Texas Instruments | LM76002/LM76003 3.5-V to 60-V, 2.5-A/3.5-A Synchronous Step-Down Voltage Regulator (Rev. A) | Datasheet | Texas Instruments LM76002/LM76003 3.5-V to 60-V, 2.5-A/3.5-A Synchronous Step-Down Voltage Regulator (Rev. A) Datasheet

Texas Instruments LM76002/LM76003 3.5-V to 60-V, 2.5-A/3.5-A Synchronous Step-Down Voltage Regulator (Rev. A) Datasheet
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LM76002, LM76003
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LM76002/LM76003 3.5-V to 60-V, 2.5-A/3.5-A Synchronous
Step-Down Voltage Regulator
1 Features
2 Applications
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
1
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Integrated synchronous rectification
Input voltage 3.5 V to 60 V (65 V maximum)
Output current:
– LM76002: 2.5 A
– LM76003: 3.5 A
Output voltage 1 V to 95% VIN
15-µA Quiescent current in regulation
Wide voltage conversion range
– tON-MIN = 65 ns (typical)
– tOFF-MIN = 95 ns (typical)
System-level features
– Synchronization to external clock
– Power-good flag
– Precision enable
– Adjustable soft-start (6.3 ms default)
– Voltage tracking capability
Pin-selectable FPWM operation
Adjustable frequency range: 300 kHz to 2.2 MHz
High-efficiency at light-load architecture (PFM)
Protection features
– Cycle-by-cycle current limit
– Short-circuit protection with hiccup mode
– Overtemperature thermal shutdown protection
Create a custom design using the
LM76002/LM76003 with the WEBENCH® Power
Designer
Telecommunications infrastructure
Asset and fleet management systems
Video surveillance
Programmable logic controllers
3 Description
The LM76002/LM76003 regulator is an easy-to-use
synchronous step-down DC-DC converter capable of
driving up to 2.5 A (LM76002) or 3.5 A (LM76003) of
load current from an input up to 60 V. The
LM76002/LM76003 provides exceptional efficiency
and output accuracy in a very small solution size.
Peak current-mode control is employed. Additional
features such as adjustable switching frequency,
synchronization, FPWM option, power-good flag,
precision enable, adjustable soft start, and tracking
provide both flexible and easy-to-use solutions for a
wide range of applications. Automatic frequency
foldback at light load and optional external bias
improve efficiency. This device requires few external
components and has a pinout designed for simple
PCB layout with best-in-class EMI (CISPR22) and
thermal performance. Protection features include
input undervoltage lockout, thermal shutdown, cycleby-cycle current limit, and short-circuit protection. The
LM76002/LM76003 device is available in the WQFN
30-pin leadless package with wettable flanks.
Device Information(1)
PART NUMBER
LM76002
PACKAGE
WQFN (30)
LM76003
BODY SIZE (NOM)
6.00 mm × 4.00 mm
(1) For all available packages, see the orderable addendum at
the end of the data sheet.
space
Simplified Schematic
VIN
Efficiency vs Output Current
(VOUT = 5 V, fSW = 400 kHz, Auto Mode)
BOOT
PVIN
CBOOT
EN
CIN
100
90
VOUT
SW
L
80
COUT
LM76003
SS/TRK
BIAS
RT
RFBT
SYNC/MODE
FB
VCC
AGND
CVCC
70
Efficiency (%)
PGND
60
50
40
30
VIN = 8 V
VIN = 12 V
VIN = 13.5 V
VIN = 24 V
20
10
RFBB
0
0.001
0.01
0.1
Load Current (A)
1
5
D034
1
An IMPORTANT NOTICE at the end of this data sheet addresses availability, warranty, changes, use in safety-critical applications,
intellectual property matters and other important disclaimers. PRODUCTION DATA.
LM76002, LM76003
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Table of Contents
1
2
3
4
5
6
Features ..................................................................
Applications ...........................................................
Description .............................................................
Revision History.....................................................
Pin Configuration and Functions .........................
Specifications.........................................................
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
7
1
1
1
2
3
5
Absolute Maximum Ratings ...................................... 5
ESD Ratings.............................................................. 5
Recommended Operating Conditions....................... 5
Thermal Information .................................................. 6
Electrical Characteristics........................................... 6
Timing Characteristics............................................... 8
Switching Characteristics .......................................... 8
System Characteristics ............................................. 9
Typical Characteristics ............................................ 10
Detailed Description ............................................ 12
7.1 Overview ................................................................. 12
7.2 Functional Block Diagram ....................................... 12
7.3 Feature Description................................................. 13
7.4 Device Functional Modes........................................ 22
8
Application and Implementation ........................ 24
8.1 Application Information............................................ 24
8.2 Typical Applications ............................................... 24
9 Power Supply Recommendations...................... 42
10 Layout................................................................... 42
10.1 Layout Guidelines ................................................. 42
10.2 Layout Example .................................................... 45
10.3 Thermal Design..................................................... 46
11 Device and Documentation Support ................. 47
11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
11.6
Device Support......................................................
Receiving Notification of Documentation Updates
Support Resources ...............................................
Trademarks ...........................................................
Electrostatic Discharge Caution ............................
Glossary ................................................................
47
47
47
47
47
47
12 Mechanical, Packaging, and Orderable
Information ........................................................... 47
4 Revision History
Changes from Original (October 2017) to Revision A
Page
•
Updated the Thermal Information .......................................................................................................................................... 6
•
Changed Figure 17............................................................................................................................................................... 18
•
Changed "the PGOOD switch is turned off" to "the PGOOD switch is turned on" in the Power Good and Overvoltage
Protection (PGOOD) section ................................................................................................................................................ 20
2
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5 Pin Configuration and Functions
RNP Package
30-Pin WQFN
Top View
NC
NC
NC
NC
30
29
28
27
SW
1
26
PGND
SW
2
25
PGND
SW
3
24
PGND
SW
4
23
NC
SW
5
22
PVIN
BOOT
6
21
PVIN
NC
7
20
PVIN
VCC
8
19
NC
BIAS
9
18
EN
RT
10
17
SYNC/MODE
SS/TRK
11
16
PGOOD
DAP
12
13
14
15
FB AGND AGND AGND
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Pin Functions
PIN
I/O (1)
DESCRIPTION
SW
P
Switching output of the regulator. Internally connected to source of the HS FET and drain of
the LS FET. Connect to power inductor and boot-strap capacitor.
BOOT
P
Boot-strap capacitor connection for high-side driver. Connect a high-quality 470-nF
capacitor from this pin to the SW pin.
NC
—
Not internally connected. Connect to ground copper on PCB to improve heat-sinking of the
device and board level reliability.
8
VCC
P
Output of internal bias supply. Used as supply to internal control circuits. Connect a highquality 2.2-µF capacitor from this pin to GND. TI does not recommended loading this pin by
external circuitry.
9
BIAS
P
Optional BIAS LDO supply input. TI recommends tying this to VOUT when 3.3 V ≤ VOUT ≤ 18
V, or tying to an external 3.3-V or 5-V rail if available, to improve efficiency. When used,
place a 1-µF capacitor from this terminal to ground. Tie to ground when not in use.
10
RT
A
Switching frequency setting pin. Place a resistor from this pin to ground to set the switching
frequency. If floating, the default switching frequency is 500 kHz. Do not short to ground.
11
SS/TRK
A
Soft-start-control pin. Leave this pin floating to use the 6.3-ms internal soft-start ramp. An
external capacitor can be connected from this pin to ground to extend the soft-start time. A
2-µA current sourced from this pin can charge the capacitor to provide the ramp. Connect
to external ramp for tracking. Do not short to ground.
12
FB
A
Feedback input for output voltage regulation. Connect a resistor divider to set the output
voltage. Never short this terminal to ground during operation.
16
PGOOD
A
Open-drain power-good flag output. Connect to suitable voltage supply through a current
limiting resistor. High = VOUT regulation OK, Low = VOUT regulation fault. PGOOD = Low
when EN = Low.
NO.
NAME
1, 2, 3, 4, 5
6
7, 19, 23, 27,
28, 29, 30
17
SYNC/MODE
A
Synchronization input and mode setting pin. Do not float, tie to ground if not used. Tie to
ground: DCM/PFM operation under light loads, improved efficiency; tie to logic high: forced
PWM under light loads, constant switching frequency over load; tie to external clock source:
synchronize switching action to the clock, forced PWM under light loads. Triggers on the
rising edge of external clock.
18
EN
A
Precision-enable input to regulator. Do not float. High = on, Low = off. Can be tied to VIN.
Precision-enable input allows adjustable UVLO by external resistor divider.
13, 14, 15
AGND
G
Analog ground. Ground reference for internal references and logic. All electrical parameters
are measured with respect to this pin. Connect to system ground on PCB.
20, 21, 22
PVIN
P
Supply input to internal bias LDO and HS FET. Connect to input supply and input bypass
capacitors CIN. CIN must be placed right next to this pin and PGND and connected with
short traces.
24, 25, 26
PGND
G
Power ground, connected to the source of LS FET internally. Connect to system ground,
DAP/EP, AGND, ground side of CIN and COUT. Path to CIN must be as short as possible.
DAP
—
Low impedance connection to AGND. Connect to system ground on PCB. Major heat
dissipation path for the die. Must be used for heat sinking by soldering to ground copper on
PCB. Thermal vias are preferred.
EP
(1)
4
A = Analog, O = Output, I = Input, G = Ground, P = Power
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6 Specifications
6.1 Absolute Maximum Ratings
over operating free-air temperature range of –40°C to +125°C (unless otherwise noted) (1)
MIN
MAX
PVIN to PGND
PARAMETER
–0.3
65
EN to AGND
–0.3
VIN + 0.3
FB, RT, SS/TRK to AGND
–0.3
5
PGOOD to AGND
–0.1
20
SYNC to AGND
–0.3
5.5
BIAS to AGND
–0.3
Lower of (VIN + 0.3) or 30
AGND to PGND
–0.3
0.3
SW to PGND
–0.3
VIN + 0.3
SW to PGND less than 10-ns transients
–3.5
65
BOOT to SW
–0.3
5.5
VCC to AGND
–0.3
5.5
Junction temperature, TJ
–40
150
°C
Storage temperature, Tstg
–65
150
°C
Input voltages
Output voltages
(1)
UNIT
V
V
Stresses beyond those listed under Absolute Maximum Ratings may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings
only, which do not imply functional operation of the device at these or another conditions beyond those indicated under Recommended
Operating Conditions. Exposure to absolute-maximum-rated conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
6.2 ESD Ratings
VALUE
V(ESD)
(1)
(2)
Electrostatic discharge
Human-body model (HBM), per ANSI/ESDA/JEDEC JS-001 (1)
±2000
Charged-device model (CDM), per JEDEC specification JESD22C101 (2)
±500
UNIT
V
JEDEC document JEP155 states that 500-V HBM allows safe manufacturing with a standard ESD control process.
JEDEC document JEP157 states that 250-V CDM allows safe manufacturing with a standard ESD control process.
6.3 Recommended Operating Conditions
over operating free-air temperature range (unless otherwise noted) (1)
MIN
MAX
3.5
60
EN
0
VIN
FB
0
4.5
PGOOD
0
18
BIAS input not used
0
0.3
BIAS input used
0
Lower of (VIN +
0.3) or 24
AGND to PGND
PVIN to PGND
Input voltages
Output voltage
Output current
(1)
–0.1
0.1
VOUT
1
95% of VIN
IOUT, LM76002
0
2.5
IOUT, LM76003
0
3.5
UNIT
V
V
A
Recommended operating rating indicate conditions for which the device is intended to be functional, but do not ensure specific
performance limits. For ensured specifications, see Electrical Characteristics .
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6.4 Thermal Information
LM76002/LM76003
THERMAL METRIC (1)
RNP (WQFN)
UNIT
30 PINS
RθJA
Junction-to-ambient thermal resistance
29.6
°C/W
RθJC(top)
Junction-to-case (top) thermal resistance
17.6
°C/W
RθJB
Junction-to-board thermal resistance
9.1
°C/W
ψJT
Junction-to-top characterization parameter
0.2
°C/W
ψJB
Junction-to-board characterization parameter
9.0
°C/W
RθJC(bot)
Junction-to-case (bottom) thermal resistance
1.0
°C/W
(1)
For more information about traditional and new thermal metrics, see the Semiconductor and IC Package Thermal Metrics application
report.
6.5 Electrical Characteristics
Limits apply over the recommended operating junction temperature (TJ) range of –40°C to +125°C, unless otherwise stated.
Minimum and maximum limits are specified through test, design, or statistical correlation. Typical values represent the most
likely parametric norm at TJ = 25°C, and are provided for reference purposes only. Unless otherwise stated, the following
conditions apply: VIN= 24 V.
PARAMETER
TEST CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNIT
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (PVIN PINS)
VIN
Operating input voltage
range
ISD
Shutdown quiescent current;
measured at PVIN pin (1)
VEN = 0 V
TJ = 25℃
IQ_NONSW
Operating quiescent current
from VIN (non-switching)
VEN = 2 V, VFB = 1.5 V, VBIAS = 3.3 V
external
3.5
60
V
1.2
10
µA
0.9
12
µA
1.2
V
ENABLE (EN PIN)
VEN_VCC_H
Enable input high level for
VCC output
VEN rising
VEN_VCC_L
Enable input low level for
VCC output
VEN falling
0.3
VEN_VOUT_H
Enable input high level for
VOUT
VEN rising
1.14
VEN_VOUT_HYS
Enable input hysteresis for
VOUT
VEN falling hysteresis
ILKG_EN
Enable input leakage current
VEN = 2 V
V
1.204
1.25
–150
1.4
V
mV
200
nA
INTERNAL LDO (VCC PIN, BIAS PIN)
VCC
Internal VCC voltage
VCC_UVLO
Internal VCC undervoltage
lockout
VBIAS_ON
Input changeover
IBIAS_NONSW
Operating quiescent current
from external VBIAS (nonswitching)
PWM operation
3.29
V
PFM operation
3.1
V
VCC rising
2.96
3.14
VCC falling hysteresis
–565
VBIAS rising
3.11
VBIAS falling hysteresis
–63
VEN = 2 V, VFB = 1.5 V, VBIAS = 3.3 V
external
3.27
V
mV
3.25
V
mV
21
50
µA
1.006
1.017
V
0.2
60
nA
VOLTAGE REFERENCE (FB PIN)
VFB
Feedback voltage
PWM mode
ILKG_FB
Input leakage current at FB
pin
VFB = 1 V
(1)
6
0.987
Shutdown current includes leakage current ofthe switching transistors.
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Electrical Characteristics (continued)
Limits apply over the recommended operating junction temperature (TJ) range of –40°C to +125°C, unless otherwise stated.
Minimum and maximum limits are specified through test, design, or statistical correlation. Typical values represent the most
likely parametric norm at TJ = 25°C, and are provided for reference purposes only. Unless otherwise stated, the following
conditions apply: VIN= 24 V.
PARAMETER
TEST CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
1.6
2.2
2.7
LM76002
3.2
4.2
5.3
LM76003
4.35
5.5
6.8
LM76002
2.3
3.2
4.2
LM76003
3.4
4.2
5.3
UNIT
HIGH SIDE DRIVER (BOOT PIN)
VBOOT_UVLO
BOOT - SW undervoltage
lockout
V
CURRENT LIMITS AND HICCUP
Short-circuit, high-side
current limit
IHS_LIMIT (2)
ILS_LIMIT
(2)
Low-side current limit
INEG_LIMIT
Negative current limit
VHICCUP
Hiccup threshold on FB pin
IL_ZC
Zero cross-current limit
LM76002
–2.5
LM76003
–3.3
0.38
0.42
A
A
A
0.46
0.05
V
A
SOFT START (SS/TRK PIN)
ISSC
Soft-start charge current
RSSD
Soft-start discharge
resistance
1.8
UVLO, TSD, OCP; or EN = 0 V
2
2.2
2
µA
kΩ
POWER GOOD (PGOOD PIN) and OVERVOLTAGE PROTECTION
VPGOOD_OV
Power-good overvoltage
threshold
% of FB voltage
106%
110%
113%
VPGOOD_UV
Power-good undervoltage
threshold
% of FB voltage
86%
90%
93%
VPGOOD_HYS
Power-good hysteresis
% of FB voltage
VPGOOD_VALID
Minimum input voltage for
proper PGOOD function
50-µA pullup to PGOOD pin, VEN = 0 V,
TJ = 25°C
1.3
2
RPGOOD
Power-good on-resistance
VEN = 2.5 V
40
100
VEN = 0 V
30
90
2.5%
V
Ω
MOSFETS
RDS_ON_HS
(3)
High-side MOSFET onresistance
IOUT = 1 A, VBIAS = VOUT = 3.3 V
95
150
mΩ
RDS_ON_LS
(3)
Low-side MOSFET onresistance
IOUT = 1 A, VBIAS = VOUT = 3.3 V
45
85
mΩ
THERMAL SHUTDOWN
TSD
(2)
(3)
(4)
(4)
Thermal shutdown threshold
Shutdown threshold
Recovery threshold
160
135
°C
This current limit was measured as the internal comparator trip point. Due to inherent delays in the current limit comparator and drivers,
the peak current limit measured in closed loop with faster slew rate will be larger, and valley current limit will be lower.
Measured at pins.
Ensured by design.
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6.6 Timing Characteristics
MIN
NOM
MAX
UNIT
CURRENT LIMITS AND HICCUP
Number of switching cycles
before hiccup is tripped
(1)
NOC
128
Cycles
46
ms
3.5
6.3
ms
Overcurrent hiccup retry delay
time
tOC
SOFT START (SS/TRK PIN)
tSS
CSS = OPEN, from EN rising
edge to PGOOD rising edge
Internal soft-start time
POWER GOOD (PGOOD PIN) and OVERVOLTAGE PROTECTION
tPGOOD_RISE
PGOOD rising edge deglitch
delay
80
140
200
µs
tPGOOD_FALL
PGOOD falling edge deglitch
delay
80
140
200
µs
TYP
MAX
UNIT
65
95
(1)
Ensured by design.
6.7 Switching Characteristics
PARAMETER
TEST CONDITIONS
MIN
PWM LIMITS (SW PINS)
tON-MIN
Minimum switch on-time
tOFF-MIN
Minimum switch off-time
tON-MAX
Maximum switch on-time
ns
95
130
ns
HS timeout in dropout
3.8
8
11.4
µs
Internal oscillator frequency
RT = Open
440
500
560
kHz
Minimum adjustable frequency by
RT or SYNC
RT =133 kΩ, 0.1%
270
300
330
Maximum adjustable frequency by
RT or SYNC
RT = 17.4 kΩ, 0.1%
1980
2200
2420
OSCILLATOR (RT and SYNC PINS)
fOSC
fADJ
kHz
VSYNC_HIGH
Sync input high level threshold
VSYNC_LOW
Sync input low level threshold
VMODE_HIGH
Mode input high level threshold for
FPWM
0.42
V
VMODE_LOW
Mode input low level threshold for
AUTO mode
0.4
V
tSYNC_MIN
Sync input minimum on- and offtime
80
ns
8
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0.4
V
V
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6.8 System Characteristics
The following specifications apply to the circuit found in the typical Simplified Schematic with appropriate modifications
(see Table 2). These parameters are not tested in production and represent typical performance only. Unless otherwise
stated the following conditions apply: TA = 25°C, VIN = 24 V, VOUT = 3.3 V, fSW = 500 kHz.
PARAMETER
TEST CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNIT
VFB_PFM
Output voltage offset at no load VIN = 3.8 V to 36 V, VSYNC = 0 V, auto mode
in auto mode
IOUT = 0 A
2%
Vdrop
Minimum input to output
voltage differential to maintain
specified accuracy
VOUT = 5 V, IOUT = 1.5 A, fSW = 2.2 MHz
0.4
V
IQ_SW
Operating quiescent current
(switching)
VEN = 3.3 V, IOUT = 0 A, RT = open, VBIAS =
VOUT = 3.3 V, RFBT = 1 Meg
15
µA
LM76002 :
VSYNC = 0 V, IOUT = 10 mA
0.5
LM76003 :
VSYNC = 0 V, IOUT = 10 mA
0.7
IPEAK_MIN
Minimum inductor peak current
A
IBIAS_SW
Operating quiescent current
from external VBIAS (switching)
fSW = 500 kHz, IOUT = 1 A
7
fSW = 2.2 MHz, IOUT = 1 A
25
DMAX
Maximum switch duty cycle
While in frequency foldback
tDEAD
Dead time between high-side
and low-side MOSFETs
97.5%
4
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6.9 Typical Characteristics
Unless otherwise specified, VIN = 24 V. Curves represent most likely parametric norm at specified condition.
140
130
120
Shutdown Current (nA)
RDS-ON (m:)
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
HS Switch
LS Switch
30
20
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
Temperature (qC)
100
120
140
1800
1700
1600
1500
1400
1300
1200
1100
1000
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
-40
Figure 1. High-Side and Low-Side Switch RDS-ON
0
20
40
60
80
Temperature (qC)
100
120
140
D002
Figure 2. Shutdown Quiescent Current
6
Temp = 40qC
Temp = 25qC
Temp = 125qC
1.007
HS Limit
LS Limit
5.5
1.006
Current Limits (A)
Feedback Voltage (V)
-20
D001
1.008
1.005
1.004
1.003
5
4.5
4
1.002
3.5
1.001
1
0
6
12
18
24
30
36
Input Voltage (V)
42
48
54
3
-40
60
-20
0
D003
Figure 3. Feedback Voltage
20
40
60
80
Temperature (qC)
100
120
140
D004
Figure 4. LM76003 High-Side and Low-Side Current Limits
2500
5
HS Limit
LS Limit
4.5
2250
2000
Frequency (kHz)
Current Limits (A)
VIN = 24 V
VIN = 3.5 V
VIN = 60 V
4
3.5
3
1750
FREQ = 300 kHz
FREQ = 1 MHz
FREQ = 2.2 MHz
1500
1250
1000
750
500
2.5
250
2
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
Temperature (qC)
100
120
140
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-20
0
D005
Figure 5. LM76002 High-Side and Low-Side Current Limits
10
0
-40
20
40
60
80
Temperature (qC)
100
120
140
D006
Figure 6. Switching Frequency Set by RT Resistor
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Typical Characteristics (continued)
Unless otherwise specified, VIN = 24 V. Curves represent most likely parametric norm at specified condition.
1.4
540
1.2
530
Enable Thresholds (V)
Switching Frequency RT open (kHz)
550
520
510
500
490
480
470
VIN = 12 V
VIN = 3.5 V
VIN = 60 V
460
450
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
Temperature (qC)
100
120
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
140
0.2
-40
VEN_VOUT Rising
VEN_VOUT Falling
VEN_VCC Rising
VEN_VCC Falling
-20
0
20
D007
Figure 7. Switching Frequency With RT Open
40
60
80
Temperature (qC)
100
120
140
D008
Figure 8. Enable Threshold
115
PGOOD Threshold (%)
110
105
OV Tripping
OV Recovery
UV Recovery
UV Tripping
100
95
90
85
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
Temperature (qC)
100
120
140
D009
Figure 9. PGOOD Threshold
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7 Detailed Description
7.1 Overview
The LM76002/LM76003 regulator is an easy-to-use synchronous step-down DC-DC converter that operates from
3.5-V to 60-V supply voltage. The device is capable of delivering up to 2.5-A or 3.5-A DC load current with
exceptional efficiency and thermal performance in a very small solution size.
The LM76002/LM76003 employs fixed-frequency peak-current-mode control with configurable discontinuous
conduction mode (DCM) and pulse frequency modulation (PFM) mode at light load to achieve high efficiency
across the load range. The device can also be configured as forced-PWM (FPWM) operation to keep constant
switching frequency over the load range. The device is internally compensated, which reduces design time and
requires fewer external components. The switching frequency is programmable from 300 kHz to 2.2 MHz by an
external resistor. The LM76002/LM76003 is also capable of synchronization to an external clock operating within
the 300-kHz to 2.2-MHz frequency range. The wide switching frequency range allows the device to meet a wide
range of design requirements. It can be optimized to very small solution size with higher frequency or to very
high efficiency with lower switching frequency. It has very small minimum HS MOSFET on-time (tON-MIN) and
minimum off-time (tOFF-MIN) to provide wide range of voltage conversion. Automated frequency foldback is
employed under tON-MIN or tOFF-MIN condition to further extend the operation range.
The LM76002/LM76003 also features a power-good (PGOOD) flag, precision enable, internal or adjustable softstart rate, start-up with pre-bias voltage, and output voltage tracking. It provides a both flexible and easy-to-use
solution for wide range of applications. Protection features include thermal shutdown, VCC undervoltage lockout,
cycle-by-cycle current limiting, and short-circuit hiccup protection.
The family requires very few external components and has a pinout designed for simple, optimum PCB layout for
EMI and thermal performance. The LM76002/LM76003 device is available in a 30-pin WQFN lead-less package.
7.2 Functional Block Diagram
VCC
EN
ISSC
BIAS
LDO
Internal
SS
BOOT
VCC
SS/TRK
HS I Sense
ICMD +
EA
REF
+
VBOOT
±
RC
FB
FB
± +
UVLO
UVLO
CC
OV/UV
Detector
PFM
Detector
SW
CONTROL LOGIC
PGood
HICCUP
Detector
Slope Comp
Oscillator
TSD
± +
PGOOD
PVIN
VBOOT
Precision
Enable
CLK
ICMD
AGND
LS I Sense
FPWM
RT
12
SYNC/
MODE
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PGND
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7.3 Feature Description
7.3.1 Fixed-Frequency, Peak-Current-Mode Control
The following operation description of the LM76002/LM76003 refers to the Functional Block Diagram and to the
waveforms in Figure 10. The LM76002/LM76003 supplies a regulated output voltage by turning on the internal
high side (HS) and low side (LS) NMOS switches with varying duty cycle (D). During high-side switch on-time
tON, the SW pin voltage VSW swings up to approximately VIN, and the inductor current iL increase with linear
slope. The HS switch is off by the control logic. During the HS switch off-time, tOFF, the LS switch is turned on.
Inductor current discharges through the LS switch, which forces the VSW to swing below ground by the voltage
drop across the LS switch. The regulator loop adjusts the duty cycle to maintain a constant output voltage. The
control parameter of buck converter is defined as duty cycle D = tON / tSW. In an ideal buck converter, where
losses are ignored, D is proportional to the output voltage and inversely proportional to the input voltage: D =
VOUT / VIN.
VSW
SW Voltage
D = tON/ TSW
VIN
tON
tOFF
t
0
-VD
Inductor Current
iL
TSW
ILPK
IOUT
ûiL
t
0
Figure 10. SW Node and Inductor Current Waveforms in
Continuous Conduction Mode
The LM76002/LM76003 synchronous buck converter employs peak current-mode control topology. A voltagefeedback loop is used to get accurate DC-voltage regulation by adjusting the peak current command based on
voltage offset. The peak inductor current is sensed from the HS switch and compared to the peak current to
control the on-time of the HS switch. The voltage feedback loop is internally compensated, which allows
command for fewer external components, makes it easy to design, and provides stable operation with almost any
combination of output capacitors. The regulator operates with fixed switching frequency in continuous conduction
mode (CCM) and discontinuous conduction mode (DCM). At very light load, the LM76002/LM76003 operates in
PFM to maintain high efficiency, and the switching frequency decreases with reduced load current.
7.3.2 Light Load Operation Modes — PFM and FPWM
DCM operation is employed in the LM76002/LM76003 when the inductor current valley reaches zero. The
LM76002/LM76003 is in DCM when load current is less than half of the peak-to-peak inductor current ripple in
CCM. In DCM, the LS switch is turned off when the inductor current reaches zero. Switching loss is reduced by
turning off the LS FET at zero current, and the conduction loss is lowered by not allowing negative current
conduction. Power conversion efficiency is higher in DCM than CCM under the same conditions.
In DCM, the HS switch on-time reduces with lower load current. When either the minimum HS switch on-time
(tON-MIN) or the minimum peak inductor current (IPEAK-MIN) is reached, the switching frequency decreases to
maintain regulation. At this point, the LM76002/LM76003 operates in PFM. In PFM, switching frequency is
decreased by the control loop when load current reduces to maintain output voltage regulation. Switching loss is
further reduced in PFM operation due to less frequent switching actions.
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Feature Description (continued)
In PFM operation, a small positive DC offset is required at the output voltage to activate the PFM detector. The
lower the frequency is in PFM, the more DC offset is needed at VOUT. See Typical Characteristics for typical DC
offset at very light load. If the DC offset on VOUT is not acceptable for a given application, TI recommends a static
load at output to reduce or eliminate the offset. Lowering values of the feedback divider RFBT and RFBB can also
serve as a static load. In conditions with low VIN and/or high frequency, the LM76002/LM76003 may not enter
PFM mode if the output voltage cannot be charged up to provide the trigger to activate the PFM detector. Once
the LM76002/LM76003 is operating in PFM mode at higher VIN, it remains in PFM operation when VIN is
reduced.
Alternatively, the device can run in a forced pulse-width-modulation (FPWM) mode where the switching
frequency does not lower with load, and no offset is added to affect the VOUT accuracy unless the minimum ontime of the converter is reached.
7.3.3 Adjustable Output Voltage
The voltage regulation loop in the LM76002/LM76003 regulates the FB voltage to be the same as the internal
reference voltage. The output voltage of the LM76002/LM76003 is set by a resistor divider to program the ratio
from VOUT to VFB. The resistor divider is connected from the output node to ground with the mid-point connecting
to the FB pin.
VOUT
RFBT
FB
RFBB
Figure 11. Output Voltage Setting
The voltage reference system produces a precise ±1% voltage reference over temperature. TI recommends
using divider resistors with 1% tolerance or better with temperature coefficient of 100 ppm or lower. Selection of
RFBT equal or lower than 100 kΩ is also recommended. RFBB can be calculated by Equation 1:
VFB
RFBT
VOUT VFB
RFBB
(1)
Larger RFBT and RFBB values reduce the current that goes through the divider, thus helping to increase light load
efficiency. However, larger values also make the feedback path more susceptible to noise. If efficiency at very
light load is not critical in a certain application, TI recommends RFBT = 10 kΩ to 100 kΩ. If the resistor divider is
not connected properly, output voltage cannot be regulated because the feedback loop is broken. If the FB pin is
shorted to ground or disconnected, the output voltage is driven close to VIN because the regulator detects very
low voltage on the FB node. The load connected to VOUT could be damaged in this case. It is important to route
the feedback trace away from the noisy area of the PCB. For more layout recommendations, see Layout.
The minimum output voltage achievable equals VFB, with RFBB open. The maximum VOUT is limited by the
maximum duty cycle at a given frequency:
DMAX = 1 – (tOFF_MIN / TSW)
where
•
•
tOFF_MIN is the minimum off time of the HS switch
TSW = 1 / fSW is the switching period
(2)
Ideally, without frequency foldback, VOUT_MAX = VIN_MIN × DMAX
Maximum output voltage with frequency foldback can be estimated using Equation 3:
VOUT _ MAX
14
VIN_MIN u
tON _ MAX
tON _ MAX
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tOFF _ MIN
IOUT u RDS _ ON _ HS
DCR
(3)
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Feature Description (continued)
7.3.4 Enable (EN Pin) and UVLO
System UVLO by EN and VCC_UVLO voltage on the EN pin (VEN) controls the ON/OFF functionality of the
LM76002/LM76003. Applying a voltage less than 0.3 V to the EN input shuts down the operation of the
LM76002/LM76003. In shutdown mode the quiescent current drops to typically 1.2 µA at VIN = 24 V.
The internal LDO output voltage VCC is turned on when VEN_VOUT_H is higher than 1.15 V. The
LM76002/LM76003 switching action and output regulation are enabled when VEN is greater than 1.204 V
(typical). The LM76002/LM76003 supplies regulated output voltage when enabled and output current up to 2.5
A/3.5 A. The EN pin is an input and cannot be open circuit or floating. The simplest way to enable the operation
of the LM76002/LM76003 is to connect the EN pin to PVIN pins directly. This allows self-start-up of the
LM76002/LM76003 when VIN is within the operation range.
Many applications may benefit from the employment of an enable divider RENT and RENB (see Figure 12) to
establish a precision system UVLO level for the stage. System UVLO can be used for supplies operating from
utility power as well as battery power. It can be used for sequencing, ensuring reliable operation, or supply
protection, such as a battery. An external logic signal can also be used to drive EN input for system sequencing
and protection.
VIN
RENT
ENABLE
RENB
Figure 12. VIN UVLO
With a selected RENT, the RENB can be calculated by:
VEN _ VOUT _ H u RENT
RENB
VIN _ ON _ H
VEN_VOUT_H
where
•
•
VIN_ON_H is the desired supply voltage threshold to turn on this device
VEN_VOUT_H could be taken from device data sheet
(4)
Note that the divider adds to supply quiescent current by VIN / (RENT + RENB). Small RENT and RENB values add
more quiescent current loss. However, large divider values make the node more sensitive to noise. RENT in the
hundreds of kΩ range is a good starting point.
7.3.5 Internal LDO, VCC UVLO, and Bias Input
The LM76002/LM76003 has an internal LDO generating VCC voltage for control circuitry and MOSFET drivers.
The nominal voltage for VCC is 3.29 V. The VCC pin must have a 1-µF to 4.7-µF bypass capacitor placed as
close as possible to the pin and properly grounded. Do not load or short the VCC pin to ground during operation.
Shorting the VCC pin to ground during operation may damage the device.
An UVLO prevents the LM76002/LM76003 from operating until the VCC voltage exceeds VCC_UVLO. The VCC_UVLO
threshold is 3.14 V and has approximately 575 mV of hysteresis, so the device operates until VCC drops below
2.575 V (typical). Hysteresis prevents the device from turning off during power up if VIN droops due to input
current demands.
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Feature Description (continued)
The LDO can generate VCC from two inputs: the supply voltage VIN and the BIAS input. The LDO power loss is
calculated by ILDO × (VINLDO – VOUTLDO). The higher the difference between the input and output voltages of the
LDO, the more losses occur to supply the same LDO output current. The BIAS input is designed to reduce the
difference of the input and output voltages of the LDO to improve efficiency, especially at light load. TI
recommends tying the BIAS pin to VOUT when the output voltage is equal to or greater than 3.3 V. Tie the BIAS
pin to ground for applications less than 3.3 V. BIAS can also tie to external voltage source if available to improve
efficiency. When used, TI recommends a 1-µF to 10-µF high-quality ceramic capacitor be used to bypass the
BIAS pin to ground. If there is high-frequency noise or voltage spikes present on VOUT (during transient events or
fault conditions), TI recommends connecting a resistor (1 to 10 Ω) between VOUT and BIAS.
The VCC voltage is typically 3.27 V. When the LM76002/LM76003 is operating in PFM mode with frequency
foldback, VCC voltage is reduced to 3.1 V (typical) to further decrease the quiescent current and improve
efficiency at very light loads. Figure 13 shows an example of VCC voltage change with mode change.
3.5
Auto Mode
FPWM Mode
3.4
3.3
VCC (V)
3.2
3.1
3
2.9
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.5
0.001
0.01
0.1
Load Current (A)
1
5
D010
Figure 13. VCC Voltage Change With Mode Change
VCC voltage has an internal undervoltage lockout threshold, VCC_UVLO. When VCC voltage is higher than VCC_UVLO
rising threshold, the device is active and in normal operation if VEN > VEN_VOUT_H. If VCC voltage droops below
VCC_UVLO falling threshold, the VOUT is shut down.
7.3.6 Soft Start and Voltage Tracking (SS/TRK)
The LM76002/LM76003 has a flexible and easy-to-use start-up rate control pin: SS/TRK. The soft-start feature is
to prevent inrush current impacting the LM76002/LM76003, and its supply when power is first applied. Soft start
is achieved by slowly ramping up the target regulation voltage when the device is first enabled or powered up.
The simplest way to use the device is to leave the SS/TRK pin open circuit or floating. The LM76002/LM76003
employs the internal soft-start control ramp and starts up to the regulated output voltage in 6.3 ms typically. In
applications with a large amount of output capacitors, higher VOUT, or other special requirements, the soft-start
time can be extended by connecting an external capacitor CSS from SS/TRK pin to AGND. Extended soft-start
time further reduces the supply current required to charge up output capacitors and supply any output loading.
An internal current source (ISSC = 2.2 μA) charges CSS and generates a ramp from 0 V to VFB to control the
ramp-up rate of the output voltage. For a desired soft-start time tSS, the capacitance for CSS can be found by
Equation 5:
16
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Feature Description (continued)
CSS = ISSC × tSS
where
•
•
•
CSS = soft-start capacitor value (µF)
ISSC = soft-start charging current (µA)
tSS = desired soft-start time (s)
(5)
The soft-start capacitor CSS is discharged by an internal FET when VOUT is shut down by hiccup protection or
ENABLE = logic low. When a large CSS is applied, and EN is toggled low only for a short period of time, CSS may
not be fully discharged. The next soft-start ramp follows internal soft-start ramp before reaching the leftover
voltage on CSS and then follows the ramp programmed by CSS. If this is not acceptable for a certain application,
an R-C low-pass filter can be added to EN to slow down the shutting down of VCC, allowing more time to
discharge CSS.
The LM76002/LM76003 is capable of start-up into pre-biased output conditions. When the inductor current
reaches zero, the LS switch is turned off to avoid negative current conduction. This operation mode is also called
diode emulation mode. It is built in by the DCM operation in light loads. With a pre-biased output voltage, the
LM76002/LM76003 waits until the soft-start ramp allows regulation above the pre-biased voltage and then follows
the soft-start ramp to the regulation level. When an external voltage ramp is applied to the SS/TRK pin, the
LM76002/LM76003 FB voltage follows the ramp if the ramp magnitude is lower than the internal soft-start ramp.
A resistor divider pair can be used on the external control ramp to the SS/TRK pin to program the tracking rate of
the output voltage. The final voltage detected by the SS/TRK pin must not fall below 1.2 V to avoid abnormal
operation
VOUT tracked to an external voltage ramp has the option of ramping up slower or faster than the internal voltage
ramp. VFB always follows the lower potential of the internal voltage ramp and the voltage on the SS/TRK pin.
Figure 14 shows resistive divider connection if external ramp tracking is desired.
EXT RAMP
RTRT
SS/TRK
RTRB
Figure 14. Soft-Start Tracking External Ramp
Figure 15 shows the case when VOUT ramps more slowly than the internal ramp, while Figure 16 shows when
VOUT ramps faster than the internal ramp. Faster start-up time may result in inductor current tripping current
protection during start-up. Use with special care.
Enable
Internal SS Ramp
Ext Tracking Signal to SS pin
VOUT
Figure 15. Tracking With Longer Start-up Time Than The Internal Ramp
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Feature Description (continued)
Enable
Internal SS Ramp
Ext Tracking Signal to SS pin
VOUT
Figure 16. Tracking With Shorter Start-up Time Than The Internal Ramp
The LM76002/LM76003 is capable of start-up into pre-biased output conditions. During start-up the device sets
the minimum inductor current to zero to avoid discharging a pre-biased load.
7.3.7 Adjustable Switching Frequency (RT) and Frequency Synchronization
The switching frequency of the LM76002/LM76003 can be programmed by the impedance RT from the RT pin to
ground. The frequency is inversely proportional to the RT resistance. The RT pin can be left floating, and the
LM76002/LM76003 operates at 500-kHz default switching frequency. The RT pin is not designed to be shorted to
ground.
For an desired frequency, RT can be found by:
RT (k:) =
38400
Frequency(kHz)
14.33
(6)
120
110
100
90
RT (k:)
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
200
400
600
800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200
Frequency (kHz)
RT_F
Figure 17. Switching Frequency vs RT
Table 1. Switching Frequency vs RT
18
SWITCHING FREQUENCY (kHz)
RT RESISTANCE (kΩ)
300
134.42
400
99.57
500
79.07
750
52.20
1000
38.96
1500
25.85
2000
19.34
2200
17.57
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The LM76002/LM76003 switching action can also be synchronized to an external clock from 300 kHz to 2.2 MHz.
TI recommends connecting an external clock to the SYNC pin with appropriate termination resistor. Ground the
SYNC pin if not used.
SYNC
EXT CLOCK
RTERM
Figure 18. Frequency Synchronization
The recommendations for the external clock include high level no lower than 2 V, low level no higher than 0.4 V,
duty cycle between 10% and 90%, and both positive and negative pulse width no shorter than 80 ns. When the
external clock fails at logic high or low, the LM76002/LM76003 switches at the frequency programmed by the RT
resistor after a time-out period. TI recommends connecting a resistor RT to the RT pin so that the internal
oscillator frequency is the same as the target clock frequency when the LM76002/LM76003 is synchronized to an
external clock. This allows the regulator to continue operating at approximately the same switching frequency if
the external clock fails.
The choice of switching frequency is usually a compromise between conversion efficiency and the size of the
circuit. Lower switching frequency implies reduced switching losses (including gate charge losses, switch
transition losses, etc.) and usually results in higher overall efficiency. However, higher switching frequency allows
use of smaller LC output filters and hence a more compact design. Lower inductance also helps transient
response (higher large signal slew rate of inductor current), and reduces the DCR loss. The optimal switching
frequency is usually a trade-off in a given application and thus needs to be determined on a case-by-case basis.
It is related to the input voltage, output voltage, most frequent load current level(s), external component choices,
and circuit size requirement. The choice of switching frequency may also be limited if an operating condition
triggers tON-MIN or tOFF-MIN.
7.3.8 Minimum On-Time, Minimum Off-Time, and Frequency Foldback at Dropout Conditions
Minimum on-time, tON-MIN, is the smallest duration of time that the HS switch can be on. tON-MIN is typically 70 ns
in the LM76002/LM76003. Minimum off-time, tOFF-MIN, is the smallest duration that the HS switch can be off. tOFFMIN is typically 100 ns in the LM76002/LM76003. In CCM operation, tON-MIN and tOFF-MIN limits the voltage
conversion range given a selected switching frequency. The minimum duty cycle allowed is:
DMIN = tON-MIN × fSW
(7)
And the maximum duty cycle allowed is:
DMAX = 1 – tOFF-MIN × fSW
(8)
Given fixed tON-MIN and tOFF-MIN, the higher the switching frequency the narrower the range of the allowed duty
cycle. In the LM76002/LM76003, frequency foldback scheme is employed to extend the maximum duty cycle
when tOFF-MIN is reached. The switching frequency decreases once longer duty cycle is needed under low VIN
conditions. The switching frequency can be decreased to approximately 1/10 of the programmed frequency by
RT or the synchronization clock. Such a wide range of frequency foldback allows the LM76002/LM76003 output
voltage to stay in regulation with a much lower supply voltage VIN. This leads to a lower effective dropout voltage.
See Typical Characteristics for more details.
Given an output voltage, the choice of the switching frequency affects the allowed input voltage range, solution
size and efficiency. The maximum operational supply voltage can be found by:
VIN_MAX = VOUT / (fSW × tON-MIN)
(9)
At lower supply voltage, the switching frequency decreases once tOFF-MIN is tripped. The minimum VIN without
frequency foldback can be approximated by:
VIN_MIN = VOUT / (fSW × tOFF-MIN)
(10)
Considering power losses in the system with heavy load operation, VIN-MIN is higher than the result calculated in
Equation 10. With frequency foldback, VIN-MIN is lowered by decreased fSW. When the device is operating in auto
mode at voltages near maximum rated input voltage and light load conditions, an increased output voltage ripple
during load transient may be observed. For this reason TI recommends that device operating point be calculated
with sufficient operational margin so that minimum on-time condition is not triggered.
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7.3.9 Internal Compensation and CFF
The LM76002/LM76003 is internally compensated with RC = 600 kΩ and CC = 35 pF as shown in the Functional
Block Diagram. The internal compensation is designed such that the loop response is stable over the entire
operating frequency and output voltage range. Depending on the output voltage, the compensation loop phase
margin can be low with all ceramic capacitors. TI recommends placing an external feed-forward cap CFF in
parallel with the top resistor divider RFBT for optimum transient performance.
VOUT
RFBT
CFF
FB
RFBB
Figure 19. Feed-Forward Capacitor for Loop Compensation
The feed-forward capacitor CFF in parallel with RFBT places an additional zero before the crossover frequency of
the control loop to boost phase margin. The zero frequency can be found by Equation 11:
fZ-CFF = 1 / (2π × RFBT × CFF)
(11)
An additional pole is also introduced with CFF at the frequency of Equation 12:
fP-CFF = 1 / (2π × CFF × (RFBT // RFBB))
(12)
Select the CFF so that the bandwidth of the control loop without the CFF is centered between fZ-CFF and fP-CFF. The
zero fZ-CFF adds phase boost at the crossover frequency and improves transient response. The pole fP-CFF helps
maintaining proper gain margin at frequency beyond the crossover.
Electrolytic capacitors have much larger ESR and the ESR zero frequency would be low enough to boost the
phase up around the crossover frequency.
fZ-ESR = 1 / (2π × ESR × COUT)
(13)
Designs using mostly electrolytic capacitors at the output may not need any CFF. The CFF creates a time constant
with RFBT that couples in the attenuated output voltage ripple to the FB node. If the CFF value is too large, it can
couple too much ripple to the FB and affect VOUT regulation. It could also couple too much transient voltage
deviation and falsely trip PGOOD thresholds. Therefore, calculate CFF based on output capacitors used in the
system. At cold temperatures, the value of CFF might change based on the tolerance of the chosen component.
This may reduce its impedance and ease noise coupling on the FB node. To avoid this, more capacitance can be
added to the output or the value of CFF can be reduced. See Feed-Forward Capacitor for the calculation of CFF.
7.3.10 Bootstrap Voltage and VBOOT UVLO (BOOT Pin)
The driver of the power switch (HS switch) requires bias higher than VIN when the HS switch is ON. The
capacitor connected between CBOOT and SW works as a charge pump to boost voltage on the BOOT pin to (VSW
+ VCC). The boot diode is integrated on the LM76002/LM76003 die to minimize physical size. TI recommends a
0.47-µF, 6.3-V or higher capacitor for CBOOT. The VBOOT_UVLO threshold is typically 2.2 V. If the CBOOT capacitor is
not charged above this voltage with respect to SW, the device initiates a charging sequence using the low-side
FET.
7.3.11 Power Good and Overvoltage Protection (PGOOD)
The LM76002/LM76003 has a built-in power-good flag shown on PGOOD pin to indicate whether the output
voltage is within its regulation level. The PGOOD signal can be used for start-up sequencing of multiple rails. The
PGOOD pin is an open-drain output that requires a pullup resistor to an appropriate logic voltage (any voltage
below 12 V). The pin can sink 5 mA of current and maintain its specified logic low level. A typical range of pullup
resistor value is 10 kΩ to 100 kΩ. When the FB voltage is outside the power-good band, +6% above and –7%
below the internal reference VREF typically, the PGOOD switch is turned on, and the PGOOD pin voltage is pulled
to ground. When the FB is 2% (typical) closer to FB than the PGOOD threshold, the PGOOD switch is turned off,
and the pin is pulled up to the voltage connected to the pullup resistor. Both rising and falling edges of the
power-good flag have a built-in 220-µs (typical) deglitch delay. To pull up PGOOD pin to a voltage higher than
15V, a resistor divider can be used to divide the voltage down.
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VPU
RPGT
PGOOD
RPGB
Figure 20. PGOOD Resistor Divider
For given pullup voltage VPU and desired voltage on PGOOD pin is VPG and with RPGT chosen, value for RPGB
can be calculated using Equation 14:
RPGB =
VPG
RPGT
VPU VPG
(14)
7.3.12 Overcurrent and Short-Circuit Protection
The LM76002/LM76003 is protected from overcurrent conditions by cycle-by-cycle current limiting on both peak
and valley of the inductor current. Hiccup mode is activated if a fault condition persists to prevent overheating.
High-side MOSFET overcurrent protection is implemented by the nature of the peak current-mode control. The
HS switch current is sensed when the HS is turned on after a blanking time. The HS switch current is compared
to the either the minimum of a fixed current set point (ISC) or the output of the voltage regulation loop minus slope
compensation every switching cycle. The slope compensation increases with duty cycle and tends to lower the
HS current limit above 60% duty cycle as it lowers below ISC. See Typical Characteristics.
When the LS switch is turned on, the current going through it is also sensed and monitored. Before turning off
the LS switch at the end of every clock cycle, the LS current is compared to the LS current limit. If the LS current
limit is exceeded, the LS MOSFET stays on, and the HS switch is not turned on. The LS switch is kept ON so
that inductor current keeps ramping down, until the inductor current ramps below ILSLIMIT. The LS switch is turned
off once the LS current falls below the limit, and the HS switch is turned on again after a dead time.
If the current of the LS switch is higher than the LS current limit for 128 consecutive cycles, and the feedback
voltage falls 60% below regulation, hiccup current-protection mode is activated. In hiccup mode, the regulator is
shut down and kept off for 40 ms typically before the LM76002/LM76003 tries to start again. If overcurrent or a
short-circuit fault condition still exists, hiccup repeats until the fault condition is removed. Hiccup mode reduces
power dissipation under severe overcurrent conditions, and prevents overheating and potential damage to the
device. Under non-severe overcurrent conditions when the feedback voltage has not fallen 60% below regulation,
the LM76002/LM76003 reduces the switching frequency and keeps the inductor current valley clamped at the LS
current limit level. This operation mode allows slight overcurrent operation during load transients without tripping
hiccup.
If tracking was used for initial sequencing the device attempts to restart using the internal soft-start circuit until
the tracking voltage is reached.
7.3.13 Thermal Shutdown
Thermal shutdown limits total power dissipation by turning off the internal switches when the device junction
temperature exceeds 160°C (typical). After thermal shutdown occurs, hysteresis prevents the device from
switching until the junction temperature drops to approximately 135°C. When the junction temperature falls below
135°C, the LM76002/LM76003 attempts to soft start.
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7.4 Device Functional Modes
7.4.1 Shutdown Mode
The EN pin provides electrical on/off control for the LM76002/LM76003. When the EN pin voltage is below 0.3 V
(typical), both the regulator and the internal LDO have no output voltages, and the device is in shutdown mode.
In shutdown mode the quiescent current drops to typically 1.2 µA. The LM76002/LM76003 also employs UVLO
protection. If VCC voltage is below the UVLO level, the output of the regulator is turned off.
7.4.2 Standby Mode
The internal LDO has a lower EN threshold than the regulator. When the EN pin voltage is above below 1.1 V
(maximum) and below the precision enable threshold for the output voltage, the internal LDO regulates the VCC
voltage at 3.29 V typically. The precision enable circuitry is ON once VCC is above the UVLO. The internal
MOSFETs remain in tri-state unless the voltage on EN pin goes above the precision enable threshold. The
LM76002/LM76003 also employs UVLO protection. If VCC voltage is below the UVLO level, the output of the
regulator is turned off.
7.4.3 Active Mode
The LM76002/LM76003 is in active mode when the EN pin and UVLO high threshold levels are satisfied. The
simplest way to enable the operation of the LM76002/LM76003 is to connect the EN pin to VIN, which allows self
start-up of the LM76002/LM76003 when the input voltage is in the operation range: 3.5 V to 60 V. See Enable
(EN Pin) and UVLO for details on setting these operating levels.
In active mode, depending on the load current, the LM76002/LM76003 will be in one of five sub modes:
1. CCM with fixed switching frequency with load between half of IMINPK to full load.
2. DCM when the load current is lower than half of the inductor current ripple.
3. Light load mode where the device uses pulse frequency modulation (PFM) and lowers the switching
frequency at load under half of IMINPK to improve efficiency.
4. Foldback mode when switching frequency is reduced to maintain output regulation with supply voltages that
cause the minimum tON or tOFF to be exceeded.
5. Forced-pulse-width modulation (FPWM) is similar to CCM with fixed switching frequency, but extends the
fixed frequency range of operation from full to no load.
7.4.4 CCM Mode
CCM operation is employed in the LM76002/LM76003 when the load current is higher than ½ of the peak-topeak inductor current. If the load current is decreased, the device enters DCM mode. In CCM operation, the
frequency of operation is constant and fixed unless the minimum tON or tOFF are exceeded which causes the part
to enter fold back mode (refer to Internal LDO, VCC UVLO, and Bias Input for details). In these cases, PWM is
still maintained, but the frequency of operation is folded back (reduced) to maintain proper regulation.
7.4.5 DCM Mode
DCM operation is employed in the LM76002/LM76003 when the load current is lower than ½ of the peak-to-peak
inductor current. In DCM operation (also known as diode emulation mode), the LS FET is turned off when the
inductor current drops below 0 A to keep operation as efficient as possible by reducing switching losses and
preventing negative current conduction. In PWM operation, the frequency of operation is constant and fixed
unless the load current is reduced below IPEAK_MIN, which causes the part to enter light load mode, or if the
minimum tON or tOFF are exceeded, which cause the device to enter foldback mode.
7.4.6 Light Load Mode
At light output current loads, PFM is activated for the highest efficiency possible. When the inductor current does
not reach IPEAK_MIN during a switching cycle, the on-time is increased, and the switching frequency reduces as
needed to maintain proper regulation. The on-time has a maximum value of 8 µs to avoid large output voltage
ripple in dropout conditions. Efficiency is greatly improved by reducing switching and gate-drive losses. During
light-load mode of operation the LM76002/LM76003 operates with a minimum quiescent current of 10 to 15 µA
(typical).
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Device Functional Modes (continued)
7.4.7 Foldback Mode
Foldback protection modes are entered when the duty cycle exceeds the minimum on- and off-times of the
device. At very high duty cycles, where the minimum off-time is not satisfied, the frequency folds back to allow
more time for the peak current command to be reached. The maximum on-time is 8 µs, which limits the
maximum duty cycle in dropout to 98%. At very low duty cycles when the minimum on-time is reached, the
device maintains regulation by dropping the frequency to allow more time for the inductor current to discharge
the output capacitor. Foldback mode is exited once the minimum on-time and off-times are satisfied.
7.4.8 Forced Pulse-Width-Modulation Mode
FPWM is employed when the FPWM pin is pulled high, or the device is synchronized to an external clock. In this
mode, diode emulation is turned off, and the device emains in CCM over the full load range. In FPWM operation,
the frequency of operation is constant and fixed unless the minimum tON or tOFF are exceeded, which cause the
device to enter foldback mode. In these cases, PWM operation is still maintained, but the frequency of operation
is folded back (reduced) to maintain proper regulation. DC accuracy is at a minimum in FPWM mode.
7.4.9 Self-Bias Mode
For highest efficiency of operation, TI recommends that the BIAS pin be connected directly to VOUT when 3.3 V ≤
VOUT ≤ 24 V. In this self-bias mode of operation, the difference between the input and output voltages of the
internal LDO are reduced, and therefore the total efficiency of the LM76002/LM76003 is improved. These
efficiency gains are more evident during light load operation. During this mode of operation, the
LM76002/LM76003 operates with a minimum quiescent current of 15 µA (typical). See Internal LDO, VCC UVLO,
and Bias Input for more details.
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8 Application and Implementation
NOTE
Information in the following applications sections is not part of the TI component
specification, and TI does not warrant its accuracy or completeness. TI’s customers are
responsible for determining suitability of components for their purposes. Customers should
validate and test their design implementation to confirm system functionality.
8.1 Application Information
The LM76002/LM76003 is a step-down DC-DC converter. It is typically used to convert a higher DC voltage to a
lower DC voltage with a maximum output current of 3.5 A. The following design procedure can be used to select
component values for the LM76002/LM76003. Alternately, the WEBENCH® software may be used to generate a
complete design. The WEBENCH software uses an iterative design procedure and accesses a comprehensive
database of components when generating a design (see Custom Design With WEBENCH® Tools).
8.2 Typical Applications
The LM76002/LM76003 only requires a few external components to convert from a wide range of supply voltage
to output voltage, as shown in Figure 21:
L
VIN
SW
PVIN
CIN
VOUT
CBOOT
PGND
COUT
RFBT
CFF
BOOT
FB
EN
VCC
RFBB
CVCC
SS/TRK
BIAS
RT
LM76003
SYNC
AGND
CBIAS
PGOOD
Tie BIAS to PGND
when VOUT < 3.3 V
Figure 21. LM76002/LM76003 Basic Schematic
The LM76002/LM76003 also integrates a full list of features to aid system design requirements, such as VCC
UVLO, programmable soft start, start-up tracking, programmable switching frequency, clock synchronization, and
a power-good indication. Each system can select the features needed in a specific application. A comprehensive
schematic with all features utilized is shown in Figure 22:
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Typical Applications (continued)
L
VIN
RENT
VOUT
SW
PVIN
CIN
PGND
COUT
CBOOT
RFBT
BOOT
EN
RENB
CFF
VIN
FB
RENT
VCC
PGND
RFBB
SS/TRK
B
EN
CVCC
RENB
CSS
RT
LM76003
RT
PVIN
CIN
SS/TRK
BIAS
CSS
CBIAS
RT
LM76003
RT
PGOOD
SYNC
RPG
RSYNC
SYNC
AGND
Tie BIAS to PGND when
VOUT < 3.3 V
PGND
PG
RSYNC
P
AGND
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Figure 22. LM76002/LM76003 Comprehensive Schematic
The external components must fulfill the requirements of the application, but also the stability criteria of the
device control loop. The LM76002/LM76003 is optimized to work within a range of external components.
Inductance and capacitance of the LC output filter each create poles that have to be considered in the control of
the converter. Table 2 can be used to simplify the output filter component selection.
Table 2. Typical Component Selection
fSW (kHz)
VOUT (V)
L (µH)
COUT (µF)
RFBT (kΩ)
RFBB (kΩ)
300
1
2.5
680
100
OPEN
500
1
1.5
470
100
OPEN
1000
1
0.68
200
100
OPEN
2200
1
0.47
120
100
OPEN
300
3.3
6.8
200
100
43.5
500
3.3
4.7
150
100
43.5
1000
3.3
2.5
88
100
43.5
2200
3.3
1.2
44
100
43.5
300
5
10
150
100
25
500
5
6.8
100
100
25
1000
5
3.3
66
100
25
2200
5
1.5
44
100
25
300
12
22
66
100
9.09
500
12
15
44
100
9.09
1000
12
6.8
22
100
9.09
2200
12
3.3
22
100
9.09
300
24
47
40
100
4.37
500
24
27
33
100
4.37
1000
24
15
22
100
4.37
2200
24
6.8
22
100
4.37
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8.2.1 Design Requirements
Detailed Design Procedure is based on a design example. For this design example, use the parameters listed in
Table 3 as the input parameters.
Table 3. Design Example Parameters
DESIGN PARAMETER
VALUE
Input voltage range
3.5 V to 60 V
Output voltage
3.3 V
Input ripple voltage
400 mV
Output ripple voltage
30 mV
Output current rating
3.5 A
Operating frequency
500 kHz
8.2.2 Detailed Design Procedure
8.2.2.1 Custom Design With WEBENCH® Tools
Click here to create a custom design using the LM76002/03 device with the WEBENCH® Power Designer.
1. Start by entering the input voltage (VIN), output voltage (VOUT), and output current (IOUT) requirements.
2. Optimize the design for key parameters such as efficiency, footprint, and cost using the optimizer dial.
3. Compare the generated design with other possible solutions from Texas Instruments.
The WEBENCH Power Designer provides a customized schematic along with a list of materials with real-time
pricing and component availability.
In most cases, these actions are available:
• Run electrical simulations to see important waveforms and circuit performance
• Run thermal simulations to understand board thermal performance
• Export customized schematic and layout into popular CAD formats
• Print PDF reports for the design, and share the design with colleagues
Get more information about WEBENCH tools at www.ti.com/WEBENCH.
8.2.2.2 Output Voltage Setpoint
The output voltage of the LM76002/LM76003 device is externally adjustable using a resistor divider network. In
the application circuit of Figure 22, this divider network is comprised of top feedback resistor RFBT and bottom
feedback resistor RFBB. Equation 15 is used to determine the output voltage of the converter:
RFBB
VFB
VOUT
VFB
RFBT
(15)
Choose the value of the RFBT to be around 1 MΩ to minimize quiescent current during light load operation or
100kΩ to improve noise immunity. With the desired output voltage set to be 3.3 V and with a VFB = 1 V, the RFBB
value can then be calculated using Equation 15. The formula yields a value of 434.78 kΩ. Choose the closest
available value of 432 kΩ for the RFBB, or a combination of two resistors (432 kΩ + 2.74 kΩ) to increase initial
accuracy.
8.2.2.3 Switching Frequency
The default switching frequency of the LM76002/LM76003 device is set at 500 kHz. If the RT is left open, the
LM76002/LM76003 switches at 500 kHz in CCM mode. Use Equation 16 to calculate the required value for RT in
order to operate the LM76002/LM76003 at different frequencies.
RT (k:) =
38400
Frequency(kHz)
14.33
(16)
The unit for the result is kΩ.
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8.2.2.4 Input Capacitors
The LM76002/LM76003 device requires an input decoupling and, depending on the application, a bulk input
capacitor. The typical recommended value for the high frequency decoupling capacitor is 10 μF to 22 μF. TI
recommends a high-quality ceramic type X5R or X7R with sufficiency voltage rating. The voltage rating must be
greater than the maximum input voltage. To compensate the derating of ceramic capacitors, a voltage rating of
twice the maximum input voltage is recommended. Additionally, some bulk capacitance can be required,
especially if the LM76002/LM76003 circuit is not located within approximately 5 cm from the input voltage source.
This capacitor is used to provide damping to the voltage spiking due to the lead inductance of the cable. The
optimum value for this capacitor is four times the ceramic input capacitance with ESR close to the characteristic
impedance of the LC filter formed by the application input inductance and ceramic input capacitors.
For this design, two 4.7-μF, X7R dielectric capacitors rated for 100 V are used for the input decoupling
capacitance. A single capacitor has equivalent series resistance (ESR) of approximately 3 mΩ, and an RMS
current rating of 3 A. Include a capacitor with a value of 47 nF for high-frequency filtering and place it as close as
possible to the device pins.
NOTE
DC-Bias Effect: High capacitance ceramic capacitors have a DC-bias derating effect,
which has a strong influence on the final effective capacitance. Therefore, choose the right
capacitor value carefully. Package size and voltage rating in combination with dielectric
material are responsible for differences between the rated capacitor value and the
effective capacitance.
8.2.2.5 Inductor Selection
The first criterion for selecting an output inductor is the inductance itself. In most buck converters, this value is
based on the desired peak-to-peak ripple current, ΔiL that flows in the inductor along with the load current. As
with switching frequency, the selection of the inductor is a tradeoff between size and cost. Higher inductance
means lower ripple current and hence lower output voltage ripple. Lower inductance results in smaller, less
expensive devices. An inductance that gives a ripple current of 20% to 40% of the maximum output current is a
good starting point. (ΔiL = (1/5 to 2/5) × IOUT). The peak-to-peak inductor current ripple can be found by
Equation 17 and the range of inductance can be found by Equation 18 with the typical input voltage used as VIN.
'iL
(VIN
VOUT ) u D
L u fSW
(17)
(VIN VOUT ) u D
(V
VOUT ) u D
d L d IN
0.4 u fSW u IL-MAX
0.2 u fSW u IL-MAX
(18)
D is the duty cycle of the converter which in a buck converter it can be approximated as D = VOUT / VIN,
assuming no loss power conversion. By calculating in terms of amperes, volts, and megahertz, the inductance
value comes out in micro henries. The inductor ripple current ratio is defined by:
'iL
r
IOUT
(19)
The second criterion is the inductor saturation-current rating. The inductor must be rated to handle the maximum
load current plus the ripple current:
IL-PEAK = ILOAD-MAX + Δ iL / 2
(20)
The LM76002/LM76003 has both valley current limit and peak current limit. During an instantaneous short, the
peak inductor current can be high due to a momentary increase in duty cycle. The inductor current rating should
be higher than the HS current limit. TI recommends selection of an inductor with a larger core saturation margin
and preferably a softer roll off of the inductance value over load current.
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In general, it is preferable to choose lower inductance in switching power supplies, because it usually
corresponds to faster transient response, smaller DCR, and reduced size for more compact designs. However,
too low of an inductance can generate too large of an inductor current ripple such that overcurrent protection at
the full load could be falsely triggered. It also generates more conduction loss because the RMS current is
slightly higher relative that with lower current ripple at the same DC current. Larger inductor current ripple also
implies larger output voltage ripple with the same output capacitors. With peak-current-mode control, it is not
recommended to have an inductor current ripple that is too small. Enough inductor current ripple improves signalto-noise ratio on the current comparator and makes the control loop more immune to noise.
Once the inductance is determined, the type of inductor must be selected. Ferrite designs have very low core
losses and are preferred at high switching frequencies, so design goals can concentrate on copper loss and
preventing saturation. Ferrite core material saturates hard, which means that inductance collapses abruptly when
the peak design current is exceeded. The hard saturation results in an abrupt increase in inductor ripple current
and consequent output voltage ripple. Do not allow the core to saturate.
For the design example, a standard 10-μH inductor from Wurth, Coiltronics, or Vishay can be used for the 3.3-V
output with plenty of current rating margin.
8.2.2.6 Output Capacitor Selection
The device is designed to be used with a wide variety of LC filters. TI generally recommends using as little output
capacitance as possible to keep cost and size down. Choose the output capacitor(s), COUT, with care as it
directly affects the steady-state output-voltage ripple, loop stability, and the voltage over/undershoot during load
current transients.
The output voltage ripple is essentially composed of two parts. One is caused by the inductor current ripple going
through the equivalent series resistance (ESR) of the output capacitors:
ΔVOUT-ESR = ΔiL × ESR
(21)
The other is caused by the inductor current ripple charging and discharging the output capacitors:
ΔVOUT-C = ΔiL / (8 × fSW × COUT)
(22)
The two components in the voltage ripple are not in phase, so the actual peak-to-peak ripple is smaller than the
sum of the two peaks.
Output capacitance is usually limited by transient performance specifications if the system requires tight voltage
regulation in the presence of large current steps and fast slew rates. When a fast large load transient happens,
output capacitors provide the required charge before the inductor current can slew to the appropriate level. The
initial output voltage step is equal to the load current step multiplied by the ESR. VOUT continues to droop until
the control loop response increases or decreases the inductor current to supply the load. To maintain a small
overshoot or undershoot during a transient, small ESR, and large capacitance are desired. But these also come
with higher cost and size. Thus, the motivation is to seek a fast control loop response to reduce the output
voltage deviation.
For a given input and output requirement, Equation 23 gives an approximation for an absolute minimum output
cap required:
COUT !
(fSW
ª§ r 2
·
1
u «¨ u (1 Dc) ¸
¨
¸
u r u 'VOUT / IOUT ) ¬«© 12
¹
º
Dc u (1 r) »
¼»
(23)
Along with this for the same requirement, calculate the maximum ESR as per Equation 24
ESR <
D'
·
§1
u ¨ + 0.5 ¸
fSW u COUT
©r
¹
where
•
•
•
•
•
28
r = Ripple ratio of the inductor ripple current (ΔiL / IOUT)
ΔVO = target output voltage undershoot
D’ = 1 – duty cycle
fSW = switching frequency
IOUT = load current
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A general guideline for COUT range is that COUT should be larger than the minimum required output capacitance
calculated by Equation 23, and smaller than 10 times the minimum required output capacitance or 1 mF. In
applications with VOUT less than 3.3 V, it is critical that low ESR output capacitors are selected. This limits
potential output voltage overshoots as the input voltage falls below the device normal operating range. To
optimize the transient behavior a feed-forward capacitor could be added in parallel with the upper feedback
resistor. For this design example, three 47-µF, 10-V, X7R ceramic capacitors are used in parallel.
8.2.2.7 Feed-Forward Capacitor
The LM76002/LM76003 is internally compensated and the internal R-C values are 400 kΩ and 50 pF,
respectively. Depending on the VOUT and frequency FS, if the output capacitor COUT is dominated by low ESR
(ceramic types) capacitors, it could result in low phase margin. To improve the phase boost an external feedforward capacitor CFF can be added in parallel with RFBT. CFF is chosen such that phase margin is boosted at the
crossover frequency without CFF. A simple estimation for the crossover frequency without CFF (fx) is shown in
Equation 25, assuming COUT has very small ESR.
fX
15.46
VOUT u COUT
(25)
The Equation 26 for CFF was tested:
CFF
1
1
u
2Sfx
RFBT u (RFBT / /RFBB )
(26)
If capacitors with high ESR are used CFF is not required. The CFF capacitor creates a time constant with RFBT that
couples the attenuated output voltage ripple to the FB node. Using a value that is too large for CFF may couple
too much ripple to FB node and affect output voltage regulation. For capacitors with medium ESR (20 – 200 mΩ)
Equation 26 can be used as quick starting point. For the application in this design example, a 47-pF C0G
capacitor is used.
8.2.2.8 Bootstrap Capacitors
Every LM76002/LM76003 design requires a bootstrap capacitor, CBOOT. The recommended bootstrap capacitor
is 0.47 μF and rated at 6.3 V or greater. The bootstrap capacitor is located between the SW pin and the BOOT
pin. The bootstrap capacitor must be a high-quality ceramic type with X7R or X5R grade dielectric for
temperature stability.
8.2.2.9 VCC Capacitors
The VCC pin is the output of an internal LDO for LM76002/LM76003. The input for this LDO comes from either
VIN or BIAS (please refer to functional block diagram for LM76002/LM76003). To insure stability of the part,
place a 1-µF to 2.2-µF, 10-V capacitor for this pin. Never short VCC pin to ground during operation.
8.2.2.10 BIAS Capacitors
For an output voltage 3.3 V and greater, connect the BIAS pin to the output in order to increase light load
efficiency. The BIAS pin is one of the two inputs for the VCC LDO. When BIAS voltage is below VBIAS-ON
threshold, the input for the VCC LDO is internally connected to VIN. Because this is an LDO, the voltage
differences between the input and output affects the efficiency of the LDO. If necessary, a capacitor with a value
of 1 μF can be added close to the BIAS pin as an input capacitor for the LDO.
8.2.2.11 Soft-Start Capacitors
The SS pin can be left floating, and the LM76002/LM76003 implements a soft-start time of 6.3 ms. In order to
use an external soft-start capacitor, the capacitor must be sized so that the soft-start time is greater than 6.3 ms.
Use Equation 27 to calculate the soft-start capacitor value:
CSS = ISSC × tSS
(27)
With a desired soft-start time of 11 ms, a soft-start charging current of 2 µA, and an internal VREF of 1 V,
Equation 27 yields a soft start capacitor value of 22 nF.
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8.2.2.12 Undervoltage Lockout Setpoint
The undervoltage lockout (UVLO) is adjusted using the external voltage divider network of RENT and RENB. RENT
is connected between the PVIN pin and the EN pin of the LM76002/LM76003. RENB is connected between the
EN pin and the GND pin. The UVLO has two thresholds, one for power up when the input voltage is rising and
one for power down or brownouts when the input voltage is falling. Equation 28 can be used to determine the VIN
UVLO level.
VIN-UVLO-RISING = VENH × (RENB + RENT) / RENB
(28)
The EN rising threshold (VENH) for LM76002/LM76003 is set to be 1.218 V (typical). Choose the value of RENB to
be 100 kΩ to minimize input current from the supply. If the desired VIN UVLO level is at 5 V, then the value of
RENT can be calculated using Equation 29:
RENT = (VIN-UVLO-RISING / VENH – 1) × RENB
(29)
Equation 29 yields a value of 315 kΩ. The resulting falling UVLO threshold, can be calculated by Equation 30,
where EN falling threshold (VENL) is 0.99 V (typical).
VIN-UVLO-FALLING = VENL × (RENB + RENT) / RENB
(30)
8.2.2.13 PGOOD
A typical pullup resistor value is 10 kΩ to 100 kΩ from the PGOOD pin to a voltage no higher than 18 V. If it is
desired to pull up the PGOOD pin to a voltage higher than 18 V, a resistor can be added from the PGOOD pin to
ground to divide the voltage detected by the PGOOD pin to a value no higher than 18 V.
8.2.2.14 Synchronization
The LM76002/LM76003 switching action can synchronize to an external clock from 300 kHz to 2.2 MHz. TI
recommends connecting an external clock to the SYNC pin with a 50-Ω to 100-Ω termination resistor. Ground the
SYNC pin if not used.
30
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8.2.3 Application Curves
100
100
90
95
80
90
70
85
Efficiency (%)
Efficiency (%)
Unless otherwise specified the following conditions apply:
60
50
40
30
80
75
70
65
VIN = 8 V
VIN = 12 V
VIN = 18 V
VIN = 24 V
20
10
0
0.001
VIN = 8 V
VIN = 12 V
VIN = 18 V
VIN = 24 V
60
55
50
0.01
VOUT = 3.3 V
0.1
Load Current (A)
1
5
0
0.5
fSW = 500 kHz
Auto Mode
VOUT = 3.3 V
1.5
2
2.5
Load Current (A)
3
3.5
4
D011
fSW = 500 kHz
FPWM Mode
Figure 24. LM76003 Efficiency
100
100
90
95
80
90
70
85
Efficiency (%)
Efficiency (%)
Figure 23. LM76003 Efficiency
60
50
40
30
80
75
70
65
20
60
VIN = 12 V
VIN = 24 V
VIN = 48 V
10
0
0.001
VIN = 12 V
VIN = 24 V
VIN = 48 V
55
50
0.01
VOUT = 5 V
0.1
Load Current (A)
1
5
0
0.5
1
D014
fSW = 500 kHz
Auto Mode
VOUT = 5 V
Figure 25. LM76003 Efficiency
1.5
2
2.5
Load Current (A)
3
3.5
4
D014
fSW = 500 kHz
FPWM Mode
Figure 26. LM76003 Efficiency
100
100
90
90
80
80
70
70
Efficiency (%)
Efficiency (%)
1
D011
60
50
40
30
60
50
40
30
20
20
VIN = 12 V
VIN = 24 V
VIN = 48 V
10
0
0.001
VIN = 12 V
VIN = 24 V
VIN = 48 V
10
0
0.01
VOUT = 5 V
0.1
Load Current (A)
1
5
0
0.5
1
D016
fSW = 1000 kHz
Auto Mode
VOUT = 5 V
Figure 27. LM76003 Efficiency
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1.5
2
2.5
Load Current (A)
3
fSW = 1000 kHz
3.5
4
D016
FPWM Mode
Figure 28. LM76003 Efficiency
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100
100
90
90
80
80
70
70
Efficiency (%)
Efficiency (%)
Unless otherwise specified the following conditions apply:
60
50
40
30
60
50
40
30
20
20
VIN = 12 V
VIN = 24 V
VIN = 48 V
10
0
0.001
VIN = 12 V
VIN = 24 V
VIN = 48 V
10
0
0.01
VOUT = 5 V
0.1
Load Current (A)
1
5
0
0.5
1
D018
fSW = 2200 kHz
Auto Mode
VOUT = 5 V
120
120
100
100
80
80
60
40
VIN = 24 V
VIN = 48 V
VIN = 60 V
20
0
0.001
4
D018
fSW = 2200 kHz
FPWM Mode
60
40
VIN = 24 V
VIN = 48 V
VIN = 60 V
20
0.1
Load Current (A)
1
5
0
0.5
1
D020
fSW = 500 kHz
Auto Mode
VOUT = 12 V
Figure 31. LM76003 Efficiency
120
120
100
100
80
80
60
40
VIN = 32 V
VIN = 48 V
VIN = 60 V
20
0
0.001
1.5
2
2.5
Load Current (A)
3
3.5
4
D020
fSW = 500 kHz
FPWM Mode
Figure 32. LM76003 Efficiency
Efficiency (%)
Efficiency (%)
3.5
0
0.01
VOUT = 12 V
60
40
VIN = 32 V
VIN = 48 V
VIN = 60 V
20
0
0.01
VOUT = 24 V
0.1
Load Current (A)
1
5
0
0.5
1
D022
fSW = 300 kHz
Auto Mode
VOUT = 24 V
Figure 33. LM76003 Efficiency
32
3
Figure 30. LM76003 Efficiency
Efficiency (%)
Efficiency (%)
Figure 29. LM76003 Efficiency
1.5
2
2.5
Load Current (A)
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1.5
2
2.5
Load Current (A)
3
fSW = 300 kHz
3.5
4
D022
FPWM Mode
Figure 34. LM76003 Efficiency
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100
100
90
90
80
80
70
70
Efficiency (%)
Efficiency (%)
Unless otherwise specified the following conditions apply:
60
50
40
30
60
50
40
30
20
20
VIN = 12 V
VIN = 24 V
VIN = 48 V
10
0
0.001
VIN = 12 V
VIN = 24 V
VIN = 48 V
10
0
0.01
VOUT = 5 V
0.1
Load Current (A)
1
5
0
0.5
fSW = 500 kHz
Auto Mode
VOUT = 5 V
Figure 35. LM76002 Efficiency
2.5
3
D024
fSW = 500 kHz
FPWM Mode
3.4
VIN = 8 V
VIN = 12 V
VIN = 18 V
VIN = 24 V
3.38
3.36
3.36
3.34
3.32
3.3
3.28
3.26
3.34
3.32
3.3
3.28
3.26
3.24
3.24
3.22
3.22
3.2
0.01
VIN = 8 V
VIN = 12 V
VIN = 18 V
VIN = 24 V
3.38
Output Voltage (V)
Output Voltage (V)
1.5
2
Load Current (A)
Figure 36. LM76002 Efficiency
3.4
3.2
0.1
Load Current (A)
VOUT = 3.3 V
1
5
0
0.5
1
D012
fSW = 500 kHz
Auto Mode
VOUT = 3.3 V
Figure 37. LM76003 Load and Line Regulation
1.5
2
2.5
Load Current (A)
3
3.5
4
D012
fSW = 500 kHz
FPWM Mode
Figure 38. LM76003 Load and Line Regulation
5.1
5.2
VIN = 12 V
VIN = 24 V
VIN = 48 V
5.16
5.12
5.06
5.08
5.04
5
4.96
4.92
5.04
5.02
5
4.98
4.96
4.88
4.94
4.84
4.92
4.8
0.001
VOUT = 5 V
VIN = 12 V
VIN = 24 V
VIN = 48 V
5.08
Output Voltage (V)
Output Voltage (V)
1
D024
4.9
0.01
0.1
Load Current (A)
1
5
0
0.5
D015
fSW = 500 kHz
Auto Mode
Figure 39. LM76003 Load and Line Regulation
VOUT = 5 V
1
1.5
2
2.5
Load Current (A)
fSW = 500 kHz
3
3.5
4
D015
FPWM Mode
Figure 40. LM76003 Load and Line Regulation
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Unless otherwise specified the following conditions apply:
5.1
5.2
VIN = 12 V
VIN = 24 V
VIN = 48 V
5.16
5.06
5.08
Output Voltage (V)
Output Voltage (V)
5.12
5.04
5
4.96
4.92
5.04
5.02
5
4.98
4.96
4.88
4.94
4.84
4.92
4.8
0.001
VIN = 12 V
VIN = 24 V
VIN = 48 V
5.08
4.9
0.01
VOUT = 5 V
0.1
Load Current (A)
1
5
0
fSW = 1000 kHz
Auto Mode
3
3.5
4
D017
fSW = 1000 kHz
FPWM Mode
5.1
VIN = 12 V
VIN = 24 V
VIN = 48 V
5.16
5.12
5.06
5.08
5.04
5
4.96
4.92
5.04
5.02
5
4.98
4.96
4.88
4.94
4.84
4.92
4.8
0.001
VIN = 12 V
VIN = 24 V
VIN = 48 V
5.08
Output Voltage (V)
Output Voltage (V)
1.5
2
2.5
Load Current (A)
Figure 42. LM76003 Load and Line Regulation
5.2
4.9
0.01
VOUT = 5 V
0.1
Load Current (A)
1
5
0
0.5
1
D019
fSW = 2200 kHz
Auto Mode
VOUT = 5 V
Figure 43. LM76003 Load and Line Regulation
1.5
2
2.5
Load Current (A)
3
3.5
4
D019
fSW = 2200 kHz
FPWM Mode
Figure 44. LM76003 Load and Line Regulation
12.4
12.4
VIN = 24 V
VIN = 48 V
VIN = 60 V
12.35
12.3
VIN = 24 V
VIN = 48 V
VIN = 60 V
12.35
12.3
12.25
Output Voltage (V)
12.25
Output Voltage (V)
1
VOUT = 5 V
Figure 41. LM76003 Load and Line Regulation
12.2
12.15
12.1
12.05
12
11.95
12.2
12.15
12.1
12.05
12
11.95
11.9
11.9
11.85
11.85
11.8
0.001
VOUT = 12 V
11.8
0.01
0.1
Load Current (A)
fSW = 500 kHz
1
5
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0
0.5
1
D021
Auto Mode
Figure 45. LM76003 Load and Line Regulation
34
0.5
D017
VOUT = 12 V
1.5
2
2.5
Load Current (A)
fSW = 500 kHz
3
3.5
4
D021
FPWM Mode
Figure 46. LM76003 Load and Line Regulation
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Unless otherwise specified the following conditions apply:
24.5
24.5
VIN = 32 V
VIN = 48 V
VIN = 60 V
24.4
24.3
Output Voltage (V)
Output Voltage (V)
24.3
VIN = 32 V
VIN = 48 V
VIN = 60 V
24.4
24.2
24.1
24
23.9
23.8
24.2
24.1
24
23.9
23.8
23.7
23.7
23.6
0.001
23.6
0.01
VOUT = 24 V
0.1
Load Current (A)
1
5
0
fSW = 300 kHz
Auto Mode
1.5
2
2.5
Load Current (A)
3
3.5
4
D023
fSW = 300 kHz
FPWM Mode
Figure 48. LM76003 Load and Line Regulation
5.1
5.2
VIN = 12 V
VIN = 24 V
VIN = 48 V
5.16
5.12
5.06
5.08
5.04
5
4.96
4.92
5.04
5.02
5
4.98
4.96
4.88
4.94
4.84
4.92
4.8
0.001
VIN = 12 V
VIN = 24 V
VIN = 48 V
5.08
Output Voltage (V)
Output Voltage (V)
1
VOUT = 24 V
Figure 47. LM76003 Load and Line Regulation
4.9
0.01
VOUT = 5 V
0.1
Load Current (A)
1
5
0
fSW = 500 kHz
Auto Mode
3.4
5.4
3.3
5.2
Output Voltage (V)
3.2
3.1
3
2.9
2.8
ILOAD = 10 mA
ILOAD = 1 A
ILOAD = 2.5 A
ILOAD = 3.5 A
2.7
2.6
VOUT = 3.3 V
4.5
5
Input Voltage (V)
5.5
6
D025
FPWM Mode
4.8
4.6
4.4
ILOAD = 10 mA
ILOAD = 1 A
ILOAD = 2.5 A
ILOAD = 3.5 A
4
6.5
Auto Mode
Figure 51. LM76003 Dropout Curve
3
5
3.8
4.5
4.75
5
D026
fSW = 500 kHz
2.5
fSW = 500 kHz
4.2
2.5
4
1.5
2
Load Current (A)
Figure 50. LM76002 Load and Line Regulation
5.6
3.5
1
VOUT = 5 V
3.5
3
0.5
D025
Figure 49. LM76002 Load and Line Regulation
Output Voltage (V)
0.5
D023
VOUT = 5 V
5.25
5.5
5.75
Input Voltage (V)
6
6.25
fSW = 500 kHz
6.5
D027
Auto Mode
Figure 52. LM76003 Dropout Curve
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5.6
5.6
5.4
5.4
5.2
5.2
Output Voltage (V)
Output Voltage (V)
Unless otherwise specified the following conditions apply:
5
4.8
4.6
4.4
ILOAD = 10 mA
ILOAD = 1 A
ILOAD = 2.5 A
ILOAD = 3.5 A
4.2
4
3.8
4.5
4.75
5
VOUT = 5 V
5.25
5.5
5.75
Input Voltage (V)
6
6.25
5
4.8
4.6
4.4
ILOAD = 10 mA
ILOAD = 1 A
ILOAD = 2.5 A
ILOAD = 3.5 A
4.2
4
3.8
4.5
6.5
fSW = 1000 kHz
Auto Mode
5
5.25
5.5
5.75
Input Voltage (V)
VOUT = 5 V
Figure 53. LM76003 Dropout Curve
6
6.25
6.5
D029
fSW = 2200 kHz
Auto Mode
Figure 54. LM76003 Dropout Curve
5.6
12.4
5.4
12.2
12
Output Voltage (V)
5.2
Output Voltage (V)
4.75
D028
5
4.8
4.6
4.4
4.2
3.8
4.5
4.75
5
VOUT = 5 V
5.25
5.5
5.75
Input Voltage (V)
6
6.25
11.6
11.4
11.2
ILOAD = 100 mA
ILOAD = 1 A
ILOAD = 2.5 A
ILOAD = 3.5 A
11
ILOAD = 100 mA
ILOAD = 1 A
ILOAD = 2.5 A
4
11.8
10.8
6.5
10.6
11.5
12
12.5
D030
fSW = 500 kHz
Auto Mode
VOUT = 12 V
Figure 55. LM76002 Dropout Curve
13
13.5
Input Voltage (V)
14
14.5
15
D031
fSW = 500 kHz
Auto Mode
Figure 56. LM76003 Dropout Curve
25
Output Voltage (V)
24.5
VSW
(5 V/DIV)
24
23.5
IINDUCTOR
(500 mA/
DIV)
23
22
23.5
24
VOUT = 24 V
24.5
25
25.5
Input Voltage (V)
26
26.5
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Time (1 ms/DIV)
27
D032
fSW = 300 kHz
Auto Mode
Figure 57. LM76003 Dropout Curve
36
VOUT
(20 mV/DIV)
ILOAD = 100 mA
ILOAD = 1 A
ILOAD = 2.5 A
ILOAD = 3.5 A
22.5
VIN = 12 V
No Load
VOUT = 5 V
fSW = 500 kHz
Auto Mode
Figure 58. LM76003 Switching Waveform and Output
Ripple
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Unless otherwise specified the following conditions apply:
VSW
(5 V/DIV)
VSW
(5 V/DIV)
IINDUCTOR
(500 mA/
DIV)
IINDUCTOR
(500 mA/
DIV)
VOUT
(20 mV/DIV)
VOUT
(20 mV/DIV)
Time (2 µs/DIV)
VIN = 12 V
No Load
Time (2 µs/DIV)
VOUT = 5 V
fSW = 500 kHz
FPWM Mode
Figure 59. LM76003 Switching Waveform and Output
Ripple
VIN = 12 V
100-mA Load
VOUT = 5 V
fSW = 500 kHz
Auto Mode
Figure 60. LM76003 Switching Waveform and Output
Ripple
Enable
(2 V/DIV)
VSW
(5 V/DIV)
VOUT
(2 V/DIV)
IINDUCTOR
(500 mA/
DIV)
PGOOD
(2 V/DIV)
VOUT
(20 mV/DIV)
IINDUCTOR
(2 A/DIV)
Time (2 µs/DIV)
VIN = 12 V
100-mA Load
Time (5 ms/DIV)
VOUT = 5 V
fSW = 500 kHz
FPWM Mode
VIN = 12 V
No Load
Figure 61. LM76003 Switching Waveform and Output
Ripple
fSW = 500 kHz
Auto Mode
Figure 62. LM76003 Start-up Waveform
Enable
(2 V/DIV)
Enable
(2 V/DIV)
VOUT
(2 V/DIV)
VOUT
(2 V/DIV)
PGOOD
(2 V/DIV)
PGOOD
(2 V/DIV)
IINDUCTOR
(2 A/DIV)
IINDUCTOR
(2 A/DIV)
Time (5 ms/DIV)
VIN = 12 V
No Load
VOUT = 3.3 V
Time (5 ms/DIV)
VOUT = 3.3 V
fSW = 500 kHz
FPWM Mode
Figure 63. LM76003 Start-up Waveform
VIN = 12 V
No Load
VOUT = 5 V
fSW = 500 kHz
Auto Mode
Figure 64. LM76003 Start-up Waveform
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Unless otherwise specified the following conditions apply:
Enable
(2 V/DIV)
Enable
(2 V/DIV)
VOUT
(2 V/DIV)
VOUT
(2 V/DIV)
PGOOD
(2 V/DIV)
PGOOD
(2 V/DIV)
IINDUCTOR
(2 A/DIV)
IINDUCTOR
(2 A/DIV)
Time (5 ms/DIV)
VIN = 12 V
No Load
VOUT = 5 V
Time (5 ms/DIV)
fSW = 500 kHz
FPWM Mode
VIN = 12 V
3.5-A Load
Figure 65. LM76003 Start-up Waveform
Enable
(2 V/DIV)
VOUT
(2 V/DIV)
VOUT
(2 V/DIV)
PGOOD
(2 V/DIV)
PGOOD
(2 V/DIV)
IINDUCTOR
(2 A/DIV)
IINDUCTOR
(2 A/DIV)
Time (5 ms/DIV)
VOUT = 5 V
Time (5 ms/DIV)
fSW = 500 kHz
VIN = 12 V
No Load
Figure 67. Start-up Waveform
Enable
(2 V/DIV)
VOUT = 5 V
fSW = 500 kHz
Auto Mode
Figure 68. LM76002 Start-up Waveform
Enable
(2 V/DIV)
VOUT
(2 V/DIV)
VOUT
(2 V/DIV)
PGOOD
(2 V/DIV)
PGOOD
(2 V/DIV)
IINDUCTOR
(2 A/DIV)
IINDUCTOR
(2 A/DIV)
Time (5 ms/DIV)
VIN = 12 V
2.5-A Load
VOUT = 5 V
Time (5 ms/DIV)
fSW = 500 kHz
Figure 69. LM76002 Start-up Waveform
38
fSW = 500 kHz
Figure 66. LM76003 Start-up Waveform
Enable
(2 V/DIV)
VIN = 12 V
3.5-A Load
VOUT = 3.3 V
Submit Documentation Feedback
VIN = 12 V
No Load
VOUT = 5 V
fSW = 500 kHz
Auto Mode
Figure 70. LM76003 Start-up With Pre-Biased Output
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Unless otherwise specified the following conditions apply:
VOUT
(1 V/DIV)
Enable
(2 V/DIV)
VOUT
(2 V/DIV)
IINDUCTOR
(2 A/DIV)
PGOOD
(2 V/DIV)
VSW
(5 V/DIV)
IINDUCTOR
(2 A/DIV)
Time (5 ms/DIV)
VIN = 12 V
No Load
Time (50 ms/DIV)
VOUT = 5 V
fSW = 500 kHz
FPWM Mode
Figure 71. LM76002 Start-up With Pre-Biased Output
ILOAD
(2 A/DIV)
VIN = 12 V
VOUT = 5 V
fSW = 500 kHz
Auto Mode
Figure 72. LM76003 Short-Circuit Behavior With Hiccup
ILOAD
(2 A/DIV)
IINDUCTOR
(2 A/DIV)
IINDUCTOR
(2 A/DIV)
VOUT
(200 mV/
DIV)
VOUT
(200 mV/
DIV)
Time (100 µs/DIV)
Time (100 µs/DIV)
VIN = 12 V
VOUT = 3.3 V
10 mA to 3.5 A to 10 mA
fSW = 500 kHz
Auto Mode
VIN = 12 V
VOUT = 3.3 V
10 mA to 3.5 A to 10 mA
Figure 73. LM76003 Load Transient
ILOAD
(2 A/DIV)
fSW = 500 kHz
FPWM Mode
Figure 74. LM76003 Load Transient
ILOAD
(2 A/DIV)
IINDUCTOR
(2 A/DIV)
IINDUCTOR
(2 A/DIV)
VOUT
(200 mV/
DIV)
VOUT
(200 mV/
DIV)
Time (100 µs/DIV)
Time (100 µs/DIV)
VIN = 12 V
VOUT = 5 V
10 mA to 3.5 A to 10 mA
fSW = 500 kHz
Auto Mode
Figure 75. LM76003 Load Transient
VIN = 12 V
VOUT = 5 V
10 mA to 3.5 A to 10 mA
fSW = 500 kHz
FPWM Mode
Figure 76. LM76003 Load Transient
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Unless otherwise specified the following conditions apply:
ILOAD
(2 A/DIV)
ILOAD
(2 A/DIV)
IINDUCTOR
(2 A/DIV)
IINDUCTOR
(2 A/DIV)
VOUT
(200 mV/
DIV)
VOUT
(200 mV/
DIV)
Time (100 µs/DIV)
VIN = 12 V
VOUT = 5 V
10 mA to 3.5 A to 10 mA
Time (100 µs/DIV)
fSW = 1000 kHz
Auto Mode
VIN = 12 V
VOUT = 5 V
10 mA to 3.5 A to 10 mA
Figure 77. LM76003 Load Transient
ILOAD
(2 A/DIV)
Figure 78. LM76003 Load Transient
ILOAD
(2 A/DIV)
IINDUCTOR
(2 A/DIV)
IINDUCTOR
(2 A/DIV)
VOUT
(200 mV/
DIV)
VOUT
(200 mV/
DIV)
Time (100 µs/DIV)
VIN = 12 V
VOUT = 5 V
10 mA to 3.5 A to 10 mA
Time (100 µs/DIV)
fSW = 2200 kHz
Auto Mode
VIN = 12 V
VOUT = 5 V
10 mA to 3.5 A to 10 mA
Figure 79. LM76003 Load Transient
ILOAD
(2 A/DIV)
fSW = 2200 kHz
FPWM Mode
Figure 80. LM76003 Load Transient
ILOAD
(2 A/DIV)
IINDUCTOR
(2 A/DIV)
IINDUCTOR
(2 A/DIV)
VOUT
(500 mV/
DIV)
VOUT
(500 mV/
DIV)
Time (100 µs/DIV)
VIN = 24 V
VOUT = 12 V
10 mA to 3.5 A to 10 mA
Time (100 µs/DIV)
fSW = 500 kHz
Auto Mode
Figure 81. LM76003 Load Transient
40
fSW = 1000 kHz
FPWM Mode
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VIN = 24 V
VOUT = 12 V
10 mA to 3.5 A to 10 mA
fSW = 500 kHz
FPWM Mode
Figure 82. LM76003 Load Transient
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LM76002, LM76003
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SNVSAK0A – OCTOBER 2017 – REVISED OCTOBER 2019
Unless otherwise specified the following conditions apply:
ILOAD
(1 A/DIV)
ILOAD
(1 A/DIV)
IINDUCTOR
(2 A/DIV)
IINDUCTOR
(2 A/DIV)
VOUT
(200 mV/
DIV)
VOUT
(200 mV/
DIV)
Time (100 µs/DIV)
Time (100 µs/DIV)
VIN = 12 V
VOUT = 5 V
10 mA to 2.5 A to 10 mA
fSW = 500 kHz
Auto Mode
Figure 83. LM76002 Load Transient
VIN = 12 V
VOUT = 5 V
10 mA to 2.5 A to 10 mA
fSW = 500 kHz
FPWM Mode
Figure 84. LM76002 Load Transient
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9 Power Supply Recommendations
The LM76002/LM76003 is designed to operate from an input voltage supply range between 3.5 V and 60 V. This
input supply must be able to withstand the maximum input current and maintain a voltage above 3.5 V. The
resistance of the input supply rail must be low enough that an input current transient does not cause a high
enough drop at the LM76002 supply voltage that can cause a false UVLO fault triggering and system reset.
If the input supply is located more than a few inches from the LM76002/LM76003 additional bulk capacitance
may be required in addition to the ceramic bypass capacitors. The amount of bulk capacitance is not critical, but
a 47-µF or 100-µF electrolytic capacitor is a typical choice.
10 Layout
10.1 Layout Guidelines
The performance of any switching converter depends as much upon the layout of the PCB as the component
selection. The following guidelines will help the user design a circuit with maximum rejection of outside EMI and
minimum generation of unwanted EMI.
1. Place ceramic high frequency bypass CIN as close as possible to the LM76002/LM76003 PVIN and PGND
pins. Grounding for both the input and output capacitors should consist of localized top side planes that
connect to the PGND pins and PAD.
2. Place bypass capacitors for VCC and BIAS close to the pins and ground the bypass capacitors to device
ground.
3. Minimize trace length to the FB pin. Both feedback resistors, RFBT and RFBB must be located close to the FB
pin. Place CFF directly in parallel with RFBT. If VOUT accuracy at the load is important, make sure VOUT sense
is made at the load. Route VOUT sense path away from noisy nodes and preferably through a layer on the
other side of a shielding layer.
4. Use ground plane in one of the middle layers as noise shielding and heat dissipation path. Have a single
point ground connection to the plane. Route the ground connections for the feedback, soft start, and enable
components to the ground plane. This prevents any switched or load currents from flowing in the analog
ground traces. If not properly handled, poor grounding can result in degraded load regulation or erratic output
voltage ripple behavior.
5. Make VIN, VOUT and ground bus connections as wide as possible. This reduces any voltage drops on the
input or output paths of the converter and maximizes efficiency.
6. Provide adequate device heat-sinking. Use an array of heat-sinking vias to connect the exposed pad to the
ground plane on the bottom PCB layer. If the PCB has multiple copper layers, these thermal vias can also be
connected to inner layer heat-spreading ground planes. Ensure enough copper area is used for heat-sinking
to keep the junction temperature below 125°C.
10.1.1 Layout Highlights
1. Minimize area of switched current loops. From an EMI reduction standpoint, it is imperative to minimize the
high di/dt paths during PC board layout as shown in the figure above. The high current loops that do not
overlap have high di/dt content that causes observable high frequency noise on the output pin if the input
capacitor CIN is placed at a distance away from the LM76002/LM76003. Therefore, place CIN as close as
possible to the LM76002/LM76003 PVIN and PGND pins. This minimizes the high di/dt area and reduce
radiated EMI. Additionally, grounding for both the input and output capacitor must consist of a localized topside plane that connects to the PGND pin.
2. Have a single point ground. The ground connections for the feedback, soft-start, and enable components
should be routed to the AGND pin of the device. This prevents any switched or load currents from flowing in
the analog ground traces. If not properly handled, poor grounding can result in degraded load regulation or
erratic output voltage ripple behavior.
3. Minimize trace length to the FB pin net. Place both feedback resistors, RFBT and RFBB, close to the FB pin.
Because the FB node is high impedance, maintain the copper area as small as possible. Route the traces
from RFBT, RFBB away from the body of the LM76002/LM76003 to minimize possible noise pickup. Place Cff
directly in parallel with RFBT.
4. Make input and output bus connections as wide as possible. This reduces any voltage drops on the input or
output of the converter and maximizes efficiency. To optimize voltage accuracy at the load, ensure that a
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Layout Guidelines (continued)
separate feedback voltage sense trace is made to the load. Doing so corrects for voltage drops and provide
optimum output accuracy.
5. Provide adequate device heat-sinking. Use an array of heat-sinking vias to connect the exposed pad to the
ground plane on the bottom PCB layer. If the PCB has multiple copper layers, these thermal vias can also be
connected to inner layer heat-spreading ground planes. For best results use a 10 × 10 via array (or greater)
with a minimum via diameter of 12 mil thermal vias spaced 46.8 mil apart. Ensure enough copper area is
used for heat-sinking to keep the junction temperature below 125°C.
10.1.2 Compact Layout for EMI Reduction
Radiated EMI is generated by the high di/dt components in pulsing currents in switching converters. The larger
area covered by the path of a pulsing current, the more electromagnetic emission is generated. The key to
minimize radiated EMI is to identify the pulsing current path and minimize the area of the path. In Buck
converters, the pulsing current path is from the VIN side of the input capacitors to HS switch, to the LS switch,
and then return to the ground of the input capacitors, as shown in Figure 85.
BUCK
CONVERTER
PVIN
VIN
SW
L
VOUT
CIN
COUT
PGND
PGND
High di/dt current
Figure 85. Buck Converter High di / dt Path
High frequency ceramic bypass capacitors at the input side provide primary path for the high di/dt components of
the pulsing current. Placing ceramic bypass capacitor(s) as close as possible to the PVIN and PGND pins is the
key to EMI reduction. The SW pin connecting to the inductor should be as short as possible, and just wide
enough to carry the load current without excessive heating. Short, thick traces or copper pours (shapes) should
be used for high current condution path to minimize parasitic resistance. The output capacitors should be place
close to the VOUT end of the inductor and closely grounded to PGND pin and exposed PAD. Place the bypass
capacitors on VCC and BIAS pins as close as possible to the pins respectively and closely grounded to PGND
and the exposed PAD.
10.1.3 Ground Plane and Thermal Considerations
TI recommends using one of the middle layers as a solid ground plane. Ground plane provides shielding for
sensitive circuits and traces. It also provides a quiet reference potential for the control circuitry. Connect the
AGND and PGND pins to the ground plane using vias right next to the bypass capacitors. PGND pins are
connected to the source of the internal LS switch; connect the PGND pins directly to the grounds of the input and
output capacitors. The PGND net contains noise at the switching frequency and may bounce due to load
variations. The PGND trace, as well as PVIN and SW traces, should be constrained to one side of the ground
plane. The other side of the ground plane contains much less noise — use for sensitive routes.
Provide adequate device heat sinking by utilizing the PAD of the device as the primary thermal path. Use a
minimum 4 by 4 array of 10 mil thermal vias to connect the PAD to the system ground plane for heat sinking.
Distribute the vias evenly under the PAD. Use as much copper as possible for system ground plane on the top
and bottom layers for the best heat dissipation. TI recommends using a four-layer board with the copper
thickness, for the four layers, starting from the top one, 2 oz / 1 oz / 1 oz / 2 oz. Four layer boards with enough
copper thickness and proper layout provides low current conduction impedance, proper shielding and lower
thermal resistance.
The thermal characteristics of the LM76002/LM76003 are specified using the parameter RθJA, which characterize
the junction temperature of the silicon to the ambient temperature in a specific system. Although the value of RθJA
is dependant on many variables, it still can be used to approximate the operating junction temperature of the
device.
To obtain an estimate of the device junction temperature, one may use the following relationship:
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Layout Guidelines (continued)
TJ = PD × RθJA + TA
where
•
•
•
•
•
TJ = junction temperature in °C
PD = VIN × IIN × (1 − efficiency) − 1.1 × IOUT × DCR
DCR = inductor DC parasitic resistance in Ω
RθJA = junction-to-ambient thermal resistance of the device in °C/W
TA = ambient temperature in °C.
(31)
The maximum operating junction temperature of the LM76002/LM76003 is 125°C. RθJA is highly related to PCB
size and layout, as well as environmental factors such as heat sinking and air flow. Figure 86 shows measured
results of RθJA with different copper area on a 2-layer board and a 4-layer board.
30
1W @0 fpm - 2layer
1W @0 fpm - 4layer
2W @0 fpm - 2layer
2W @0 fpm - 4layer
28
R,JA (°C/W)
26
24
22
20
18
16
14
12
10
20
30mm 30
× 30mm
40mm 40
× 40mm
50mm 50
× 50mm
60
70mm 70
×70mm
80
Copper Area
Figure 86. Measured RθJA vs PCB Copper Area on a 2-Layer Board and a 4-Layer Board
10.1.4 Feedback Resistors
To reduce noise sensitivity of the output voltage feedback path, it is important to place the resistor divider and
CFF close to the FB pin, rather than close to the load. The FB pin is the input to the error amplifier, so it is a high
impedance node and very sensitive to noise. Placing the resistor divider and CFF closer to the FB pin reduces the
trace length of FB signal and reduces noise coupling. The output node is a low impedance node, so the trace
from VOUT to the resistor divider can be long if short path is not available.
If voltage accuracy at the load is important, make sure voltage sense is made at the load. Doing so corrects for
voltage drops along the traces and provide the best output accuracy. The voltage sense trace from the load to
the feedback resistor divider should be routed away from the SW node path, the inductor and VIN path to avoid
contaminating the feedback signal with switch noise, while also minimizing the trace length. This is most
important when high value resistors are used to set the output voltage. TI recommends routing the voltage sense
trace on a different layer than the inductor, SW node and VIN path, such that there is a ground plane in between
the feedback trace and inductor / SW node / VIN polygon. This provides further shielding for the voltage
feedback path from switching noises.
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10.2 Layout Example
Figure 87. LM76002/LM76003 Layout
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10.3 Thermal Design
When calculating module dissipation use the maximum input voltage and the average output current for the
application. Many common operating conditions are provided in the characteristic curves such that less common
applications can be derived through interpolation. In all designs, the junction temperature must be kept below the
rated maximum of 125°C. For the design case of VIN = 12 V, VOUT = 5 V, IOUT = 3.5 A, fSW = 2100 kHz, and TAMAX = 85°C, the device must detect a thermal resistance from exposed pad (case) to ambient (RθCA):
RTCA <
TJ-MAX
TA-MAX
PIC _ LOSS
RTCA
(32)
The typical thermal impedance from junction to case is 1.7°C/W. Use the 125°C power dissipation curves in
Typical Characteristics section to estimate the PIC-LOSS for the application being designed. In this application it is
3 W. The inductor losses must be subtracted from this number and can be estimated as:
RTCA <
125qC 85qC
2.75 W
1.7qC/W < 12.84qC/W
(33)
To reach RθCA = 12.84°C/W, the PCB is required to dissipate heat effectively. With no airflow and no external
heat-sink, a good estimate of the required board area covered by 2 oz. copper on both the top and bottom metal
layers is:
Board Area_cm2 d
500
qC u cm2
u
RTCA
W
(34)
As a result, approximately 38.95 square cm of 2 oz. copper on top and bottom layers is the minimum required
area for the example PCB design. This is a 6.25 cm (2.45 inch) square. The PCB copper heat sink must be
connected to the pins of the device and to the exposed pad with multiple thermal vias to the bottom copper. For
an example of a high thermal performance PCB layout refer to AN-2020 Thermal Design By Insight, Not
Hindsight and the evaluation board documentation.
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11 Device and Documentation Support
11.1 Device Support
11.1.1 Development Support
11.1.1.1 Custom Design With WEBENCH® Tools
Click here to create a custom design using the LM76002 or LM76003 device with the WEBENCH® Power
Designer.
1. Start by entering the input voltage (VIN), output voltage (VOUT), and output current (IOUT) requirements.
2. Optimize the design for key parameters such as efficiency, footprint, and cost using the optimizer dial.
3. Compare the generated design with other possible solutions from Texas Instruments.
The WEBENCH Power Designer provides a customized schematic along with a list of materials with real-time
pricing and component availability.
In most cases, these actions are available:
• Run electrical simulations to see important waveforms and circuit performance
• Run thermal simulations to understand board thermal performance
• Export customized schematic and layout into popular CAD formats
• Print PDF reports for the design, and share the design with colleagues
Get more information about WEBENCH tools at www.ti.com/WEBENCH.
11.2 Receiving Notification of Documentation Updates
To receive notification of documentation updates, navigate to the device product folder on ti.com. In the upper
right corner, click on Alert me to register and receive a weekly digest of any product information that has
changed. For change details, review the revision history included in any revised document.
11.3 Support Resources
TI E2E™ support forums are an engineer's go-to source for fast, verified answers and design help — straight
from the experts. Search existing answers or ask your own question to get the quick design help you need.
Linked content is provided "AS IS" by the respective contributors. They do not constitute TI specifications and do
not necessarily reflect TI's views; see TI's Terms of Use.
11.4 Trademarks
E2E is a trademark of Texas Instruments.
WEBENCH is a registered trademark of Texas Instruments.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
11.5 Electrostatic Discharge Caution
These devices have limited built-in ESD protection. The leads should be shorted together or the device placed in conductive foam
during storage or handling to prevent electrostatic damage to the MOS gates.
11.6 Glossary
SLYZ022 — TI Glossary.
This glossary lists and explains terms, acronyms, and definitions.
12 Mechanical, Packaging, and Orderable Information
The following pages include mechanical, packaging, and orderable information. This information is the most
current data available for the designated devices. This data is subject to change without notice and revision of
this document. For browser-based versions of this data sheet, refer to the left-hand navigation.
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PACKAGE OPTION ADDENDUM
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5-Sep-2019
PACKAGING INFORMATION
Orderable Device
Status
(1)
Package Type Package Pins Package
Drawing
Qty
Eco Plan
Lead/Ball Finish
MSL Peak Temp
(2)
(6)
(3)
Op Temp (°C)
Device Marking
(4/5)
LM76002RNPR
ACTIVE
WQFN
RNP
30
3000
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
CU SN
Level-2-260C-1 YEAR
-40 to 125
LM76002R
NP
LM76002RNPT
ACTIVE
WQFN
RNP
30
250
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
CU SN
Level-2-260C-1 YEAR
-40 to 125
LM76002R
NP
LM76003RNPR
ACTIVE
WQFN
RNP
30
3000
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
CU SN
Level-2-260C-1 YEAR
-40 to 125
LM76003R
NP
LM76003RNPT
ACTIVE
WQFN
RNP
30
250
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
CU SN
Level-2-260C-1 YEAR
-40 to 125
LM76003R
NP
(1)
The marketing status values are defined as follows:
ACTIVE: Product device recommended for new designs.
LIFEBUY: TI has announced that the device will be discontinued, and a lifetime-buy period is in effect.
NRND: Not recommended for new designs. Device is in production to support existing customers, but TI does not recommend using this part in a new design.
PREVIEW: Device has been announced but is not in production. Samples may or may not be available.
OBSOLETE: TI has discontinued the production of the device.
(2)
RoHS: TI defines "RoHS" to mean semiconductor products that are compliant with the current EU RoHS requirements for all 10 RoHS substances, including the requirement that RoHS substance
do not exceed 0.1% by weight in homogeneous materials. Where designed to be soldered at high temperatures, "RoHS" products are suitable for use in specified lead-free processes. TI may
reference these types of products as "Pb-Free".
RoHS Exempt: TI defines "RoHS Exempt" to mean products that contain lead but are compliant with EU RoHS pursuant to a specific EU RoHS exemption.
Green: TI defines "Green" to mean the content of Chlorine (Cl) and Bromine (Br) based flame retardants meet JS709B low halogen requirements of <=1000ppm threshold. Antimony trioxide based
flame retardants must also meet the <=1000ppm threshold requirement.
(3)
MSL, Peak Temp. - The Moisture Sensitivity Level rating according to the JEDEC industry standard classifications, and peak solder temperature.
(4)
There may be additional marking, which relates to the logo, the lot trace code information, or the environmental category on the device.
(5)
Multiple Device Markings will be inside parentheses. Only one Device Marking contained in parentheses and separated by a "~" will appear on a device. If a line is indented then it is a continuation
of the previous line and the two combined represent the entire Device Marking for that device.
(6)
Lead/Ball Finish - Orderable Devices may have multiple material finish options. Finish options are separated by a vertical ruled line. Lead/Ball Finish values may wrap to two lines if the finish
value exceeds the maximum column width.
Important Information and Disclaimer:The information provided on this page represents TI's knowledge and belief as of the date that it is provided. TI bases its knowledge and belief on information
provided by third parties, and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of such information. Efforts are underway to better integrate information from third parties. TI has taken and
Addendum-Page 1
Samples
PACKAGE OPTION ADDENDUM
www.ti.com
5-Sep-2019
continues to take reasonable steps to provide representative and accurate information but may not have conducted destructive testing or chemical analysis on incoming materials and chemicals.
TI and TI suppliers consider certain information to be proprietary, and thus CAS numbers and other limited information may not be available for release.
In no event shall TI's liability arising out of such information exceed the total purchase price of the TI part(s) at issue in this document sold by TI to Customer on an annual basis.
OTHER QUALIFIED VERSIONS OF LM76002, LM76003 :
• Automotive: LM76002-Q1, LM76003-Q1
NOTE: Qualified Version Definitions:
• Automotive - Q100 devices qualified for high-reliability automotive applications targeting zero defects
Addendum-Page 2
PACKAGE MATERIALS INFORMATION
www.ti.com
5-Sep-2019
TAPE AND REEL INFORMATION
*All dimensions are nominal
Device
Package Package Pins
Type Drawing
LM76002RNPR
WQFN
RNP
30
SPQ
Reel
Reel
A0
Diameter Width (mm)
(mm) W1 (mm)
B0
(mm)
K0
(mm)
P1
(mm)
W
Pin1
(mm) Quadrant
3000
330.0
16.4
4.25
6.25
0.95
8.0
16.0
Q1
LM76002RNPT
WQFN
RNP
30
250
180.0
16.4
4.25
6.25
0.95
8.0
16.0
Q1
LM76003RNPR
WQFN
RNP
30
3000
330.0
16.4
4.25
6.25
0.95
8.0
16.0
Q1
LM76003RNPT
WQFN
RNP
30
250
180.0
16.4
4.25
6.25
0.95
8.0
16.0
Q1
Pack Materials-Page 1
PACKAGE MATERIALS INFORMATION
www.ti.com
5-Sep-2019
*All dimensions are nominal
Device
Package Type
Package Drawing
Pins
SPQ
Length (mm)
Width (mm)
Height (mm)
LM76002RNPR
WQFN
RNP
30
3000
370.0
355.0
55.0
LM76002RNPT
WQFN
RNP
30
250
195.0
200.0
45.0
LM76003RNPR
WQFN
RNP
30
3000
370.0
355.0
55.0
LM76003RNPT
WQFN
RNP
30
250
195.0
200.0
45.0
Pack Materials-Page 2
PACKAGE OUTLINE
RNP0030A
WQFN - 0.8 mm max height
SCALE 2.700
PLASTIC QUAD FLATPACK - NO LEAD
4.1
3.9
A
B
PIN 1 INDEX AREA
6.1
5.9
0.1 MIN
(0.05)
SECTION A-A
SECTION A-A
SCALE 25.000
TYPICAL
0.8
0.7
C
SEATING PLANE
0.05
0.00
0.08
2.2 0.1
2X 1.5
26X 0.5
(0.2) TYP
EXPOSED
THERMAL PAD
15
12
11
16
SYMM
A
A
4.6 0.1
2X
5
1
26
PIN 1 ID
(OPTIONAL)
0.5
8X
0.3
30
SYMM
27
30X
0.65
22X
0.45
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.05
C A B
4222145/C 02/2018
NOTES:
1. All linear dimensions are in millimeters. Any dimensions in parenthesis are for reference only. Dimensioning and tolerancing
per ASME Y14.5M.
2. This drawing is subject to change without notice.
3. The package thermal pad must be soldered to the printed circuit board for thermal and mechanical performance.
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EXAMPLE BOARD LAYOUT
RNP0030A
WQFN - 0.8 mm max height
PLASTIC QUAD FLATPACK - NO LEAD
(2.2)
SYMM
30
8X (0.6)
27
22X (0.75)
1
26
30X (0.25)
2X
(2.05)
(0.5) TYP
(5.8)
SYMM
(4.6)
6X
(1.16)
(R0.05) TYP
16
11
( 0.2) TYP
VIA
15
12
6X (0.85)
(3.65)
LAND PATTERN EXAMPLE
SCALE:15X
0.07 MAX
ALL AROUND
0.07 MIN
ALL AROUND
SOLDER MASK
OPENING
METAL
SOLDER MASK
OPENING
METAL UNDER
SOLDER MASK
NON SOLDER MASK
DEFINED
(PREFERRED)
SOLDER MASK
DEFINED
SOLDER MASK DETAILS
4222145/C 02/2018
NOTES: (continued)
4. This package is designed to be soldered to a thermal pad on the board. For more information, see Texas Instruments literature
number SLUA271 (www.ti.com/lit/slua271).
www.ti.com
EXAMPLE STENCIL DESIGN
RNP0030A
WQFN - 0.8 mm max height
PLASTIC QUAD FLATPACK - NO LEAD
SYMM
(0.59) TYP
27
30
8X (0.6)
22X (0.75)
1
26
30X (0.25)
26X (0.5)
(1.16)
TYP
(0.58)
TYP
SYMM
(5.8)
METAL
TYP
8X (0.96)
16
11
(R0.05) TYP
12
15
8X (0.98)
(3.65)
SOLDER PASTE EXAMPLE
BASED ON 0.125 mm THICK STENCIL
EXPOSED PAD
74.4% PRINTED SOLDER COVERAGE BY AREA
SCALE:20X
4222145/C 02/2018
NOTES: (continued)
5. Laser cutting apertures with trapezoidal walls and rounded corners may offer better paste release. IPC-7525 may have alternate
design recommendations.
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