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Texas Instruments BOOSTXL-DRV8304x EVM Sensored Software User guides
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User's Guide
SLVUBA8 – October 2017
BOOSTXL-DRV8304x EVM Sensored Software User's
Guide
This document is intended as a supplement to the BOOSTXL-DRV8304H EVM User's Guide to describe
the functionality of the sensored BLDC motor commutation firmware used on the BOOSTXL-DRV8304x
EVM. This user's guide outlines the different considerations for motor commutation as well as how to
adjust the different code parameters provided in the sensored firmware.
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2
3
4
Contents
Overview ......................................................................................................................
Sensored Control Background .............................................................................................
2.1
Motor Position Detection Using Hall Sensors ...................................................................
2.2
Commutation ........................................................................................................
2.3
PWM Scheme .......................................................................................................
Customizing the Reference Code .........................................................................................
Running the Project in Code Composer Studio..........................................................................
2
2
2
2
3
4
8
List of Figures
........................................................................................................
1
Hall Sensor Outputs
2
Low-Side PWM Sequence.................................................................................................. 3
2
3
High-Side PWM Sequence ................................................................................................. 4
4
Symmetric PWM Sequence ................................................................................................ 4
5
SPI REGISTER Page in GUI ............................................................................................... 8
List of Tables
1
Gray Coding of Hall sensors ............................................................................................... 2
2
Commutation Sequence .................................................................................................... 3
Trademarks
Code Composer Studio is a trademark of Texas Instruments.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
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Overview
1
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Overview
Driving a BLDC motor involves electronically commutating the phases. The windings must be energized in
a sequence which makes knowing the rotor position important. In a sensored control solution, the rotor
position is detected by the outputs of Hall-effect sensors or an encoder. Three Hall sensors are placed on
the motor giving a 3-bit code for the motor commutation sequence. A quadrature encoder is placed on the
shaft to know the precise position of the rotor.
This user's guide is designed to show how sensored control works and to enable users to modify the
application software for a specific system. This document has two major sections. The first section is the
description of how sensored motor control works. The second section is an explanation of the reference
code.
2
Sensored Control Background
2.1
Motor Position Detection Using Hall Sensors
In applications equipped with Hall Effect sensors, the shaft position detection is simple. Each sensor
output is directly wired to a GPIO pin of the microcontroller. The sensors give three 180° overlapping
signals offset by 60° and therefore providing the six mandatory commutation points. The rising and falling
edges of each sensor output represent a change in the drive state is needed. After the controller
determines which edge has been detected, it computes the time elapsed since the last detected edge and
commutates the respective phase.
Phase
1
2
3
4
5
6
U
V
W
Figure 1. Hall Sensor Outputs
The sensor output is gray coded (see Table 1), so the sensor signal has only one edge change for each
state change which reduces the noise sensitivity.
Table 1. Gray Coding of Hall sensors
2.2
Phase
Hall Inputs CW (WVU)
Active FETs
1
100
HS_W, LS_V
2
110
HS_W, LS_U
3
010
HS_V, LS_U
4
011
HS_V, LS_W
5
001
HS_U, LS_W
6
101
HS_U, LS_V
Commutation
With the position of the motor known, the next control state for the external FETs can be determined from
the commutation sequence. The commutation sequence defines which windings of the motor the current
flows through and which one is open. Commutating the phases occurs by the integrated predriver turning
on and off certain low-side and high-side FETs. The PWM duty cycle is used to control the amount of
current through the power FETs and motor windings. Adjusting the current to the motor, in turn, adjusts
the speed of the motor.
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Sensored Control Background
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Table 2 provides an example low-side commutation table. Rotating motor steps through this table during
normal operation according to the Hall sensor signal that was received. If the motor is to spin in reverse,
the commutation sequence is simply reversed.
Table 2. Commutation Sequence
Gate Drive Outputs
Commutation
Phase
High-Side
U
2.3
V
Low-Side
W
1
ON
2
ON
3
ON
4
ON
5
ON
6
ON
U
V
Open
Phase
Hall Sensor
State
U
100b
V
110b
W
PWM
PWM
PWM
PWM
W
010b
PWM
U
011b
PWM
V
001b
W
101b
PWM Scheme
The commutation of the driving circuit is set in three different ways: low-side PWM, high-side PWM
(nonsymmetric PWM), and complementary PWM (using the built-in function called the dead time
generator).
With the low-side PWM, only one high-side transistor is in the continuous ON state, and only one low-side
transistor is driven by the PWM signal. With the high-side PWM scheme, the high-side transistor is driven
by the PWM signal.
2.3.1
Low Side
Figure 2 shows the low-side PWM sequence.
Phase
1
2
3
4
5
6
HS_U
LS_U
HS_V
LS_V
HS_W
LS_W
Figure 2. Low-Side PWM Sequence
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2.3.2
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High Side
Figure 3 shows the high-side PWM sequence.
Phase
1
2
3
4
5
6
HS_U
LS_U
HS_V
LS_V
HS_W
LS_W
Figure 3. High-Side PWM Sequence
When the phase is driven with the PWM signal and when the PWM is in the OFF state of the duty cycle,
the current still must flow in the motor. Typically the current can flow through the body diode on the FET
until the PWM signal turns on again. To avoid any unnecessary power loss, the FET can be turned on
instead of just letting the body diode conduct. For example in phase 1 in Figure 3, when the U high-side
FET sees the PWM signal when the PWM is temporarily off the U low-side FET can be temporarily turned
on. This method of alternating the PWM on the low side and high side of the same phase is known as
synchronous PWM. A small amount of time must be inserted between when the high side turns on or off
and when the low side turns off or on, respectively. This inserted time is known as dead-time.
2.3.3
Symmetric (Complementary)
Figure 4 shows the symmetric PWM sequence.
Phase
1
2
3
4
5
6
HS_U
LS_U
HS_V
LS_V
HS_W
LS_W
Figure 4. Symmetric PWM Sequence
3
Customizing the Reference Code
The reference code is provided as a Code Composer Studio™ (CCS) project and an Evaluation GUI.
The BOOSTXL-DRV8304x GUI is a user interface (UI) to run and tune the motor on the BOOSTXLDRV8304x EVM with the DRV8304_EVM_BLDC_FW software.
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The user must install BOOSTXL-DRV8304x GUI to run and modify the run time of the parameters for
sensored Hall and encoder algorithm.
The user must download the Code Composer Studio (CCS) software 6.1.0 or above and install the
DRV8304_MSP430F5529_Trap firmware.
The following steps go through the process of modifying some parameters for sensored Hall control:
1. Open the CCS software and import the DRV8304_MSP430F5529_Trapezoidal_Sensored project into
the CCS workspace. The Active Build option from the Build Configuration should be set as
DRV8304_Sensored_Hall from the folder where the demo software is located.
2. Select the file TrapSensored_Parameters_Setup.h from SensoredTrap_Hall\include. This file contains
most of the parameters used to run this application code. Some parameters require modifications to
properly tune the motor for different operating conditions. Step 3 describes the parameters and the
detail in which they can be modified.
// USER DEFINES
/* Algorithm Version Settings */
#define ALGO_ID
1
// 2 Indicates sensorless , 1 indicates sensored algorithms
#define PROD_ID
1
// 1 Indicated AMD PL devices
#define FW_VER_MAJ
1
// FW version major
#define FW_VER_MIN
0
// FW version minor
#define FW_VER_PATCH
0
// FW version patch
/* Idrive & Tdrive Configuration Settings */
#define GATE_TO_DRAIN_CHARGE
8.7
// Set the gate to drain charge of the FET used
on the EVM in uC
#define RISE_TIME
100
// Select the Maximum Rise time desired for the
FET in nano seconds
#define FALL_TIME
50
// Select the Maximum Fall time desired for the FET
in nano Seconds
/* System parameter setup */
#define SPEED_INPUT_SAMP_INTERVAL (127)
/* The number of PWM cycles after which change
in Speed input through ADC is Sampled */
#define PWM_FACTOR
(0)
/* 12 bit ADC result
registers will be scaled to PWM period which is 10 bit */
#define PWM_PERIOD (1000)
/* PWM Period time , With a 25Mhz clock , PWM
will be generated at 25Khz*/
#define READ_VCC_PERIOD (100)
/* TIME INTERVAL AFTER WHICH VCC IS MONITORED
(100ms) */
#define TIME_COUNT_1MS (25000)
/* 1 ms timer count */
#define MIN_DUTY_CYCLE
(15)
/* Minimal duty cycle applied to motor */
#define MAX_DUTY_CYCLE
(1000)
/* Maximal duty cycle applied to motor */
#define CAL_DUTY_CYCLE
(50)
/* Calibration duty cycle applied to motor
during Hall Calibration */
#define RAMP_RATE (1)
/* Ramp rate for acceleration and
deceleration of the motor speed*/
#define RAMP_RATE_DELAY (100)
/* How many PWM periods are between a change
of the speed */
#define HALL_CALIB_CYCLES (6000)
/* Defines number of PWM cycles Motor Hall
Calibration is Executed */
/*Stall Fault Detection related Parameter */
#define UNDER_VOLTAGE_LIMIT (10)
/* Under Voltage set for below the specified
volts - digital values are there by cal as (Limit*4095)/Full scale voltage */
#define OVER_VOLTAGE_LIMIT
(20)
/* Over Voltage set for above the specified
volts - digital values are there by cal as (Limit*4095)/Full scale voltage */
#define FULL_SCALE_VOLTAGE (40)
/*As BEMF for above full scale volts may give
ADC ref volts exceeds nominal value 3.3V , MAX VCC is limited*/
#define MIN_POWER_SUPPLY
(5)
/* Minimum power supply required to access the
SPI , when supply voltage is below this limit gate drivers are disabled */
#define MIN_STALLDETECT_DUTY
(125)
/* Minimum Duty Cycle above which stall will
be detected */
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#define STALLDETECT_REV_THRESHOLD
(1)
/* Number of revolutions below which stall
fault will be flagged */
#define STALLDETECT_TIMER_THRESHOLD (500)
/* Time in milli seconds above which if motor
doesnt spin min revolutions specified above(STALLDETECT_REV_THRESHOLD) a stall fault is
triggered */
#define AUTO_FAULT_RECOVERY_TIME (6000)
/* Time in milli seconds after which system
reinitialises itself if fault gets cleared */
#define STALL_DETECTOIN_FLAG (1)
/* Enable motor stall fault detection*/
#define VCC_MONITOR_FLAG (1)
/* Enable VCC Supply Voltage monitoring for
fault detection */
#define MOTOR_PHASE_CURRENT_LIMIT (434)
/* Defines the max allowed motor phase current
in digital counts. Motor phase current is monitored every electrical cycle , and when ever
current limit is reached an OC fault is Triggered */
3. See the description for each parameter listed in the code example:
ALGO_ID — This parameter is used to identify the type of algorithm (sensored or sensorless) used by
the GUI and this value should not be changed.
GATE_TO_DRAIN_CHARGE:— This parameter defines the gate-to-drain charge or QGD in the
microcontroller of the MOSFET used as an inverter. This value is used to compute the default
IDRIVE and TDRIVE values as defined in the device data sheet.
RISE_TIME— This parameter defines the rise time of the MOSFET in nanoseconds used in the
inverter. This value is used to compute the default IDRIVE and TDRIVE values as defined in the
device data sheet.
FALL_TIME— This parameter defines the fall time of the MOSFET in nanoseconds used in the
inverter. This value is used to compute the default IDRIVE and TDRIVE values as defined in the
device data sheet.
CAL_DUTY_CYCLE— The calibration duty cycle sets the duty cycle for aligning the rotor with the
applied vector during hall calibration. If the PWM_PERIOD is 1024 and CAL_DUTY_CYCLE is
30, the calibration duty cycle is 30 / 1024, or 3%. This value can be configured using the GUI
widget during motor run time in the Calibration Duty Cycle in Hall calibration panel. If the motor
is connected to the load, Increase the value of calibration duty along with calibration PWM
cycles to detect the rotor Hall positions.
HALL_CALIB_CYCLES— The Hall calibration cycles parameter sets the number of PWM cycles for
which the applied vector corresponding phases are energized. During Hall calibration, setting
this parameter determines the amount of align time for a given vector. This value can be
configured using the GUI widget during motor run time in the Hall calibration Panel.
SPEED_INPUT_SAMPLE INTERVAL — In the state machine, when the motor is in the RUN state,
the speed input must be read to get the updated duty cycle inputs from the user. This parameter
determines how often the speed input is read. This number times the PWM_PERIOD gives the
time interval between each speed sample. This value cannot be configured and modified using
the GUI.
PWM_FACTOR — This parameter is the ratio of the ADC full-scale value to the PWM_PERIOD value.
This value cannot be configured and modified using the GUI.
PWM_PERIOD — This value sets the frequency of the PWM pulse train used in switching the FETs.
The PWM frequency is calculated as the ratio of MCLK to PWM_PERIOD. As the master clock
is operated at 25 MHz, if PWM_PERIOD = 1024, then PWM frequency = ~ 25 Khz (40 µs). This
value also serves as the maximum comparator value that can be loaded that sets the duty
cycle. This parameter can be configured using the GUI widget for the PWM switching frequency.
READ_VCC_PERIOD — This number sets the time in milliseconds after which the supply voltage is
periodically monitored for any voltage faults. This parameter cannot be configured through the
GUI widget.
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TIME_COUNT_1MS — This parameter is the equivalent clock counts for 1 ms at 25-MHz clock. This
parameter cannot be configured through the GUI widget.
MIN_DUTY_CYCLE — This parameter sets the minimum threshold for the system to start spinning the
motor and at what duty cycle. After the system initializes, it waits for an input command greater
than this specified value before ramping up the motor. This value is approximately the
PWM_PERIOD, for example, the PWM_PERIOD is 1024 and the MIN_DUTY_CYCLE is 128
decimal, then the minimum allowed duty cycle is 128 / 1024, or 12.5%.This value can be
configured using the GUI widget during motor run time.
MAX_DUTY_CYCLE — This parameter sets the maximum value that the system uses as the duty
cycle. Therefore, even if the input command is greater than this value, the duty cycle will not
exceed this threshold. This value is also related to the PWM_PERIOD For example, if the
PWM_PERIOD is 1024 and the MAX_DUTY_CYCLE is 1000, then the maximum duty cycle is
1000 / 1024, or 97.6%. This value can be configured using the GUI widget during motor run
time.
RAMP_RATE — This parameter indicates the amount of increase or decrease in the duty cycle for
every PWM_PERIOD interrupt. If the system is either ramping up or down, and the acceleration
count is reached and the duty cycle is increased or decreased by the RAMP_RATE. This value
cannot be configured by the GUI widget.
RAMP_RATE_DELAY — This parameter sets how many PWM_PERIOD interrupts must occur before
adjusting the duty cycle. Changing this value changes how fast the duty cycle is adjusted. For
example, if the PWM_PERIOD is 1024 or 40.96 µs and the RAMP_RATE_DELAY is 24, the
duty cycle is adjusted every 983 µs. This parameter controls the acceleration and deceleration
of the motor. This parameter can be configured by the GUI widget.
UNDER_VOLTAGE_LIMIT — One feature of this code is voltage monitoring. Voltage monitoring
measures the VCC applied through the internal ADC and compares the ADC measurement with
the specified limits. If the voltage is less than the specified UNDER_VOLTAGE_LIMIT value, the
code shuts off the predrivers and the device goes into the FAULT state.
MinVCC (V)
UNDER _ VOLTAGE _LIMIT
u 4096
VFS
(1)
OVER_VOLTAGE_LIMIT — Coupled with the UNDER_VOLTAGE_LIMIT parameter, if the voltage is
found to exceed the specified OVER_VOTAGE_LIMIT value, the code shuts off the predrivers
and the device goes into the FAULT state.
MinVCC (V)
OVER _ VOLTAGE _LIMIT
u 4096
VFS
(2)
FULL_SCALE_VOLTAGE— This value defines the maximum voltage that can be applied to the
booster pack and can be sensed across the VSENSE resistance using the ADC (3.3 V
maximum).
MIN_STALLDETECT_DUTY — Some motors spin very slowly at a low duty cycle. To prevent this
condition from triggering a stall fault, a minimum duty cycle is required for the stall detection to
be enabled. This parameter, MIN_STALLDETECT_DUTY, sets the threshold for the minimum
duty cycle where the stall detection feature will be enabled.
STALLDETECT_REV_THRESHOLD — In a certain amount of time, the motor should be spinning at
least a set amount of revolutions. This parameter sets the number of revolutions. In the set
amount of time specified by the STALLDETECT_TIMER_THRESHOLD parameter, if the motor
has not spun at least the count specified by this value, then the motor is assumed to have
stalled.
STALLDETECT_TIMER_THRESHOLD — TimerB0 generates an interrupt service routine (ISR) every
1 ms and each ISR has a count that is increased. When the count reaches the
STALLDETECT_TIMER_THRESHOLD value, If the current revolution count is less than the
STALLDETECT_REV_THRESHOLD, the motor is stalled and the state machine goes into the
FAULT state.
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AUTO_FAULT_RECOVERY_TIME — TimerB0 is used to recover after a fault has been detected.
FAULT_RECOVERY_TIME is the value used for how many timer interrupts must occur before
reinitializing the system. For example, if the TimerB0 interrupt is set to occur every 1 ms and
FAULT_RECOVERY_TIME is set to 3000, the system will reinitialize 3 s after a fault was
detected.
STALL_DETECTION_FLAG — Setting the STALL_DETECTION_FLAG parameter to 1 enables the
stall detection fault logic. If this parameter is set to 0, the stall fault detection is disabled.
VCC_MONITOR_FLAG — Setting the VCC_MONITOR_FLAG parameter to 1 enables the VCC
undervoltage and overvoltage fault logic. If this parameter is set to 0, the VCC fault detection is
disabled.
MOTOR_PHASE_CURRENT_LIMIT — The parameter defines the maximum allowed motor-phase
peak current in Amperes. Motor A– phase current is monitored every electrical cycle during
commutation of phase A, and whenever the current limit is reached an overcurrent (OC) fault is
triggered. This value is scaled because it uses a 7-mΩ sense resistor on the DRV8304x EVM.
The current sense amplifier (CSA) gain 5 V/V is set using the firmware in the Initialization
section for better sensitivity. This value can be modified accordingly when higher values of
current sensing are required. With an ADC of 3.3-V full-scale value and 12-bit resolution, use
Equation 3 to calculate the overcurrent limit in digital counts.
V
Ampheres u 0.007 : u 5
V u 4096
MOTOR _PHASE _ CURRENT _LIMIT
3.3 V
(3)
4. Customize the SPI REGISTER user parameters.
For all the DRV8304 devices set the SPI register settings accordingly from the DRV8304 38-V ThreePhase Smart Gate Driver data sheet.
5. Modify the register settings using register page found in the GUI.
Figure 5. SPI REGISTER Page in GUI
4
Running the Project in Code Composer Studio
To run the project in CCS, use the steps that follow:
1. Install CCS software V6.1 or above.
2. Read through how to customize user parameters to tune the control for the specific motor.
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Running the Project in Code Composer Studio
3. Compile the modified project.
4. Connect the MSP430F5529 Launchpad device to download and run the modified program.
5. The reference software was written for the 24-V Annaheim Motor. If a different motor is used and the
reference code is unable to spin the motor, the motor was most likely improperly tuned. To properly
tune the motor parameters, see Section 3.
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