Texas Instruments | TPS54020 Small, 10-A, 4.5-V to 17-V input, SWIFT™ synchronous step-down converter with light-load efficiency (Rev. E) | Datasheet | Texas Instruments TPS54020 Small, 10-A, 4.5-V to 17-V input, SWIFT™ synchronous step-down converter with light-load efficiency (Rev. E) Datasheet

Texas Instruments TPS54020 Small, 10-A, 4.5-V to 17-V input, SWIFT™ synchronous step-down converter with light-load efficiency (Rev. E) Datasheet
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TPS54020
SLVSB10E – JULY 2012 – REVISED MARCH 2019
TPS54020 Small, 10-A, 4.5-V to 17-V input, SWIFT™ synchronous step-down converter
with light-load efficiency
1 Features
2 Applications
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Integrated 8-mΩ and 6-mΩ MOSFETs
Thermally enhanced 3.5-mm × 3.5-mm HotRod™
package
Peak-current-mode control
Eco-mode™ pulse skip for higher efficiency
Overcurrent protection for both MOSFETs
Selectable overcurrent protection schemes
Selectable overcurrent protection levels
Split power rail: 1.6 V to 17 V on PVIN
0.6-V Voltage Reference With ±1% Accuracy
200-kHz to 1.2-MHz Switching frequency
Synchronizes to external clock
Start-up into prebiased outputs
Overtemperature and overvoltage protection
–40°C to +150°C Operating junction temperature
range
Adjustable soft start and power sequencing
Power-good output monitor for undervoltage and
overvoltage
SYNC_OUT function provides output clock signal
180° out-of-phase
For SWIFT™ documentation and WEBENCH, visit
http://www.ti.com/swift
Create a custom design using the TPS54020 with
the WEBENCH® Power Designer
Power for FPGAs, SoCs, DSPs and processors
Wireless, data, and cloud infrastructure
Gaming, DTV, STB, and smart grid systems
3 Description
The TPS54020 is a 10-A, 4.5-V to 17-V input SWIFT
converter. The innovative 3.5 mm × 3.5 mm HotRod
package optimizes high-density step-down designs.
The TPS54020 is a full-featured converter.
High efficiency is achieved through the innovative
integration and packaging of the high-side and lowside MOSFETs. The TPS54020 operates at
continuous current mode (CCM) at higher load
conditions, and transitions to Eco-mode while
skipping pulses to boost the efficiency at light loads.
Current limiting on both MOSFETs provides device
and system protection. Cycle-by-cycle current limiting
in the high-side MOSFET protects for overload
situations. Low-side MOSFET zero current detection
turns off the low-side MOSFET while operating under
light loads. Three selectable current-limit thresholds
allow a good fit for various applications. A hiccup or
cycle-by-cycle overcurrent protection scheme is also
selectable.
Thermal shutdown protection disables switching
when die temperature exceeds the thermal shutdown
trip point and enables switching after the built-in
thermal hysteresis and shutdown hiccup time.
Device Information(1)
PART NUMBER
TPS54020
PACKAGE
VQFN (15)
BODY SIZE (NOM)
3.50 mm × 3.50 mm
(1) For all available packages, see the orderable addendum at
the end of the datasheet.
Simplified Application Schematic
96
TPS54020
PWRGD
94
VIN
SYNC_OUT
92
EN
BOOT
PVIN
ILIM
SS
LOUT
PH
RT/CLK
COMP
VOUT
COUT
HICCUP
TA = 25°C
VOUT = 1.8 V
fSW = 500 kHz
90
88
86
84
VSENSE
RTN
Efficiency (%)
VPVIN: 1.6 V to 17 V
VVIN: 4.5 V to 17 V
Efficiency vs Load Current
VIN = 5 V
VIN = 12 V
VIN = 17 V
82
PGND
80
2
3
4
5
6
7
Load Current (A)
8
9
10
G000
UGD-13037
1
An IMPORTANT NOTICE at the end of this data sheet addresses availability, warranty, changes, use in safety-critical applications,
intellectual property matters and other important disclaimers. PRODUCTION DATA.
TPS54020
SLVSB10E – JULY 2012 – REVISED MARCH 2019
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Table of Contents
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Features ..................................................................
Applications ...........................................................
Description .............................................................
Revision History.....................................................
Description (Continued) ........................................
Pin Configuration and Functions .........................
Specifications.........................................................
1
1
1
2
3
4
5
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
5
5
5
6
6
8
Absolute Maximum Ratings ......................................
ESD Ratings ............................................................
Recommended Operating Conditions.......................
Thermal Information ..................................................
Electrical Characteristics...........................................
Typical Characteristics ..............................................
Detailed Description ............................................ 11
8.1 Overview ................................................................. 11
8.2 Functional Block Diagram ....................................... 12
8.3 Feature Description................................................. 13
8.4 Device Functional Modes........................................ 18
9
Application and Implementation ........................ 22
9.1 Application Information............................................ 22
9.2 Typical Application ................................................. 25
10 Power Supply Recommendations ..................... 34
11 Layout................................................................... 34
11.1 Layout Guidelines ................................................. 34
11.2 Layout Examples................................................... 35
12 Device and Documentation Support ................. 37
12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.6
12.7
Device Support......................................................
Documentation Support ........................................
Receiving Notification of Documentation Updates
Community Resources..........................................
Trademarks ...........................................................
Electrostatic Discharge Caution ............................
Glossary ................................................................
37
37
37
37
37
37
38
13 Mechanical, Packaging, and Orderable
Information ........................................................... 38
4 Revision History
NOTE: Page numbers for previous revisions may differ from page numbers in the current version.
Changes from Revision D (December 2014) to Revision E
Page
•
Added links for WEBENCH ................................................................................................................................................... 1
•
Changed symbols in Thermal Information; changed RθJA from 16.6°C/W to 25°C/W ........................................................... 6
•
Changed "IIN(EN)" to "IP" and added "VEN below threshold"; added "IH" and "VEN above threshold" ....................................... 6
•
Added 2 sentences to end of Bootstrap Voltage (BOOT) and Low Dropout Operation ...................................................... 15
•
Changed "proper operation of the device" to "startup of VOUT2 after a fault" ....................................................................... 16
•
Changed Equation 5 and Equation 8 .................................................................................................................................. 16
•
Added paragraph to end of Sequencing (SS) ...................................................................................................................... 17
•
Deleted "and the low-side MOSFET is turned ON..." .......................................................................................................... 17
•
Changed last sentence of first paragraph in Output Overvoltage Protection (OVP) ........................................................... 17
Changes from Revision C (March 2013) to Revision D
•
Page
Added Pin Configuration and Functions section, Handling Rating table, Feature Description , Device Functional
Modes, Application and Implementation, Power Supply Recommendations, Layout , Device and Documentation
Support , and Mechanical, Packaging, and Orderable Information sections. ....................................................................... 1
Changes from Revision B (February 2013) to Revision C
Page
•
Deleted Note 2 from the Thermal Information table ............................................................................................................... 5
•
Added VIN internal UVLO threshold and VIN internal UVLO hysteresis rows ....................................................................... 6
•
Changed OVERVIEW paragraph "The TPS54020 starts up..." ........................................................................................... 11
2
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Changes from Revision A (September 2012) to Revision B
Page
•
Changed the Input Voltage and Power Input Voltage Pins (VIN and PVIN) section............................................................ 13
•
Changed the DETAILED DESCRIPTION section ................................................................................................................ 18
•
Changed the DESIGN EXAMPLE section............................................................................................................................ 25
Changes from Original (July 2011) to Revision A
•
Page
Changed the device From: Product Preview to Production.................................................................................................... 1
5 Description (Continued)
The SS pin controls the output voltage start-up ramp and allows for selectable soft-start times. Power supply
sequencing is also available by configuring the enable (EN) and the open-drain power-good (PWRGD) pins.
Two TPS54020 devices may be synchronized 180° out-of-phase by using the SYNC_OUT and CLK pins.
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6 Pin Configuration and Functions
RUW Package
15-Pin VQFN
Top View
VIN
1
15
EN
HICCUP
2
14
SS
ILIM
3
13
VSENSE
SYNC_OUT
4
12
COMP
PWRGD
5
11 RTN
BOOT
6
10
7
8
9
PVIN
PH
PGND
RT/CLK
Pin Functions
PIN
I/O (1)
DESCRIPTION
NAME
NO.
BOOT
6
S
A bootstrap capacitor is required between BOOT and PH. If the voltage on this capacitor is below the
minimum required by the high-side MOSFET (BOOT UVLO), the PH node is forced low so that the capacitor
is refreshed
COMP
12
O
Error amplifier current output, and input to the output switch current comparator. Connect frequency
compensation to this pin.
EN
15
I
A divider network must be used to implement an under voltage lockout function. To disable switching and
reduce quiescent current, this pin must be pulled to ground.
HICCUP
2
O
Overcurrent protection scheme select pin.
ILIM
3
O
Current limit threshold select pin.
PGND
9
G
Power Ground. Return for the Low-side MOSFET.
PH
8
O
Switch node
PVIN
7
I
Power input. Supplies the power switches of the power converter.
PWRGD
5
O
Power good fault pin. Asserts low if output voltage is out of regulation due to thermal shutdown, dropout,
overvoltage, EN shutdown or during soft-start.
RT/CLK
10
I/O
Automatically selects between RT mode and CLK mode. An external timing resistor adjusts the switching
frequency of the device; In CLK mode, the device synchronizes to an external clock.
RTN
11
G
Return for control circuitry.
SS
14
I/O
Soft-start pin. An external capacitor connected to this pin sets the internal voltage reference rise time. The
voltage on this pin overrides the internal reference. It can be used for sequencing.
SYNC_OU
T
4
O
Synchronization output provides a clock signal 180° out-of-phase with the power switch.
VIN
1
I
Supplies the control circuitry of the power converter.
VSENSE
13
I
Inverting node of the transconductance (gm) error amplifier
(1)
4
I = Input, O = Output, S = Supply, G = Ground Return
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7 Specifications
7.1 Absolute Maximum Ratings (1)
over operating free-air temperature range (unless otherwise noted)
Input voltage
MIN
MAX
VIN, PVIN
–0.3
20
EN
–0.3
6
BOOT
–0.3
27
COMP, HICCUP, ILIM, SS/TR, SYNC_OUT, VSENSE
–0.3
3
PWRGD, RT/CLK
–0.3
6
0
7.5
–1
20
BOOT-PH
Output voltage
PH
PH (10-ns transient)
Sink current
V
V
–3
20
–100
100
µA
PH
Current
Limit
A
PH
Current
Limit
PVIN
Current
Limit
RT/CLK
Source current
UNIT
A
COMP
–200
200
µA
PWRGD
–0.1
5
mA
Operating junction temperature, TJ
–40
150
°C
Storage temperature, Tstg
–65
150
°C
(1)
Stresses beyond those listed under Absolute Maximum Ratings may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings
only, and functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated under Recommended Operating
Conditions is not implied. Exposure to absolute-maximum-rated conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
7.2 ESD Ratings
VALUE
Human-body model (HBM), per ANSI/ESDA/JEDEC JS-001
V(ESD)
(1)
(2)
Electrostatic discharge
(1)
UNIT
±2000
Charged-device model (CDM), per JEDEC specification JESD22C101 (2)
V
±500
JEDEC document JEP155 states that 500-V HBM allows safe manufacturing with a standard ESD control process.
JEDEC document JEP157 states that 250-V CDM allows safe manufacturing with a standard ESD control process.
7.3 Recommended Operating Conditions
over operating free-air temperature range (unless otherwise noted)
Operating junction temperature – TJ
MIN
MAX
UNIT
–40
150
°C
Control input voltage
VIN
4.5
17
V
Power stage input voltage
PVIN
1.6
17
V
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7.4 Thermal Information
TPS54020
THERMAL METRIC (1)
RUW (VQFN)
UNIT
15 PINS
RθJA
Junction-to-ambient thermal resistance
25 (2)
°C/W
RθJC(top)
Junction-to-case (top) thermal resistance
28.8
°C/W
RθJB
Junction-to-board thermal resistance
19.0
°C/W
ψJT
Junction-to-top characterization parameter
0.7
°C/W
ψJB
Junction-to-board characterization parameter
18.9
°C/W
RθJC(bot)
Junction-to-case (bottom) thermal resistance
0.3
°C/W
(1)
(2)
For more information about traditional and new thermal metrics, see the IC Package Thermal Metrics application report, SPRA953.
Applicable only to the EVM in free space with no airflow.
7.5 Electrical Characteristics
TJ = –40°C to +150°C, VIN = 4.5 V to 17 V, PVIN = 4.5 V to 17 V (unless otherwise noted)
PARAMETER
CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNIT
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (VIN AND PVIN PINS)
PVIN operating input voltage
1.6
17
V
VIN operating input voltage
4.5
17
V
4.5
V
VIN internal UVLO threshold
VIN Rising
4
VIN internal UVLO hysteresis
150
VIN shutdown supply current
VEN = 0 V
VIN operating – nonswitching supply
current
VVSENSE = 610 mV
mV
2
10
µA
600
1000
µA
1.22
1.26
V
ENABLE AND UVLO (EN PIN)
VEN
Enable threshold
IP
Input current VEN below threshold
IH
Added hysteresis current VEN above
threshold
Rising
Falling
1.10
1.17
V
VEN = 1.1 V
–1.15
µA
VEN = 1.3 V
–3.3
µA
VOLTAGE REFERENCE
VREF
Voltage reference
0 A ≤ IOUT ≤ 10 A, –40°C ≤ TA ≤ 150°C
0.594
0.6
0.606
V
9.5
18
mΩ
8
14
mΩ
6
11
mΩ
MOSFET
DRVH
High-side switch resistance
DRVL
Low-side switch resistance (1)
BOOT-PH = 3 V
BOOT-PH = 6 V
(1)
VVIN = 12 V
ERROR AMPLIFIER
gM
gM
(1)
6
Error amplifier input bias current
VVIN = 12 V
Error amplifier transconductance
–2 µA < ICOMP < 2 µA, VCOMP = 1 V
Error amplifier dc gain
VVSENSE = 0.6 V
Error amplifier source/sink
VCOMP = 1 V, 100 mV Overdrive
Start switching threshold
VCOMP
COMP to ISWITCH transconductance
1000
50
nA
1300
µS
3000
V/V
±100
µA
0.27
V
IILIM = NC
20
IILIM = RTN
17
499 kΩ (1%) between ILIM and RTN
13
A/V
Measured at pins.
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Electrical Characteristics (continued)
TJ = –40°C to +150°C, VIN = 4.5 V to 17 V, PVIN = 4.5 V to 17 V (unless otherwise noted)
PARAMETER
CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNIT
CURRENT LIMIT
High-side switch current limit threshold
High-side switch current limit threshold
Low-side switch sourcing current limit
IILIM = NC
13.4
15.1
16.5
IILIM = RTN
11.2
12.75
14
499 kΩ (1%) between ILIM and RTN
8.3
9.4
10.2
IILIM = NC
11
13
15
9
10.5
12
6.5
8
9.5
–200
–800
IILIM = RTN
A
A
A
Low-side switch sourcing current limit
499 kΩ (1%) between ILIM and RTN
A
Low-side switch sinking current limit
–ve current denotes current sourced from PH
pin
Overcurrent protection scheme
(HICCUP = RTN)
Cyclebycycle
Hiccup delay before re-start
HICCUP OPEN
16384
Cycles
Hiccup wait time
HICCUP OPEN
128
Cycles
175
°C
10
°C
mA
THERMAL SHUTDOWN
Thermal shutdown
Thermal shutdown hysteresis
Thermal shutdown hiccup time
16384
Cycles
TIMING RESISTOR AND EXTERNAL CLOCK (RT/CLK PIN)
Switching frequency
RRT/CLK = 250 kΩ (1%)
185
205
230
RRT/CLK = 100 kΩ (1%)
475
500
525
RRT/CLK = 50 kΩ (1%)
890
990
1090
Minimum CLK pulse width
20
RT/CLK high threshold
ns
2
RT/CLK low threshold
RT/CLK falling edge to PH rising edge
delay
kHz
V
0.8
Measure at 500 kHz with RT resistor in series
PLL frequency range
V
66
200
ns
1200
kHz
SYNC_OUT (SYNC_OUT PIN)
Phase with RT/CLK
180
SYNC_OUT low threshold
Degree
0.8
SYNC_OUT high threshold
2
V
V
PH (PH PIN)
tON(min)
Minimum on-time
Measured at 90% to 90% of VIN, IPH = 2 A
112
IPH(LK)
PH leakage current
VVIN = 17 V, VOUT = 0.6 V, TA = 150°C
300
165
ns
µA
BOOT (BOOT PIN)
BOOT-PH UVLO
2.1
3
V
2.3
2.5
µA
22
45
mV
SOFT START AND TRACKING (SS/TR PIN)
ISS
Soft-start charge current
SS/TR to VSENSE matching
2.1
VSS/TR = 0.4 V
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Electrical Characteristics (continued)
TJ = –40°C to +150°C, VIN = 4.5 V to 17 V, PVIN = 4.5 V to 17 V (unless otherwise noted)
PARAMETER
CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNIT
POWER GOOD (PWRGD PIN)
VSENSE threshold
VVSENSE falling (Fault)
91
VVSENSE rising (Good)
95
VVSENSE rising (Fault)
108
VVSENSE falling (Good)
104
Output high leakage
VVSENSE = VREF, VPWRGD = 5.5 V
Output low
IPWRGD = 2 mA
Minimum input voltage for valid output
VPWRGD < 0.5 V at 100 µA
3
0.6
Minimum soft-start voltage for valid
PWRGD
%VREF
100
nA
0.3
V
1
V
1.4
V
7.6 Typical Characteristics
9.0
Boot - PH = 3V
Boot - PH = 6V
14
RDS(on) − On Resistance − mΩ
RDS(on) − On Resistance − mΩ
16
12
10
8
6
8.5
Vin = 12V
8.0
7.5
7.0
6.5
6.0
5.5
5.0
4
4.5
-50
-25
0
25
50
75
100
TJ − Junction Temperature − °C
125
150
-50
Figure 1. High-Side MOSFET On-Resistance vs Junction
Temperature
0
25
50
75
100
TJ − Junction Temperature − °C
125
150
Figure 2. Low-Side MOSFET On-Resistance vs Junction
Temperature
0.6030
499.0
fO − Oscillator Frequency − kHz
Vref
Vref − Voltage Reference − V
-25
0.6025
0.6020
0.6015
0.6010
0.6005
498.5
Rt= 100 kohm
498.0
497.5
497.0
496.5
496.0
495.5
0.6000
495.0
-50
-25
0
25
50
75
100
TJ − Junction Temperature − °C
125
150
Figure 3. Voltage Reference vs Junction Temperature
8
-50
-25
0
25
50
75
100
TJ − Junction Temperature − °C
125
150
Figure 4. Oscillator Frequency vs Junction Temperature
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Typical Characteristics (continued)
3.48
Vin = 12V
Vin = 17V
Vin = 12V
Vin = 4.5V
3.0
EN Pin Hysteresis Current- µA
Isd – Shutdown Quiescent Current – uA
3.5
2.5
2.0
1.5
3.46
3.44
3.42
3.40
3.38
1.0
-50
-25
0
25
50
75
100
TJ − Junction Temperature − °C
125
150
3.36
-50
0
25
50
75
100
TJ − Junction Temperature − °C
125
150
Figure 6. EN Pin Hysteresis Current vs Junction
Temperature, VEN = 1.3 V
Figure 5. Shutdown Quiescent Current vs Junction
Temperature
1.230
1.55
1.225
1.50
1.220
Vin = 12V
EN Pin UVLO Threshold- V
EN Pin Pull-Up Current - uA
-25
1.45
1.40
1.35
1.30
1.25
1.215
Rising
Falling
1.210
1.205
1.200
1.195
1.190
1.185
1.20
1.180
1.175
1.15
-50
-25
0
25
50
75
100
TJ − Junction Temperature − °C
125
Figure 7. EN Pin Pullup Current vs Junction Temperature,
VEN = 1.1 V
-25
0
25
50
75
100
TJ − Junction Temperature − °C
125
150
Figure 8. EN Pin UVLO Threshold vs Junction Temperature,
VVIN = 12 V
2.340
680
Vin = 17V
Vin = 12V
Vin = 4.5V
660
640
ISS - Soft Start Charge Current - uA
Non-Switching Operating Quiescent Current −μA
-50
150
620
600
580
560
2.335
2.330
2.325
2.320
2.315
2.310
2.305
2.300
2.295
540
2.290
520
-50
-50
-25
0
25
50
75
100
TJ − Junction Temperature − °C
125
-25
0
25
50
75
100
125
150
150
TJ -
Figure 9. Nonswitching Operating Current vs vs Junction
Temperature
Junction Temperature- °C
Figure 10. Soft-Start Charge Current vs Junction
Temperature
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Typical Characteristics (continued)
110
108
28
106
Vss-Vsense
104
26
% of Vref
Voff − SS/TR to Vsense Offset − mV
30
24
22
102
Fault Rising
Good Falling
Good Rising
Fault Falling
100
98
96
20
94
18
92
90
16
-50
-25
0
25
50
75
100
TJ − Junction Temperature − °C
125
-50
150
Figure 11. (VSS-VVSENSE) Offset vs Junction Temperature
0
25
50
75
100
TJ − Junction Temperature − °C
125
150
Figure 12. Power-Good Threshold vs Junction Temperature
140
16
135
15
Min ON Time
500K
OPEN
GND
14
130
Min ON Time (nS)
High Side FET Current (A)
-25
13
12
11
125
120
115
10
110
9
105
100
8
-50
-25
0
25
50
75
100
TJ − Junction Temperature − °C
125
150
Figure 13. High-Side MOSFET Current Limit vs Junction
Temperature, VIN = 12 V
-50
-25
0
25
50
75
100
TJ − Junction Temperature − °C
125
150
Figure 14. Minimum On-Time vs Temperature
2.090
BOOT-PH
Boot-PH UVLO (V)
2.085
2.080
2.075
2.070
2.065
2.060
-50
-25
0
25
50
75
100
TJ − Junction Temperature − °C
125
150
Figure 15. BOOT-PH UVLO vs Junction Temperature
10
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8 Detailed Description
8.1 Overview
The TPS54020 is a 17-V, 10-A, synchronous step-down (buck) converter with two integrated N-channel
MOSFETs. To improve performance during line and load transients the TPS54020 implements a constant
frequency, peak current mode control which also simplifies external frequency compensation. The wide switching
frequency range between 200 kHz and 1200 kHz allows for efficiency and size optimization when selecting the
output filter components. A resistor to ground on the RT/CLK pin adjusts the switching frequency. The TPS54020
also has an internal phase lock loop (PLL) controlled by the RT/CLK pin that can be used to synchronize the
switching cycle to the falling edge of an external system clock.
The TPS54020 starts up safely into pre-biased loads. The device implements an internal under voltage lockout
(UVLO) feature on the VIN pin with a nominal START voltage of 4 V and a nominal hysteresis of 150mV. If the
design requires more hysteresis due to an input source that droops with load, or if different START and STOP
thresholds are required, this functionality can be achieved by using the EN pin. The EN pin has a hysteretic
internal pullup current source that can be used to adjust the input voltage UVLO with two external resistors. The
total operating current for the TPS54020 is approximately 600 µA when not switching and under no load. When
the TPS54020 is disabled, the supply current is typically less than 2 µA.
The integrated MOSFETs allow for high-efficiency power supply designs with continuous output currents up to 10
A. The MOSFETs are sized to optimize efficiency for low to medium duty cycle applications
The TPS54020 reduces the external component count by integrating the boot recharge circuit. A capacitor
connected between the BOOT and PH pins supplies the bias voltage for the integrated high-side MOSFET. A
UVLO circuit from BOOT to PH monitors the boot capacitor voltage. This monitoring ensures that the BOOT
voltage is sufficient for proper high-side MOSFET gate drive current by allowing the device to pull the PH pin low
to recharge the boot capacitor. The TPS54020 can operate at 100% duty cycle during transient conditions while
the boot capacitor voltage is higher than the preset BOOT-PH UVLO threshold which is typically 2.1 V. The
output voltage can be stepped down to as low as the 0.6-V voltage reference (VREF).
The TPS54020 has a power good comparator (PWRGD) with hysteresis which monitors the output voltage
through the VSENSE pin. The PWRGD pin is an open-drain MOSFET which is pulled low when the VSENSE pin
voltage is less than 91% or greater than 108% of the reference voltage (VREF) and asserts high when the
VSENSE pin voltage is 95% to 104% of VREF.
The SS (soft-start) pin is used to minimize inrush currents or provide power supply sequencing during power up.
A small value capacitor or resistor divider should be coupled to the pin for soft-start or critical power supply
sequencing requirements.
The device has three preset current limit thresholds to fit 10-A, 8-A, and 6-A applications. Table 1 shows ILIM pin
setting selections.
Table 1. Current Limit Thresholds
ILIM to RTN IMPEDANCE (kΩ)
CURRENT LIMIT OPTION (A)
NC
10
SHORT
8
499
6
The TPS54020 protects from output overvoltage, overload and thermal fault conditions. The TPS54020
minimizes excessive output overvoltage transients by taking advantage of the overvoltage circuit power good
comparator. When the overvoltage comparator activates, the high-side MOSFET turns off and the device
prevents it from turning on until the VSENSE pin voltage is lower than 104% of VREF. The TPS54020 implements
both high-side MOSFET overload protection and bi-directional, low-side MOSFET overload protection which
helps control the inductor current and avoid current runaway.
The device uses hiccup or cycle-by-cycle overcurrent protection features as listed inTable 2.
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Table 2. Overcurrent Protection
HICCUP TO RTN IMPEDANCE
CURRENT LIMIT OPTION
OPEN
16384 Cycle Hiccup
SHORT
Cycle-Cycle
The TPS54020 shuts down if the junction temperature is higher than the thermal shutdown trip point of 175°C.
Once the junction temperature drops to 10°C (typical) below the thermal shutdown trip point, the internal thermal
shutdown hiccup timer begins to count. The TPS54020 restarts under the control of the soft-start circuit
automatically after the thermal shutdown hiccup time reaches (16384 cycles).
The TPS54020 operates in CCM (continuous conduction mode) at load conditions where the inductor current is
always positive (towards the load). To boost efficiency at lighter load conditions, the device enters pulse skipping
mode and turns OFF the low-side MOSFET when inductor current tries to reverse.
For applications that require two converters to be synchronized together, the SYNC_OUT and RT/CLK pins can
be used. The two converters can be configured to operate 180° out-of-phase by using the SYNC_OUT signal
from one of the devices and applying it to the RT/CLK pin of the other device.
8.2 Functional Block Diagram
PWRGD
VIN
EN
Shutdown
Ip
UV
Ih
Enable
Comparator
Thermal
Shutdown
Logic
PVIN
UVLO
Shutdown
Shutdown
Enable
Threshold
OV
Boot
Charge
Current
Sense
ERROR
AMPLIFIER
VSENSE
BOOT
Boot
UVLO
SS
Pulse Skip
HS MOSFET
Current
Comparator
Voltage
Reference
Power Stage
& Deadtime
Control
Logic
HICCUP
PH
Slope
Compensation
Overload
Recovery
VIN
Maximum
Clamp
Oscillator
with PLL
Regulator
LS MOSFET
Current Limit
Current
Sense
PGND
COMP
12
RT/CLK SYNC_OUT
ILIM
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8.3 Feature Description
8.3.1 Fixed Frequency PWM Control
The device uses adjustable fixed-frequency, peak current mode control. External resistors on the VSENSE pin
sense the output voltage. The device compares this sensed voltage to an internal 0.6-V voltage reference by a
transconductance error amplifier. The resulting error signal is a current, and this current drives the COMP pin.
An internal oscillator initiates the turn ON of the high-side power switch. The device converts the COMP pin
voltage into a current reference which is compared to the high-side power switch current. When the power switch
current reaches current reference generated by the COMP voltage level, the high-side power switch is turned
OFF and the low-side power switch is turned ON until the next clock cycle. At lighter load conditions, the low-side
MOSFET turns OFF when the inductor approaches zero, which results in pulse skipping mode.
8.3.2 Input Voltage and Power Input Voltage Pins (VIN and PVIN)
The device allows for a variety of applications by using the VIN and PVIN pins together or separately. The VIN
pin voltage supplies the internal control circuits of the device. The PVIN pin voltage provides the input voltage to
the power stage of the device. If tied together, the input voltage for VIN and PVIN can range from 4.5 V to 17 V.
If using the VIN separately from PVIN, the VIN pin must be between 4.5 V and 17 V, and the PVIN pin can range
from as low as 1.6 V to 17 V. The device provides an internal UVLO function on the VIN pin, but in cases where
more hysteresis or different thresholds are required, a voltage divider connected to the EN pin can be used.
When using an external divider, it is recommended to design the minimum turn OFF threshold at 4.2 V or
greater, and the minimum turn ON threshold at 4.4 V or greater. These minimum thresholds are required to avoid
interference between the user-defined UVLO threshold levels and the device internal UVLO.
8.3.3 Voltage Reference (VREF)
The voltage reference system produces a precise ±1% voltage reference over temperature by scaling the output
of a temperature stable bandgap circuit.
8.3.4 Adjusting the Output Voltage
The output voltage is set by the resistor divider network of RUPPER and RLOWER. It is recommended that the lower
divider resistor, RLOWER, maintain a range between 1 kΩ and 3 kΩ. During light-load conditions, this resistor
range provides enough load current to exceed the bias leakage current that may be sourced by the PH pin. To
change the output voltage of a design, it is necessary to change the value of the resistor RUPPER. Changing the
value of RUPPER can change the output voltage between 0.6 V and 5 V. The value of RUPPER for a specific output
voltage can be calculated using Equation 1.
RUPPER =
(VOUT - VREF )´ RLOWER
VREF
(1)
The minimum output setpoint voltage cannot be less than the reference voltage of 0.6 V, but it may also be
limited by the minimum ON time of the high-side MOSFET. The maximum output voltage can be limited by
bootstrap voltage (BOOT-PH voltage). See more details located in the Minimum Output Voltage and Bootstrap
Voltage (BOOT) and Low Dropout Operation sections.
8.3.5 Safe Start-up into Prebiased Outputs
The device prevents the low-side MOSFET from discharging a pre-biased output. During pre-biased startup, the
low-side MOSFET does not turn on until the high-side MOSFET has started switching. The high-side MOSFET
does not start switching until the soft-start voltage exceeds the voltage at the VSENSE pin.
8.3.6 Error Amplifier
The transconductance error amplifier compares the VSENSE pin voltage to either the SS pin voltage or the
internal 0.6 V voltage reference, whichever is lower. The transconductance of the error amplifier is 1300 μA/V
during normal operation. The frequency compensation network is connected between the COMP pin and ground.
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Feature Description (continued)
8.3.7 Slope Compensation
The device adds a compensating ramp to the switch current signal. This slope compensation prevents subharmonic oscillations when operating conditions demand greater than 50% duty cycle. The available peak
inductor current remains constant over the full duty cycle range.
8.3.8 Enable and Adjusting Undervoltage Lockout
The EN pin provides electrical on and off control of the device. Once the EN pin voltage exceeds the threshold
voltage, the device starts operation. If the EN pin voltage is pulled below the threshold voltage, the regulator
stops switching and enters low quiescent state. The EN pin has an internal hysteretic current source, allowing the
user to design the ON and OFF threshold voltages with a resistor divider at the EN pin. If an application requires
controlling the EN pin, use open drain or open collector output logic to interface with the pin.
The EN pin can be configured as shown in Figure 16, Figure 17, and Figure 18. It is recommended to set the
UVLO hysteresis to be greater than 500mV in order to avoid repeated chatter during start up or shut down. The
EN pin has a small fixed pullup current iP which sets the current source value before the start-up sequence. The
device includes the second current source iH when the threshold voltage has been exceeded. To achieve clean
transitions between the OFF and ON states, TI recommendeds that the turn OFF threshold is no less than 4.2 V,
and the turn ON threshold is no less than 4.4 V on the VIN pin.
The UVLO thresholds can be calculated using Equation 2 and Equation 3.
TPS54020
VIN
PVIN
IH
IP
R3
EN
1.22 V
R5
EN
1.22 V
UDG-13036
Figure 16. Adjustable VIN
Undervoltage Lockout
IH
IP
R3
EN
TPS54020
PVIN
IH
IP
R3
R5
VIN
TPS54020
R5
UDG-13035
Figure 17. Adjustable PVIN
Undervoltage Lockout,
PVIN ≥ 4.5 V
1.22 V
UDG-13034
Figure 18. Adjustable VIN and
PVIN Undervoltage Lockout
R3, the top UVLO divider resistor is calculated using Equation 2.
æ VEN(falling) ö
÷ - VSTOP
VSTART ´ ç
ç VEN(rising) ÷
è
ø
R3 =
æ
VEN(falling) ö
÷ +I
IP ´ ç 1 ç
VEN(rising) ÷ H
è
ø
(2)
R5, the bottom UVLO divider resistor is calculated in Equation 3.
R3 ´ VEN(falling)
R5 =
VSTOP - VEN(falling) + R3 ´ (IP + IH )
In this example
•
•
•
•
14
IH = 3.3 μA
IP = 1.15 μA
VENRISING = 1.22 V
VENFALLING = 1.17 V
(3)
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Feature Description (continued)
8.3.9 Adjustable Switching Frequency and Synchronization (RT/CLK)
The RT/CLK pin can be used to set the switching frequency of the device in two modes. In RT mode, a resistor
(RT resistor) is connected between the RT/CLK pin and GND. The switching frequency of the device is
adjustable from 200 kHz to 1200 kHz. In CLK mode, an external clock is connected directly to the RT/CLK pin.
The device is synchronized to the external clock frequency with an internal PLL. The CLK mode overrides the RT
mode. The device detects the proper mode automatically and switches from the RT mode to CLK mode. See
Device Functional Modes for more information.
8.3.10 Soft-Start (SS) Sequence
The device has two non-inverting inputs to the error amplifier. One input is the 0.6-V reference (VREF) , and the
other is the SS pin voltage. The device regulates to the lower of these two voltages. A capacitor on the SS pin to
ground implements a soft-start time. The internal pullup current source of 2.3 μA charges the external soft-start
capacitor. The calculations for the soft-start time (tSS, 10% to 90%) and soft-start capacitor (CSS) are shown in
Equation 4. The voltage reference (VREF) is 0.6 V and the soft-start charge current (ISS) is 2.3 μA.
I ´t
CSS = SS SS
VREF
where
•
•
•
•
CSS is the soft-start capacitance in nF
ISS is the soft-start current in µA
tSS is the soft-start time in ms
VREF of the voltage reference in V
(4)
The device stops switching and enters low-current operation when either the input voltage UVLO is triggered, or
the EN pin is pulled below 1.2 V, or if a thermal shutdown event occurs. During the subsequent power up
sequence, when the shutdown condition is removed, the device does not start switching until it has discharged
the SS pin to ground ensuring proper soft-start behavior.
8.3.11 Power Good (PWRGD)
The PWRGD pin is an open drain output. Once the VSENSE pin is between 95% and 104% of the internal
voltage reference the PWRGD pin pull-down is deasserted and the pin floats. It is recommended to use a pullup
resistor between the values of 10kΩ and 100kΩ to a voltage source that is 5.5V or less. The PWRGD is in a
defined state once the VIN input voltage is greater than 1V but with reduced current sinking capability. The
PWRGD achieves full current sinking capability once the VIN input voltage is above 4.5V. The PWRGD pin is
pulled low when the VSENSE pin voltage is lower than 91% or greater than 108% of the nominal internal
reference voltage. Also, the PWRGD is pulled low if the input UVLO or thermal shutdowns are asserted, or the
EN pin is pulled low, or the SS pin voltage is below 1.4 V.
8.3.12 Bootstrap Voltage (BOOT) and Low Dropout Operation
The device has an integrated bootstrap voltage regulator, and requires a small ceramic capacitor between the
BOOT and PH pins to provide the gate drive voltage for the high-side MOSFET. The boot capacitor is charged
when the BOOT pin voltage is less than VIN and BOOT-PH voltage is below regulation. The value of this
ceramic capacitor should be 0.1 μF. A ceramic capacitor with an X7R or X5R grade dielectric with a voltage
rating of 10 V or higher is recommended because of the stable characteristics over temperature and voltage. To
improve drop out, the device is designed to operate at 100% duty cycle as long as the BOOT to PH pin voltage is
greater than the BOOT-PH UVLO threshold which is typically 2.1 V. When the voltage between BOOT and PH
drops below the BOOT-PH UVLO threshold the high-side MOSFET is turned off and the low-side MOSFET is
turned on allowing the boot capacitor to be recharged. In applications with split input voltage rails, 100% duty
cycle operation can be achieved as long as (VIN – PVIN) > 4 V. However if the TPS54020 is configured for
hiccup overcurrent protection, hiccup also occurs if the input voltage is insufficient to regulate the output voltage
for longer than the hiccup wait time. If continuous operation at 100% duty cycle is needed, configure the
TPS54020 for cycle-by-cycle current limit.
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Feature Description (continued)
8.3.13 Sequencing (SS)
Many of the common power supply sequencing methods can be implemented using the SS, EN and PWRGD
pins. The sequential method is illustrated in Figure 19 below using two TPS54020 devices. The power good of
the first device is coupled to the EN pin of the second device which enables the second power supply once the
primary supply reaches regulation.
Figure 20 shows the method of implementing ratio-metric sequencing by connecting the SS pins of the two
devices together. The regulator outputs ramp up and reach regulation at the same time. When calculating the
soft-start time the pullup current source must be doubled in Equation 4.
TPS54020
TPS54020
TPS54020
PWRGD
EN
EN
SS/TR
CSS
EN
PWRGD
SS/TR
SS/TR
CSS
CSS
PWRGD
UDG-13032
TPS54020
EN
SS/TR
PWRGD
UDG-13031
Figure 19. Sequential Start Up Sequence
Figure 20. Ratiometric Start Up Sequence
Ratio-metric and simultaneous power supply sequencing can be implemented by connecting the resistor network
of RS1 and RS2 shown in Figure 21 to the output of the power supply to which to be tracked, or alternately
another voltage reference source. Using Equation 5 and Equation 6, the tracking resistors can be calculated to
initiate the VOUT2 slightly before, after or at the same time as VOUT1. Equation 7 is the voltage difference between
VOUT1 and VOUT2 . To design a ratio-metric start up in which the VOUT2 voltage is slightly greater than the VOUT1
voltage when VOUT2 reaches regulation, use a negative number in Equation 5 and Equation 6 for ΔV. Equation 7
results in a positive number for applications where the VOUT2 is slightly lower than VOUT1 when VOUT2 regulation is
achieved. The ΔV variable is zero volts for simultaneous sequencing. To minimize the effect of the inherent SS to
VSENSE offset (VSS(offset), 29 mV) in the soft-start circuit and the offset created by the pullup current source (ISS,
2.3 μA) and tracking resistors, the VSS(offset) and ISS are included as variables in the equations. To ensure startup
of VOUT2 after a fault, the calculated RS1 value from Equation 5 must be greater than the value calculated in
Equation 8.
VOUT2 'V VSS(offset)
RS1
u
VREF
ISS
(5)
RS2 =
16
VREF ´ RS1
VOUT2 + DV - VREF
(6)
DV = VOUT1 - VOUT2
(7)
RS1
(8)
19000 u VOUT1
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Feature Description (continued)
There are two important considerations when using a resistor divider to the SS/TR pin for simultaneous start-up.
First, as described in Power Good (PWRGD), for the PWRGD output to be active the SS/TR voltage must be
above 1.4 V max. The external divider may prevent the SS/TR voltage from charging above the threshold. For
the SS/TR pin to charge above the threshold, a switch may be needed to disconnect the resistor divider or
modify the resistor divider ratio of the VOUT2 converter after start-up is complete. The PWRGD pin of the VOUT1
converter could be used for this. One solution is to add a resistor from SS/TR of the VOUT2 converter to the
PWRGD of the VOUT1 converter. While the PWRGD of VOUT1 pulls low, this resistor will be in parallel with RS2.
When VOUT1 is in regulation its PWRGD pin will float. If the PWRGD pin of VOUT1 is connected to a pullup voltage,
make sure to include this in calculations. A second option is to use the PWRGD pin to turn on or turn off the
external switch to change the divide ratio. The second consideration is a pre-bias on VOUT1 may prevent VOUT2
from turning on. When the TPS54020 is enabled, an internal 500-Ω switch at the SS/TR pin turns on to discharge
the SS/TR voltage as described in Soft-Start (SS) Sequence. The SS/TR pin voltage must discharge below 26
mV before the TPS54020 starts up. If the upper resistor at the SS/TR pin is too small, the SS/TR pin does not
discharge below the threshold, and VOUT2 does not ramp up. The upper resistor in the SS/TR divider may need to
be increased to allow the SS/TR pin to discharge below the threshold.
TPS54620
BOOT
EN
PH
VOUT1
SS/TR
CSS
PWRGD
TPS54620
EN
BOOT
RS1
PH
VOUT2
SS/TR
RS2
PWRGD
R4
VSENSE
R8
UDG-13030
Figure 21. Ratiometric and Simultaneous Startup Sequence
8.3.14 Output Overvoltage Protection (OVP)
The device incorporates an output overvoltage protection (OVP) circuit to minimize output voltage overshoot. For
example, when the load current is abruptly reduced from a high value to a low value, the output voltage response
can exceed the OVP trip threshold, especially if the capacitance on the output voltage bus is relatively low value.
The OVP feature minimizes the overshoot by comparing the VSENSE pin voltage to the OVP threshold. If the
VSENSE pin voltage is greater than the OVP threshold the high-side MOSFET is turned OFF. The OVP
threshold is the same as the VSENSE rising (fault) threshold of 108%. When the VSENSE voltage drops lower
than the VSENSE falling (good) threshold of 104%, the high-side MOSFET is allowed to turn on at the next clock
cycle.
During an OVP event, the low-side reverse current limit still applies, and the device does not allow current flow
into the PH pin.
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Feature Description (continued)
8.3.15 Overcurrent Protection
The device is protected from overcurrent conditions with cycle-by-cycle current limiting on both the high-side
MOSFET and the low-side MOSFET.
8.3.15.1 High-side MOSFET Overcurrent Protection
The device implements current mode control which uses the COMP pin voltage to control the turnoff of the highside MOSFET and the turn on of the low-side MOSFET on a cycle-by-cycle basis. Each cycle the switch current
and the current reference generated by the COMP pin voltage are compared. The high-side switch is turned off
when the peak switch current intersects the current reference. High-side overcurrent protection is achieved by
clamping the current reference.
8.3.15.2 Low-side MOSFET Overcurrent Protection
While the low-side MOSFET is turned on, its conduction current is monitored by the internal circuitry. During
normal operation the low-side MOSFET sources current to the load. At the end of every clock cycle, the low-side
MOSFET sourcing current is compared to the internally set low-side sourcing current limit. If the low-side
sourcing current is exceeded, the high-side MOSFET is not turned on and the low-side MOSFET stays on for the
next cycle. The high-side MOSFET is turned on again when the low-side MOSFET current is less than the lowside MOSFET sourcing current limit at the start of a cycle.
To boost efficiency in light load conditions, the control circuitry does not allow the low-side MOSFET to sink
current from the load. When negative low-side MOSFET current is detected, the low-side MOSFET is turned
OFF immediately for the rest of that clock cycle. In this scenario both MOSFETs are off until the start of the next
cycle.
Additionally, if an output overload condition (as measured by the COMP pin voltage) has lasted for more than the
hiccup wait time which is programmed for 128 switching cycles, the device shuts down and restarts only after the
hiccup time of 16384 cycles has elapsed. The hiccup mode helps to reduce the device power dissipation under
severe overcurrent conditions.
8.3.16 Thermal Shutdown
The internal thermal shutdown circuitry forces the device to stop switching if the junction temperature exceeds a
nominal value of 175°C. Once the junction temperature drops below 165°C typically, the internal thermal hiccup
timer begins to count. The device reinitiates the power up sequence after the built-in thermal shutdown hiccup
time of 16384 cycles has elapsed.
8.4 Device Functional Modes
8.4.1 Single-Supply Operation
The TPS54020 is designed to operate from either a single input voltage, or split control logic and power stage
supplies. To operate the TPS54020 from a single supply voltage, connect the VIN pin to the power stage PVIN
strip.
8.4.2 Split Rail Operation
The TPS54020 is designed to be able to operate from separate VIN and PVIN voltages. Bias for the control logic
is provided by VIN. Power conversion input is provided by PVIN. Note that the minimum recommended VIN
voltage is 4.5 V, while the minimum PVIN voltage can be as low as 1.6 V, both have a maximum recommended
operating voltage of 17 V.
8.4.3 Continuous Current Mode Operation (CCM)
As a synchronous buck converter, the device normally works in CCM (continuous conduction mode) under load
conditions where the inductor current is always positive. It is possible for the device to exhibit extended ON or
OFF times (longer than 1 clock cycle) during large signal conditions such as a severe load up-transient
(extended ON time) or current limit or OV (extended OFF time).
18
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Device Functional Modes (continued)
8.4.4 Eco-mode Light-Load Efficiency Operation
The TPS54020 operates in pulse skip mode (see Figure 24) at light-load currents to improve efficiency by
reducing switching, gate drive and circulating current losses. When the output voltage is in regulation and the
peak switch current at the end of any switching cycle remains below the pulse skipping current threshold, the
device enters pulse skip mode. This current threshold is the current level corresponding to a nominal COMP
voltage of 270 mV.
When in pulse skip mode, the device clamps the COMP pin voltage to 270 mV and inhibits the high-side
MOSFET. Further decreases in load current cannot drive the COMP pin below this clamp voltage level.
When the device is not switching while in pulse skip mode, the output voltage tends to decay. As the voltage
control loop compensates for the falling output voltage, the COMP pin voltage begins to rise. At this time, the
device enables the high-side MOSFET, and a switching pulse initiates on the next clock cycle. The COMP pin
voltage sets the peak switch current. The output voltage re-charges to the regulation set point value, and then
the demand for peak switch current will decrease. Eventually the COMP pin voltage once again falls below the
pulse skip mode threshold at which time the device again enters pulse skip mode.
Bias circuits in the BOOT regulator and high-side MOSFET gate drive both return bias current out from the PH
pin. While this current is small and in the range of 150 µA (nominal), during very light load conditions, it is
possible that the output voltage rises above the desired output voltage setpoint due to this current. If the
application design anticipates that system loads could fall below this current level, it is recommended to add a
fixed resistor load to the design that dissipates this current. An easy implementation of this fixed load can be
achieved with the feedback voltage divider resistors. The recommendation is to use a lower divider resistor value
of 2.5 kΩ or lower in this case, and this lower divider resistor should be installed even when the output voltage
setpoint is 0.6 V.
PH node = 10 V/div
PH node = 10 V/div
VOUT = 500 mV/div
VOUT = 500 mV/div
Inductor Current = 2.5 A/div
Inductor Current = 2.5 A/div
Figure 22. TPS54020 in Continuous Conduction Mode
Figure 23. TPS54020 in Discontinuous Conduction Mode
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Device Functional Modes (continued)
PH node = 10 V/div
VOUT = 500 mV/div
Inductor Current = 2.5 A/div
Figure 24. TPS54020 in Pulse Skipping Mode
8.4.5 Adjustable Switching Frequency (RT Mode)
To determine the RRT resistance for a given switching frequency, use Equation 9, or the curve in Figure 25. In an
attempt to reduce the overall solution size, the temptation is to set the switching frequency as high as possible,
but the designer should consider the minimum controllable on-time and the tradeoff between fSW and supply
efficiency.
-0.964356
fSW = 42533.5 ´ (RRT )
where
RRT is in kΩ
fSW is in kHz
(9)
Switching Frequency (kHz)
•
•
1200
1100
1000
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
40
60
80
100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260
Timing Resistance (kΩ)
G000
Figure 25. Timing Resistance vs Switching Frequency
8.4.6 Synchronization (CLK mode)
An internal phase locked loop (PLL) has been implemented to allow synchronization at frequencies between 200
kHz and 1200 kHz, and to easily switch from RT mode to CLK mode. To implement the synchronization feature,
connect a square wave clock signal to the RT/CLK pin with a duty cycle between 20% and 80%. The clock signal
amplitude must transition lower than 0.8 V and higher than 2.0 V. The start of the switching cycle is synchronized
to the falling edge of RT/CLK pin. In applications where both RT mode and CLK mode are needed, the device
can be configured as shown in Figure 26. Before the external clock is present, the device functions in RT mode
and the switching frequency is set by the RRT resistor. When the external clock is present, the CLK mode
20
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Device Functional Modes (continued)
overrides the RT mode. The first time the SYNC pin is pulled above the RT/CLK high threshold (2.0 V), the
device switches from the RT mode to the CLK mode and the RT/CLK pin becomes high impedance as the PLL
starts to lock onto the frequency of the external clock. It is not recommended to switch from CLK mode to RT
mode because the internal switching frequency decreases to 100 kHz first before returning to the switching
frequency set by the RRT resistor.
RT/CLK Mode Select
TPS54020
RT/CLK
RRT
UDG-13033
Figure 26. Synchronization to External CLK and Rt Mode Interface
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9 Application and Implementation
NOTE
Information in the following applications sections is not part of the TI component
specification, and TI does not warrant its accuracy or completeness. TI’s customers are
responsible for determining suitability of components for their purposes. Customers should
validate and test their design implementation to confirm system functionality.
9.1 Application Information
9.1.1 Small Signal Model for Loop Response
Figure 27 shows an equivalent model for the device control loop which can be modeled in a circuit simulation
program to check frequency response and transient responses. The error amplifier is a transconductance
amplifier with a gm of 1300 μA/V. The error amplifier can be modeled using an ideal voltage controlled current
source. The resistor ROEA (2.38 MΩ) and capacitor COUT(ea) (20.7 pF) model the open loop gain and frequency
response of the error amplifier. A low amplitude (between 10 mV and 100 mV AC) voltage source between node
a and node b effectively breaks the control loop for the frequency response measurements. Plotting the
designators a-c yields the small signal response of the plant, and plotting designators c-b yields the small signal
response of the frequency compensation. Plotting designators a-b yields the small signal response of the overall
loop. The dynamic loop response can be simulated by replacing the RLOAD with a current source with the
appropriate load step amplitude and step rate in a time domain analysis.
TPS54020
PH
VOUT
Power Stage
20 A/V
a
b
R ESR
R4
VSENSE
COMP
R LOAD
C OUT
c
+
C10
C OUT(ea)
R6
R OUT(ea)
0.6 V
gM
1300 mA/V
R8
C8
UDG-13038
Figure 27. Small Signal Model for Loop Response
9.1.2 Simple Small Signal Model for Peak Current Mode Control
Figure 28 is a small signal model that can be used to understand how to design the frequency compensation
network. This is a simplified model that does not include the effects of slope compensation. The device power
stage, or Plant, can be approximated by a voltage controlled current source (duty cycle modulator) supplying
current to the output capacitor and load resistor. The control to output transfer function is shown in Equation 10
and consists of a dc gain, one dominant pole and one ESR zero. The quotient of the change in switch current
and the change in COMP pin voltage (node c in Figure 27) is the power stage transconductance (gmps) which is
20 A/V for the TPS54020 (when ILIM is open). The DC gain or amplification of the power stage, ADC, is the
product of gmps and the load resistance RL as shown in Equation 11 with resistive loads. As the load current
22
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Application Information (continued)
increases, the DC gain decreases. This variation with load may seem problematic at first glance, but fortunately
the dominant pole moves with load current (see Equation 12). The combined effect is highlighted by the dashed
line in Figure 29. As the load current decreases, the gain increases and the pole frequency reduces, keeping the
0-dB crossover frequency the same for the varying load conditions which makes it easier to design the frequency
compensation.
VOUT
VC
RESR
gmps
RL
CO
Figure 28. Simplified Small Signal Model for Peak Current Mode Control
VOUT
Adc
VC
RESR
gmps
fp
RL
CO
fz
Figure 29. Simplified Frequency Response for Peak Current Mode Control
The simplified control-to-output transfer function is shown in Equation 10.
æ s ö
1+ ç
÷
2p ´ fZ ø
VOUT
è
= Adc ´
VC
æ s ö
1+ ç
÷
è 2p ´ fP ø
(10)
The power stage DC gain is shown in Equation 11.
Adc = gM(PS ) ´ RLOAD
(11)
The pole from load is show in Equation 12.
1
fP =
COUT ´ RLOAD ´ 2p
(12)
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Application Information (continued)
To calculate the zero from the capacitor ESR use Equation 13.
1
fZ =
COUT ´ RESR ´ 2p
where
•
•
•
•
•
gM(ea) is the transconductance amplifier gain (1300 μA/V)
gM(ps) is the power stage gain (20 A/V)
RLOAD is the load resistance
COUT is the output capacitance
RESR is the equivalent series resistance of the output capacitor
(13)
9.1.3 Small Signal Model for Frequency Compensation
The device uses a transconductance amplifier for the error amplifier and readily supports two of the commonly
used Type II compensation circuits and a Type III frequency compensation circuit, as shown in Figure 30. In
Type IIA, one additional high frequency pole, C10, is added to attenuate high frequency noise. In Type III, one
additional capacitor, C7, is added to provide a phase boost at the crossover frequency. See Designing Type III
Compensation for Current Mode Step-Down Converters (SLVA352) for a complete explanation of Type III
compensation.
The design guidelines described in the Designing the Device Loop Compensation section are provided for
advanced designers who prefer to compensate using the general method. The equations below apply only to
designs in which ESR zero is above the bandwidth of the control loop. This is usually true with ceramic output
capacitors.
VOUT
TPS54020
C7
R4
VSENSE
COMP
Type III
+
R6
R6
C10
C8
Type IIB
C8
VREF
R8
gM(ea)
COUT(ea) ROUT(ea)
Type IIA
UDG-13039
Figure 30. Types of Frequency Compensation
NOTE
The comp-to-switch transconductance gM(ps) is dependent on the current limit level that is
selected. If a different current limit option is selected, the compensation needs to be
redesigned with the new gM(ps).
9.1.4 Designing the Device Loop Compensation
The general design guidelines for device loop compensation are shown in this section.
9.1.4.1 Step One: Determine the Crossover Frequency (fC)
To begin, choose 1/10th of the switching frequency, fSW
24
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Application Information (continued)
9.1.4.2 Step Two: Determine a Value for R6
Resistor R6 is calculated in Equation 14.
2p ´ COUT ´ fC ´ VOUT
R6 =
gM(ea ) ´ VREF ´ gM(ps )
where
•
•
•
•
gM(ea) is the transconductance amplifier gain (1300 μA/V)
gM(ps) is the power stage gain (20 A/V)
VREF is the reference voltage (0.6 V)
(14)
9.1.4.3 Step Three: Calculate the Compensation Zero.
Place a compensation zero at the dominant pole found in Equation 12. The zero is achieved by the combination
of R6 and C8, which is calculated in Equation 15.
´ RLOAD
C
C8 = OUT
R6
(15)
9.1.4.4 Step Four: Calculate the Compensation Noise Pole.
C10 is optional. It can be used to cancel the zero from the ESR (equivalent series resistance) of the output
capacitor (COUT).
´ COUT
R
C10 = ESR
R6
(16)
9.1.4.5 Step Five: Calculate the Compensation Phase Boost Zero.
Type III compensation can be implemented with the addition of one capacitor, C7. This addition allows for slightly
higher loop bandwidths and higher phase margins. If used, C7 is calculated from Equation 17
1
C7 =
2p ´ R4 ´ fC
(17)
9.1.5 Fast Transient Considerations
In applications where fast transient responses are very important, Type III frequency compensation can be used
instead of the traditional Type II frequency compensation.
For more information about Type II and Type III frequency compensation circuits, see Designing Type III
Compensation for Current Mode Step-Down Converters (SLVA352).
9.2 Typical Application
The application schematic shown in Figure 31 meets the requirements shown in Table 3. This circuit is available
as the TPS54020EVM-082 evaluation module. The design procedure is given in this section. For more
information about Type II and Type III frequency compensation circuits, see Designing Type III Compensation for
Current Mode Step-Down Converters (SLVA352).
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Typical Application (continued)
2
3
0
R1
R2
0
SYNC OUT
TP3
TP1
J1
33.1
PVIN
+
2
8V to 17V
-
1
R3
PVIN
PWRGD
C1
+
68uF
C2
0.1uF
C3
22uF
VIN
C4
22uF
TP2
TP4
10k
VIN_SEL
PVIN
1
C5
PVIN
2
4.7uF
8V to 17V
6
BOOT
PWRGD
5
RT_CLK
PGND
TP5
1.1 uH
TP6
IND_744314110
PVIN 7
1
PH 8
RTN
COMP
VOUT
L1
0.1uF
PGND 9
J3
2
PH
C7
100uF
TP7
C8
100uF
R6
69.8k
TP12
R8
J5
J6
TRACK/SS
2
R7
5.11k
20.0k
R12
20.0k
C13
0.1uF
C11
1
C12
22nF
1
2
R11
13.3k
1.8V @ 10A
TP10
TP11
TP14
VOUT
-
R5
LOOP
49.9
TP9
SYNC_IN
1
+
2
EN
4
EN/UVLO
1
C9
100uF
15 14 13 12 11 10
C10
0.1uF
TP8
VSENSE
-
2
TPS54020RUW
EN
1
4
U1
J4
+
3
SYNC_OUT
VIN
C6
SS_TR
VIN
2
ILIM
3
HICCUP
1
VIN
R4
J2
C14
0.1uF
R13
3.01k
C15
220pF
R9
100k
R10
2.55k
500kHz
AGND
TP13
1
NOTES:
1
DO NOT INSTALL
3
HICCUP_SEL
CYCLE-CYCLE: INSTALL R1
16384 CYCLES: REMOVE R1
ILIM_SEL
2
9.4A: INSTALL R2 = 500k ohms
4
R6 and R11 yield Von = 7.5V, Voff = 7.1V
12.75A: INSTALL R2 = short
15A: REMOVE R2
Figure 31. Typical Application Circuit
9.2.1 Design Requirements
A few parameters must be known in order to start the design process. These parameters are typically determined
at the system level. For this example, we start with the known parameters shown in Table 3.
Table 3. Design Example Characteristics
PARAMETER
CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNIT
VOUT
Output voltage
1.8
V
IOUT
Output current
10
A
Transient response
VIN
Input voltage
VOUT(ripple)
Output voltage ripple
fSW
26
ΔVOUT ≤ 5 %
5-A load step
8
12
A
17
V
10
mV(P-P)
V
Start input voltage
Rising input voltage
7.5
Stop Input Voltage
Falling input voltage
7.1
V
500
kHz
Switching Frequency
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9.2.2 Detailed Design Procedure
9.2.2.1 Custom Design With WEBENCH® Tools
Click here to create a custom design using the TPS54020 device with the WEBENCH® Power Designer.
1. Start by entering the input voltage (VIN), output voltage (VOUT), and output current (IOUT) requirements.
2. Optimize the design for key parameters such as efficiency, footprint, and cost using the optimizer dial.
3. Compare the generated design with other possible solutions from Texas Instruments.
The WEBENCH Power Designer provides a customized schematic along with a list of materials with real-time
pricing and component availability.
In most cases, these actions are available:
• Run electrical simulations to see important waveforms and circuit performance
• Run thermal simulations to understand board thermal performance
• Export customized schematic and layout into popular CAD formats
• Print PDF reports for the design, and share the design with colleagues
Get more information about WEBENCH tools at www.ti.com/WEBENCH.
This example details the design of a high frequency switching regulator design using ceramic output capacitors.
9.2.2.2 Operating Frequency
The first step is to decide on a switching frequency for the regulator. There is a trade off between higher and
lower switching frequencies. Higher switching frequencies may produce smaller a solution size using lower
valued inductors and smaller output capacitors compared to a power supply that switches at a lower frequency.
However, the higher switching frequency causes extra switching losses, which reduce the converter’s efficiency
and thermal performance. In this design, a moderate switching frequency of 500 kHz is selected to achieve both
a small solution size and a high efficiency operation.
9.2.2.3 Output Inductor Selection
To calculate the value of the output inductor, use Equation 18. KIND is a coefficient that represents the amount of
inductor ripple current relative to the maximum output current. The inductor ripple current is filtered by the output
capacitor. Therefore, choosing high inductor ripple currents impact the selection of the output capacitor because
the output capacitor must have a ripple current rating equal to or greater than the inductor ripple current. In
general, the inductor ripple value is at the discretion of the designer; however, KIND is normally from 0.1 to 0.3 for
the majority of applications.
VIN(max ) - VOUT
VOUT
´
LOUT =
IOUT ´ KIND
VIN(max ) ´ fSW
(18)
For this design example, use KIND = 0.3 and the inductor value is calculated to be 1.07 μH. For this design, a
nearest standard value was chosen at 1 μH. For the output filter inductor, it is important that the rms current and
saturation current ratings not be exceeded. The rms and peak inductor current are calculated in Equation 19 and
Equation 20.
IRIPPLE =
(V
IN(max ) - VOUT
L1
)´
VOUT
VIN(max ) ´ fSW
(
æ
1 ç VOUT ´ VIN(max ) - VOUT
2
IL(rms ) = (IOUT ) +
´
12 çç
VIN(max ) ´ L1´ fSW
è
(19)
)ö÷
2
÷
÷
ø
(20)
æI
ö
IL(peak ) = IOUT + ç RIPPLE ÷
2 ø
è
(21)
For this design, the rms inductor current is calculated to be 10.04 A and the peak inductor current is 11.6A.
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The chosen inductor is 1.0 μH, with a saturation current rating of 13 A. The current flowing through the inductor is
the inductor ripple current plus the output current. During power up, faults or transient load conditions, the
inductor current can increase above the peak inductor current level calculated above. In transient conditions, the
inductor current can increase up to the switch current limit of the device. For this reason, the most conservative
approach is to specify an inductor with a saturation current rating equal to or greater than the switch current limit
rather than the peak inductor current.
9.2.2.4 Output Capacitor Selection
There are three primary considerations for selecting the value of the output capacitor. The output capacitor
affects three criteria:
• how the regulator responds to a change in load current or load transient
• the output voltage ripple
• the amount of capacitance on the output voltage bus
The last of these three considerations is important when designing regulators that must operate where the
electrical conditions are unpredictable. The output capacitance needs to be selected based on the most stringent
of these three criteria.
9.2.2.4.1 Response to a Load Transient
The desired response to a load transient is the first criteria. The output capacitor needs to supply the load with
the required current when not immediately provided by the regulator. When the output capacitor supplies load
current, the impedance of the capacitor greatly affects the magnitude of voltage deviation during the transient.
In order to meet the requirements for control loop stability, this peak current mode regulator requires the addition
of compensation components in the design of the error amplifier. While these compensation components provide
for a stable control loop, they often also reduce the speed with which the regulator can respond to load
transients. The delay in the regulator response to load changes can be two or more clock cycles before the
control loop reacts to the change. During that time the difference between the old and the new load current must
be supplied (or absorbed) by the output capacitance. The output capacitor impedance must be designed to be
able to supply or absorb the delta current while maintaining the output voltage within acceptable limits.
Equation 22 calculates the minimum capacitance necessary to limit the voltage deviation based on a delay of 2
switching cycles.
2 ´ DIOUT
COUT >
fSW ´ DVOUT
where
•
•
•
ΔIOUT is the change in output current
fSW is the switching frequency
ΔVOUT is the allowable change in the output voltage
(22)
For this example, the transient load response is specified as a 5% change in VOUT for a load step of 5 A. For this
example, ΔIOUT = 5 A and ΔVOUT = 0.05 × 1.8 = 0.09 V. Using these numbers gives a minimum capacitance of
222 μF. This value does not take the ESR of the output capacitor into account in the output voltage change. For
ceramic capacitors, the ESR is usually small enough to ignore in this calculation.
9.2.2.4.2 Output Voltage Ripple
The output voltage ripple is the second criteria. Equation 23 calculates the minimum output capacitance required
to meet the output voltage ripple specification.
I
1
COUT >
´ RIPPLE
8 ´ fSW VOUT(ripple )
where
•
•
•
28
fSW is the switching frequency
VRIPPLE is the maximum allowable output voltage ripple
IRIPPLE is the inductor ripple current.
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In this case, the maximum output voltage ripple is 10 mV. Under this requirement, the minimum output
capacitance for ripple (as calculated in Equation 24) yields 80.5 µF. Equation 24 calculates the maximum ESR
an output capacitor can have to meet the output voltage ripple specification. Equation 24 indicates the ESR
should be less than 3 mΩ, and this is the requirement when the impedance of the output capacitance is
dominated by ESR, such as with an electrolytic capacitor. However, because the output voltage ripple is a
combination of capacitive ripple and resistive ripple, the ESR must be much lower than this result when the
capacitance is purely ceramic. This is because the lower capacitance values obtained with ceramic capacitors
will result in a larger capacitive ripple component of the total ripple.
VOUT(ripple )
RESR =
IRIPPLE
(24)
Additional capacitance de-ratings for aging, temperature and DC bias should be factored in, which increases the
minimum required capacitance value. For this design example, three 100 μF, 6.3 V, X5R, ceramic capacitors with
2 mΩ each of ESR were selected. Capacitors generally have limits to the amount of ripple current they can
handle without failing or producing excess heat. An output capacitor that can support the inductor ripple current
must be specified. Some capacitor data sheets specify the RMS (root mean square) value of the maximum ripple
current. Equation 25 can be used to calculate the RMS ripple current the output capacitor needs to support. For
this application, Equation 25 yields 929 mA.
IC(rms ) =
(
VOUT ´ VIN(max ) - VOUT
)
12 ´ VIN(max ) ´ L1´ fSW
(25)
9.2.2.4.3 Bus Capacitance
The amount of bus capacitance is the third criteria. This requirement is optional. However, extra output bus
capacitance should be considered in systems where the electrical environment is unpredictable, or not fully
defined, or can be subject to severe events such as hot plug events or even electrostatic discharge (ESD)
events.
During a hot plug event, when a discharged load capacitor is plugged into the output of the regulator, the
instantaneous current demand required to charge this load capacitance will be far too rapid to be supplied by the
control loop. Often the peak charging current can be multiple times higher than the current limit of the regulator.
Additional output capacitance will help maintain the bus voltage within acceptable limits. For hot plug events, the
amount of required bus capacitance can be calculated if the load capacitance is known, based on the concept of
conservation of charge.
An ESD event, or even non-direct lightning surges at the primary circuit level can cause glitches at this converter
system level. A glitch of sufficient amplitude to falsely trip OVP or UVLO can cause several clock cycles of
disturbance. In such cases it is beneficial to design in more bus capacitance than is required by the simpler load
transient and ripple requirements. The amount of extra bus capacitance can be calculated based on maintaining
the output voltage within acceptable limits during the disturbance. This capacitance can be as much as required
to fully support the load for the duration of the interrupted converter operation.
9.2.2.5 Input Capacitor Selection
The TPS54020 requires a high quality ceramic, type X5R or X7R, input decoupling capacitor of at least 4.7 μF of
effective capacitance on the PVIN input voltage pins and another 4.7 μF on the VIN input voltage pin. In some
applications additional bulk capacitance may also be required for the PVIN input. The effective capacitance
includes any DC bias effects. The voltage rating of the input capacitor must be greater than the maximum input
voltage. The capacitor must also have a ripple current rating greater than the maximum input current ripple to the
device during full load. The input ripple current can be calculated using Equation 26.
ICIN(rms ) = IOUT ´
(
VIN(min ) - VOUT
VOUT
´
VIN(min )
VIN(min )
)
(26)
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The value of a ceramic capacitor varies significantly over temperature and the amount of DC bias applied to the
capacitor. The capacitance variations due to temperature can be minimized by selecting a dielectric material that
is stable over temperature. X5R and X7R ceramic dielectrics are usually selected for power regulator capacitors
because they have a high capacitance to volume ratio and are fairly stable over temperature. The output
capacitor must also be selected with the DC bias taken into account. The capacitance value of a capacitor
decreases as the DC bias across a capacitor increases. For this example design, a ceramic capacitor with at
least a 25-V voltage rating is required to support the maximum input voltage. For this example, two 22-μF, 25-V
ceramic capacitors and one 68-μF, 25 V electrolytic capacitor in parallel have been selected for the PVIN voltage
rail. For the VIN voltage rail, one 4.7-μF, 25-V ceramic capacitor was selected. The VIN and PVIN inputs are
normally tied together so the TPS54020 may operate from a single supply. The input capacitance value
determines the input ripple voltage of the regulator. The input voltage ripple can be calculated using Equation 27.
Using the design example values, IOUT(max) = 10 A, CIN = 48.7 μF, fSW = 500 kHz, yields an input voltage ripple of
103 mV and a RMS input ripple current of 4.18 Arms. Because an electrolytic capacitor typically features a much
higher ESR, it was not included in this calculation. The input capacitor ripple voltage is calculated in Equation 27.
DVIN =
IOUT(max ) ´ 0.25
CIN ´ fSW
(27)
9.2.2.6 Soft-Start Capacitor Selection
The soft-start capacitor determines the minimum amount of time it takes for the output voltage to reach its
nominal programmed value during power up. This is useful if a load requires a controlled voltage slew rate. This
is also used if the output capacitance is very large and would require large amounts of current to quickly charge
the capacitor to the output voltage level. The extra current required to charge the output capacitors could cause
the TPS54020 to reach the current limit. The soft start current surge from the input may cause the input voltage
rail to sag. Limiting the output voltage slew rate solves both of these problems. The soft-start capacitor value can
be calculated using Equation 28. For the example circuit, the soft-start time is not critical because the output
capacitor value is only 300 μF which does not require much current to charge to 1.8 V. The example circuit has
the soft-start time set to an arbitrary value of 30 ms, which requires a 100-nF capacitor. In this case, ISS is 2.3 µA
and VREF is 0.6 V.
I ´t
CSS = SS SS
VREF
where
•
•
•
•
CSS is the soft-start capacitance in nF
ISS is the soft-start current in µA
tSS is the soft-start time in ms
VREF of the voltage reference in V
(28)
9.2.2.7 Bootstrap Capacitor Selection
A ceramic capacitor with a value of 0.1-μF must be connected between the BOOT and PH pins for proper
operation. It is recommended to use a ceramic capacitor with X5R or better grade dielectric. The capacitor
should have voltage rating of 10 V or higher.
9.2.2.8 Undervoltage Lockout Set Point
It is recommended that an external divider be connected to the EN pin for clean transitions from OFF to ON and
ON to OFF. The Undervoltage Lock Out (UVLO) can be designed using the external voltage divider network of
R6 and R11. R6 is connected between VIN and the EN pin of the TPS54020 and R11 is connected between EN
and GND. The UVLO has two thresholds, one for power up when the input voltage is rising and one for power
down or brown outs when the input voltage is falling. For the example design, the supply should turn on and start
switching once the input voltage increases above 7.5 V (UVLO start or enable). After the regulator starts
switching, it should continue to do so until the input voltage falls below 7.1 V (UVLO stop or disable). Equation 2
and Equation 3 above can be used to calculate the values for the upper and lower resistor values. For the UVLO
voltages specified the nearest standard resistor value for R6 is 69.8 kΩ and for R11 is 13.3 kΩ.
30
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9.2.2.9 Output Voltage Feedback Resistor Selection
The resistor divider network R7 and R10 is used to set the output voltage. For the example design, R10 was set
to 2.55 kΩ. This yields a value of 5.11 kΩ for R7. These relatively low values are used so as to provide some
minimum DC load current that is higher than the PH pin bias leakage current.
9.2.2.9.1 Minimum Output Voltage
Due to internal design limitations of the TPS54020, there is a minimum output voltage limit for any given input
voltage. The output voltage can never be lower than the internal voltage reference of 0.6 V. However, the output
voltage may also be limited to values greater than 0.6 V by the minimum controllable on time. The minimum
output voltage in this case is given by Equation 29
(
(
))
(
VOUT(min ) = tON(min ) ´ fSW (max ) ´ VIN(max ) + IOUT(min ) ´ RDS2(min ) - RDS1(min ) - IOUT(min ) RLOAD - RDS2(min )
)
where
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
VOUT(min) is the minimum achievable output voltage
tON(min) is the minimum controllable on-time (135 nsec max)
fSW(max) is the maximum switching frequency including tolerance
VIN(max) is the maximum input voltage
IOUT(min) is the minimum load current
RDS1(min) is the minimum high-side MOSFET on resistance (36 mΩ to 32 mΩ typical)
RDS2(min) is the minimum low-side MOSFET on resistance (19 mΩ typical)
RLOAD is the series resistance of output inductor
(29)
9.2.2.10 Compensation Component Selection
There are several industry techniques used to compensate DC/DC regulators. The method presented here is
easy to calculate and yields high phase margins. For most conditions, the regulator has a phase margin between
60 and 90 degrees. The method presented here ignores the effects of the slope compensation that is internal to
the TPS54020. Because the slope compensation is ignored, the actual cross over frequency is usually lower than
the cross over frequency used in the calculations. Use the PSPICE model for a more accurate design.
First, the modulator pole, fP(mod), and the esr zero, fZ(mod) must be calculated using Equation 30 and Equation 31.
For the output capacitance, use a derated value of 225 μF. As a quick estimate, an fC value between 3 and 5
times the double pole frequency of the output filter is chosen. In this case an fC of 35 kHz was selected. fP(mod) is
3.93 kHz and fZ(mod) is 10.6 MHz.
IOUT
fP(mod) =
2 ´ p ´ VOUT ´ COUT
(30)
fZ(mod) =
1
2 ´ p ´ RESR ´ COUT
(31)
Now the compensation components can be calculated. First calculate the value for C12 which sets the gain of
the compensated network at low frequencies far below fC. Because the desired fC is 35 kHz, and the expected
gain curve is a single pole roll off, then two decades below fC (which is 350 Hz), the gain should be +40 dB.
Following this logic, the plant gain at DC is calculated in Equation 32.
æ
æV
öö
A Vdc = 20 ´ log ç gM(ea ) ´ 2.38M ´ gM(ps ) ´ ç OUT ÷ ÷ = 80.94 dB
ç
÷
è IOUT ø ø
è
(32)
This implies that at 350 Hz, the compensation pole capacitor C12 should reduce the gain by (80.94-40) =
40.94 dB, or result in a gain of -40.94 dB. (See Equation 33)
æ ZC ö
20 ´ log ç
÷ = -40.94 dB
è 2.38M ø
(33)
ZC = 2.38Meg ´ 10
æ -40.94 ö
ç 20 ÷
è
ø
= 21.367kW (at 350 Hz )
(34)
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1
C=
=
2p ´ fSW ´ ZC
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1
= 21.28nF
2p ´ 350 ´ 21.367
where
•
fSW is in kHz
The closest standard value is 22 nF.
(35)
From Equation 30, the required compensation zero resulting from R13 should be placed at fP(mod) of 3.93 kHz.
1
fZ(comp ) =
2p ´ R13 ´ C12
(36)
1
1
R13 =
=
= 1.84
2p ´ fZ(comp ) ´ C12 2p ´ 3.93 ´ 22
where
•
•
•
fZ(comp) is in kHz
C12 is in nF
R13 is in kΩ
(37)
This value was adjusted after actual Bode measurements to 3.01 kΩ.
An additional high frequency pole can be used if necessary by adding a capacitor in parallel with the series
combination of R13 and C12. The pole frequency can be placed at the ESR zero frequency of the output
capacitor as given by Equation 13. Use Equation 38 to calculate the required capacitor value for C10.
´ COUT
R
666 μΩ ´ 225 μF
=
= 49 pF
C10 = ESR
R13
3.01 kΩ
(38)
This value was adjusted upwards to 22 0pF to reduce jitter.
9.2.3 Application Curves
VOUT = 100 mV/div AC coupled
VIN = 5 V/div
IOUT = 2 A/div
IOUT = 2.5 A/div
VOUT = 500 mV/div
Load step = 2.5 A to 7.5A
Slew rate = 625 mA/μs
Timebase = 200 μs/div
Timebase = 5 ms/div
Figure 33. Start-Up With VIN
Figure 32. Load Transient
32
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VIN = 5 V/div
VIN = 5 V/div
PH = 10 V/div
IOUT = 2 A/div
VOUT = 500 mV/div
VOUT = 500 mV/div
EN = 2 V/div
EN = 2 V/div,
Timebase = 5 ms/div
Timebase = 5 ms/div
Figure 34. Start-Up With EN
Figure 35. Start-Up With Prebias
PH = 5 V/div
PH = 5 V/div
VIN = 200 mV/div AC coupled
VOUT = 20 mV/div AC coupled
Timebase = 1 μs/div
Timebase = 1 μs/div
Figure 36. Output Voltage Ripple With Full Load
40
Gain (dB)
30
150
1.840
120
1.835
90
1.830
20
60
10
30
0
0
−10
−30
Magnitude [B/A]
Phase [B−A]
Zero
−20
−30
100
1000
Output Voltage (V)
VOUT = 1.8 V
VIN = 12 V
RLOAD = 5 A
Phase (°)
50
Figure 37. Input Voltage Ripple With Full Load
−60
10000
Frequency (Hz)
1.820
1.815
IOUT = 0.1 A
IOUT = 1 A
IOUT = 5 A
IOUT = 10 A
1.810
1.805
−90
1000000
100000
1.825
1.800
5
6
1.830
Efficiency (%)
Output Voltage (V)
1.835
1.825
1.820
1.815
VIN = 5 V
VIN = 12 V
VIN = 17 V
1.800
0
1
2
3
9
TJ = 25°C
fSW = 500 kHz
VOUT =1.8 V
4
5
6
7
Output Current (A)
8
9
10 11 12 13
Input Voltage (V)
14
15
16
17
G000
Figure 39. Line Regulation
1.840
1.805
8
G000
Figure 38. Closed-Loop Bode Response
1.810
7
TJ = 25°C
fSW = 500 kHz
VOUT =1.8 V
10
100
95
90
85
80
75
70
65
60
55
50
45
40
35
30
VIN = 5 V
VIN = 12 V
VIN = 17 V
TA = 25°C
VOUT = 1.8 V
fSW = 500 kHz
0
G000
Figure 40. Load Regulation
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Output Current (A)
8
9
10
G000
Figure 41. Efficiency
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10 Power Supply Recommendations
The TPS54020 operates from a controller bias voltage supply between 4.5 V and 17 V, and a power stage input
voltage between 1.6 V and 17 V. The TPS54020 is designed to support either split-rail or single-supply operation,
and may be operated from separate PVIN and VIN voltages. Proper bypassing of input supplies and internal
regulators is also critical for noise performance, as is PCB layout and grounding scheme. See the
recommendations in the Layout and Pin Configuration and Functions sections.
11 Layout
11.1 Layout Guidelines
Layout is a critical portion of good power supply design. See Figure 42 for a PCB layout example. The top layer
contains the main power traces for PVIN, VIN, VOUT and VPHASE. Also on the top layer are connections for
several analog pins of the TPS54020 and a large area filled with PGND. The two internal layers are the same
and contain mostly power planes, including PGND, Vout, PVIN and VPHASE. The bottom layer contains the
remainder of the analog circuit connections, plus power planes similar to the internal layers. The top-side power
and ground planes are connected to the bottom and internal power and ground planes with multiple vias placed
around the board including several vias directly under the TPS54020 device to provide a thermal path from the
top-side power planes to the other layer power planes. There are several signals paths that conduct fast
changing currents or voltages that can interact with stray inductance or parasitic capacitance to generate noise
or degrade the power supply performance.
To help eliminate these noise problems, the PVIN pin should be bypassed to ground with a low ESR ceramic
bypass capacitor with X5R or X7R dielectric. Care should be taken to minimize the loop area formed by the
bypass capacitor connections, the PVIN pins, and the ground connections. The VIN pin must also be bypassed
to ground using a low ESR ceramic capacitor with X5R or X7R dielectric. Make sure to connect this capacitor to
the quiet analog ground trace rather than the power ground trace of the PVIn bypass capacitor. Because the PH
connection is the switching node, the output inductor should be located close to the PH pin, and the area of the
PCB conductor minimized to prevent excessive capacitive coupling. The output filter capacitor ground should use
the same power ground trace as the PVIN input bypass capacitor. Try to minimize this conductor length while
maintaining adequate width. The small signal components should be grounded to the analog ground path as
shown. The RT/CLK pin is sensitive to noise so the RT resistor should be located as close as possible to the IC
and routed with minimal trace lengths. The additional external components can be placed approximately as
shown. It may be possible to obtain acceptable performance with alternate PCB layouts, however this layout has
been shown to produce good results and is meant as a guideline.
Land pattern and stencil information is provided in the data sheet addendum. The dimension and outline
information is for the standard RUW package.
34
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11.2 Layout Examples
Figure 42. TPS54020EVM-082 Top Side Copper
Figure 43. TPS54020EVM-082 Top Side Component Placement
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Layout Examples (continued)
Figure 44. TPS54020EVM-082 Bottom Side Component Placement
36
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12 Device and Documentation Support
12.1 Device Support
12.1.1 Development Support
12.1.1.1 Custom Design With WEBENCH® Tools
Click here to create a custom design using the TPS54020 device with the WEBENCH® Power Designer.
1. Start by entering the input voltage (VIN), output voltage (VOUT), and output current (IOUT) requirements.
2. Optimize the design for key parameters such as efficiency, footprint, and cost using the optimizer dial.
3. Compare the generated design with other possible solutions from Texas Instruments.
The WEBENCH Power Designer provides a customized schematic along with a list of materials with real-time
pricing and component availability.
In most cases, these actions are available:
• Run electrical simulations to see important waveforms and circuit performance
• Run thermal simulations to understand board thermal performance
• Export customized schematic and layout into popular CAD formats
• Print PDF reports for the design, and share the design with colleagues
Get more information about WEBENCH tools at www.ti.com/WEBENCH.
12.2 Documentation Support
12.2.1 Related Documentation
Designing Type III Compensation for Current Mode Step-Down Converters (SLVA352)
12.3 Receiving Notification of Documentation Updates
To receive notification of documentation updates, navigate to the device product folder on ti.com. In the upper
right corner, click on Alert me to register and receive a weekly digest of any product information that has
changed. For change details, review the revision history included in any revised document.
12.4 Community Resources
The following links connect to TI community resources. Linked contents are provided "AS IS" by the respective
contributors. They do not constitute TI specifications and do not necessarily reflect TI's views; see TI's Terms of
Use.
TI E2E™ Online Community TI's Engineer-to-Engineer (E2E) Community. Created to foster collaboration
among engineers. At e2e.ti.com, you can ask questions, share knowledge, explore ideas and help
solve problems with fellow engineers.
Design Support TI's Design Support Quickly find helpful E2E forums along with design support tools and
contact information for technical support.
12.5 Trademarks
HotRod, Eco-mode, SWIFT, E2E are trademarks of Texas Instruments.
WEBENCH is a registered trademark of Texas Instruments.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
12.6 Electrostatic Discharge Caution
These devices have limited built-in ESD protection. The leads should be shorted together or the device placed in conductive foam
during storage or handling to prevent electrostatic damage to the MOS gates.
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12.7 Glossary
SLYZ022 — TI Glossary.
This glossary lists and explains terms, acronyms, and definitions.
13 Mechanical, Packaging, and Orderable Information
The following pages include mechanical, packaging, and orderable information. This information is the most
current data available for the designated devices. This data is subject to change without notice and revision of
this document. For browser-based versions of this data sheet, refer to the left-hand navigation.
38
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PACKAGE OPTION ADDENDUM
www.ti.com
1-Mar-2019
PACKAGING INFORMATION
Orderable Device
Status
(1)
Package Type Package Pins Package
Drawing
Qty
Eco Plan
Lead/Ball Finish
MSL Peak Temp
(2)
(6)
(3)
Op Temp (°C)
Device Marking
(4/5)
TPS54020RUWR
ACTIVE
VQFN-HR
RUW
15
3000
Pb-Free (RoHS
Exempt)
CU NIPDAU
Level-1-260C-UNLIM
-40 to 150
54020
TPS54020RUWT
ACTIVE
VQFN-HR
RUW
15
250
Pb-Free (RoHS
Exempt)
CU NIPDAU
Level-1-260C-UNLIM
-40 to 150
54020
(1)
The marketing status values are defined as follows:
ACTIVE: Product device recommended for new designs.
LIFEBUY: TI has announced that the device will be discontinued, and a lifetime-buy period is in effect.
NRND: Not recommended for new designs. Device is in production to support existing customers, but TI does not recommend using this part in a new design.
PREVIEW: Device has been announced but is not in production. Samples may or may not be available.
OBSOLETE: TI has discontinued the production of the device.
(2)
RoHS: TI defines "RoHS" to mean semiconductor products that are compliant with the current EU RoHS requirements for all 10 RoHS substances, including the requirement that RoHS substance
do not exceed 0.1% by weight in homogeneous materials. Where designed to be soldered at high temperatures, "RoHS" products are suitable for use in specified lead-free processes. TI may
reference these types of products as "Pb-Free".
RoHS Exempt: TI defines "RoHS Exempt" to mean products that contain lead but are compliant with EU RoHS pursuant to a specific EU RoHS exemption.
Green: TI defines "Green" to mean the content of Chlorine (Cl) and Bromine (Br) based flame retardants meet JS709B low halogen requirements of <=1000ppm threshold. Antimony trioxide based
flame retardants must also meet the <=1000ppm threshold requirement.
(3)
MSL, Peak Temp. - The Moisture Sensitivity Level rating according to the JEDEC industry standard classifications, and peak solder temperature.
(4)
There may be additional marking, which relates to the logo, the lot trace code information, or the environmental category on the device.
(5)
Multiple Device Markings will be inside parentheses. Only one Device Marking contained in parentheses and separated by a "~" will appear on a device. If a line is indented then it is a continuation
of the previous line and the two combined represent the entire Device Marking for that device.
(6)
Lead/Ball Finish - Orderable Devices may have multiple material finish options. Finish options are separated by a vertical ruled line. Lead/Ball Finish values may wrap to two lines if the finish
value exceeds the maximum column width.
Important Information and Disclaimer:The information provided on this page represents TI's knowledge and belief as of the date that it is provided. TI bases its knowledge and belief on information
provided by third parties, and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of such information. Efforts are underway to better integrate information from third parties. TI has taken and
continues to take reasonable steps to provide representative and accurate information but may not have conducted destructive testing or chemical analysis on incoming materials and chemicals.
TI and TI suppliers consider certain information to be proprietary, and thus CAS numbers and other limited information may not be available for release.
In no event shall TI's liability arising out of such information exceed the total purchase price of the TI part(s) at issue in this document sold by TI to Customer on an annual basis.
Addendum-Page 1
Samples
PACKAGE OPTION ADDENDUM
www.ti.com
1-Mar-2019
Addendum-Page 2
PACKAGE MATERIALS INFORMATION
www.ti.com
1-Mar-2019
TAPE AND REEL INFORMATION
*All dimensions are nominal
Device
TPS54020RUWT
Package Package Pins
Type Drawing
VQFNHR
RUW
15
SPQ
250
Reel
Reel
A0
Diameter Width (mm)
(mm) W1 (mm)
180.0
12.4
Pack Materials-Page 1
3.75
B0
(mm)
K0
(mm)
P1
(mm)
3.75
1.15
8.0
W
Pin1
(mm) Quadrant
12.0
Q1
PACKAGE MATERIALS INFORMATION
www.ti.com
1-Mar-2019
*All dimensions are nominal
Device
Package Type
Package Drawing
Pins
SPQ
Length (mm)
Width (mm)
Height (mm)
TPS54020RUWT
VQFN-HR
RUW
15
250
210.0
185.0
35.0
Pack Materials-Page 2
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IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR NON-INFRINGEMENT OF THIRD
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These resources are intended for skilled developers designing with TI products. You are solely responsible for (1) selecting the appropriate
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