Texas Instruments | TPS54388-Q1 Automotive 2.95-V to 6-V, 3-A , 2-MHz Synchronous Buck Converter (Rev. E) | Datasheet | Texas Instruments TPS54388-Q1 Automotive 2.95-V to 6-V, 3-A , 2-MHz Synchronous Buck Converter (Rev. E) Datasheet

Texas Instruments TPS54388-Q1 Automotive 2.95-V to 6-V, 3-A , 2-MHz Synchronous Buck Converter (Rev. E) Datasheet
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TPS54388-Q1
SLVSAF1E – OCTOBER 2010 – REVISED MAY 2019
TPS54388-Q1 Automotive 2.95-V to 6-V, 3-A , 2-MHz Synchronous Buck Converter
1 Features
3 Description
•
The TPS54388-Q1 device is a full-featured 6-V, 3-A,
synchronous step-down current-mode converter with
two integrated MOSFETs.
1
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
AEC-Q100-Qualified for Automotive Applications:
– Temperature Grade 1: –40°C to +125°C, TA
Two 12-mΩ (typical) MOSFETs for High Efficiency
at 3-A Loads
200-kHz to 2-MHz Switching Frequency
0.8 V ± 1% Voltage Reference Over Temperature
(–40°C to +150°C)
Synchronizes to External Clock
Adjustable Slow Start and Sequencing
UV and OV Power-Good Output
–40°C to +150°C Operating Junction Temperature
Range
Thermally Enhanced 3-mm × 3-mm 16-pin WQFN
Pin Compatible to TPS54418
Create a Custom Design using the TPS54388-Q1
with the WEBENCH® Power Designer
2 Applications
•
•
•
Automotive Head Unit
Automotive Instrument Cluster
Automotive ADAS Camera
The TPS54388-Q1 device enables small designs by
integrating the MOSFETs, implementing currentmode control to reduce external component count,
reducing inductor size by enabling up to 2-MHz
switching frequency, and minimizing the IC footprint
with a small 3-mm × 3-mm thermally enhanced QFN
package.
The TPS54388-Q1 device provides accurate
regulation for a variety of loads with an accurate ±1%
voltage reference (Vref) over temperature.
The integrated 12-mΩ MOSFETs and 515-μA typical
supply current maximize efficiency. Entering
shutdown mode using the enable pin reduces
shutdown supply current to 5.5 µA, typical.
The internal undervoltage lockout setting is at 2.45 V,
but programming the threshold with a resistor network
on the enable pin can increase the setting. The slowstart pin sets the output-voltage start-up ramp. An
open-drain power-good signal indicates when the
output is within 93% to 107% of its nominal voltage.
Frequency foldback and thermal shutdown protect the
device during an overcurrent condition.
Device Information (1)
PART NUMBER
PACKAGE
TPS54388-Q1
(1)
WQFN (16)
VIN
BOOT
EN
PH
R4
C(I)
Efficiency Curve
C(BOOT)
100
V(VIN) = 3 V
95
L(O)
R5
85
C(O)
R1
PWRGD
VSENSE
SS/TR
RT/CLK
COMP
C(SS)
Rt
R3
C1
GND
AGND
Thermal Pad
V(VIN) = 5 V
90
VO
R2
Efficiency (%)
V(VIN)
3.00 mm × 3.00 mm
For all available packages, see the orderable addendum at
the end of the data sheet.
Simplified Schematic
TPS54388-Q1
BODY SIZE (NOM)
80
75
70
65
60
f(SW) = 500 kHz
55
50
VO = 1.8 V
0
1
2
3
4
Output Current (A)
5
6
1
An IMPORTANT NOTICE at the end of this data sheet addresses availability, warranty, changes, use in safety-critical applications,
intellectual property matters and other important disclaimers. PRODUCTION DATA.
TPS54388-Q1
SLVSAF1E – OCTOBER 2010 – REVISED MAY 2019
www.ti.com
Table of Contents
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Features ..................................................................
Applications ...........................................................
Description .............................................................
Revision History.....................................................
Pin Configuration and Functions .........................
Specifications.........................................................
1
1
1
2
3
4
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
4
4
4
5
5
7
Absolute Maximum Ratings ......................................
ESD Ratings ............................................................
Recommended Operating Conditions.......................
Thermal Information ..................................................
Electrical Characteristics..........................................
Typical Characteristics ..............................................
Detailed Description ............................................ 11
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
Overview .................................................................
Functional Block Diagram .......................................
Feature Description.................................................
Device Functional Modes........................................
11
12
12
13
8
Application and Implementation ........................ 22
8.1 Application Information............................................ 22
8.2 Typical Application ................................................. 22
9 Power Supply Recommendations...................... 31
10 Layout................................................................... 31
10.1 Layout Guidelines ................................................. 31
10.2 Layout Example .................................................... 32
11 Device and Documentation Support ................. 33
11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
11.6
11.7
11.8
Third-Party Products Disclaimer ...........................
Device Support......................................................
Documentation Support ........................................
Receiving Notification of Documentation Updates
Community Resource............................................
Trademarks ...........................................................
Electrostatic Discharge Caution ............................
Glossary ................................................................
33
33
33
33
34
34
34
34
12 Mechanical, Packaging, and Orderable
Information ........................................................... 34
4 Revision History
Changes from Revision D (April 2015) to Revision E
Page
•
Editorial changes only, no technical revisions; added links for WEBENCH .......................................................................... 1
•
Added top navigator icon for reference design ..................................................................................................................... 1
•
Added the Receiving Notification of Documentation Updates section and changed the ESD notice ................................. 33
Changes from Revision C (September 2014) to Revision D
Page
•
Changed pinout drawing to top view ...................................................................................................................................... 3
•
Changed Equation 8 and Equation 9 ................................................................................................................................... 17
Changes from Revision B (July 2012) to Revision C
Page
•
Updated the data sheet to the new TI data sheet standard ................................................................................................... 1
•
Added AEC-Q100 list items to the Features section ............................................................................................................. 1
•
Changed pinout diagram to bottom view ............................................................................................................................... 3
•
Added MIN values to BOOT and BOOT-PH parameters ....................................................................................................... 4
•
Changed the max value for the input voltage on the EN and RT/CLK pins in the Absolute Maximum Ratings table .......... 4
•
Deleted notes with test-board information from the Thermal Information table .................................................................... 5
•
Updated the Thermal Information table with new values ...................................................................................................... 5
•
Simplified discussion for implementation of ratiometric and simultaneous power-supply sequencing and changed the
following equations correspondingly .................................................................................................................................... 16
•
Changed to calculated determination of Rt resistor ............................................................................................................ 17
Changes from Revision A (June, 2011) to Revision B
Page
•
Removed (SWIFT™) from title. .............................................................................................................................................. 1
•
Removed the last two sentences in the description containing SwitcherPro™ and SWIFT™ references............................. 1
•
Removed last sentence of first paragraph, "Use SwitcherPro software for a more accurate design." ................................ 27
2
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5 Pin Configuration and Functions
4
12
PH
11
PH
10
PH
VIN
EN
PWRGD
BOOT
15
14
13
9
AGND
8
GND
RT/CLK
3
5
GND
Thermal
Pad
7
2
COMP
VIN
6
1
VSENSE
VIN
16
RTE Package
16-Pin WQFN With Exposed Thermal Pad
Top View
SS/TR
Pin Functions
PIN
I/O (1)
DESCRIPTION
NAME
NO.
AGND
5
—
Connect analog ground electrically to GND close to the device.
BOOT
13
O
The device requires a bootstrap capacitor between BOOT and PH. A voltage on this capacitor that is
below the minimum required by the BOOT UVLO forces the output to switch off until the capacitor
recharges.
COMP
7
O
Error amplifier output, and input to the output-switch current comparator. Connect frequencycompensation components to this pin.
EN
15
I
Enable pin, internal pullup-current source. Pull below 1.2 V to disable. Float to enable. One can use this
pin to set the on-off threshold (adjust UVLO) with two additional resistors.
GND
3
4
—
Power ground. Directly connect this pin electrically to the thermal pad under the device.
O
The source of the internal high-side power MOSFET, and drain of the internal low-side (synchronous)
rectifier MOSFET
10
PH
11
12
PWRGD
14
O
An open-drain output; asserted low if output voltage is low due to thermal shutdown, overcurrent, overor undervoltage, or EN shutdown.
RT/CLK
8
I
Resistor-timing or external-clock input pin
SS/TR
9
I
Slow start and tracking. An external capacitor connected to this pin sets the output-voltage rise time.
Another use of this pin is for tracking.
I
Input supply voltage, 2.95 V to 6 V
I
Inverting node of the transconductance (gm) error amplifier
1
VIN
2
16
VSENSE
6
Thermal pad
(1)
—
Connect the GND pin to the exposed thermal pad for proper operation. Connect this thermal pad to any
internal PCB ground planes using multiple vias for good thermal performance.
I = input, O = output
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6 Specifications
6.1 Absolute Maximum Ratings
over operating free-air temperature range (unless otherwise noted) (1)
Input voltage
Output voltage
MIN
MAX
VIN
–0.3
7
EN
–0.3
7
BOOT
–0.3
PH + 7
VSENSE
–0.3
3
COMP
–0.3
3
PWRGD
–0.3
7
SS/TR
–0.3
3
RT/CLK
–0.3
7
BOOT-PH
–0.3
7
PH
–0.6
7
–2
10
PH 10-ns transient
Source current
Sink current
UNIT
V
V
EN
100
RT/CLK
100
COMP
100
µA
PWRGD
10
mA
SS/TR
100
µA
µA
Junction temperature, TJ
–40
150
°C
Ambient temperature, TA
–40
125
°C
Storage temperature, Tstg
–65
150
°C
(1)
Stresses beyond those listed under Absolute Maximum Ratings may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings
only, and do not imply functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated under Recommended
Operating Conditions. Exposure to absolute-maximum-rated conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
6.2 ESD Ratings
VALUE
Human body model (HBM), per AEC Q100-002 (1)
V(ESD)
(1)
Electrostatic
discharge
Charged device model (CDM), per AEC
Q100-011
UNIT
±2000
Corner pins (1, 16, 4, 5, 8, 9, 12, and 13)
±750
Other pins
±500
V
AEC Q100-002 indicates HBM stressing is done in accordance with the ANSI/ESDA/JEDEC JS-001 specification.
6.3 Recommended Operating Conditions
over operating free-air temperature (unless otherwise noted)
MIN
NOM
MAX
UNIT
V(VIN)
Input voltage
2.95
6
V
TA
Operating ambient temperature
–40
125
ºC
4
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6.4 Thermal Information
TPS54388-Q1
THERMAL METRIC (1)
RTE (WQFN)
UNIT
16 PINS
RθJA
Junction-to-ambient thermal resistance
43.5
°C/W
RθJC(top)
Junction-to-case(top) thermal resistance
46.1
°C/W
RθJB
Junction-to-board thermal resistance
15.5
°C/W
ψJT
Junction-to-top characterization parameter
0.7
°C/W
ψJB
Junction-to-board characterization parameter
15.5
°C/W
RθJC(bot)
Junction-to-case(bottom) thermal resistance
3.8
°C/W
(1)
6.5
For more information about traditional and new thermal metrics, see the Semiconductor and IC Package Thermal Metrics application
report (SPRA953).
Electrical Characteristics
TJ = –40°C to 150°C, V(VIN) = 2.95 to 6 V (unless otherwise noted)
DESCRIPTION
TEST CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
VIN UVLO start
2.28
2.5
VIN UVLO stop
2.45
2.6
UNIT
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (VIN PIN)
Internal undervoltage lockout threshold
V
Shutdown supply current
V(EN) = 0 V, 25°C, 2.95 V ≤ V(VIN) ≤ 6 V
5.5
15
μA
Quiescent current, I(q)
V(SENSE) = 0.9 V, V(VIN) = 5 V, 25°C, Rt = 400 kΩ
515
750
μA
Rising
1.25
Falling
1.18
Enable threshold + 50 mV
–1.6
Enable threshold – 50 mV
–1.6
ENABLE AND UVLO (EN PIN)
Enable threshold
Input current
V
μA
VOLTAGE REFERENCE (VSENSE PIN)
Voltage reference
2.95 V ≤ V(VIN) ≤ 6 V, –40°C <TJ < 150°C
0.79
0.8
0.811
V(BOOT-PH) = 5 V
12
30
V(BOOT-PH) = 2.95 V
16
30
V(VIN) = 5 V
13
30
V(VIN) = 2.95 V
17
30
V
MOSFET
High-side switch resistance
Low-side switch resistance
mΩ
mΩ
ERROR AMPLIFIER
Input current
2
nA
Error-amplifier transconductance (gm)
–2 μA < I(COMP) < 2 μA, V(COMP) = 1 V
245
μS
Error-amplifier transconductance (gm) during
slow start
–2 μA < I(COMP) < 2 μA, V(COMP) = 1 V,
V(VSENSE) = 0.4 V
79
μS
Error amplifier source and sink
V(COMP) = 1 V, 100-mV overdrive
±20
μA
25
S
COMP to high-side FET current gm
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Electrical Characteristics (continued)
TJ = –40°C to 150°C, V(VIN) = 2.95 to 6 V (unless otherwise noted)
DESCRIPTION
TEST CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNIT
3.7
6.5
A
168
°C
20
°C
CURRENT LIMIT
Current limit threshold
THERMAL SHUTDOWN
Thermal shutdown
Hysteresis
TIMING RESISTOR AND EXTERNAL CLOCK (RT/CLK PIN)
Switching frequency range using RT mode
Switching frequency
200
Rt = 400 kΩ
400
Switching frequency range using CLK mode
Minimum CLK pulse duration
RT/CLK voltage
500
300
2000
kHz
600
kHz
2000
kHz
75
Rt = 400 kΩ
ns
0.5
RT/CLK high threshold
1.6
RT/CLK low threshold
0.4
V
2.5
V
0.6
V
Delay from RT/CLK falling edge to PH rising
edge
Measure at 500 kHz with RT resistor in series with
device pin
90
ns
PLL lock-in time
Measure at 500 kHz
45
μs
Measured at 50% point on PH, IO = 3 A
75
PH (PH PIN)
Minimum on-time
Measured at 50% point on PH, V(VIN) = 6 V,
IO = 0 A
ns
120
Minimum off-time
Prior to skipping off pulses, BOOT-PH = 2.95 V,
IO = 3 A
Rise time
V(VIN) = 6 V, 6 A
2.25
Fall time
V(VIN) = 6 V, 6 A
2
60
ns
V/ns
BOOT (BOOT PIN)
BOOT charge resistance
V(VIN) = 5 V
16
Ω
BOOT-PH UVLO
V(VIN) = 2.95 V
2.1
V
SLOW START AND TRACKING (SS/TR PIN)
Charge current
V(SS/TR) = 0.4 V
2
μA
SS/TR to VSENSE matching
V(SS/TR) = 0.4 V
50
mV
SS/TR to reference crossover
98% of normal reference voltage
1.1
V
SS/TR discharge voltage (overload)
V(VSENSE) = 0 V
61
mV
SS/TR discharge current (overload)
V(VSENSE) = 0 V, V(SS/TR) = 0.4 V
350
µA
SS discharge current (UVLO, EN, thermal
fault)
V(VIN) = 5 V, V(SS/TR) = 0.5 V
1.9
mA
VSENSE falling (Fault)
91
POWER GOOD (PWRGD PIN)
VSENSE threshold
VSENSE rising (Good)
93
VSENSE rising (Fault)
109
VSENSE falling (Good)
107
Hysteresis
VSENSE falling
Output-high leakage
V(VSENSE) = Vref, V(PWRGD) = 5.5 V
On-resistance
I(PWRGD) = 3 mA
Minimum VIN for valid output
V(PWRGD) < 0.5 V at 100 μA
6
2
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% Vref
7
56
Output low
% Vref
nA
100
0.3
0.65
Ω
V
1.6
V
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SLVSAF1E – OCTOBER 2010 – REVISED MAY 2019
525
0.025
0.023
520
High-Side rDS(on), V(VIN) = 3.3 V
0.021
0.019
Low-Side rDS(on), V(VIN) = 3.3 V
0.017
0.015
0.013
High-Side rDS(on), V(VIN) = 5 V
0.011
Low-Side rDS(on), V(VIN) = 5 V
0.009
515
Switching Frequency (kHz)
Static Drain-Source On-State Resistance (W)
6.6 Typical Characteristics
510
505
500
495
490
485
0.007
0.005
–50
480
–25
0
25
50
75
100
125
475
-50
150
Junction Temperature (°C)
-25
0
25
50
75
100
Junction Temperature (°C)
Rt = 400 kΩ
Figure 1. High-Side and Low-Side rDS(on) vs Temperature
V(VIN) = 5 V
0.807
7.5
0.805
V(VIN) = 3.3 V
7
Voltage Reference (V)
High-Side Switching Current (A)
150
Figure 2. Frequency vs Temperature
8
6.5
6
5.5
V(VIN) = 5 V
5
4.5
4
0.803
0.801
0.799
0.797
0.795
0.793
3.5
3
–50
125
–25
0
25
50
75
100
125
0.791
-50
150
-25
0
25
50
75
100
125
150
Junction Temperature (°C)
Junction Temperature (°C)
V(VIN) = 3.3 V
Figure 4. Voltage Reference vs Temperature
Figure 3. High-Side Current Limit vs Temperature
100
2000
Nominal Switching Frequency (%)
Switching Frequency (kHz)
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
V(VSENSE) Rising
50
25
0
400
200
80
V(VSENSE) Falling
75
0
180
280
380
480
580
Resistance (kΩ)
680
780
880
0.1
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
V(VSENSE) (V)
980
Figure 5. Switching Frequency vs RT Resistance, LowFrequency Range
0.2
Figure 6. Switching Frequency vs V(VSENSE)
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Typical Characteristics (continued)
105
310
100
Transconductance (mS)
Transconductance (mS)
290
270
250
230
210
190
95
90
85
80
75
70
65
60
170
–50
–25
0
25
50
75
Junction Temperature (°C)
100
125
55
–50
150
25
50
75
100
125
150
V(VIN) = 3.3 V
Figure 7. Transconductance vs Temperature
Figure 8. Transconductance (Slow Start) vs Junction
Temperature
–3
–3.1
V(VIN) = 3.3 V, rising
–3.2
Pin Current (mA)
Threshold (V)
0
Junction Temperature (°C)
V(VIN) = 3.3 V
1.3
1.29
1.28
1.27
1.26
1.25
1.24
1.23
1.22
1.21
1.2
1.19
1.18
1.17
1.16
1.15
–50
–25
V(VIN) = 3.3 V, falling
–3.3
–3.4
–3.5
–3.6
–3.7
–3.8
–3.9
–25
0
25
50
75
100
125
–4
–50
150
–25
0
Junction Temperature (°C)
25
50
75
100
125
150
Junction Temperature (°C)
V(VIN) = 5 V
Figure 9. EN Pin Voltage vs Temperature
V(EN) = Threshold + 50 mV
Figure 10. EN Pin Current vs Temperature
–1
–1.4
–1.2
–1.6
Charge Current (mA)
Pin Current (mA)
–1.4
–1.6
–1.8
–2
–2.2
–2.4
–1.8
–2
–2.2
–2.4
–2.6
–2.6
–2.8
–2.8
–3
–50
–25
0
25
50
75
100
125
150
–3
–50
–30
–10
V(VIN) = 5 V
V(EN) = Threshold – 50 mV
Figure 11. EN Pin Current vs Temperature
8
10
30
50
70
90
110
130
150
Junction Temperature (°C)
Junction Temperature (°C)
V(VIN) = 5 V
Figure 12. Charge Current vs Temperature
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Typical Characteristics (continued)
8
2.7
7
Shutdown Supply Current (mA)
2.8
Input Voltage (V)
2.6
UVLO Start Switching
2.5
2.4
2.3
UVLO Stop Switching
2.2
2.1
2
-50
-25
0
25
50
75
Junction Temperature (°C)
100
125
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–50
150
–25
0
25
50
75
100
125
150
Junction Temperature (°C)
V(VIN) = 3.3 V
Figure 13. Input Voltage vs Temperature
Figure 14. Shutdown Supply Current vs Temperature
800
7
700
6
Supply Current (Am)
Shutdown Supply Current (mA)
8
5
4
3
2
600
500
400
300
1
0
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
200
–50
6
–25
0
Input Voltage (V)
TJ = 25ºC
25
50
75
100
Junction Temperature (°C)
125
150
V(VIN) = 3.3 V
Figure 15. Shutdown Supply Current vs Input Voltage
Figure 16. VIN Supply Current vs Junction Temperature
110
800
108
106
Threshold (% of Vref)
Supply Current (Am)
700
V(VSENSE) Rising,
PWRGD Deasserted
104
600
102
V(VSENSE) Falling,
PWRGD Asserted
100
500
400
98
V(VSENSE) Falling,
PWRGD Deasserted
96
V(VSENSE) Rising,
PWRGD Asserted
94
92
300
90
200
–50
–25
0
25
50
75
100
Junction Temperature (°C)
125
150
TJ = 25ºC
88
–50
–25
0
25
50
75
100
Junction Temperature (°C)
125
150
V(VIN) = 5 V
Figure 17. VIN Supply Current vs Input Voltage
Figure 18. PWRGD Threshold vs Temperature
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100
100
90
90
80
80
Vsense Offset (mV)
Static Drain-Source On-State Resistance (W)
Typical Characteristics (continued)
70
60
50
40
30
70
60
50
40
30
20
20
10
10
0
–50
–25
0
25
50
75
100
125
150
0
–50
–25
0
Junction Temperature (°C)
10
25
50
75
100
125
150
Junction Temperature (°C)
V(VIN) = 5 V
V(VIN) = 5 V
Figure 19. PWRGD On-Resistance vs Temperature
Figure 20. SS/TR-to-VSENSE Offset vs Temperature
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7 Detailed Description
7.1 Overview
The TPS54388-Q1 device is a 6-V, 3-A, synchronous step-down (buck) converter with two integrated n-channel
MOSFETs. To improve performance during line and load transients, the device implements a constantfrequency, peak-current-mode control, which reduces output capacitance and simplifies external frequencycompensation design. The wide switching-frequency range of 200 kHz to 2000 kHz allows for efficiency and size
optimization when selecting the output-filter components. A resistor to ground on the RT/CLK pin sets the
switching frequency. The device has an internal phase-lock loop (PLL) on the RT/CLK pin that synchronizes the
power-switch turnon to a falling edge of an external system clock.
The TPS54388-Q1 device has a typical default start-up voltage of 2.45 V. The EN pin has an internal pullup
current source that one can use to adjust the input-voltage undervoltage lockout (UVLO) with two external
resistors. In addition, the pullup current provides a default condition, allowing the device to operate when the EN
pin is floating. The total operating current for the TPS54388-Q1 device is typically 515 μA when not switching and
under no load. With the device disabled, the supply current is typically 5.5 μA.
The integrated 12-mΩ MOSFETs allow for high-efficiency power-supply designs with continuous output currents
up to 3 A.
The TPS54388-Q1 device reduces the external component count by integrating the boot recharge diode. A
capacitor between the BOOT and PH pins supplies the bias voltage for the integrated high-side MOSFET. A
UVLO circuit monitors the boot-capacitor voltage and turns off the high-side MOSFET when the voltage falls
below a preset threshold. This BOOT circuit allows the TPS54388-Q1 device to operate approaching 100% duty
cycle. The lower limit for stepping down the output voltage is the 0.8-V reference.
The TPS54388-Q1 device has a power-good comparator (PWRGD) with 2% hysteresis.
The TPS54388-Q1 device minimizes excessive output overvoltage transients by taking advantage of the
overvoltage power-good comparator. A regulated output voltage exceeding 109% of the nominal voltage
activates the overvoltage comparator, turning off the high-side MOSFET and masking it from turning on until the
output voltage is lower than 107% of the nominal voltage.
A use of the SS/TR (slow start pr tracking) pin is to minimize inrush currents or provide power-supply sequencing
during power up. Couple a small-value capacitor to the pin for slow start. Discharging the SS/TR pin before the
output powers up ensures a repeatable restart after an overtemperature fault, UVLO fault, or disabled condition.
The use of a frequency foldback circuit reduces the switching frequency during start-up and overcurrent fault
conditions to help limit the inductor current.
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7.2 Functional Block Diagram
EN
PWRGD
VIN
i(1)
Shutdown
91%
i(hys)
Enable
Comparator
Logic
Thermal
Shutdown
UVLO
Shutdown
Shutdown
Logic
109%
Enable
Threshold
Boot
Charge
Voltage
Reference
Boot
UVLO
Minimum
COMP Clamp
Error
Amplifier
PWM
Comparator
VSENSE
SS/TR
Current
Sense
BOOT
Logic and PWM
Latch
Shutdown
Logic
S
Slope
Compensation
PH
COMP
Frequency
Shift
Overload
Recovery
Maximum
Clamp
Oscillator
With PLL
GND
TPS54388-Q1 Block Diagram
AGND
Thermal Pad
RT/CLK
7.3 Feature Description
7.3.1 Fixed-Frequency PWM Control
The TPS54388-Q1 device uses an adjustable fixed-frequency, peak-current-mode control. An error amplifier,
which drives the COMP pin, compares the output voltage through external resistors on the VSENSE pin to an
internal voltage reference. An internal oscillator initiates the turnon of the high-side power switch. The device
compares the error-amplifier output to the high-side power-switch current. When the sensed voltage derived from
the power-switch current reaches the COMP voltage level, the high-side power switch turns off and the low-side
power switch turns on. The COMP pin voltage increases and decreases as the output current increases and
decreases. The device implements a current limit by clamping the COMP pin voltage to a maximum level, and
also implements a minimum clamp for improved transient-response performance.
7.3.2 Slope Compensation and Output Current
The TPS54388-Q1 device adds a compensating ramp to the switch-current signal. This slope compensation
prevents sub-harmonic oscillations as duty cycle increases. The available peak inductor current remains constant
over the full duty-cycle range.
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Feature Description (continued)
7.3.3 Bootstrap Voltage (BOOT) and Low-Dropout Operation
The TPS54388-Q1 device has an integrated boot regulator and requires a small ceramic capacitor between the
BOOT and PH pins to provide the gate-drive voltage for the high-side MOSFET. The value of the ceramic
capacitor should be 0.1 μF. TI recommends a ceramic capacitor with an X7R- or X5R-grade dielectric with a
voltage rating of 10 V or higher because of the stable characteristics over temperature and voltage.
The TPS54388-Q1 design improves dropout by operating at 100% duty cycle as long as the BOOT-to-PH pin
voltage is greater than 2.2 V. A UVLO circuit turns off the high-side MOSFET, allowing for the low-side MOSFET
to conduct when the voltage from BOOT to PH drops below 2.2 V. Because the supply current sourced from the
BOOT pin is low, the high-side MOSFET can remain on for more switching cycles than are required to refresh
the capacitor. Thus, the effective duty cycle of the switching regulator is high.
7.3.4 Error Amplifier
The TPS54388-Q1 device has a transconductance amplifier that it uses as an error amplifier. The error amplifier
compares the VSENSE voltage to the lower of the SS/TR pin voltage or the internal 0.8-V voltage reference. The
transconductance of the error amplifier is 245 μS during normal operation. When the voltage of VSENSE pin is
below 0.8 V and the device is regulating using the SS/TR voltage, the gm is typically greater than 79 μS, but less
than 245 μS.
7.3.5 Voltage Reference
The voltage reference system produces a precise ±1% voltage reference over temperature by scaling the output
of a temperature-stable band-gap circuit. The band-gap and scaling circuits produce 0.8 V at the non-inverting
input of the error amplifier.
7.4 Device Functional Modes
7.4.1 Adjusting the Output Voltage
A resistor divider from the output node to the VSENSE pin sets the output voltage. TI recommends using divider
resistors with 1% tolerance or better. Start with 100 kΩ for the R1 resistor and use Equation 1 to calculate R2. To
improve efficiency at light loads, consider using larger-value resistors. If the values are too high, the regulator is
more susceptible to noise, and voltage errors from the VSENSE input current are noticeable.
æ 0.8 V ö
R2 = R1´ ç
÷
è VO - 0.8 V ø
(1)
TPS54388-Q1
VO
R1
VSENSE
R2
0.8 V
+
Figure 21. Voltage-Divider Circuit
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Device Functional Modes (continued)
7.4.2 Enable Functionality and Adjusting Undervoltage Lockout
The VIN pin voltage on the VIN pin falling below 2.6 V disables the TPS54388-Q1 device. If an application
requires a higher undervoltage lockout (UVLO), use the EN pin as shown in Figure 22 to adjust the input voltage
UVLO by using two external resistors. TI recommends using the EN resistors to set the UVLO falling threshold
(V(STOP)) above 2.6 V. Set the rising threshold (V(START)) to provide enough hysteresis to allow for any input
supply variations. The EN pin has an internal pullup current source that provides the default condition of
TPS54388-Q1 operation when the EN pin floats. Once the EN pin voltage exceeds 1.25 V, the circuitry adds an
additional 1.6 μA of hysteresis. Pulling the EN pin below 1.18 V removes the 1.6 μA. This additional current
facilitates input voltage hysteresis.
TPS54388-Q1
I hys
VIN
1.6 mA
I1
R1
1.6 mA
R2
EN
+
-
Figure 22. Adjustable Undervoltage Lockout
æ V(ENFALLING) ö
V(START) ç
÷ - V(STOP)
ç V(ENRISING) ÷
è
ø
R1 =
æ
V(ENFALLING) ö
I(1) ç 1 ÷ +I
ç
V(ENRISING) ÷ø (hys)
è
where
•
•
•
•
R2 =
V(ENFALLING) = 1.18 V
V(ENRISING) = 1.25 V
I(1) = 1.6 µA
I(hys) = 1.6 µA
(2)
R1 ´ V(ENFALLING)
V(STOP) - V(ENFALLING) + R1 ´ (I(1) + I(hys) )
(3)
7.4.3 Slow-Start or Tracking Pin
The TPS54388-Q1 device regulates to the lower of the SS/TR pin and the internal reference voltage. A capacitor
on the SS/TR pin to ground implements a slow-start time. The TPS54388-Q1 device has an internal pullup
current source of 2 μA, which charges the external slow-start capacitor. Equation 4 calculates the required slowstart capacitor value, where t(SS/TR) is the desired slow start time in ms, I(SS/TR) is the internal slow start charging
current of 2 μA, and Vref is the internal voltage reference of 0.8 V.
C(SS/TR) (nF) =
14
t (SS/TR) (ms) ´ I(SS/TR) (mA)
Vref (V)
(4)
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Device Functional Modes (continued)
If during normal operation, VIN goes below UVLO, the EN pin goes below 1.2 V, or a thermal shutdown event
occurs, the TPS54388-Q1 device stops switching. On VIN going above UVLO, the release or pulling high of EN,
or exit from a thermal shutdown, SS/TR discharges to below 60 mV before re-initiation of a power-up sequence.
The VSENSE voltage follows the SS/TR pin voltage with a 50-mV offset up to 85% of the internal voltage
reference. When the SS/TR voltage is greater than 85% of the internal reference voltage, the offset increases as
the effective system reference transitions from the SS/TR voltage to the internal voltage reference.
7.4.4 Sequencing
One can implement many of the common power-supply sequencing methods using the SS/TR, EN, and PWRGD
pins. Implementation of the sequential method uses an open-drain or open-collector output of the power-on-reset
pin of another device. Figure 23 shows the sequential method. Couple the power-good to the EN pin on the
TPS54388-Q1 device to enable the second power supply once the primary supply reaches regulation.
One can accomplish ratiometric start-up by connecting the SS/TR pins together. The regulator outputs ramp up
and reach regulation at the same time. When calculating the slow-start time, double the pullup current source in
Equation 4. Figure 25 shows the ratiometric method.
TPS54388-Q1
PWRGD
EN
EN
EN1
SS/TR
SS/TR
EN2
PWRGD
VO(1)
VO(2)
Figure 23. Sequential Start-Up Sequence
Figure 24. Sequential Start-Up Using EN and
PWRGD
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Device Functional Modes (continued)
TPS54388-Q1
EN1
SS/TR1
EN
PWRGD1
SS
TPS54388-Q1
VO(1)
EN2
VO(2)
SS/TR2
PWRGD2
Figure 25. Schematic for Ratiometric Start-Up
Sequence
Figure 26. Ratiometric Start-Up With VO(1) Leading
VO(2)
One can implement ratiometric and simultaneous power-supply sequencing by connecting the resistor network of
R1 and R2 shown in Figure 27 to the output of the power supply that requires tracking, or to another voltage
reference source. Using Equation 5 and Equation 6, one can calculate the tracking resistors to initiate VO(2)
slightly before, after, or at the same time as VO(1). VO(1) – VO(2) is 0 V for simultaneous sequencing. Including
V(ssoffset) and I(SS/TR) as variables in the equations minimizes the effect of the inherent SS/TR-to-VSENSE offset
(V(ssoffset)) in the slow-start circuit and the offset created by the pullup current source (I(ss)) and tracking resistors.
Because the SS/TR pin requires pulling below 60 mV before starting after an EN, UVLO, or thermal-shutdown
fault, select the tracking resistors carefully to ensure the device can restart after a fault. Make sure the calculated
R1 value from Equation 5 is greater than the value calculated in Equation 7 to ensure the device can recover
from a fault. As the SS/TR voltage becomes more than 85% of the nominal reference voltage, V(ssoffset) becomes
larger as the slow-start circuits gradually hand off the regulation reference to the internal voltage reference. The
SS/TR pin voltage must be greater than 1.1 V for a complete handoff to the internal voltage reference as shown
in Figure 26.
R1 =
R2 =
VO(1)
Vref
´
V(ssoffset)
I(SS/TR)
(5)
Vref ´ R1
VO(1) - Vref
(6)
R1 > 2930 ´ VO(1) - 145 ´ ( VO(1) - VO(2) )
16
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Device Functional Modes (continued)
TPS54388-Q1
BOOT1
EN1
PH1
VO(1)
EN1
SS/TR1
PWRGD1
SS2
VO(1)
R1
TPS54388-Q1
VO(2)
BOOT2
EN2
R2
PH2
VO(2)
SS/TR2
VSENSE2
PWRGD2
Figure 27. Ratiometric and Simultaneous Start-Up
Sequence
Figure 28. Ratiometric Start-Up Using Coupled
SS/TR Pins
7.4.5 Constant Switching Frequency and Timing Resistor (RT/CLK Pin)
The switching frequency of the TPS54388-Q1 device is adjustable over a wide range from 200 kHz to 2000 kHz
by placing a resistor on the RT/CLK pin with a value calculated by Equation 8. An internal amplifier holds this pin
at a fixed voltage when using an external resistor to ground to set the switching frequency. The voltage on
RT/CLK is typically 0.5 V. To determine the timing resistance for a given switching frequency, use Equation 8 or
the curve in Figure 5.
247 530 (MW /s)
Rt (kW ) =
f (SW )1.0533 (kHz )
(8)
f (SW ) (kHz ) =
131 904 (MW /s)
Rt 0.9492 (kW )
(9)
To reduce the solution size, one would typically set the switching frequency as high as possible, but consider
tradeoffs of the efficiency, maximum input voltage, and minimum controllable on-time.
The minimum controllable on-time is typically 60 ns at full-current load and 120 ns at no load, and limits the
maximum operating input voltage or output voltage.
7.4.6 Overcurrent Protection
The TPS54388-Q1 device implements a cycle-by-cycle current limit. During each switching cycle, the device
compares a voltage derived from the high-side switch current to the voltage on the COMP pin. When the
instantaneous switch-current voltage intersects the COMP voltage, the high-side switch turns off. During
overcurrent conditions that pull the output voltage low, the error amplifier responds by driving the COMP pin high,
increasing the switch current. An internal clamp on the error-amplifier output functions as a switch-current limit.
7.4.7 Frequency Shift
To operate at high switching frequencies and provide protection during overcurrent conditions, the TPS54388-Q1
device implements a frequency shift. Without this frequency shift, during an overcurrent condition the low-side
MOSFET might not turn off long enough to reduce the current in the inductor, causing a current runaway. With
frequency shift, during an overcurrent condition there is a switching-frequency reduction from 100% to 50%, then
25%, as the voltage decreases from 0.8 V to 0 V on the VSENSE pin. The frequency shift allows the low-side
MOSFET to be off long enough to decrease the current in the inductor. During start-up, the switching frequency
increases as the voltage on VSENSE increases from 0 V to 0.8 V. See Figure 6 for details.
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Device Functional Modes (continued)
7.4.8 Reverse Overcurrent Protection
The TPS54388-Q1 device implements low-side current protection by detecting the voltage across the low-side
MOSFET. When the converter sinks current through its low-side FET, the control circuit turns off the low-side
MOSFET if the reverse current is typically more than 4.5 A. By implementing this additional protection scheme,
the converter is able to protect itself from excessive current during power cycling and start-up into pre-biased
outputs.
7.4.9 Synchronize Using the RT/CLK Pin
The RT/CLK pin synchronizes the converter to an external system clock. See Figure 29. To implement the
synchronization feature in a system, connect a square wave to the RT/CLK pin with an on-time of at least 75 ns.
If the square wave pulls the pin above the PLL upper threshold, a mode change occurs, and the pin becomes a
synchronization input. The CLK mode disables the internal amplifier, and the pin becomes a high-impedance
clock input to the internal PLL. Stopping the clocking edges re-enables the internal amplifier, and the mode
returns to the frequency set by the resistor. The square-wave amplitude at this pin must transition lower than 0.6
V and higher than 1.6 V, typically. The synchronization frequency range is 300 kHz to 2000 kHz. The rising edge
of PH synchronizes to the falling edge of the RT/CLK pin.
TPS54388-Q1
SYNC Clock = 2 V/div
RT/CLK
PLL
PH = 2 V/div
Clock
Source
Rt
Time = 500 ns/div
Figure 29. Synchronizing to a System Clock
Figure 30. Plot of Synchronizing to a System Clock
7.4.10 Power Good (PWRGD Pin)
The output of the PWRGD pin is an open-drain MOSFET. The output goes low when the VSENSE voltage enters
the fault condition by falling below 91% or rising above 109% of the nominal internal reference voltage. There is
a 2% hysteresis on the threshold voltage, so when the VSENSE voltage rises to the good condition above 93%
or falls below 107% of the internal voltage reference, the PWRGD output MOSFET turns off. TI recommends
using a pullup resistor between the values of 1 kΩ and 100 kΩ to a voltage source that is 6 V or less. PWRGD is
in a valid state once the VIN input voltage is greater than 1.1 V.
7.4.11 Overvoltage Transient Protection
The TPS54388-Q1 device incorporates an overvoltage transient protection (OVTP) circuit to minimize voltage
overshoot when recovering from output fault conditions or strong unload transients. The OVTP feature minimizes
the output overshoot by implementing a circuit to compare the VSENSE pin voltage to the OVTP threshold,
which is 109% of the internal voltage reference. If the VSENSE pin voltage goes higher than the OVTP
threshold, the high-side MOSFET turns off, preventing current from flowing to the output and minimizing output
overshoot. When the VSENSE voltage drops lower than the OVTP threshold, the high-side MOSFET turns on in
the next clock cycle.
7.4.12 Thermal Shutdown
The device implements an internal thermal shutdown to protect itself if the junction temperature exceeds 168°C.
The thermal shutdown forces the device to stop switching when the junction temperature exceeds the thermal
trip threshold. Once the die temperature decreases below 148°C, the device reinitiates the power-up sequence
by discharging the SS/TR pin to below 60 mV. The thermal shutdown hysteresis is 20°C.
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Device Functional Modes (continued)
7.4.13 Small-Signal Model for Loop Response
Figure 31 shows an equivalent model for the TPS54388-Q1 control loop, which one can model in a circuitsimulation program to check frequency response and dynamic load response. The error amplifier is a
transconductance amplifier with a gm of 245 μS. One can model the error amplifier using an ideal voltagecontrolled current source. The resistor R0 and capacitor C0 model the open-loop gain and frequency response of
the amplifier. The 1-mV ac voltage source between nodes a and b effectively breaks the control loop for the
frequency-response measurements. Plotting a over c vs frequency shows the small-signal response of the
frequency compensation. Plotting a over b vs frequency shows the small-signal response of the overall loop.
Check the dynamic loop response by replacing R(L) with a current source that has the appropriate load-step
amplitude and step rate in a time-domain analysis.
PH
VO
Power Stage
25 S
a
b
R1
c
R(ESR)
R(L)
COMP
0.8 V
R3
C0
C2
C1
R0
VSENSE
gm
245 µS
C(OUT)
R2
Figure 31. Small-Signal Model for Loop Response
7.4.14 Simple Small-Signal Model for Peak-Current-Mode Control
Figure 31 is a simple small-signal model that one can use to understand how to design the frequency
compensation. A voltage-controlled current source (duty-cycle modulator) supplying current to the output
capacitor and load resistor approximates the TPS54388-Q1 power stage. Equation 10 shows the control-tooutput transfer function, which consists of a dc gain, one dominant pole, and one ESR zero. The quotient of the
change in switch current divided by the change in COMP pin voltage (node c in Figure 31) is the power-stage
transconductance. The gm for the TPS54388-Q1 device is 25 S. The low-frequency gain of the power-stage
frequency response is the product of the transconductance and the load resistance as shown in Equation 11. As
the load current increases and decreases, the low-frequency gain decreases and increases, respectively. This
variation with load may seem problematic at first glance, but the dominant pole moves with load current (see
Equation 12). The dashed line in the right half of Figure 32 highlights the combined effect. As the load current
decreases, the gain increases and the pole frequency lowers, keeping the 0-dB crossover frequency the same
for varying load conditions, which makes it easier to design the frequency compensation.
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Device Functional Modes (continued)
VO
Adc
VC
RESR
fp
RL
gmps
COUT
fz
Figure 32. Simple Small-Signal Model and Frequency Response for Peak-Current-Mode Control
æ
ö
s
ç 1+
÷
ç
2p × f ( z) ÷ø
VO
è
= A (dc) ´
V(C)
æ
ö
s
ç 1+
÷
ç 2p × f(p) ÷
è
ø
A (dc) = gm(ps) ´ R (L)
f (p)
(10)
(11)
1
=
C(OUT) ´ R (L) ´ 2p
f (z) =
(12)
1
C(OUT) ´ R (ESR) ´ 2p
(13)
7.4.15 Small-Signal Model for Frequency Compensation
The TPS54388-Q1 device uses a transconductance amplifier for the error amplifier and readily supports two of
the commonly used frequency-compensation circuits. Figure 33 shows the compensation circuits. The most-likely
implementation of Type 2B circuits is in high-bandwidth power-supply designs using low-ESR output capacitors.
Type 2A contains one additional high-frequency pole to attenuate high-frequency noise.
VO
R1
VSENSE
COMP
gmea
R2
Vref
RO
CO
5pF
Type 2A
R3
C2
Type 2B
R3
C1
C1
Figure 33. Types of Frequency Compensation
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Device Functional Modes (continued)
The design guidelines for TPS54388-Q1 loop compensation are as follows:
1. Calculate the modulator pole, f(p,mod), and the ESR zero, f(z,mod), using Equation 14 and Equation 15. The
output capacitor (C(OUT)) may require derating if the output voltage is a high percentage of the capacitor
rating. Use the manufacturer information for the capacitor to derate the capacitor value. Use Equation 16 and
Equation 17 to estimate a starting point for the crossover frequency, f(c). Equation 16 is the geometric mean
of the modulator pole and the ESR zero, and Equation 17 is the mean of the modulator pole and the
switching frequency. Use the lower value of Equation 16 or Equation 17 as the maximum crossover
frequency.
I O(max)
f (p,mod) =
2p ´ VO ´ C(OUT)
(14)
f (z,mod) =
1
2p ´ R (ESR) ´ C(OUT)
f (c) =
f (p,mod) ´ f (z,mod)
f (c) =
f (p,mod) ´
(15)
(16)
f (SW)
2
(17)
2. Determine R3 using Equation 18.
2p ´ f (c) ´ VO ´ C(OUT)
R3 =
g m(ea) ´ Vref ´ g m(ps)
where
•
•
gm(ea) is the amplifier gain (245 μS)
gm(ps) is the power-stage gain (25 S)
(18)
3. Place a compensation zero at the dominant pole:
1
f (p) =
C(OUT) ´ R (L) ´ 2p
(19)
4. Determine C1 using Equation 20.
R (L) ´ C(OUT)
C1 =
R3
(20)
vertical spacer
5. C2 is optional. Use it, if necessary, to cancel the zero from the ESR of C(OUT).
R (ESR) ´ C(OUT)
C2 =
R3
(21)
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8 Application and Implementation
NOTE
Information in the following applications sections is not part of the TI component
specification, and TI does not warrant its accuracy or completeness. TI’s customers are
responsible for determining suitability of components for their purposes. Customers should
validate and test their design implementation to confirm system functionality.
8.1 Application Information
Details on how to use this device in automotive applications appear throughout this device specification. The
following sections provide the typical application use case with equations and methods on selecting the external
components, as well as layout guidelines.
8.2 Typical Application
TPS54388RTE
Figure 34. High-Frequency, 1.8-V Output Power-Supply Design With Adjusted UVLO
8.2.1 Design Requirements
This example details the design of a high-frequency switching-regulator design using ceramic output capacitors.
To start the design process, it is necessary to know a few parameters. Determination of these parameters is
typically at the system level. For this example, start with the following known parameters:
Table 1. Design Parameters
DESIGN PARAMETER
EXAMPLE VALUE
Output voltage
1.8 V
Transient response, 1-A to 2-A load step
ΔV(out) = 5%
Maximum output current
3A
Input voltage
5 V nominal, 3 V to 5 V
Output-voltage ripple
< 30 mV p-p
Switching frequency, f(sw)
1000 kHz
22
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8.2.2 Detailed Design Procedure
8.2.2.1 Custom Design With WEBENCH® Tools
Click here to create a custom design using the TPS54388-Q1 device with the WEBENCH® Power Designer.
1. Start by entering the input voltage (VIN), output voltage (VOUT), and output current (IOUT) requirements.
2. Optimize the design for key parameters such as efficiency, footprint, and cost using the optimizer dial.
3. Compare the generated design with other possible solutions from Texas Instruments.
The WEBENCH Power Designer provides a customized schematic along with a list of materials with real-time
pricing and component availability.
In most cases, these actions are available:
• Run electrical simulations to see important waveforms and circuit performance
• Run thermal simulations to understand board thermal performance
• Export customized schematic and layout into popular CAD formats
• Print PDF reports for the design, and share the design with colleagues
Get more information about WEBENCH tools at www.ti.com/WEBENCH.
8.2.2.2 Selecting the Switching Frequency
The first step is to decide on a switching frequency for the regulator. Typically, one would choose the highest
switching frequency possible to produce the smallest solution size. The high switching frequency allows for
lower-valued inductors and smaller output capacitors compared to a power supply that switches at a lower
frequency. However, the highest switching frequency causes extra switching losses, which hurt the converter
performance. The converter is capable of running from 200 kHz to 2 MHz. Unless a small solution size is an
ultimate goal, select a moderate switching frequency of 1 MHz to achieve both a small solution size and highefficiency operation. Using Equation 8, calculate R5 to be 180 kΩ. Choose a standard 1% 182-kΩ value for the
design.
8.2.2.3 Output Inductor Selection
The inductor selected works for the entire TPS54388-Q1 input-voltage range. To calculate the value of the output
inductor, use Equation 22. The k(IND) coefficient represents the amount of inductor ripple current relative to the
maximum output current. The output capacitor filters the inductor ripple current. Therefore, choosing high
inductor ripple currents impacts the selection of the output capacitor, because the output capacitor must have a
ripple-current rating equal to or greater than the inductor ripple current. In general, the inductor ripple value is at
the discretion of the designer; however, k(IND) is normally from 0.1 to 0.3 for the majority of applications.
For this design example, use k(IND) = 0.3, and the inductor value calculates to be 1.36 μH. For this design,
choose the nearest standard value of 1.5 μH. For the output-filter inductor, it is important not to exceed the rmscurrent and saturation-current ratings. Find the rms and peak inductor current using Equation 24 and
Equation 25.
For this design, the rms inductor current is 3.01 A and the peak inductor current is 3.72 A. The chosen inductor is
a Coilcraft XLA4020-152ME_ or equivalent. It has a saturation current rating 0f 9.6 A and an RMS current rating
of 7.5 A.
The current flowing through the inductor is the inductor ripple current plus the output current. During power up,
faults, or transient load conditions, the inductor current can increase above the calculated peak inductor current
level calculated previously. In transient conditions, the inductor current can increase up to the switch-current limit
of the device. For this reason, the most conservative approach is to specify an inductor with a saturation current
rating equal to or greater than the switch-current limit rather than the peak inductor current.
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VI(max) - VO
L1 =
I O ´ k (IND)
´
VO
VI(max) ´ f (SW)
VI(max) - VO
I(ripple) =
L1
I(Lrms) = I O2 +
I(Lpeak) = I O +
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´
(22)
VO
VI(max) ´ f (SW)
æ VO ´ (VI(max) - VO )
1
´ ç
ç VI(max) ´ L1 ´ f (SW)
12
è
(23)
ö
÷
÷
ø
2
(24)
I(ripple)
2
(25)
8.2.2.4 Output Capacitor
Three primary considerations must be considered for selecting the value of the output capacitor. The output
capacitor determines the modulator pole, the output voltage ripple, and how the regulator responds to a large
change in load current. Base the output-capacitance selection on the most-stringent of these three criteria.
The desired response to a large change in the load current is the first criterion. The output capacitor must supply
the load with current when the regulator cannot. This situation would occur if there are desired hold-up times for
the regulator where the output capacitor must hold the output voltage above a certain level for a specified
amount of time after removal of the input power. The regulator is temporarily not able to supply sufficient output
current if there is a large, fast increase in the current requirement of the load, such as transitioning from no load
to a full load. The regulator usually requires two or more clock cycles for the control loop to see the change in
load current and output voltage and then adjust the duty cycle to react to the change. The output capacitor must
be large enough to supply the extra current to the load until the control loop responds to the load change. The
output capacitance must be large enough to supply the difference in current for two clock cycles while only
allowing a tolerable amount of droop in the output voltage. Equation 26 shows the minimum output capacitance
necessary to meet this requirement.
For this example, the specification for transient-load response is a 5% change in VO for a load step from 0 A (no
load) to 1.5 A (50% load). For this example, ΔIO = 1.5 A – 0 A = 1.5 A and ΔVO = 0.05 × 1.8 V = 0.09 V. Using
these numbers gives a minimum capacitance of 33 μF. This value does not take the ESR of the output capacitor
into account in the output voltage change. For ceramic capacitors, the ESR is usually small enough to ignore in
this calculation.
Equation 27 calculates the minimum output capacitance needed to meet the output-voltage ripple specification.
In this case, the maximum output-voltage ripple is 30 mV. Under this requirement, Equation 27 yields 2.3 µF.
C(OUT) >
2 ´ DI O
f (SW ) ´ DVO
where
•
•
•
ΔIO is the change in output current
f(SW) is the regulator switching frequency
ΔVO is the allowable change in the output voltage
C(OUT) >
(26)
1
1
´
8 ´ f (SW ) VO(ripple)
I(ripple)
where
•
•
•
f(SW) is the switching frequency
VO(ripple) is the maximum allowable output voltage ripple
I(ripple) is the inductor ripple current
(27)
Use Equation 28 to calculate the maximum ESR an output capacitor can have to meet the output-voltage ripple
specification. Equation 28 indicates the ESR should be less than 55 mΩ. In this case, the ESR of the ceramic
capacitor is much less than 55 mΩ.
24
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Factoring in additional capacitance deratings for aging, temperature, and dc bias increases this minimum value.
For this example, use two 22-μF, 10-V X5R ceramic capacitors with 3 mΩ of ESR.
Capacitors generally have limits to the amount of ripple current they can handle without failing or producing
excess heat. Select an output capacitor that can support the inductor ripple current. Some capacitor data sheets
specify the root-mean-square (rms) value of the maximum ripple current. Use Equation 29 to calculate the rms
ripple current that the output capacitor must support. For this application, Equation 29 yields 333 mA.
VO(ripple)
R (ESR) <
I(ripple)
(28)
I(Co,rms) =
VO ´ (VI(max) - VO )
12 ´ VI(max) ´ L1 ´ f (SW )
(29)
8.2.2.5 Input Capacitor
The TPS54388-Q1 device requires a high-quality ceramic, type X5R or X7R, input decoupling capacitor with at
least 4.7 μF of effective capacitance, and in some applications a bulk capacitance. The effective capacitance
includes any dc bias effects. The voltage rating of the input capacitor must be greater than the maximum input
voltage. The capacitor must also have a ripple-current rating greater than the maximum input-current ripple of the
TPS54388-Q1 device. Calculate the input ripple current using Equation 30.
The value of a ceramic capacitor varies significantly over temperature and the amount of dc bias applied to the
capacitor. Minimize the capacitance variations due to temperature by selecting a dielectric material that is stable
over temperature. X5R and X7R ceramic dielectrics are the usual selection for power regulator capacitors
because they have a high capacitance-to-volume ratio and are fairly stable over temperature. The outputcapacitor selection must also take dc bias into account. The capacitance value of a capacitor decreases as the
dc bias across that capacitor increases.
This example design requires a ceramic capacitor with at least a 10-V voltage rating to support the maximum
input voltage. For this example, the selection is one 10-μF 10-V and one 0.1-μF 10-V capacitor in parallel. The
input capacitance value determines the input ripple voltage of the regulator. Calculate the input voltage ripple
using Equation 31. Using the design example values, IO(max) = 3 A, C(IN) = 10 μF, and f(SW) = 1 MHz, yields an
input voltage ripple of 76 mV and an rms input ripple current of 1.47 A.
I(Ci,rms) = I O ´
DVI =
VO
VI(min)
´
(VI(min) - VO )
VI(min)
(30)
I O(max) ´ 0.25
C(IN) ´ f (SW )
(31)
8.2.2.6 Slow-Start Capacitor
The slow-start capacitor determines the minimum amount of time it takes for the output voltage to reach its
nominal programmed value during power up. Slow start is useful if a load requires a controlled rate of voltage
slew. Another use for slow start is if the output capacitance is large and would require large amounts of current
to charge the capacitor quickly to the output-voltage level. The large current necessary to charge the capacitor
may make the TPS54388-Q1 device reach the current limit, or excessive current draw from the input power
supply may cause the input voltage rail to sag. Limiting the output-voltage slew rate solves both of these
problems.
Calculate the slow-start capacitor value using Equation 32. For the example circuit, the slow-start time is not too
critical because the output-capacitor value is 44 μF, which does not require much current to charge to 1.8 V. The
example circuit has the slow-start time set to an arbitrary value of 4 ms, which requires a 10-nF capacitor. In the
TPS54388-Q1 device, I(SS/TR) is 2.2 μA and Vref is 0.8 V.
t (SS) (ms) ´ I(SS/TR) (mA)
C(SS) (nF) =
Vref (V)
(32)
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8.2.2.7 Bootstrap Capacitor Selection
Connect a 0.1-μF ceramic capacitor between the BOOT and PH pins for proper operation. TI recommends using
a ceramic capacitor with X5R or better-grade dielectric. The capacitor should have a 10-V or higher voltage
rating.
8.2.2.8 Output-Voltage and Feedback-Resistor Selection
For the example design, the R6 selection is 100 kΩ. Using Equation 33, calculate R7 as 80 kΩ. The nearest
standard 1% resistor is 80.5 kΩ.
Vref
R7 =
´ R6
VO - Vref
(33)
Because of the internal design of the TPS54388-Q1 device, there is a minimum output-voltage limit for any given
input voltage. The output voltage can never be lower than the internal voltage reference of 0.8 V. Above 0.8 V,
an output voltage limit may exist due to the minimum controllable on-time. In this case, Equation 34 gives the
minimum output voltage:
(
)
(
VO(min) = t (ONmin) ´ f(SWmax) ´ VI(max) - I O(min) ´ 2 ´ rDS(on) - I O(min) ´ R (L) + rDS(on)
)
where
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
VO(min) = minimum achievable output voltage
t(ONmin) = minimum controllable on-time (65 ns typical, 120 ns with no load)
f(SWmax) = maximum switching frequency, including tolerance
VI(max) = maximum input voltage
IO(min) = minimum load current
rDS(on) = minimum high-side MOSFET on-resistance (15 mΩ–19 mΩ)
R(L) = series resistance of output inductor
(34)
There is also a maximum achievable output voltage, which is limited by the minimum off-time. Equation 35 gives
the maximum output voltage.
(
) (
)
(
VO(max) = 1 - t (OFFmax) ´ f (SWmax) ´ VI(min) - I O(max) ´ 2 ´ rDS(on) - I O(max) ´ R (L) + rDS(on)
)
where
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
26
VO(max) = maximum achievable output voltage
t(OFFmax) = maximum off-time (60 ns, typical)
f(SWmax) = maximum switching frequency, including tolerance
VI(min) = minimum input voltage
IO(max) = maximum load current
rDS(on) = maximum high-side MOSFET on-resistance (19 mΩ–30 mΩ)
R(L) = series resistance of output inductor
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8.2.2.9 Compensation
The industry uses several techniques to compensate dc-dc regulators. The method presented here is easy to
calculate and yields high phase margins. For most conditions, the regulator has a phase margin between 60 and
90 degrees. The method presented here ignores the effects of the slope compensation that is internal to the
TPS54388-Q1 device. As a result of ignoring the slope compensation, the actual crossover frequency is usually
lower than the crossover frequency used in the calculations.
To get started, calculate the modulator pole, f(p,mod), and the ESR zero, f(z,mod), using Equation 36 and
Equation 37. For C(OUT), derating the capacitor is not necessary, as the 1.8-V output is a small percentage of the
10-V capacitor rating. If the output is a high percentage of the capacitor rating, use the manufacturer information
for the capacitor to derate the capacitor value. Use Equation 38 and Equation 39 to estimate a starting point for
the crossover frequency, f(c). For the example design, f(p,mod) is 6.03 kHz and f(z,mod) is 1210 kHz. Equation 38 is
the geometric mean of the modulator pole and the ESR zero, and Equation 39 is the mean of the modulator pole
and the switching frequency. Equation 38 yields 85.3 kHz and Equation 39 gives 54.9 kHz. Use the lower value
of Equation 38 or Equation 39 as the approximate crossover frequency. For this example, f(c) is 56 kHz. Next,
calculate the values of the compensation components. Use a resistor in series with a capacitor to create a
compensating zero. A capacitor in parallel with these two components forms the compensating pole (if needed).
I O(max)
f (p,mod) =
2p ´ VO ´ C(OUT)
(36)
f (z,mod) =
1
2p ´ R (ESR) ´ C(OUT)
f (c) =
f (p,mod) ´ f (z,mod)
f (c) =
f (p,mod) ´
(37)
(38)
f (SW)
2
(39)
The compensation design takes the following steps:
1. Set up the anticipated crossover frequency. Use Equation 40 to calculate the resistor value for the
compensation network. In this example, the anticipated crossover frequency (f(c)) is 56 kHz. The power-stage
gain (gm(ps)) is 25 S and the error-amplifier gain (gm(ea)) is 245 μS.
2p ´ f (c) ´ VO ´ C(OUT)
R3 =
g m(ea) ´ Vref ´ g m(ps)
(40)
2. Place a compensation zero at the pole formed by the load resistor and the output capacitor. Calculate the
capacitor for the compensation network using Equation 41.
R0 ´ C0
C3 =
R3
(41)
3. One can include an additional pole to attenuate high-frequency noise. In this application, the extra pole is not
necessary.
From the procedures above, the compensation network includes a 7.68-kΩ resistor and a 3300-pF capacitor.
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8.2.2.10 Power-Dissipation Estimate
The following formulas show how to estimate the IC power dissipation under continuous-conduction mode (CCM)
operation. The power dissipation of the IC (PT) includes conduction loss (P(con)), dead-time loss (P(d)), switching
loss (P(SW)), gate-drive loss (P(gd)) and supply-current loss (P(q)).
P(con) = I O 2 ´ rDS(on)(Temp)
where
•
•
IO is the output current (A)
rDS(on)(Temp) is the on-resistance of the high-side MOSFET at a given temperature (Ω)
P(d) = f (SW ) ´ I O ´ 0.7 ´ 60 ´ 10
(42)
-9
where
•
f(SW) is the switching frequency (Hz)
P(SW ) = 1/2 ´ VI ´ I O ´ f (SW ) ´ 8 ´ 10
(43)
-9
where
•
VI is the input voltage (V)
P(gd) = 2 ´ VI ´ f (SW ) ´ 2 ´ 10
P(q) = VI ´ 515 ´ 10
(44)
-9
(45)
-6
(46)
Therefore:
PT = P(con) + P(d) + P(SW ) + P(gd) + P(q)
(47)
For a given TA, use Equation 48 to calculate the junction temperature.
T J = TA + R qJA ´ PT
where
•
•
•
•
TJ is the junction temperature (°C)
TA is the ambient temperature (°C)
RθJA is the thermal resistance of the package (°C/W)
PT is the total device power dissipation (W)
(48)
For a given TJ(max) = 150°C, use Equation 49 to calculate the maximum ambient temperature.
T A(max) = TJ(max) - R qJA ´ PT
where
•
•
TJ(max) is maximum junction temperature (°C)
TA(max) is maximum ambient temperature (°C)
(49)
Additional power losses occur in the regulator circuit because of the inductor ac and dc losses and trace
resistance that impact the overall efficiency of the regulator.
28
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8.2.3 Application Curves
100
100
90
90
80
V(VIN) = 3.3 V
70
70
V(VIN) = 5 V
Efficiency (%)
Efficiency (%)
80
60
50
40
50
40
30
30
20
20
10
10
0
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
0
0.001
3
0.01
0.1
1
10
Output Current (A)
Output Current (A)
VO = 1.8 V
VO = 1.8 V
Figure 36. Efficiency vs Load Current
Figure 35. Efficiency vs Load Current
100
100
2.5 V
1.8 V
95
95
90
90
85
85
80
1.05 V
1.2 V
Efficiency (%)
Efficiency (%)
V(VIN) = 5 V
V(VIN) = 3.3 V
60
1.5 V
75
70
1.8 V
1.5 V
1.2 V
1.05V
3.3 V
80
75
70
65
65
60
60
55
55
50
2.5 V
50
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
0
0.5
Output Current (A)
V(VIN) = 3.3 V
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
Output Current (A)
f(SW) = 1 MHz
TA = 25°C
V(VIN) = 5 V
Figure 37. Efficiency vs Load Current
f(SW) = 1 MHz
TA = 25°C
Figure 38. Efficiency vs Load Current
V(VIN) = 2 V/div
V(VIN) = 2 V/div
EN = 1 V/div
EN = 1 V/div
SS/TR = 1 V/div
SS/TR = 1 V/div
VO = 1 V/div
VO = 1 V/div
Time = 5 ms/div
Time = 500 ms/div
Figure 39. Power Up VO, V(VIN)
Figure 40. Power Down VO, V(VIN)
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V(VIN) = 5 V/div
VO = 100 mV/div (ac-coupled)
VO = 2 V/div
IO = 1 A/div (0-A to 1.5-A load step)
EN = 2 V/div
PWRGD = 5 V/div
Time = 5 ms/div
Time = 200 µs/div
Figure 42. Power Up VO, V(VIN)
Figure 41. Transient Response, 1.5-A Step
V(VIN) = 5 V/div
VO = 20 mV/div (ac-coupled)
VO = 2 V/div
PH = 2 V/div
EN = 2 V/div
PWRGD = 5 V/div
Time = 500 ns/div
Time = 5 ms/div
Figure 44. Output Ripple, 3 A
Gain (dB)
V(VIN) = 100 mV/div (ac coupled)
PH = 2 V/div
60
180
50
40
150
120
30
20
90
60
10
30
0
–10
0
–30
–20
–30
–60
–90
–120
–40
–50
–60
10
Gain
Phase
100
Figure 45. Input Ripple, 3 A
30
1000
10k
Frequency - Hz
V(VIN) = 5 V
Time = 500 ns/div
Phase (degrees)
Figure 43. Power Up VO, EN
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100k
–150
–180
1M
IO = 3 A
Figure 46. Closed-Loop Response
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0.4
0.4
0.3
0.3
Output Voltage Deviation (%)
Output Voltage Deviation (%)
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0.2
V(VIN) = 5 V
0.1
0
V(VIN) = 3.3 V
–0.1
–0.2
–0.3
0.2
0.1
0
–0.1
–0.2
–0.3
–0.4
–0.4
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3
3.5
Output Current (A)
4
4.5
5
5.5
6
Input Voltage (V)
IO = 2 A
Figure 47. Load Regulation vs Load Current
Figure 48. Regulation vs Input Voltage
9 Power Supply Recommendations
By design, the TPS54388-Q1 device works with an analog supply voltage range of 2.95 V to 6 V. Ensure good
regulation for the input supply, and connect the supply to the VIN pins with the appropriate input capacitor as
calculated in the Input Capacitor section. If the input supply is located more than a few inches from the
TPS54388-Q1 device, the design may require extra capacitance in addition to the recommended value.
10 Layout
10.1 Layout Guidelines
Layout is a critical portion of good power-supply design. The signal paths, which conduct fast-changing currents
or voltages, can interact with stray inductance or parasitic capacitance in several ways to generate noise or
degrade the power-supply performance. Take care to minimize the loop area formed by the bypass-capacitor
connections and the VIN pins. See Figure 49 for a PCB layout example. Tie the GND pins and AGND pin directly
to the thermal pad under the IC. Connect the thermal pad to any internal PCB ground planes using multiple vias
directly under the IC. Use additional vias to connect the top-side ground area to any internal planes near the
input and output capacitors. For operation at full-rated load, the top-side ground area, along with any additional
internal ground planes, must provide adequate heat-dissipating area.
Locate the input bypass capacitor as close to the IC as possible. Route the PH pin to the output inductor.
Because the PH connection is the switching node, locate the output inductor close to the PH pins, and minimize
the area of the PCB conductor to prevent excessive capacitive coupling. Also. locate the boot capacitor close to
the device. Connect the sensitive analog ground connections for the feedback voltage divider, compensation
components, slow-start capacitor, and frequency-set resistor to a separate analog ground trace as shown. The
RT/CLK pin is particularly sensitive to noise, so locate the Rt resistor as close as possible to the IC, and connect
it with minimal lengths of trace. Place the additional external components approximately as shown. It may be
possible to obtain acceptable performance with alternative PCB layouts. However, this layout, meant as a
guideline, produces good results.
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10.2 Layout Example
VIA to
Ground
Plane
UVLO SET
RESISTORS
VIN
INPUT
BYPASS
CAPACITOR
BOOT
PWRGD
EN
VIN
VIN
BOOT
CAPACITOR
VIN
OUTPUT
INDUCTOR
PH
VIN
PH
EXPOSED
POWERPAD
AREA
GND
PH
GND
PH
VOUT
OUTPUT
FILTER
CAPACITOR
SLOW START
CAPACITOR
RT/CLK
COMP
VSENSE
AGND
SS
FEEDBACK
RESISTORS
ANALOG
GROUND
TRACE
FREQUENCY
SET
RESISTOR
TOPSIDE
GROUND
AREA
COMPENSATION
NETWORK
VIA to Ground Plane
Figure 49. PCB Layout Example
32
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11 Device and Documentation Support
11.1 Third-Party Products Disclaimer
TI'S PUBLICATION OF INFORMATION REGARDING THIRD-PARTY PRODUCTS OR SERVICES DOES NOT
CONSTITUTE AN ENDORSEMENT REGARDING THE SUITABILITY OF SUCH PRODUCTS OR SERVICES
OR A WARRANTY, REPRESENTATION OR ENDORSEMENT OF SUCH PRODUCTS OR SERVICES, EITHER
ALONE OR IN COMBINATION WITH ANY TI PRODUCT OR SERVICE.
11.2 Device Support
11.2.1 Development Support
11.2.1.1 Custom Design With WEBENCH® Tools
Click here to create a custom design using the TPS54388-Q1 device with the WEBENCH® Power Designer.
1. Start by entering the input voltage (VIN), output voltage (VOUT), and output current (IOUT) requirements.
2. Optimize the design for key parameters such as efficiency, footprint, and cost using the optimizer dial.
3. Compare the generated design with other possible solutions from Texas Instruments.
The WEBENCH Power Designer provides a customized schematic along with a list of materials with real-time
pricing and component availability.
In most cases, these actions are available:
• Run electrical simulations to see important waveforms and circuit performance
• Run thermal simulations to understand board thermal performance
• Export customized schematic and layout into popular CAD formats
• Print PDF reports for the design, and share the design with colleagues
Get more information about WEBENCH tools at www.ti.com/WEBENCH.
11.3 Documentation Support
For related documentation, see the following:
• Enable Functionality and Adjusting Undervoltage Lockout for TPS57112-Q1 (SLVA784)
• Interfacing TPS57xxx-Q1,TPS65320-Q1 Family, and TPS65321-Q1 Devices With Low Impendence External
Clock Drivers (SLVA755)
• TPS57112-Q1 High Frequency (2.35 MHz) Operation (SLVA743)
• TPS54388EVM User's Guide (SLVU962)
• TPS54388-Q1 Pin Open and Short Test Results (SLVA581)
11.4 Receiving Notification of Documentation Updates
To receive notification of documentation updates, navigate to the device product folder on ti.com. In the upper
right corner, click on Alert me to register and receive a weekly digest of any product information that has
changed. For change details, review the revision history included in any revised document.
Submit Documentation Feedback
Copyright © 2010–2019, Texas Instruments Incorporated
Product Folder Links: TPS54388-Q1
33
TPS54388-Q1
SLVSAF1E – OCTOBER 2010 – REVISED MAY 2019
www.ti.com
11.5 Community Resource
The following links connect to TI community resources. Linked contents are provided "AS IS" by the respective
contributors. They do not constitute TI specifications and do not necessarily reflect TI's views; see TI's Terms of
Use.
TI E2E™ Online Community TI's Engineer-to-Engineer (E2E) Community. Created to foster collaboration
among engineers. At e2e.ti.com, you can ask questions, share knowledge, explore ideas and help
solve problems with fellow engineers.
Design Support TI's Design Support Quickly find helpful E2E forums along with design support tools and
contact information for technical support.
11.6 Trademarks
E2E is a trademark of Texas Instruments.
WEBENCH is a registered trademark of Texas Instruments.
11.7 Electrostatic Discharge Caution
This integrated circuit can be damaged by ESD. Texas Instruments recommends that all integrated circuits be handled with
appropriate precautions. Failure to observe proper handling and installation procedures can cause damage.
ESD damage can range from subtle performance degradation to complete device failure. Precision integrated circuits may be more
susceptible to damage because very small parametric changes could cause the device not to meet its published specifications.
11.8 Glossary
SLYZ022 — TI Glossary.
This glossary lists and explains terms, acronyms, and definitions.
12 Mechanical, Packaging, and Orderable Information
The following pages include mechanical, packaging, and orderable information. This information is the mostcurrent data available for the designated devices. This data is subject to change without notice and without
revision of this document. For browser-based versions of this data sheet, see the left-hand navigation pane.
34
Submit Documentation Feedback
Copyright © 2010–2019, Texas Instruments Incorporated
Product Folder Links: TPS54388-Q1
PACKAGE OPTION ADDENDUM
www.ti.com
24-May-2019
PACKAGING INFORMATION
Orderable Device
Status
(1)
TPS54388QRTERQ1
ACTIVE
Package Type Package Pins Package
Drawing
Qty
WQFN
RTE
16
3000
Eco Plan
Lead/Ball Finish
MSL Peak Temp
(2)
(6)
(3)
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-3-260C-168 HR
Op Temp (°C)
Device Marking
(4/5)
-40 to 125
5438Q
(1)
The marketing status values are defined as follows:
ACTIVE: Product device recommended for new designs.
LIFEBUY: TI has announced that the device will be discontinued, and a lifetime-buy period is in effect.
NRND: Not recommended for new designs. Device is in production to support existing customers, but TI does not recommend using this part in a new design.
PREVIEW: Device has been announced but is not in production. Samples may or may not be available.
OBSOLETE: TI has discontinued the production of the device.
(2)
RoHS: TI defines "RoHS" to mean semiconductor products that are compliant with the current EU RoHS requirements for all 10 RoHS substances, including the requirement that RoHS substance
do not exceed 0.1% by weight in homogeneous materials. Where designed to be soldered at high temperatures, "RoHS" products are suitable for use in specified lead-free processes. TI may
reference these types of products as "Pb-Free".
RoHS Exempt: TI defines "RoHS Exempt" to mean products that contain lead but are compliant with EU RoHS pursuant to a specific EU RoHS exemption.
Green: TI defines "Green" to mean the content of Chlorine (Cl) and Bromine (Br) based flame retardants meet JS709B low halogen requirements of <=1000ppm threshold. Antimony trioxide based
flame retardants must also meet the <=1000ppm threshold requirement.
(3)
MSL, Peak Temp. - The Moisture Sensitivity Level rating according to the JEDEC industry standard classifications, and peak solder temperature.
(4)
There may be additional marking, which relates to the logo, the lot trace code information, or the environmental category on the device.
(5)
Multiple Device Markings will be inside parentheses. Only one Device Marking contained in parentheses and separated by a "~" will appear on a device. If a line is indented then it is a continuation
of the previous line and the two combined represent the entire Device Marking for that device.
(6)
Lead/Ball Finish - Orderable Devices may have multiple material finish options. Finish options are separated by a vertical ruled line. Lead/Ball Finish values may wrap to two lines if the finish
value exceeds the maximum column width.
Important Information and Disclaimer:The information provided on this page represents TI's knowledge and belief as of the date that it is provided. TI bases its knowledge and belief on information
provided by third parties, and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of such information. Efforts are underway to better integrate information from third parties. TI has taken and
continues to take reasonable steps to provide representative and accurate information but may not have conducted destructive testing or chemical analysis on incoming materials and chemicals.
TI and TI suppliers consider certain information to be proprietary, and thus CAS numbers and other limited information may not be available for release.
In no event shall TI's liability arising out of such information exceed the total purchase price of the TI part(s) at issue in this document sold by TI to Customer on an annual basis.
Addendum-Page 1
Samples
PACKAGE MATERIALS INFORMATION
www.ti.com
24-May-2019
TAPE AND REEL INFORMATION
*All dimensions are nominal
Device
TPS54388QRTERQ1
Package Package Pins
Type Drawing
WQFN
RTE
16
SPQ
Reel
Reel
A0
Diameter Width (mm)
(mm) W1 (mm)
3000
330.0
12.4
Pack Materials-Page 1
3.3
B0
(mm)
K0
(mm)
P1
(mm)
3.3
1.1
8.0
W
Pin1
(mm) Quadrant
12.0
Q2
PACKAGE MATERIALS INFORMATION
www.ti.com
24-May-2019
*All dimensions are nominal
Device
Package Type
Package Drawing
Pins
SPQ
Length (mm)
Width (mm)
Height (mm)
TPS54388QRTERQ1
WQFN
RTE
16
3000
367.0
367.0
35.0
Pack Materials-Page 2
IMPORTANT NOTICE AND DISCLAIMER
TI PROVIDES TECHNICAL AND RELIABILITY DATA (INCLUDING DATASHEETS), DESIGN RESOURCES (INCLUDING REFERENCE
DESIGNS), APPLICATION OR OTHER DESIGN ADVICE, WEB TOOLS, SAFETY INFORMATION, AND OTHER RESOURCES “AS IS”
AND WITH ALL FAULTS, AND DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS AND IMPLIED, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION ANY
IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR NON-INFRINGEMENT OF THIRD
PARTY INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS.
These resources are intended for skilled developers designing with TI products. You are solely responsible for (1) selecting the appropriate
TI products for your application, (2) designing, validating and testing your application, and (3) ensuring your application meets applicable
standards, and any other safety, security, or other requirements. These resources are subject to change without notice. TI grants you
permission to use these resources only for development of an application that uses the TI products described in the resource. Other
reproduction and display of these resources is prohibited. No license is granted to any other TI intellectual property right or to any third
party intellectual property right. TI disclaims responsibility for, and you will fully indemnify TI and its representatives against, any claims,
damages, costs, losses, and liabilities arising out of your use of these resources.
TI’s products are provided subject to TI’s Terms of Sale (www.ti.com/legal/termsofsale.html) or other applicable terms available either on
ti.com or provided in conjunction with such TI products. TI’s provision of these resources does not expand or otherwise alter TI’s applicable
warranties or warranty disclaimers for TI products.
Mailing Address: Texas Instruments, Post Office Box 655303, Dallas, Texas 75265
Copyright © 2019, Texas Instruments Incorporated
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