Texas Instruments | Simple Way to Achieve Changeable Holding Current of DRV8x Stepper Motor Driver | Application notes | Texas Instruments Simple Way to Achieve Changeable Holding Current of DRV8x Stepper Motor Driver Application notes

Texas Instruments Simple Way to Achieve Changeable Holding Current of DRV8x Stepper Motor Driver Application notes
Application Report
SLVA640 – July 2014
Achieving Changeable Holding Current of a DRV88x
Stepper Motor Driver
Alvin Zheng, Anda Zhang
Motor Driver Business Unit
ABSTRACT
This document is provided as a supplement to the DRV88x stepper motor drivers using
external VREF to realize output current control (DRV8818, DRV8812, DRV8813, DRV8821,
DRV8823, DRV8824, DRV8825, DRV8828, and DRV8829; hereafter in this document
referred to as DRV88x). The application report details a method to provide the changeable
holding current function for a stepper motor.
1
2
3
4
Contents
Introduction .................................................................................................................................. 1
Current Regulation Principle ....................................................................................................... 2
Changeable Holding Current Circuit ........................................................................................... 3
Application Example Based on DRV8818 ................................................................................... 4
Figure 1.
Figure 2.
Figure 3.
Figure 4.
Figure 5.
Figure 6.
Figure 7.
Figures
Current Regulation Analog Block ................................................................................... 2
Changeable Holding Current Circuit .............................................................................. 3
Output of Normal Operation............................................................................................ 4
Output of Holding State................................................................................................... 4
Normal Operation Waveform .......................................................................................... 4
Holding State Waveform ................................................................................................. 4
Schematic Application Example Based on DRV8818 .................................................... 5
1 Introduction
In some applications, stepper motors are expected to stop at a particular position and hold that
position until the next step input. To ensure the position is not moved, the holding torque should
be stronger than the load. For those stepper motors whose mechanical holding function can’t
provide enough holding torque when facing heavy loads, extra holding current is necessary. This
is called electric holding. Also, stepper motors can only be locked at a mechanical stepping
angle (electric full step) when no current flows through windings during the holding state. For
applications expecting to stop and restart at same position, electric holding is an ideal solution.
1
SLVA640
When performing electric holding, the stepper motor is still powered on in the holding state, there
is a big current flowing through the windings. When the stepper motor stops, all the current turns
into heat in the motor windings. Although a large holding current can generate enough torque to
hold the load, it also produces high heat in the motor windings. In fact, the minimum current
needed to hold the load is smaller than the current above. It is necessary to cut down the holding
current to decrease the dissipation and meanwhile keep enough holding torque. So in a practical
application, changeable holding current is preferred. For chips using external VREF to realize
output current (DRV8818, DRV8812, DRV8813, DRV8821, DRV8823, DRV8824, DRV8825,
DRV8828, and DRV8829), the current of the motor windings is set by the external VREF pin, and
the holding current can be changed using an external circuit.
2 Current Regulation Principle
The current regulation of DRV88x chips is achieved by the external VREF. Figure 1 depicts the
typical analog block utilized to sample current information and disable the H-bridge accordingly.
Figure 1.
Current Regulation Analog Block
The current regulation block continuously monitors motor winding current by sampling the
voltage across the SENSE resistor which is proportional with the winding current. The voltage is
amplified and then compared against the reference voltage. When the amplified SENSE resistor
voltage is greater than the reference voltage, this signifies winding current is larger than the
target current. Then, the device’s logic disables the H-bridge and allows the current to decay
through the internal structure. This process is repeated on a continuous basis thus obtaining a
regulated current output.
The typical regulated current (ITRIP) is in the form of:
Where:
ITRIP =
VREF
GAIN × R SENSE
ITRIP - the current regulation set point
VREF - the analog reference voltage at the device’s VREF input
GAIN - the internal amplifier gain
RSENSE - the SENSE resistor in Ohms
2
Achieving Changeable Holding Current of a DRV88x Stepper Motor Driver
(1)
SLVA640
3
Changeable Holding Current Circuit
The circuit in Figure 2 can realize changeable holding current function by using the CD74HC123.
The CD74HC123 is a dual, retriggerable, monostable multivibrator, with reset. In this application,
the input STEP comes from the step signal of the motor driver ICs, such as DRV8818. The
output VREF is applied to the VREF pin of the motor driver ICs to achieve changeable holding
current.
According to the principle of CD74HC123, when a pulse is applied to pin 1, there is a high output
on pin 13, with a pulse width of 0.45 RX × CX starting at the falling edge of the signal on pin 1.
When the signal frequency on pin 1 is bigger than 1 / (0.45 RX × CX), the high level on pin 13
maintains all the time. Figure 3 shows that by this time, the voltage on pin 13 stays high (Vcc),
through a potential-divider network, an R4 × Vcc / (R4 + R2 // R3) output voltage is applied to
the VREF pin of the motor driver IC.
When the stepper motor is in holding state, there will be no pulse on the STEP, the level on pin 1
will be low so the output voltage on pin 13 will be driven low (GND), hence the VREF voltage
becomes Vcc × (R2 // R4) / (R2 // R4 + R3), as shown in Figure 4. In this way, the holding
current of the stepper motor can be set by choosing suitable resistors.
So the VREF can be automatically changed when the stepper motor enters into holding state.
Note: to get a good performance of normal operation, adjust the value of RX and CX based on a
target STEP signal to achieve a constant high level on pin 13 when the stepper motor is in
normal operation.
For example, if the frequency of the step signal is 1/15 Hz, that is, there are only four steps in
one minute, then 1/15 > 1 / (0.45 RX × CX), so RX × CX must be larger than 33.3, so 10M can be
selected for RX, 10 µF can be selected for CX.
Vcc
Vcc
STEP
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
U2
1/A
Vcc
1B
1RxCx
1/R
1Cx
1/Q
1Q
2Q
2/Q
2Cx
2/R
2RxCx
2B
GND
2/A
16
15
14
R1
10M
C1
10uF
R3
3K
13
12
GND
R2
11
3K
10
9
Vref
R4
1K
CD74HC123
GND
Figure 2.
GND
Changeable Holding Current Circuit
Achieving Changeable Holding Current of a DRV88x Stepper Motor Driver
3
SLVA640
VCC
VCC
R3
3K
GND
R2
R3
3K
Vref=0.2VCC
VCC
3K
R2
Vref=0.4VCC
3K
R4
1K
R4
1K
GND
Figure 3.
4
Output of Normal Operation
GND
Figure 4.
Output of Holding State
Application Example Based on DRV8818
This example is a total solution of a stepper motor with changeable holding current function
using the DRV8818. When the stepper is in normal operation, the VREF of DRV8818 is about 2 V,
when the stepper enters into the holding state, the VREF automatically drops down to 1 V. Figure
5 and Figure 6 show the test results.
Figure 5 and Figure 6 are the VREF and STEP waveforms of two-operation state, Figure 5 is a
normal operation waveform and Figure 6 is the holding-state waveform. It can be found that VREF
is cut down to half in holding state compared to the normal operation.
Figure 5.
4
Normal Operation Waveform
Figure 6.
Holding State Waveform
Achieving Changeable Holding Current of a DRV88x Stepper Motor Driver
SLVA640
Figure 7 shows the detailed schematic of the application example.
C3
Vin
4
2
C2
47uF/50V
CB
/SHDN
SW
GND
FB
1
6
Vcc
22uH
1
5
VM
10nF
2
U3
L1
D3
2A
R6
3
C4
22uF
11k
LM2841
R5
2K
GND
Vcc
C6
10nF
R7
3k
R14 100R
GND
C7
1.6nF
R9
GND
C8
1.6nF
R12 47k
GND
Vcc
47k
S1
1
GND
2
S2
1
2
GND
C9 R13
10nF 100R
R10
10k
R11
10k
U1
VMA
ISENA
SLEEPn
HOME
ENABLEn
DIR
AOUT1
AOUT2
CP2
DECAY
RCA
CP1
GND
VCP
VREF
GND
RCB
VGD
VCC
STEP
BOUT2
BOUT1
USM1
RESETn
SRn
USM0
ISENB
VMB
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
VM
Vcc
EN
AOUT2
C10
0.22uF
STEP
BOUT2
C12
10nF
DRV8818
GND
P1
Vcc
VM
1
STEP
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
U2
1/A
Vcc
1B
1RxCx
1/R
1Cx
1/Q
1Q
2Q
2/Q
2Cx
2/R
2RxCx
2B
GND
2/A
16
15
14
R1
10M
C1
10uF
R3
3K
AOUT1
12
GND
R2
11
3K
9
EN
4
13
10
DIR
3
Stepper Motor
1
Vref
R4
1K
STEPPER
AOUT2
2
3
1
R15
10K
VM
2
STEP
C11
0.22uF
C14
0.22uF
GND
GND
Vcc
Vcc
4
R8
3k
C5
1nF
1
2
3
DIR
AOUT1 4
5
6
7
8
Vref
9
10
Vcc
BOUT1 11
12
13
14
CD74HC123
GND
Figure 7.
GND
BOUT1
BOUT2
Schematic Application Example Based on DRV8818
Achieving Changeable Holding Current of a DRV88x Stepper Motor Driver
5
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