xENBL pins.
The state of the CONFIG pin is latched at power up, and also whenever exiting sleep mode. CONFIG has an
internal pulldown resistor.
10
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8.2 Functional Block Diagram
VM
VM
+
0.01µF
VM
VM
VM
10µF
VCP
VINT
2.2µF
VREFO
Internal
Ref &
Regs
VINT,
refs,
Int. supp.
Charge
Pump
VCP
0.01µF
PUC,
UVLO
VM
VREFO
nENBL / AENBL
AOUT1
STEP / BENBL
Gate
Drive
&
OCP
DIR / BPHASE
CONFIG
DCM
VM
M0 / APHASE
Step
Motor
AOUT2
M1
nSLEEP
AISEN
ISEN
nFAULT
VM
Logic
BOUT1
ADECAY
Gate
Drive
&
OCP
BDECAY
VREFO
DCM
VM
OverTemp
BOUT2
AVREF
BVREF
ISEN
BISEN
GND
8.3 Feature Description
DRV8834 contains two identical H-bridge motor drivers with current-control PWM circuitry. A block diagram of the
circuitry is shown in Figure 6:
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Feature Description (continued)
VM
OCP
VM
VCP, VM
xOUT1
Predrive
Step
Motor
xOUT2
From Logic
PWM
OCP
xISEN
-
*5
+
xVREF
Optional
Comparator
CONFIG
DAC
From Indexer
5
Figure 6. Motor Control Circuitry
8.3.1 Current Control
The current through the motor windings may be regulated by a fixed-frequency PWM current regulation (current
chopping).
With stepping motors, current control is normally used at all times. Often it is used to vary the current in the two
windings in a sinusoidal fashion to provide smooth motion. This is referred to as microstepping. The DRV8834
can provide up to 1/32 step microstepping, using internal 5-bit DACs. Finer microstepping can be implemented
using the xPHASE/xENBL signals to control the stepper motor, and varying the xVREF voltages. The current
flowing through the corresponding H-bridge varies according to the equation given below. A very high degree of
microstepping can be achieved through this technique.
With DC motors, current control can be used to limit the start-up current of the motor to less than the stall current
of the motor.
Current regulation works as follows:
When an H-bridge is enabled, current rises through the winding at a rate dependent on the supply voltage and
inductance of the winding. If the current reaches the current chopping threshold, the bridge disables the current
until the beginning of the next PWM cycle. Immediately after the current is enabled, the voltage on the xISEN pin
is ignored for a period of time before enabling the current sense circuitry. This blanking time also sets the
minimum on time of the PWM when operating in current chopping mode.
12
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Feature Description (continued)
The blanking time also sets the minimum PWM duty cycle. This can cause current control errors near the zero
current level when microstepping. To help eliminate this error, the DRV8834 has a dynamic tBLANK time. When
the commanded current is low, the blanking period is reduced, which in turn lowers the minimum duty cycle. This
provides a smoother current transition across the zero crossing region of the current waveform. The end result is
smoother and quieter motor operation.
The PWM chopping current is set by a comparator which compares the voltage across a current sense resistor
connected to the xISEN pins, with a reference voltage supplied to the AVREF and BVREF pins. In indexer mode,
the reference voltages are scaled by internal DACs to provide scaled currents used to perform microstepping.
The chopping current is calculated as follows:
xVREF
Full-Scale ITRIP = 5¾
· RISENSE
(1)
Example: If xVREF is 2 V (as it would be if xVREF is connected directly to VREFO) and a 400-mΩ sense resistor
is used, the chopping current will be 2 V / 5 × 400 mΩ = 1 A.
In indexer mode, this current value is scaled by between 5% and 100% by the internal DACs, as shown in the
step table in the "Microstepping Indexer" section of the data sheet.
If current control is not needed, the xISEN pins may be connected directly to ground. In this case, TI also
recommends connecting AVREF and BVREF directly to VREFO.
8.3.2 Current Recirculation and Decay Modes
During PWM current chopping, the H-bridge is enabled to drive current through the motor winding until the PWM
current chopping threshold is reached. This is shown in Figure 7 as case 1. The current flow direction shown
indicates positive current flow in the step table below for indexer mode, or the current flow with xPHASE = 1 in
phase/enable mode.
Once the chopping current threshold is reached, the drive current is interrupted, but due to the inductive nature
of the motor, the current must continue to flow. This is called recirculation current. To handle this recirculation
current, the H-bridge can operate in two different states, fast decay or slow decay.
In fast decay mode, once the PWM chopping current level has been reached, the H-bridge reverses state to
allow winding current to flow in through the opposing FETs. As the winding current approaches zero, the bridge
is disabled to prevent any reverse current flow. Fast decay mode is shown in Figure 7 as case 2.
In slow decay mode, winding current is recirculated by enabling both of the low-side FETs in the bridge. Slow
decay is shown as case 3 in Figure 7.
xVM
1 Drive Current
1
2 Fast decay
xOUT2
xOUT1
3 Slow decay
2
3
Figure 7. Decay Modes
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Feature Description (continued)
The DRV8834 supports fast, slow, and also mixed decay modes. With DC motors, slow decay is nearly always
used to minimize current ripple and optimize speed control; with stepper motors, the decay mode is chosen for a
given stepper motor and operating conditions to minimize mechanical noise and vibration.
In mixed decay mode, the current recirculation begins as fast decay, but at a fixed period of time (determined by
the state of the xDECAY pins shown in Table 1) switches to slow decay mode for the remainder of the fixed
PWM period.
Table 1. Decay Pin Configuration
RESISTANCE ON xDECAY PIN
-OR- VOLTAGE FORCED ON xDECAY PIN
< 1 kΩ
< 0.1 V
% OF PWM CYCLE IS FAST DECAY
0%
20 kΩ ±5%
0.2 V ±5%
25%
50%
50 kΩ ±5%
0.5 V ±5%
100 kΩ ±5%
1 V ±5%
75%
> 200 kΩ
>2V
100%
Figure 8 shows the current waveforms in slow, 25% mixed, and fast decay modes.
I
ITRIP
Slow
25%
Mixed
Fast
0mA
25%
PWM on
50%
75%
100%
t
PWM off (tOFF)
PWM cycle
Figure 8. Current Decay Modes
Decay mode is selected by the voltage present on the xDECAY pins. Internal current sources of 10 µA (typical)
are connected to the pins, which allows setting of the decay mode by a resistor connected to ground if desired.
It is possible to drive the xDECAY pin with a tristate GPIO pin and also place the resistor to ground. This allows a
microcontroller to select fast, slow, or mixed decay modes by driving the pin high, low, or high-impedance. The
logic-low voltage must be less than 0.1 V with 10-µA of current sourced from the DRV8834 to attain slow decay.
In indexer mode, only the ADECAY pin is used, and slow decay mode is always used when at any point in the
step table where the current is increasing. When current is decreasing or remaining constant, the decay mode
used will be fast, slow, or mixed, as commanded by the ADECAY pin.
8.3.3 Protection Circuits
The DRV8834 is fully protected against undervoltage, overcurrent and overtemperature events.
14
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8.3.3.1 Overcurrent Protection (OCP)
An analog current limit circuit on each FET limits the current through the FET by limiting the gate drive. If this
analog current limit persists for longer than the OCP deglitch time (tOCP), all FETs in the H-bridge are disabled
and the nFAULT pin are driven low. The driver will be re-enabled after the OCP retry period (approximately 1.2
ms) has passed. nFAULT becomes high again at this time. If the fault condition is still present, the cycle repeats.
If the fault is no longer present, normal operation resumes and nFAULT remains deasserted. Only the H-bridge
in which the OCP is detected will be disabled while the other bridge will function normally.
Overcurrent conditions are detected independently on both high-side and low-side devices; that is, a short to
ground, supply, or across the motor winding will all result in an overcurrent shutdown. Overcurrent protection
does not use the current sense circuitry used for PWM current control, so functions even without presence of the
xISEN resistors.
8.3.3.2 Thermal Shutdown (TSD)
If the die temperature exceeds safe limits, all FETs in the H-bridge will be disabled and the nFAULT pin will be
driven low. When the die temperature falls to a safe level, operation automatically resumes and nFAULT
becomes inactive.
8.3.3.3 Undervoltage Lockout (UVLO)
If at any time the voltage on the VM pin falls below the undervoltage lockout threshold voltage, all circuitry in the
device will be disabled, and all internal logic will be reset. Operation will resume when VM rises above the UVLO
threshold. The nFAULT pin is driven low during an undervoltage condition, and also at power up or sleep mode,
until the internal power supplies have stabilized.
8.4 Device Functional Modes
8.4.1 Phase/Enable Mode
In phase/enable mode, the xPHASE input pins control the direction of current flow through each H-bridge. This
sets the direction of rotation of a DC motor, or the direction of the current flow in a stepper motor winding. Driving
the xENBL input pins active high enables the H-bridge outputs. This can be used as PWM speed control of a DC
motor, or to enable/disable the current in a stepper motor.
In phase/enable mode, the M1 input pin controls the state of the H-bridges when xENBL = 0. If M1 is high, the
outputs are disabled (high impedance) when xENBL = 0; this corresponds to asynchronous fast decay mode,
and is usually used in stepper motor applications to command a "zero current" state. If M1 is low, then the
outputs are both driven low; this corresponds to slow decay or brake mode, and is usually used when controlling
the speed of a DC motor by PWMing the xENBL pin.
Table 2. H-Bridge Control Using Phase/Enable Mode
M1
xENBL
xPHASE
xOUT1
xOUT2
1
0
X
Z
Z
0
0
X
0
0
X
1
0
L
H
X
1
1
H
L
8.4.2 Indexer Mode
To allow a simple step and direction interface to control stepper motors, the DRV8834 contains a microstepping
indexer. The indexer controls the state of the H-bridges automatically. Whenever there is a rising edge at the
STEP input, the indexer moves to the next step, according to the direction set by the DIR pin.
The nENBL pin is used to disable the output stage in indexer mode. When nENBL = 1, the indexer inputs are still
active and will respond to the STEP and DIR input pins; only the output stage is disabled.
The indexer logic in the DRV8834 allows a number of different stepping configurations. The M0 and M1 pins are
used to configure the stepping format as shown in Table 3.
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Table 3. Stepping Format
M1
M0
0
0
Full step (2-phase excitation)
STEP MODE
0
1
1/2 step (1-2 phase excitation)
0
Z
1/4 step (W1-2 phase excitation)
1
0
8 microsteps/step
1
1
16 microsteps/step
1
Z
32 microsteps/step
The M0 pin is a tri-level input. It can be driven logic low, logic high, or high-impedance (Z).
The M0 and M1 pins can be statically configured by connecting to VINT, GND, or left open, or can be driven with
standard tristate microcontroller I/O port pins. Their state is latched at each rising edge of the STEP input.
The step mode may be changed on-the-fly while the motor is moving. The indexer will advance to the next valid
state for the new M0/M1 setting at the next rising edge of STEP.
The home state is 45°. This state is entered after power up, after exiting undervoltage lockout, or after exiting
sleep mode. This is shown in Table 4 by cells shaded yellow.
Table 4 shows the relative current and step directions for different step mode settings. At each rising edge of the
STEP input, the indexer travels to the next state in the table. The direction is shown with the DIR pin high; if the
DIR pin is low the sequence is reversed. Positive current is defined as xOUT1 = positive with respect to xOUT2.
16
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Table 4. Current and Step Directions
1/32 STEP
1/16 STEP
1/8 STEP
1/4 STEP
1/2 STEP
1
1
1
1
1
FULL STEP
70%
2
3
2
4
5
3
2
6
7
4
8
9
5
3
2
10
11
6
12
13
7
4
14
15
8
16
17
9
5
3
2
1
18
19
10
20
21
11
6
22
23
12
24
25
13
7
4
26
27
14
28
29
15
8
30
31
16
32
33
17
9
5
3
34
35
18
36
37
19
10
38
39
20
40
41
21
11
6
42
43
22
44
45
23
12
46
47
24
WINDING
CURRENT A
WINDING
CURRENT B
ELECTRICAL
ANGLE
100%
0%
0
100%
5%
3
100%
10%
6
99%
15%
8
98%
20%
11
97%
24%
14
96%
29%
17
94%
34%
20
92%
38%
23
90%
43%
25
88%
47%
28
86%
51%
31
83%
56%
34
80%
60%
37
77%
63%
39
74%
67%
42
71%
71%
45
67%
74%
48
63%
77%
51
60%
80%
53
56%
83%
56
51%
86%
59
47%
88%
62
43%
90%
65
38%
92%
68
34%
94%
70
29%
96%
73
24%
97%
76
20%
98%
79
15%
99%
82
10%
100%
84
5%
100%
87
0%
100%
90
–5%
100%
93
–10%
100%
96
–15%
99%
98
–20%
98%
101
–24%
97%
104
–29%
96%
107
–34%
94%
110
–38%
92%
113
–43%
90%
115
–47%
88%
118
–51%
86%
121
–56%
83%
124
–60%
80%
127
–63%
77%
129
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Table 4. Current and Step Directions (continued)
1/32 STEP
1/16 STEP
1/8 STEP
1/4 STEP
1/2 STEP
FULL STEP
70%
25
13
7
4
2
48
49
50
51
26
52
53
27
14
54
55
28
56
57
29
15
8
58
59
30
60
61
31
16
62
63
32
64
65
33
17
9
5
66
67
34
68
69
35
18
70
71
36
72
73
37
19
10
74
75
38
76
77
39
20
78
79
40
80
81
41
21
11
6
3
82
83
42
84
85
43
22
86
87
44
88
89
45
23
12
90
91
46
92
93
47
24
94
18
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WINDING
CURRENT A
WINDING
CURRENT B
ELECTRICAL
ANGLE
–67%
74%
132
–71%
71%
135
–74%
67%
138
–77%
63%
141
–80%
60%
143
–83%
56%
146
–86%
51%
149
–88%
47%
152
–90%
43%
155
–92%
38%
158
–94%
34%
160
–96%
29%
163
–97%
24%
166
–98%
20%
169
–99%
15%
172
–100%
10%
174
–100%
5%
177
–100%
0%
180
–100%
–5%
183
–100%
–10%
186
–99%
–15%
188
–98%
–20%
191
–97%
–24%
194
–96%
–29%
197
–94%
–34%
200
–92%
–38%
203
–90%
–43%
205
–88%
–47%
208
–86%
–51%
211
–83%
–56%
214
–80%
–60%
217
–77%
–63%
219
–74%
–67%
222
–71%
–71%
225
–67%
–74%
228
–63%
–77%
231
–60%
–80%
233
–56%
–83%
236
–51%
–86%
239
–47%
–88%
242
–43%
–90%
245
–38%
–92%
248
–34%
–94%
250
–29%
–96%
253
–24%
–97%
256
–20%
–98%
259
–15%
–99%
262
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Table 4. Current and Step Directions (continued)
1/32 STEP
1/16 STEP
95
48
1/8 STEP
1/4 STEP
1/2 STEP
FULL STEP
70%
96
97
49
25
13
7
98
99
50
100
101
51
26
102
103
52
104
105
53
27
14
106
107
54
108
109
55
28
110
111
56
112
113
57
29
15
8
4
114
115
58
116
117
59
30
118
119
60
120
121
61
31
16
122
123
62
124
125
63
32
126
127
64
128
WINDING
CURRENT A
WINDING
CURRENT B
ELECTRICAL
ANGLE
–10%
–100%
264
–5%
–100%
267
0%
–100%
270
5%
–100%
273
10%
–100%
276
15%
–99%
278
20%
–98%
281
24%
–97%
284
29%
–96%
287
34%
–94%
290
38%
–92%
293
43%
–90%
295
47%
–88%
298
51%
–86%
301
56%
–83%
304
60%
–80%
307
63%
–77%
309
67%
–74%
312
71%
–71%
315
74%
–67%
318
77%
–63%
321
80%
–60%
323
83%
–56%
326
86%
–51%
329
88%
–47%
332
90%
–43%
335
92%
–38%
338
94%
–34%
340
96%
–29%
343
97%
–24%
346
98%
–20%
349
99%
–15%
352
100%
–10%
354
100%
–5%
357
8.4.3 nSLEEP Operation
Driving nSLEEP low will put the device into a low-power sleep state. In this state, the H-bridges are disabled, the
gate drive charge pump is stopped, all internal logic is reset (this returns the indexer to the home state), the VINT
supply is disabled, and all internal clocks are stopped. All inputs are ignored until nSLEEP returns inactive high.
Because the VINT supply is disabled during sleep mode, it cannot be used to provide a logic high signal to the
nSLEEP pin. To simplify board design, the nSLEEP can be pulled up directly to the supply (VM) if it is not
actively driven. Unless VM is less than 5.75 V, a pullup resistor is required.
The nSLEEP pin is protected by a Zener diode that will clamp the pin voltage to approximately 6.5 V. The pullup
resistor limits the current to the input in case VM is higher than 6.5 V. The recommended pullup resistor is 20 kΩ
to 50 kΩ.
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When exiting sleep mode, the nFAULT pin will be briefly driven active low as the internal power supplies turn on.
nFAULT will return to inactive high once the internal power supplies (including charge pump) have stabilized.
This process takes some time (up to 1 ms), before the motor driver becomes fully operational.
9 Application and Implementation
NOTE
Information in the following applications sections is not part of the TI component
specification, and TI does not warrant its accuracy or completeness. TI’s customers are
responsible for determining suitability of components for their purposes. Customers should
validate and test their design implementation to confirm system functionality.
9.1 Application Information
The DRV8834 is a very flexible motor driver. It can be used to drive two DC motors or a stepper motor, in a
number of different configurations.
The following applications schematics show various configurations and connections for the DRV8834.
Component values, especially for RSENSE and the DECAY pins, may be different depending on your motor and
application. Refer to the information above to determine the best values for these components in your
application.
9.1.1 Sense Resistor
For optimal performance, it is important for the sense resistor to be:
• Surface-mount
• Low inductance
• Rated for high enough power
• Placed closely to the motor driver
The power dissipated by the sense resistor equals IRMS2 × R. For example, if peak motor current is 3 A, RMS
motor current is 2 A, and a 0.05-Ω sense resistor is used, the resistor will dissipate 2A2 × 0.05 Ω = 0.2 W. The
power quickly increases with higher current levels.
Resistors typically have a rated power within some ambient temperature range, along with a derated power curve
for high ambient temperatures. When a PCB is shared with other components generating heat, margin should be
added. It is always best to measure the actual sense resistor temperature in a final system, along with the power
MOSFETs, as those are often the hottest components.
Because power resistors are larger and more expensive than standard resistors, it is common practice to use
multiple standard resistors in parallel, between the sense node and ground. This distributes the current and heat
dissipation.
9.2 Typical Application
9.2.1
Phase/Enable Mode Driving Two DC Motors
In this configuration, the DRV8834 is used to drive two independent DC motors. Current up to 1 A per motor is
possible. The M1 pin is pulled low to allow slow decay PWM from the controller (if desired) to control the motor
speed by PWMing the xENBL inputs, and ADECAY and BDECAY are connected to ground to set slow decay
mode during current limiting. The value of the RSENSE resistors shown is for a 1-A current limit; if current
limiting is not needed, the AISEN and BISEN pins may be connected directly to ground. If the sleep function is
not needed, nSLEEP can be connected to VM with an approximate 47-kΩ resistor.
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Typical Application (continued)
VM
10 uf
VM
VM
0.01 uf
VCP
Motor A Enable
NENBL/AENBL
Motor B Enable
STEP/BENBL
AOUT1
DIR/BPHASE
AOUT2
M
Motor B Direction
Motor A Direction
M0/APHASE
M1
BOUT1
NSLEEP
BOUT2
CONFIG
NFAULT
VREFO
VINT
M
LOW = SLEEP
AVREF
BVREF
AISEN
2.2 uf
BISEN
ADECAY
BDECAY
GND
Figure 9. Phase/Enable Mode Driving Two DC Motors
9.2.1.1 Design Requirements
Table 5 lists the design parameters.
Table 5. Design Parameters
PARAMETER
REFERENCE
Motor voltage
VM
EXAMPLE VALUE
10 V
Motor RMS current
IRMS
0.8 A
Motor start-up current
ISTART
1A
Motor current trip point
ITRIP
1.5 A
9.2.1.2 Detailed Design Procedure
9.2.1.2.1 Motor Voltage
The motor voltage to use will depend on the ratings of the motor selected and the desired RPM. A higher voltage
spins a brushed DC motor faster with the same PWM duty cycle applied to the power FETs. A higher voltage
also increases the rate of current change through the inductive motor windings.
9.2.1.2.2 Power Dissipation
The power dissipation of the DRV8834 is a function of RMS motor current and the FET resistance (RDS(ON)) of
each output.
Power ≈ IRMS2 × (High-Side RDS(ON) + Low-Side RDS(ON))
(2)
For this example, the ambient temperature is 35°C, and the junction temperature reaches 65°C. At 65°C, the
sum of RDS(ON) is about 1 Ω. With an example motor current of 0.8 A, the dissipated power in the form of heat will
be 0.8 A2 × 1 Ω = 0.64 W.
The temperature that the DRV8834 reaches will depend on the thermal resistance to the air and PCB. It is
important to solder the device PowerPAD to the PCB ground plane, with vias to the top and bottom board layers,
in order dissipate heat into the PCB and reduce the device temperature. In the example used here, the DRV8834
had an effective thermal resistance RθJA of 47°C/W, and:
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TJ = TA + (PD × RθJA) = 35°C + (0.64 W x 47° C/W) = 65°C.
(3)
9.2.1.2.3 Motor Current Trip Point
When the voltage on pin SENSE exceeds VTRIP (0.5 V), overcurrent is detected. The RSENSE resistor should be
sized to set the desired ITRIP level.
RSENSE = 0.5 V / ITRIP
(4)
To set ITRIP to 2 A, RSENSE = 0.5 V / 2 A = 0.25 Ω.
To prevent false trips, ITRIP must be higher than regular operating current. Motor current during start-up is
typically much higher than steady-state spinning, because the initial load torque is higher, and the absence of
back-EMF causes a higher voltage and extra current across the motor windings.
It can be beneficial to limit start-up current by using series inductors on the DRV8834 output, as that allows ITRIP
to be lower, and it may decrease the system’s required bulk capacitance. Start-up current can also be limited by
ramping the forward drive duty cycle.
9.2.1.3 Application Curves
Figure 10. Brushed Motor – VM = 8 V,
DRV8834 is Regulating Current
Figure 11. Internal Indexer – VM = 8 V, 1200 Steps per
second, 1/8 microstep mode, 1-A Current regulation
Figure 12. External Microstepping – VM = 8 V, 4000 Steps Per Second,
1/128 microstep mode, 1.2-A Current Regulation
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9.2.2 Phase/Enable Mode Driving a Stepper Motor
VM
10 uf
VM
VM
0.01 uf
Coil A Enable
Coil B Enable
Coil B Direction
Coil A Direction
VINT
LOW = SLEEP
VCP
NENBL/AENBL
STEP/BENBL
AOUT1
DIR/BPHASE
AOUT2
Stepper
M0/APHASE
M1
BOUT1
NSLEEP
BOUT2
CONFIG
NFAULT
VREFO
VINT
AVREF
BVREF
AISEN
2.2 uf
BISEN
ADECAY
BDECAY
51K
GND
51K
Figure 13. Phase/Enable Mode Driving a Stepper Motor
9.2.2.1 Design Requirements
Table 6 lists the design parameters.
Table 6. Design Parameters
PARAMETER
REFERENCE
EXAMPLE VALUE
Supply voltage
VM
6V
Motor winding resistance
RL
3.9 Ω
Motor winding inductance
IL
2.9 mH
Motor full step angle
θstep
1.8°/step
Target microstepping level
nm
2 µsteps per step
Target motor speed
V
120 RPM
Target full-scale current
IFS
1.25 A
9.2.2.2 Detailed Design Procedure
Phase/enable mode can be used with a simple interface to a controller to operate a stepper motor in full or half
step modes. The decay mode can be set by changing the values of the resistors connected to the ADECAY and
BDECAY pins. The M1 pin is driven to logic high (by connecting to the VINT supply), to allow a zero-current (off)
state when the xENBL pin is set low. Coil current is set by the RSENSE resistors. If the sleep function is not
needed, nSLEEP can be connected to VM with an approximate 47-kΩ resistor.
9.2.2.2.1 Stepper Motor Speed
The first step in configuring the DRV8834 requires the desired motor speed and microstepping level. If the target
application requires a constant speed, then a square wave with frequency ƒstep must be applied to the STEP pin.
If the target motor start-up speed is too high, the motor will not spin. Make sure that the motor can support the
target speed or implement an acceleration profile to bring the motor up to speed.
For a desired motor speed (v), microstepping level (nm), and motor full step angle (θstep),
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θstep can be found in the stepper motor data sheet or written on the motor itself.
For the DRV8834, the microstepping level is set by the MODE pins and can be any of the settings in Table 6.
Higher microstepping will mean a smoother motor motion and less audible noise, but will increase switching
losses and require a higher fstep to achieve the same motor speed.
9.2.2.2.2 Current Regulation
In a stepper motor, the set full-scale current (IFS) is the maximum current driven through either winding. This
quantity will depend on the xVREF analog voltage and the sense resistor value (RSENSE). During stepping, IFS
defines the current chopping threshold (ITRIP) for the maximum current step. The gain of DRV8834 is set for 5
V/V.
To achieve IFS = 1.25 A with RSENSE of 0.2 Ω, xVREF should be 1.25 V.
9.2.2.2.3 Decay Modes
The DRV8834 supports three different decay modes: slow decay, fast decay, and mixed decay. The current
through the motor windings is regulated using a fixed-frequency PWM scheme. This means that after any drive
phase, when a motor winding current has hit the current chopping threshold (ITRIP), the DRV8834 will place the
winding in one of the three decay modes until the PWM cycle has expired. Afterward, a new drive phase starts.
The blanking time TBLANK defines the minimum drive time for the current chopping. ITRIP is ignored during TBLANK,
so the winding current may overshoot the trip level.
9.2.2.3 Application Curves
1 Step
1 Step
APHASE
APHASE
BPHASE
BPHASE
AENBL
AENBL
BENBL
BENBL
A Current
A Current
B Current
B Current
Figure 14. Full Step Sequence (2-Phase)
24
Figure 15. Half Step Sequence (1-2 Phase)
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9.2.3 Indexer Mode Driving a Stepper Motor
In indexer mode, only a rising edge on the STEP pin is needed to move the motor to the next step. The DIR pin
sets which direction the motor rotates, by reversing the step sequence. The internal indexer can operate in fullstep, half-step, and smaller microsteps up to 1/32-step, depending on the state of the M0 and M1 pins. The M0
and M1 pins can also be connected directly to ground or to VINT to program the step modes, if desired. If the
sleep function is not needed, nSLEEP can be connected to VM with an approximate 47-kΩ resistor. Step
sequences for full and half step are shown below.
VM
10 uf
VM
VM
0.01 uf
L=Enable H = Disable
STEP Pulse
Direction
Step Mode M0
VCP
NENBL/AENBL
STEP/BENBL
AOUT1
DIR/BPHASE
AOUT2
Stepper
M0/APHASE
Step Mode M1
LOW = SLEEP
VINT
M1
BOUT1
NSLEEP
BOUT2
CONFIG
NFAULT
VREFO
VINT
AVREF
BVREF
AISEN
2.2 uf
BISEN
ADECAY
BDECAY
51K
GND
51K
Figure 16. Indexer Mode Driving a Stepper Motor
9.2.3.1 Design Requirements
Table 7 lists the design parameters.
Table 7. Design Parameters
PARAMETER
REFERENCE
EXAMPLE VALUE
Supply Voltage
VM
6V
Motor Winding Resistance
RL
3.9 Ω
Motor Winding Inductance
IL
2.9 mH
Motor Full Step Angle
θstep
1.8°/step
Target Microstepping Level
nm
8 µsteps per step
Target Motor Speed
V
120 RPM
Target Full-Scale Current
IFS
1.25 A
9.2.3.2 Detailed Design Procedures
Phase/enable mode can be used with a simple interface to a controller to operate a stepper motor in full or half
step modes. The decay mode can be set by changing the values of the resistors connected to the ADECAY and
BDECAY pins. The M1 pin is driven to logic high (by connecting to the VINT supply), to allow a zero-current (off)
state when the xENBL pin is set low. Coil current is set by the RSENSE resistors. If the sleep function is not
needed, nSLEEP can be connected to VM with an approximate 47-kΩ resistor.
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9.2.3.2.1 Stepper Motor Speed
The first step in configuring the DRV8834 requires the desired motor speed and microstepping level. If the target
application requires a constant speed, then a square wave with frequency ƒstep must be applied to the STEP pin.
If the target motor start-up speed is too high, the motor will not spin. Make sure that the motor can support the
target speed or implement an acceleration profile to bring the motor up to speed.
For a desired motor speed (v), microstepping level (nm), and motor full step angle (θstep),
θstep can be found in the stepper motor data sheet or written on the motor itself.
For the DRV8834, the microstepping level is set by the MODE pins and can be any of the settings in Table 6.
Higher microstepping will mean a smoother motor motion and less audible noise, but will increase switching
losses and require a higher fstep to achieve the same motor speed.
9.2.3.2.2 Current Regulation
In a stepper motor, the set full-scale current (IFS) is the maximum current driven through either winding. This
quantity will depend on the xVREF analog voltage and the sense resistor value (RSENSE). During stepping, IFS
defines the current chopping threshold (ITRIP) for the maximum current step. The gain of DRV8834 is set for 5
V/V.
To achieve IFS = 1.25 A with RSENSE of 0.2 Ω, xVREF should be 1.25 V.
9.2.3.2.3 Decay Modes
The DRV8834 supports three different decay modes: slow decay, fast decay, and mixed decay. The current
through the motor windings is regulated using a fixed-frequency PWM scheme. This means that after any drive
phase, when a motor winding current has hit the current chopping threshold (ITRIP), the DRV8834 will place the
winding in one of the three decay modes until the PWM cycle has expired. Afterward, a new drive phase starts.
The blanking time TBLANK defines the minimum drive time for the current chopping. ITRIP is ignored during TBLANK,
so the winding current may overshoot the trip level.
9.2.3.3 Application Curves
1 Step
1 Step
STEP
STEP
DIR
DIR
A Current
A Current
B Current
B Current
Figure 17. Full Step Sequence (2-Phase)
26
Figure 18. Half Step Sequence (1-2 Phase)
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9.2.4 High-Resolution Microstepping Using a Microcontroller to Modulate VREF Signals
VM
10 uf
VM
VM
0.01 uf
Coil A Enable
Coil B Enable
Coil B Direction
Coil A Direction
VINT
LOW = SLEEP
NENBL/AENBL
STEP/BENBL
AOUT1
DIR/BPHASE
AOUT2
M1
BOUT1
NSLEEP
BOUT2
CONFIG
NFAULT
VREFO
VINT
AVREF
Coil B VREF
BVREF
AISEN
2.2 uf
BISEN
Coil A Decay
ADECAY
Coil B Decay
BDECAY
GND
51K
Stepper
M0/APHASE
Coil A VREF
Low = Slow
Open = Mixed
High = Fast
VCP
51K
Figure 19. High-Resolution Microstepping
9.2.4.1 Design Requirements
Table 8 lists the design parameters.
Table 8. Design Parameters
PARAMETER
REFERENCE
EXAMPLE VALUE
Supply voltage
VM
6V
Motor winding resistance
RL
3.9 Ω
Motor winding inductance
IL
2.9 mH
Motor full step angle
θstep
1.8°/step
Target microstepping level
nm
128 µsteps per step
Target motor speed
V
120 RPM
Target full-scale current
IFS
1.25 A
9.2.4.2 Detailed Design Procedure
Using a microcontroller with two DAC outputs, very high resolution microstepping can be performed with the
DRV8834. In this mode, the coil current direction is controlled by the PHASE pins, and the current in each coil is
independently set using the two VREF input pins, which are connected to DACs. In addition, the microcontroller
can set the decay mode for each coil dynamically, by driving the xDECAY pin low for slow decay, high for fast
decay, or high-impedance which sets mixed decay (based on the value of a resistor connected to ground). If the
sleep function is not needed, nSLEEP can be connected to VM with an approximate 47-kΩ resistor.
For more details on this technique, refer to TI Application Report, High Resolution Microstepping Driver With the
DRV88xx Series (SLVA416).
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9.2.4.3 Application Curves
1 Step
1 Step
APHASE
APHASE
BPHASE
BPHASE
AVREF
AENBL
BVREF
BENBL
A Current
A Current
B Current
B Current
Figure 20. Microstepping Sequence
Figure 21. Full Step Sequence (2-Phase)
1 Step
APHASE
BPHASE
AENBL
BENBL
A Current
B Current
Figure 22. Half Step Sequence (1-2 Phase)
28
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10 Power Supply Recommendations
10.1 Bulk Capacitance
Having appropriate local bulk capacitance is an important factor in motor drive system design. It is generally
beneficial to have more bulk capacitance, while the disadvantages are increased cost and physical size.
The amount of local capacitance needed depends on a variety of factors, including:
• The highest current required by the motor system
• The capacitance of the power supply and its ability to source or sink current
• The amount of parasitic inductance between the power supply and motor system
• The acceptable voltage ripple
• The type of motor used (brushed DC, brushless DC, stepper)
• The motor braking method
The inductance between the power supply and motor drive system will limit the rate current can change from the
power supply. If the local bulk capacitance is too small, the system will respond to excessive current demands or
dumps from the motor with a change in voltage. When adequate bulk capacitance is used, the motor voltage
remains stable and high current can be quickly supplied.
The data sheet generally provides a recommended value, but system-level testing is required to determine the
appropriate sized bulk capacitor.
Power Supply
Parasitic Wire
Inductance
Motor Drive System
VM
+
–
+
Motor
Driver
GND
Local
Bulk Capacitor
IC Bypass
Capacitor
Figure 23. Example Setup of Motor Drive System With External Power Supply
The voltage rating for bulk capacitors should be higher than the operating voltage, to provide margin for cases
when the motor transfers energy to the supply.
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11 Layout
11.1 Layout Guidelines
The VM pin should be bypassed to GND using low-ESR ceramic bypass capacitors with a recommended value
of 0.01-μF rated for VM. This capacitor should be placed as close to the VM pin as possible with a thick trace or
ground plane connection to the device GND pin. The VM pin must be bypassed to ground using an appropriate
bulk capacitor. This component may be an electrolytic and should be located close to the DRV8834. A low-ESR
ceramic capacitor must be placed in between the VM and VCP pins. TI recommends a value of 0.01- μF rated
for 16 V. Place this component as close to the pins as possible.
Bypass VINT to ground with a 2.2-μF ceramic capacitor rated 6.3 V. Place this bypass capacitor as close to the
pin as possible.
11.2 Layout Example
VREFO
BVREF
ADECAY
AVREF
AOUT1
GND
AISEN
VINT
10 µF
2.2 µF
AOUT2
VM
BOUT2
VM
BISEN
VCP
BOUT1
nFAULT
0.01 µF
+
RAISEN
nSLEEP
BDECAY
0.01 µF
RBISEN
nENBL / AENBL
CONFIG
STEP / BENBL
M1
DIR / BPHASE
M0 / APHASE
Logic high
voltage
Figure 24. Recommended Layout
11.3 Thermal Considerations
11.3.1 Maximum Output Current
In actual operation, the maximum output current achievable with a motor driver is a function of die temperature.
This in turn is greatly affected by ambient temperature and PCB design. Basically, the maximum motor current
will be the amount of current that results in a power dissipation level that, along with the thermal resistance of the
package and PCB, keeps the die at a low enough temperature to stay out of thermal shutdown.
The thermal data given in the data sheet can be used as a guide to calculate the approximate maximum power
dissipation that can be expected to be possible without entering thermal shutdown for several different PCB
constructions. However, for accurate data, the actual PCB design must be analyzed via measurement or thermal
simulation.
30
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Thermal Considerations (continued)
11.3.2 Thermal Protection
The DRV8834 has thermal shutdown (TSD) as described above. If the die temperature exceeds approximately
160°C, the device will be disabled until the temperature drops to a safe level.
Any tendency of the device to enter thermal shutdown is an indication of either excessive power dissipation,
insufficient heatsinking, or too high an ambient temperature.
11.3.3 Power Dissipation
Power dissipation in the DRV8834 is dominated by the DC power dissipated in the output FET resistance, or
RDS(ON). There is additional power dissipated due to PWM switching losses, which are dependent on PWM
frequency, rise and fall times, and VM supply voltages. These switching losses are typically on the order of 10%
to 20% of the DC power dissipation.
The DC power dissipation of one H-bridge can be roughly estimated by Equation 5.
2
2
PTOT = (HS - RDS(ON) · IOUT(RMS) ) + (LS - RDS(ON) · IOUT(RMS) )
(5)
where PTOT is the total power dissipation, HS - RDS(ON) is the resistance of the high side FET, LS - RDS(ON) is the
resistance of the low side FET, and IOUT(RMS) is the RMS output current being applied to the motor.
RDS(ON) increases with temperature, so as the device heats, the power dissipation increases. This must be taken
into consideration when sizing the heatsink.
11.3.4 Heatsinking
The PowerPAD™ package uses an exposed pad to remove heat from the device. For proper operation, this pad
must be thermally connected to copper on the PCB to dissipate heat. On a multi-layer PCB with a ground plane,
this can be accomplished by adding a number of vias to connect the thermal pad to the ground plane. On PCBs
without internal planes, copper area can be added on either side of the PCB to dissipate heat. If the copper area
is on the opposite side of the PCB from the device, thermal vias are used to transfer the heat between top and
bottom layers.
For details about how to design the PCB, refer to TI application report, PowerPAD™ Thermally Enhanced
Package(SLMA002), and TI application brief, PowerPAD™ Made Easy (SLMA004), available at www.ti.com.
In general, the more copper area that can be provided, the more power can be dissipated.
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12 Device and Documentation Support
12.1 Documentation Support
12.1.1 Related Documentation
•
•
•
High Resolution Microstepping Driver With the DRV88xx Series, SLVA416
PowerPAD™ Thermally Enhanced Package, SLMA002
PowerPAD™ Made Easy, SLMA004
12.2 Trademarks
PowerPAD is a trademark of Texas Instruments.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
12.3 Electrostatic Discharge Caution
These devices have limited built-in ESD protection. The leads should be shorted together or the device placed in conductive foam
during storage or handling to prevent electrostatic damage to the MOS gates.
12.4 Glossary
SLYZ022 — TI Glossary.
This glossary lists and explains terms, acronyms, and definitions.
13 Mechanical, Packaging, and Orderable Information
The following pages include mechanical, packaging, and orderable information. This information is the most
current data available for the designated devices. This data is subject to change without notice and revision of
this document. For browser-based versions of this data sheet, refer to the left-hand navigation.
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PACKAGE OPTION ADDENDUM
www.ti.com
15-Sep-2018
PACKAGING INFORMATION
Orderable Device
Status
(1)
Package Type Package Pins Package
Drawing
Qty
Eco Plan
Lead/Ball Finish
MSL Peak Temp
(2)
(6)
(3)
Op Temp (°C)
Device Marking
(4/5)
DRV8834PWP
ACTIVE
HTSSOP
PWP
24
60
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-3-260C-168 HR
-40 to 85
DRV8834
DRV8834PWPR
ACTIVE
HTSSOP
PWP
24
2000
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-3-260C-168 HR
-40 to 85
DRV8834
DRV8834RGER
ACTIVE
VQFN
RGE
24
3000
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-3-260C-168 HR
-40 to 85
DRV8834
DRV8834RGET
ACTIVE
VQFN
RGE
24
250
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-3-260C-168 HR
-40 to 85
DRV8834
(1)
The marketing status values are defined as follows:
ACTIVE: Product device recommended for new designs.
LIFEBUY: TI has announced that the device will be discontinued, and a lifetime-buy period is in effect.
NRND: Not recommended for new designs. Device is in production to support existing customers, but TI does not recommend using this part in a new design.
PREVIEW: Device has been announced but is not in production. Samples may or may not be available.
OBSOLETE: TI has discontinued the production of the device.
(2)
RoHS: TI defines "RoHS" to mean semiconductor products that are compliant with the current EU RoHS requirements for all 10 RoHS substances, including the requirement that RoHS substance
do not exceed 0.1% by weight in homogeneous materials. Where designed to be soldered at high temperatures, "RoHS" products are suitable for use in specified lead-free processes. TI may
reference these types of products as "Pb-Free".
RoHS Exempt: TI defines "RoHS Exempt" to mean products that contain lead but are compliant with EU RoHS pursuant to a specific EU RoHS exemption.
Green: TI defines "Green" to mean the content of Chlorine (Cl) and Bromine (Br) based flame retardants meet JS709B low halogen requirements of <=1000ppm threshold. Antimony trioxide based
flame retardants must also meet the <=1000ppm threshold requirement.
(3)
MSL, Peak Temp. - The Moisture Sensitivity Level rating according to the JEDEC industry standard classifications, and peak solder temperature.
(4)
There may be additional marking, which relates to the logo, the lot trace code information, or the environmental category on the device.
(5)
Multiple Device Markings will be inside parentheses. Only one Device Marking contained in parentheses and separated by a "~" will appear on a device. If a line is indented then it is a continuation
of the previous line and the two combined represent the entire Device Marking for that device.
(6)
Lead/Ball Finish - Orderable Devices may have multiple material finish options. Finish options are separated by a vertical ruled line. Lead/Ball Finish values may wrap to two lines if the finish
value exceeds the maximum column width.
Important Information and Disclaimer:The information provided on this page represents TI's knowledge and belief as of the date that it is provided. TI bases its knowledge and belief on information
provided by third parties, and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of such information. Efforts are underway to better integrate information from third parties. TI has taken and
Addendum-Page 1
Samples
PACKAGE OPTION ADDENDUM
www.ti.com
15-Sep-2018
continues to take reasonable steps to provide representative and accurate information but may not have conducted destructive testing or chemical analysis on incoming materials and chemicals.
TI and TI suppliers consider certain information to be proprietary, and thus CAS numbers and other limited information may not be available for release.
In no event shall TI's liability arising out of such information exceed the total purchase price of the TI part(s) at issue in this document sold by TI to Customer on an annual basis.
Addendum-Page 2
PACKAGE MATERIALS INFORMATION
www.ti.com
4-Dec-2019
TAPE AND REEL INFORMATION
*All dimensions are nominal
Device
Package Package Pins
Type Drawing
SPQ
Reel
Reel
A0
Diameter Width (mm)
(mm) W1 (mm)
B0
(mm)
K0
(mm)
P1
(mm)
DRV8834PWPR
HTSSOP
PWP
24
2000
330.0
16.4
DRV8834RGER
VQFN
RGE
24
3000
330.0
DRV8834RGET
VQFN
RGE
24
250
180.0
6.95
8.3
1.6
8.0
16.0
Q1
12.4
4.25
4.25
1.15
8.0
12.0
Q2
12.4
4.25
4.25
1.15
8.0
12.0
Q2
Pack Materials-Page 1
W
Pin1
(mm) Quadrant
PACKAGE MATERIALS INFORMATION
www.ti.com
4-Dec-2019
*All dimensions are nominal
Device
Package Type
Package Drawing
Pins
SPQ
Length (mm)
Width (mm)
Height (mm)
DRV8834PWPR
HTSSOP
PWP
24
2000
350.0
350.0
43.0
DRV8834RGER
VQFN
RGE
24
3000
367.0
367.0
35.0
DRV8834RGET
VQFN
RGE
24
250
210.0
185.0
35.0
Pack Materials-Page 2
GENERIC PACKAGE VIEW
TM
PWP 24
PowerPAD TSSOP - 1.2 mm max height
PLASTIC SMALL OUTLINE
4.4 x 7.6, 0.65 mm pitch
This image is a representation of the package family, actual package may vary.
Refer to the product data sheet for package details.
4224742/B
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GENERIC PACKAGE VIEW
RGE 24
VQFN - 1 mm max height
PLASTIC QUAD FLATPACK - NO LEAD
Images above are just a representation of the package family, actual package may vary.
Refer to the product data sheet for package details.
4204104/H
PACKAGE OUTLINE
RGE0024B
VQFN - 1 mm max height
SCALE 3.000
PLASTIC QUAD FLATPACK - NO LEAD
4.1
3.9
A
B
0.5
0.3
PIN 1 INDEX AREA
4.1
3.9
0.3
0.2
DETAIL
OPTIONAL TERMINAL
TYPICAL
C
1 MAX
SEATING PLANE
0.05
0.00
0.08 C
2X 2.5
(0.2) TYP
2.45 0.1
7
SEE TERMINAL
DETAIL
12
EXPOSED
THERMAL PAD
13
6
2X
2.5
SYMM
25
18
1
20X 0.5
24
PIN 1 ID
(OPTIONAL)
0.3
0.2
0.1
C A B
0.05
24X
19
SYMM
24X
0.5
0.3
4219013/A 05/2017
NOTES:
1. All linear dimensions are in millimeters. Any dimensions in parenthesis are for reference only. Dimensioning and tolerancing
per ASME Y14.5M.
2. This drawing is subject to change without notice.
3. The package thermal pad must be soldered to the printed circuit board for thermal and mechanical performance.
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EXAMPLE BOARD LAYOUT
RGE0024B
VQFN - 1 mm max height
PLASTIC QUAD FLATPACK - NO LEAD
( 2.45)
SYMM
24
19
24X (0.6)
1
18
24X (0.25)
(R0.05)
TYP
25
SYMM
(3.8)
20X (0.5)
13
6
( 0.2) TYP
VIA
12
7
(0.975) TYP
(3.8)
LAND PATTERN EXAMPLE
EXPOSED METAL SHOWN
SCALE:15X
0.07 MIN
ALL AROUND
0.07 MAX
ALL AROUND
SOLDER MASK
OPENING
METAL
EXPOSED
METAL
SOLDER MASK
OPENING
EXPOSED
METAL
NON SOLDER MASK
DEFINED
(PREFERRED)
METAL UNDER
SOLDER MASK
SOLDER MASK
DEFINED
SOLDER MASK DETAILS
4219013/A 05/2017
NOTES: (continued)
4. This package is designed to be soldered to a thermal pad on the board. For more information, see Texas Instruments literature
number SLUA271 (www.ti.com/lit/slua271).
5. Vias are optional depending on application, refer to device data sheet. If any vias are implemented, refer to their locations shown
on this view. It is recommended that vias under paste be filled, plugged or tented.
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EXAMPLE STENCIL DESIGN
RGE0024B
VQFN - 1 mm max height
PLASTIC QUAD FLATPACK - NO LEAD
4X ( 1.08)
(0.64) TYP
24
19
24X (0.6)
1
25
18
24X (0.25)
(R0.05) TYP
(0.64)
TYP
SYMM
(3.8)
20X (0.5)
13
6
METAL
TYP
12
7
SYMM
(3.8)
SOLDER PASTE EXAMPLE
BASED ON 0.125 mm THICK STENCIL
EXPOSED PAD 25
78% PRINTED SOLDER COVERAGE BY AREA UNDER PACKAGE
SCALE:20X
4219013/A 05/2017
NOTES: (continued)
6. Laser cutting apertures with trapezoidal walls and rounded corners may offer better paste release. IPC-7525 may have alternate
design recommendations.
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