Texas Instruments | TPS92692, TPS92692-Q1 High Accuracy LED Controller With Spread Spectrum Frequency Modulation | Datasheet | Texas Instruments TPS92692, TPS92692-Q1 High Accuracy LED Controller With Spread Spectrum Frequency Modulation Datasheet

Texas Instruments TPS92692, TPS92692-Q1 High Accuracy LED Controller With Spread Spectrum Frequency Modulation Datasheet
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TPS92692, TPS92692-Q1
SLVSDD9 – MARCH 2017
TPS92692, TPS92692-Q1 High Accuracy LED Controller With
Spread Spectrum Frequency Modulation
1 Features
3 Description
•
•
The TPS92692 and TPS92692-Q1 are high accuracy
peak current mode based controllers designed to
support step-up/down LED driver topologies. The
device incorporates a rail-to-rail current amplifier to
measure LED current and spread spectrum frequency
modulation technique for improved EMI performance.
1
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Wide Input Voltage: 4.5 V to 65 V
Better than ± 4% LED Current Accuracy over
–40°C to 150°C Junction Temperature Range
Spread Spectrum Frequency Modulation for
Improved EMI
Comprehensive Fault Protection Circuitry with
Current Monitor output and Open Drain Fault Flag
Indicator
Internal Analog Voltage to PWM Duty Cycle
Generator for stand-alone Dimming Operation
Compatible with Direct PWM Input with over
1000:1 Dimming Range
Analog LED Current Adjust Input (IADJ) with over
15:1 Contrast Ratio
Integrated P-Channel Driver to enable Series FET
Dimming and LED Protection
TPS92692-Q1: Automotive Q100 Grade 1
Qualified
This high performance LED controller can
independently modulate LED current using either
analog or PWM dimming techniques. Linear analog
dimming response with over 15:1 range is obtained
by varying the voltage across the high impedance
analog adjust (IADJ) input. PWM dimming of LED
current is achieved by directly modulating the
DIM/PWM input pin with the desired duty cycle or by
enabling the internal PWM generator circuit. The
PWM generator translates the DC voltage at
DIM/PWM pin to corresponding duty cycle by
comparing it to the internal triangle wave generator.
The optional PDRV gate driver output can be used to
drive an external P-Channel series MOSFET.
The TPS92692 and TPS92692-Q1 devices support
continuous LED status check through the current
monitor (IMON) output. The devices also include an
open drain fault indicator output to indicate LED
overcurrent,
output
overvoltage
and
output
undervoltage conditions.
2 Applications
•
•
•
•
TPS92692-Q1: Automotive Exterior Lighting
Applications
Driver Monitoring Systems (DMS)
LED General Lighting Applications
Exit Signs and Emergency Lighting
Device Information(1)
PART NUMBER
TPS92692-Q1
PACKAGE
HTSSOP (20)
TPS92692
BODY SIZE (NOM)
5.10 mm × 6.60 mm
(1) For all available packages, see the orderable addendum at
the end of the data sheet.
4 Typical Boost LED Driver
D
L
VIN
CIN
1
2
3
4
CSS
5
CDM
6
7
RT
8
CCOMP
VIN
FLT
SS
DM
RT
COMP
IMON
GATE
IS
GND
SLOPE
OV
RADJ2
RDIM2
VCC
VREF
CIMON
DDIM
QDIM
LED +
TPS92692-Q1
CVREF
VCTRL
RCS
CSP
RADJ1
RDIM1
9
10
CSN
IADJ
PDRV
RAMP
DIM/PWM
20
CVCC
19
QM
18
17
16
ROV2
COUT
ROV1
RIS
LED í
RSLP
15
14
13
12
11
CRAMP
PAD
1
An IMPORTANT NOTICE at the end of this data sheet addresses availability, warranty, changes, use in safety-critical applications,
intellectual property matters and other important disclaimers. PRODUCTION DATA.
TPS92692, TPS92692-Q1
SLVSDD9 – MARCH 2017
www.ti.com
Table of Contents
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Features ..................................................................
Applications ...........................................................
Description .............................................................
Typical Boost LED Driver......................................
Revision History.....................................................
Pin Configuration and Functions .........................
Specifications.........................................................
1
1
1
1
2
3
4
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
4
5
5
5
6
9
Absolute Maximum Ratings ......................................
ESD Ratings..............................................................
Recommended Operating Conditions.......................
Thermal Information ..................................................
Electrical Characteristics...........................................
Typical Characteristics ..............................................
8.3 Feature Description................................................. 15
8.4 Device Functional Modes........................................ 22
9
Application and Implementation ........................ 25
9.1 Application Information............................................ 25
9.2 Typical Applications ................................................ 34
10 Power Supply Recommendations ..................... 46
11 Layout................................................................... 47
11.1 Layout Guidelines ................................................. 47
11.2 Layout Example .................................................... 48
12 Device and Documentation Support ................. 49
12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5
Detailed Description ............................................ 13
8.1 Overview ................................................................. 13
8.2 Functional Block Diagram ....................................... 14
Related Links ........................................................
Community Resources..........................................
Trademarks ...........................................................
Electrostatic Discharge Caution ............................
Glossary ................................................................
49
49
49
49
49
13 Mechanical, Packaging, and Orderable
Information ........................................................... 49
5 Revision History
2
DATE
REVISION
NOTES
March 2017
*
Initial release.
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SLVSDD9 – MARCH 2017
6 Pin Configuration and Functions
PWP Package
20-Pin HTSSOP with PowerPAD™
Top View
VIN
1
20
VCC
VREF
2
19
GATE
FLT
3
18
IS
SS
4
17
GND
DM
5
16
SLOPE
RT
6
15
OV
COMP
7
14
CSP
IMON
8
13
CSN
IADJ
9
12
PDRV
10
11
RAMP
DIM/PWM
Thermal
Pad
Pin Functions
PIN
I/O
DESCRIPTION
7
I/O
Transconductance error amplifier output. Connect compensation network to achieve desired closedloop response.
CSN
13
I
Current sense amplifier negative input (–). Connect directly to the negative node of LED current
sense resistor, RCS.
CSP
14
I
Current sense amplifier positive input (+). Connect directly to the positive node of LED current
sense resistor, RCS.
NAME
NO.
COMP
DIM/PWM
10
I
External analog to PWM dimming command or direct PWM dimming input. The external analog
dimming command between 1 V and 3 V is compared to the internal PWM generator triangle
waveform to set LED current duty cycle between 0% and 100%. With PWM generator disabled, a
direct PWM dimming command can be applied to control the LED current duty cycle and frequency.
The analog or PWM command is used to generate an internal PWM signal that controls the GATE
and PDRV outputs. Setting the internal PWM signal to logic level low, turns off switching, idles the
oscillator, disconnects the COMP pin, and sets PDRV to VCSP. Connect to VREF when not used for
PWM dimming.
DM
5
I/O
Triangle wave spread spectrum modulation frequency, fm, programming pin. Connect a capacitor to
GND to set the spread spectrum modulating frequency. Connect directly to GND to disable spread
spectrum modulation of switching frequency.
FLT
3
O
Open-drain fault indicator. Connect to VREF with a resistor to create active low fault signal output.
Internal LED short circuit protection and auto-restart timer can enabled by directly connecting the
pin to SS input.
GATE
19
O
N-channel MOSFET gate driver output. Connect to gate of external main switching N-channel
MOSFET.
GND
17
—
Analog and Power ground connection pin. Connect to circuit ground to complete return path.
IADJ
9
I
LED current reference input. Connect this pin to VCC with a 100-kΩ series resistor to set the
internal reference voltage to 2.42 V and the current sense threshold, V(CSP-CSN) to 170.7 mV. The
pin can be modulated by an external voltage source from 140 mV to 2.25 V to implement analog
dimming.
IMON
8
O
LED current report pin. The LED current sensed by CSP/CSN input is reported as VIMON = 14 × ILED
× RCS. Bypass with a 1-nF ceramic capacitor connected to GND.
IS
18
I
Switch current sense input. Connect to the switch sense resistor, RIS to set the switch current limit
threshold based on the internal 250 mV reference.
OV
15
I
Output voltage input. Connect a resistor divider from output voltage to GND to set output
overvoltage and under-voltage protection thresholds.
PDRV
12
O
Series dimming P-channel FET gate driver output. Connect to gate of external P-channel MOSFET
to implement series FET PWM dimming and fault disconnect.
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Pin Functions (continued)
PIN
I/O
DESCRIPTION
NAME
NO.
RAMP
11
I/O
Programming input for internal PWM generator. Connect a capacitor to GND to set the triangle
wave frequency for PWM generator circuit. Connect a 249-kΩ resistor to GND to disable the PWM
generator and to set a fixed reference for direct external PWM dimming input. Do not allow this pin
to float.
RT
6
I/O
Oscillator frequency programming pin. Connect a resistor to GND to set the switching frequency.
The internal oscillator can be synchronized by coupling an external clock pulse through a series
capacitor with a value of 100 nF.
SLOPE
16
I/O
Slope compensation input. Connect a resistor to GND to set the desired slope compensation ramp
based on inductor value, input and output voltages.
SS
4
I/O
Soft-start programming pin. Connect a capacitor to GND to extend the start-up time. Switching can
be disabled by shorting this pin to GND.
VCC
20
—
VCC (7.5 V) bias supply pin. Locally decouple to GND using a ceramic capacitor (with a value
between 2.2-µF and 4.7-µF). Locate close to the controller.
VIN
1
—
Input supply for the internal regulators. Bypass with a low-pass filter using a series 10-Ω resistor
and 10- nF capacitor connected to GND. Locate the capacitor close to the controller.
VREF
2
—
VREF (5 V) bias supply pin. Locally decouple to GND using a ceramic capacitor (with a value
between 2.2-µF and 4.7-µF) located close to the controller.
—
The GND pin must be connected to the exposed thermal pad for proper operation. This PowerPAD
must be connected to PCB ground plane using multiple vias for good thermal performance.
Thermal Pad
7 Specifications
7.1 Absolute Maximum Ratings
over operating free-air temperature range (unless otherwise noted) (1) (2)
Input voltage
MIN
MAX
UNIT
VIN, CSP, CSN
–0.3
65
V
DIM/PWM
–0.3
14
V
IS, RT, FLT
–0.3
8.8
V
OV, SS, RAMP, DM, SLOPE, VREF, IADJ
–0.3
5.5
V
–0.3
0.3
V
–0.3
8.8
V
PDRV
VCSP – 8.8
VCSP
V
COMP
–0.3
5.0
V
IMON
—
100
µA
GATE (pulsed < 20 ns)
—
500
mA
PDRV (pulsed < 10 µs)
—
50
mA
GATE (pulsed < 20 ns)
—
500
mA
PDRV (pulsed < 10 µs)
—
50
mA
–40
150
°C
165
°C
CSP to CSN
(3)
VCC, GATE
Output voltage (4)
Source current
Sink current
Operating junction temperature, TJ
Storage temperature, Tstg
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
4
Stresses beyond those listed under Absolute Maximum Ratings may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings
only, which do not imply functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated under Recommended
Operating Conditions. Exposure to absolute-maximum-rated conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
All voltages are with respect to GND unless otherwise noted
Continuous sustaining voltage
All output pins are not specified to have an external voltage applied.
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7.2 ESD Ratings
VALUE
UNIT
TPS92692-Q1 IN PWP (HTSSOP) PACKAGE
Human-body model (HBM), per AEC Q100-002, all pins (1)
V(ESD)
Electrostatic
discharge
Charged-device model (CDM), per AEC Q100-011
±2000
All pins except 1, 10, 11, and 20
±500
Pins 1, 10, 11, and 20
±750
V
TPS92692 IN PWP (HTSSOP) PACKAGE
V(ESD)
(1)
(2)
(3)
Electrostatic
discharge
Human-body model (HBM), per ANSI/ESDA/JEDEC JS-001, all pins (2)
±2000
Charged-device model (CDM), per JEDEC specification JESD22-C101, all pins
(3)
±500
V
AEC Q100-002 indicates that HBM stressing shall be in accordance with the ANSI/ESDA/JEDEC JS-001 specification.
JEDEC document JEP155 states that 500-V HBM allows safe manufacturing with a standard ESD control process.
JEDEC document JEP157 states that 250-V CDM allows safe manufacturing with a standard ESD control process.
7.3 Recommended Operating Conditions
over operating free-air temperature range (unless otherwise noted)
MIN
NOM
MAX
VIN
Supply input voltage
6.5
14
65
UNIT
VIN, crank
Supply input, battery crank voltage
4.5
VCSP, VCSN
Current sense common mode
6.5
60
V
ƒSW
Switching frequency
80
800
kHz
ƒm
Spread spectrum modulation frequency
0.1
12
kHz
fRAMP
Internal PWM ramp generator frequency
100
2000
Hz
VIADJ
Current reference voltage
0.14
VIADJ(CLAMP)
V
TA
Operating ambient temperature
–40
125
°C
V
V
7.4 Thermal Information
TPS92692
THERMAL METRIC
(1)
TPS92692-Q1
PWP (HTSSOP) PWP (HTSSOP)
20 PINS
20 PINS
UNIT
RθJA
Junction-to-ambient thermal resistance
40.8
40.8
°C/W
RθJC(top)
Junction-to-case (top) thermal resistance
26.1
26.1
°C/W
RθJB
Junction-to-board thermal resistance
22.2
22.2
°C/W
ψJT
Junction-to-top characterization parameter
0.8
0.8
°C/W
ψJB
Junction-to-board characterization parameter
22.0
22.0
°C/W
RθJC(bot)
Junction-to-case (bottom) thermal resistance
2.3
2.3
°C/W
(1)
For more information about traditional and new thermal metrics, see the Semiconductor and IC Package Thermal Metrics application
report.
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7.5 Electrical Characteristics
–40°C ≤ TJ ≤ 150°C, VIN = 14 V, VIADJ = 2.1 V, VRAMP = 500 mV, VDIM/PWM = 3 V, VOV = 500 mV, CVCC = 1 µF, CVREF = 1 µF,
CCOMP = 2.2 nF, RCS = 100 mΩ, RT = 20 kΩ, no load on GATE and PDRV (unless otherwise noted) (1)
PARAMETER
TEST CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNIT
INPUT VOLTAGE (VIN)
IIN(STBY)
Input stand-by current
VPWM = 0 V
1.8
2.5
mA
IIN(SW)
Input switching current
VCC = 7.5 V, CGATE = 1 nF
5.1
6.6
mA
7.5
8.0
V
4.5
4.9
V
BIAS SUPPLY (VCC)
VCC(REG)
Regulation voltage
VCC(UVLO)
Supply undervoltage protection
No load
7.0
VCC rising threshold, VIN = 8 V
VCC falling threshold, VIN = 8 V
3.7
Hysteresis
ICC(LIMIT)
Supply current limit
VCC = 0 V
VDO
LDO dropout voltage
ICC = 20 mA, VIN = 5 V
30
4.1
V
400
mV
36
46
300
mA
mV
REFERENCE VOLTAGE (VREF)
VREF
Reference voltage
No load
4.77
4.96
5.15
IREF(LIMIT)
Current limit
VREF = 0 V
30
36
46
mA
V
RT = 40 kΩ
175
200
225
kHz
RT = 20 kΩ
341
390
439
kHz
OSCILLATOR (RT)
ƒSW
Switching frequency
VRT
RT output voltage
VSYNC
1
SYNC rising threshold
VRT rising
SYNC falling threshold
VRT falling
2.5
V
2
V
100
ns
Triangle wave generator sink current
10
µA
Triangle wave generator source
current
10
µA
Triangle wave voltage peak (High)
1.15
V
Triangle wave voltage valley (Low)
850
mV
VDM(EN)
Spread spectrum modulation enable
threshold
700
mV
VDM(CLAMP)
Internal clamp voltage
1.25
V
tSYNC(MIN)
1.8
V
3.1
Minimum SYNC clock pulse width
SPREAD SPECTRUM FREQUENCY MODULATION (DM)
IDM
VDM(TR)
VPWM = 0 V, RRAMP = 200 kΩ
GATE DRIVER (GATE)
RGH
Gate driver high side resistance
IGATE = –10 mA
5.4
11.2
Ω
RGL
Gate driver low side resistance
IGATE = 10 mA
4.3
10.5
Ω
CURRENT SENSE (IS)
VIS(LIMIT)
Current limit threshold
tIS(BLANK)
Leading edge blanking time
tIS(FAULT)
Current limit fault time
tILMT(DLY)
IS to GATE propagation delay
(1)
6
VDIM/PWM = 5 V, RRAMP = 249 kΩ
230.6
250
270
mV
VDIM/PWM = 0 V, RRAMP = 249 kΩ
665
700
735
mV
88
118
158
VIS pulsed from 0 V to 1 V
ns
35
µs
78
ns
All voltages are with respect to GND unless otherwise noted
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Electrical Characteristics (continued)
–40°C ≤ TJ ≤ 150°C, VIN = 14 V, VIADJ = 2.1 V, VRAMP = 500 mV, VDIM/PWM = 3 V, VOV = 500 mV, CVCC = 1 µF, CVREF = 1 µF,
CCOMP = 2.2 nF, RCS = 100 mΩ, RT = 20 kΩ, no load on GATE and PDRV (unless otherwise noted)(1)
PARAMETER
TEST CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNIT
PWM COMPARATOR AND SLOPE COMPENSATION (SLOPE)
DMAX
Maximum duty cycle
90
%
VSLOPE
Adaptive slope compensation
VCSP = 24 V
410
mV
VSLOPE(MIN)
Minimum slope compensation output
voltage
VCSP = 0 V
72
mV
VLV
IS to COMP level shift voltage
No slope compensation added
ILV
IS level shift bias current
No slope compensation added
1.42
1.60
1.82
V
17
µA
CURRENT SENSE AMPLIFIER (CSP, CSN)
VCSP = 14 V, VIADJ = 3 V
163.4
170.7
177.6
VCSP = 14 V, VIADJ = 1.4 V
95.83
100.5
103.85
mV
V(CSP-CSN)
Current sense thresholds
CS(BW)
Current sense unity gain bandwidth
GCS
Current sense amplifier gain
G = VIADJ/V(CSP-CSN)
K(OCP)
Ratio of over-current detection
threshold to analog adjust voltage
K (OCP) = V(OCP-THR)/VIADJ
ICSP(BIAS)
CSP bias current
VCSN = 14.1 V, VCSP = 14 V
107
µA
ICSN(BIAS)
CSN bias current
VCSN = 14.1 V, VCSP = 14 V
110
µA
241
Ω
mV
500
kHz
14
1.46
1.5
1.61
FAULT INDICATOR (FLT)
R(FLT)
Open-drain pull down resistance
t(FAULT_TMR)
Fault timer
24
36
48
ms
144
µA
CURRENT MONITOR (IMON)
V(CSP-CSN) = 150 mV,
VIMON = 0 V
IIMON(SRC)
IMON source current
VIMON(CLP)
IMON output voltage clamp
3.2
3.7
4.2
V
VIMON(OS)
IMON buffer offset voltage
–7.2
0
8.5
mV
2.29
2.40
2.55
ANALOG ADJUST (IADJ)
VIADJ(CLP)
IADJ internal clamp voltage
IIADJ = 1 µA
IIADJ(BIAS)
IADJ input bias current
VIADJ < 2.2 V
10.5
nA
V
RIADJ(LMT)
IADJ current limiting series resistor
VIADJ > 2.6 V
12
kΩ
ERROR AMPLIFIER (COMP)
gM
Transconductance
121
µA/V
ICOMP(SRC)
COMP current source capacity
VIADJ = 1.4 V, V(CSP-CSN) = 0 V
130
µA
ICOMP(SINK)
COMP current sink capacity
VIADJ = 0 V, V(CSP-CSN) = 0.1 V
130
EA(BW)
Error amplifier bandwidth
Gain = –3 dB
VCOMP(RST)
RCOMP(DCH)
µA
5
MHz
COMP pin reset voltage
100
mV
COMP discharge FET resistance
246
Ω
SOFT-START (SS)
ISS
Soft-start source current
VSS(UVP_EN)
Soft-start voltage threshold to enable
output under-voltage protection
7
VSS(RST)
Soft-start pin reset voltage
RSS(DCH)
SS discharge FET resistance
10
12.8
µA
2.4
V
50
mV
240
Ω
OUTPUT VOLTAGE INPUT (OV)
VOVP(THR)
Overvoltage protection threshold
1.195
1.228
1.262
V
VUVP(THR)
Undervoltage protection threshold
81.7
100
115.1
mV
t(UVP-BLANK)
Undervoltage protection blanking
period
IOVP(HYS)
OVP hysteresis current
4
12
20
µs
27.5
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Electrical Characteristics (continued)
–40°C ≤ TJ ≤ 150°C, VIN = 14 V, VIADJ = 2.1 V, VRAMP = 500 mV, VDIM/PWM = 3 V, VOV = 500 mV, CVCC = 1 µF, CVREF = 1 µF,
CCOMP = 2.2 nF, RCS = 100 mΩ, RT = 20 kΩ, no load on GATE and PDRV (unless otherwise noted)(1)
PARAMETER
TEST CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNIT
Ramp generator source current
7.75
10
12.73
µA
Ramp generator sink current
8.24
10
12.41
µA
INTERNAL PWM RAMP GENERATOR (RAMP)
IRAMP
VRAMP
Ramp signal peak (high)
3
V
Ramp signal valley (low)
1
V
PWM INPUT (DIM/PWM)
VPWM(HIGH)
Schmitt trigger logic level (high
threshold)
VRAMP = 2.0 V
VPWM(LOW)
Schmitt trigger logic level (low
threshold)
VRAMP = 2.0 V
RPWM(PD)
PWM pull-down resistance
tDLY(RISE)
PWM rising to PDRV delay
tDLY(FALL)
PWM falling to PDRV delay
2.0
1.8
2.2
V
2.0
V
10
MΩ
CPDRV = 1 nF
294
ns
CPDRV = 1 nF
326
ns
V
SERIES P-CHANNEL PWM FET GATE DRIVE OUTPUT (PDRV)
VPDRV(OFF)
P-channel gate driver off-state voltage
VCSP = 14 V
14
VPDRV(ON)
P-channel gate driver on-state voltage
VCSP = 14 V
7.4
V
IPDRV(SRC)
PDRV sink current
Pulsed
50
mA
RPDRV(L)
PDRV driver pull up resistance
82
Ω
175
°C
25
°C
THERMAL SHUTDOWN
TSD
Thermal shutdown temperature
TSD(HYS)
Thermal shutdown hysteresis
8
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7.6 Typical Characteristics
7.54
4.975
7.53
4.97
7.52
4.965
Reference Voltage (V)
VCC Regulation Voltage (V)
TA = 25°C, VIN = 14 V, VIADJ = 2.2 V, CVCC = 1 µF, CCOMP = 2.2 nF, RCS = 100 mΩ, RT = 20 kΩ, VPWM = 5 V, no load on GATE
and PDRV (unless otherwise noted)
7.51
7.5
7.49
7.48
4.96
4.955
4.95
4.945
7.47
7.46
-40
4.94
-20
0
20
40
60
80 100
Junction Temperature (oC)
120
140
4.935
-40
160
-20
0
20
40
60
80 100
Junction Temperature (oC)
D001
Figure 1. VCC Regulation Voltage vs Junction Temperature
120
140
160
D020
Figure 2. VREF Reference Voltage vs Junction Temperature
600
44
VCC Current Limit (mA)
VCC Dropout Voltage (mV)
42
500
400
300
40
38
36
34
200
32
100
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80 100
Junction Temperature (oC)
120
140
30
-40
160
-20
0
20
40
60
80 100
Junction Temperature (oC)
D002
VIN = 5 V,
IVCC= 20 mA
120
140
160
D003
Figure 4. VCC Current Limit vs Junction Temperature
100
4.85
Rising
Falling
4.65
80
70
60
4.55
50
4.45
40
4.75
RT (k:)
VCC Undervoltage Lockout Thresholds (V)
Figure 3. VCC Dropout Voltage vs Junction Temperature
4.35
4.25
30
20
4.15
4.05
3.95
3.85
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80 100
Junction Temperature (oC)
120
140
160
10
50
150
250
D004
Figure 5. VCC UVLO Threshold vs Junction Temperature
350
450
550
Frequency (kHz)
650
750 800
D005
Figure 6. Timing Resistance (RT) vs Switching Frequency
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Typical Characteristics (continued)
TA = 25°C, VIN = 14 V, VIADJ = 2.2 V, CVCC = 1 µF, CCOMP = 2.2 nF, RCS = 100 mΩ, RT = 20 kΩ, VPWM = 5 V, no load on GATE
and PDRV (unless otherwise noted)
398
90.3
90.2
Maximum Duty Cycle (%)
Switching Frequency (kHz)
396
394
392
390
388
386
90.1
90
89.9
89.8
384
382
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80 100
Junction Temperature (oC)
120
140
89.7
-40
160
-20
0
D006
RT= 20 kΩ
20
40
60
80 100
Junction Temperature (oC)
120
140
160
D007
Figure 8. Maximum Duty Cycle vs Junction Temperature
Figure 7. Switching Frequency vs Junction Temperature
135
Leading Edge Blanking Period (ns)
IS Current Limit Threshold (mV)
251
250.5
250
249.5
249
248.5
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80 100
Junction Temperature (oC)
120
140
120
115
110
-20
0
D008
171.2
174
171
173
170.8
170.6
170.4
170.2
20
40
60
80 100
Junction Temperature (oC)
120
140
160
D009
Figure 10. Leading Edge Blanking Period vs Junction
Temperature
V(CSP-CSN) Threshold (mV)
V(CSP-CSN) Threshold (mV)
125
105
-40
160
Figure 9. Current Limit Threshold vs Junction Temperature
172
171
170
169
170
169.8
0
5
10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65
VCSP (V)
D010
VIADJ> 2.6 V
168
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80 100
Junction Temperature (oC)
120
140
160
D011
VIADJ> 2.6 V
Figure 11. V(CSP-CSN) Threshold vs VCSP Voltage
10
130
Figure 12. V(CSP-CSN) Threshold vs Junction Temperature
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Typical Characteristics (continued)
TA = 25°C, VIN = 14 V, VIADJ = 2.2 V, CVCC = 1 µF, CCOMP = 2.2 nF, RCS = 100 mΩ, RT = 20 kΩ, VPWM = 5 V, no load on GATE
and PDRV (unless otherwise noted)
125
101
CSP
CSN
120
100.5
Bias Current (PA)
V(CSP-CSN) Threshold (mV)
100.75
100.25
100
99.75
115
110
105
99.5
100
99.25
99
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80 100
Junction Temperature (oC)
120
140
95
-40
160
VIADJ= 1.4 V
20
40
60
80 100
Junction Temperature (oC)
120
140
160
D013
Figure 14. CSP/CSN Input Bias Current vs Junction
Temperature
3.76
4
IMON Output Voltage Clamp (V)
3.5
3
VIMON (V)
0
VCSP= VCSN = 14 V
Figure 13. V(CSP-CSN) Threshold vs Junction Temperature
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
30
60
90
120 150 180
V(CSP-CSN) (mV)
210
240
270
3.74
3.72
3.7
3.68
3.66
3.64
-40
0
300
-20
0
D014
Figure 15. VIMON vs V(CSP-CSN)
20
40
60
80 100
Junction Temperaure (oC)
120
140
160
D015
Figure 16. VIMON(CLP) vs Junction Temperature
200
2.403
180
2.402
160
IADJ Voltage Clamp (V)
V(CSP-CSN) Threshold (mV)
-20
D0012
140
120
100
80
60
2.401
2.4
2.399
2.398
2.397
40
2.396
20
0
0
0.28 0.56 0.84 1.12 1.4 1.68 1.96 2.24 2.52 2.8 3
VIADJ (V)
D016
Figure 17. V(CSP-CSN) Threshold vs VIADJ
2.395
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80 100
Junction Temperature (oC)
120
140
160
D017
Figure 18. VIADJ Voltage Clamp vs Junction Temperature
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Typical Characteristics (continued)
1.232
21
1.231
20.8
OVP Hysteresis Current (PA)
OVP Detection Threshold (V)
TA = 25°C, VIN = 14 V, VIADJ = 2.2 V, CVCC = 1 µF, CCOMP = 2.2 nF, RCS = 100 mΩ, RT = 20 kΩ, VPWM = 5 V, no load on GATE
and PDRV (unless otherwise noted)
1.23
1.229
1.228
1.227
1.226
1.225
1.224
20.4
20.2
20
19.8
19.6
19.4
19.2
1.223
1.222
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80 100
Junction Temperature (oC)
120
140
160
Figure 19. OVP Detection Threshold vs Junction
Temperature
12
20.6
19
-40
-20
0
D018
20
40
60
80 100
Junction Temperature (oC)
120
140
160
D019
Figure 20. OVP Hysteresis Current vs Junction Temperature
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8 Detailed Description
8.1 Overview
The TPS92692 and TPS92692-Q1 devices feature all of the functions necessary to implement a compact LED
driver based on step-up or step-down power converter topologies. The devices implement a fixed-frequency,
peak current mode control technique to achieve constant output current and fast transient response. The
integrated low offset, rail-to-rail current sense amplifier provides the flexibility required to power a single string
consisting of 1 to 20 series connected LEDs while maintaining better than 4% current accuracy over the
operating temperature range. The LED current regulation threshold is set by the analog adjust input, IADJ and
can be externally programmed to implement analog dimming with over 15:1 linear dimming range. The high
impedance IADJ input simplifies LED current binning and thermal protection.
The TPS92692 and TPS92692-Q1 devices incorporate an internal PWM generator that can be programmed to
implement pulse width modulation (PWM) dimming of LED current. The PWM duty cycle can be varied from 0%
to 100% by modulating the analog voltage on DIM/PWM input from 1 V to 3 V. The PWM dimming frequency is
externally programmable and is set by the capacitor connected to RAMP input. As an alternative, the TPS92692
and TPS92692-Q1 devices can also be configured to implement direct PWM dimming based on the duty cycle of
external PWM signal by connecting a 249-kΩ resistor across RAMP pin and GND. The internal PWM signal
controls the GATE and PDRV outputs which control the external n-channel switching FET and p-channel
dimming FET connected in series with LED string, respectively.
The current monitor output, IMON, reports the instantaneous status of LED current measured by the rail-to-rail
current sense amplifier. This feature indicates instantaneous current as a result of LED short circuit and cable
harness failure, independent of LED driver topology. An open-drain fault indicator is also provided to report faults
including cycle-by-cycle current limit, output overvoltage, and output undervoltage conditions. LED driver
protection with auto-restart (hiccup) mode is enabled by connecting the fault pin (FLT) to the SS pin. Other
protection features include VCC undervoltage protection and thermal shutdown. A remote signal can force the
device in to shutdown by pulling down on the SS pin.
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8.2 Functional Block Diagram
5 V LDO
Regulator
VREF
7.5 V LDO
Regulator
VIN
VCC
Thermal
Limit
Internal
References
UVLO
(4.1 V)
Standby
LEB
Clock
RT
Oscillator
S
Max Duty
Q
GATE
R
DM
10 A
2.4 V
Fault
Spread
Spectrum
Modulator
GND
20 A
OV
SS_DONE
+
SS
Overvoltage
Fault
PWM
Comp
+
COMP
1.23 V
Undervoltage
Fault
+
PWM
SS_DONE
100 mV
50 mV
Fault
Reset
Logic
SS
+
100 mV CSP
PDRV
Fault
7V
DIM/
PWM
PWM
10 A
+
Triangle
Wave
Generator
RAMP
CSP
100 A
3V
1V
VIN
1.4 V
Gain = 14
CSP
Slope
Generator
+
SLOPE
8k
Standby
IS
+
35 …s
Timer
+
IMON
FLT
+
Current Sense
Amplifier
CSN
700 mV
S0
250 mV
S1
LEB
3.7 V
36 ms
Timer
PWM
Overcurrent
Detector
Undervoltage
Fault
12 k
IADJ
+
2.4 V
Fault
14
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8.3 Feature Description
8.3.1 Internal Regulator and Undervoltage Lockout (UVLO)
The device incorporates a 65-V input voltage rated linear regulators to generate the 7.5 V (typ) VCC bias supply,
the 5 V (typ) VREF reference supply and other internal reference voltages. The device monitors the VCC output to
implement UVLO protection. Operation is enabled when VCC exceeds the 4.5-V (typ) threshold and is disabled
when VCC drops below the 4.1-V (typ) threshold. The UVLO comparator provides 400 mV of hysteresis to avoid
chatter during transitions. The UVLO thresholds are internally fixed and cannot be adjusted. An internal current
limit circuit is implemented to protect the device during VCC pin short-circuit conditions. The VCC supply powers
the internal circuitry and the N-channel gate driver output, GATE. Place a bypass capacitor in the range of 2.2 µF
to 4.7 µF across the VCC output and GND to ensure proper operation. The regulator operates in dropout when
input voltage VIN falls below 7.5 V forcing VCC to be lower than VIN by 300 mV for a 20-mA supply current. The
VCC is a regulated output of the internal regulator and is not recommended to be driven from an external power
supply.
The VREF supply is internally used to generate voltage thresholds for the RAMP generator circuit and to power
some digital circuits. This supply can be used in conjunction with a resistor divider to set voltage levels for the
IADJ pin and DIM/PWM pin to set LED current and PWM dimming duty cycle. It can also be used to bias
external circuitry requiring a reference supply. The supply current is internally limited to protect the device from
output overload and short-circuit conditions. Place a bypass capacitor in the range of 2.2 µF to 4.7 µF across the
VREF output to GND to ensure proper operation.
The TPS92692 and TPS92692-Q1 devices incorporate features that simplify compliance with the CISPR and
automotive EMI requirements. The devices have optional spread spectrum frequency modulation circuit that can
be externally configured to reduce peak and average conducted and radiated EMI. The internal programmable
oscillator has a range of 80 kHz to 800 kHz and can be tuned based on the EMI requirements. The devices are
available in HTSSOP-20 package with an exposed pad to aid in thermal dissipation.
8.3.2 Oscillator
The switching frequency is programmable by a single external resistor connected between the RT pin and GND.
To set a desired frequency, ƒSW (Hz), the resistor value can be calculated from Equation 1.
RT
1.432 u 1010
fSW
1.047
:
(1)
Figure 6 shows a graph of switching frequency versus resistance, RT. TI recommends a switching frequency
setting between 80 kHz and 700 kHz for optimal performance over input and output voltage operating range and
for best efficiency. Operation at higher switching frequencies requires careful selection of N-channel MOSFET
characteristics as well as detailed analysis of switching losses.
fSYNC
Clock
RT
Oscillator
CSYNC
RT
Figure 21. Oscillator Synchronization Through AC Coupling
The internal oscillator can be synchronized by AC coupling an external clock pulse to RT pin as shown in
Figure 21. The positive going synchronization clock at the RT pin must exceed the RT sync threshold and the
negative going synchronization clock at the RT pin must exceed the RT sync falling threshold to trip the internal
synchronization pulse detector. TI recommends that the frequency of the external synchronization pulse is within
±20% of the internal oscillator frequency programmed by the RT resistor. TI recommends a minimum coupling
capacitor of 100 nF and a typical pulse width of 100 ns for proper synchronization. In the case where external
synchronization clock is lost the internal oscillator takes control of the switching rate based on the RT resistor to
maintain output current regulation. The RT resistor is always required whether the oscillator is free running or
externally synchronized.
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Feature Description (continued)
8.3.3 Spread Spectrum Frequency Modulation
The TPS92692 and TPS92692-Q1 devices provide a frequency dithering option that is enabled by connecting a
capacitor from the DM pin to GND. A triangle waveform centered at 1 V is generated across the CDM capacitor.
The triangle waveform modulates the oscillator frequency by ± 15% of the nominal frequency set by an external
timing resistor, RT. The CDM capacitance value sets the rate of the low frequency modulation. To achieve
maximum attenuation in average EMI scan set modulation frequency ranging from 100 Hz to 1.2 kHz. The low
modulating frequency has little impact on the quasi-peak EMI scan. Set the modulation frequency to 10 KHz or
higher to achieve attenuation for quasi-peak EMI measurements. The modulation frequency higher than the
receiver resolution bandwidth (RBW) of 9 kHz only impacts the quasi-peak EMI scan and has little impact on the
average measurement. The device simplifies EMI compliance by providing the means to tune the modulation
frequency based on measured EMI signature. Equation 2 calculates the CDM capacitance required to set the
modulation frequency, fMOD (Hz).
10 PA
CDM
(F)
2 u fMOD u 0.3 V
(2)
1.15 V
1.15 V
1V
+
0.85 V
10 A
S
DM
10 A
Q
R
+
CDM
0.85 V
Figure 22. Frequency Dither Operation
Connect the DM pin to GND to disable frequency dither circuit operation. Internal frequency dithering is not
supported when the devices are synchronized based on an external clock signal.
8.3.4 Gate Driver
The TPS92692 and TPS92692-Q1 devices contain a N-channel gate driver that switches the output VGATE
between VCC and GND. A peak source and sink current of 500 mA allows controlled slew-rate of the MOSFET
gate and drain node voltages, limiting the conducted and radiated EMI generated by switching.
VCC
CVCC
GATE_IN
GATE
GND
Figure 23. Push-Pull N-Channel Gate Driver Circuit
16
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Feature Description (continued)
The gate driver supply current ICC(GATE) depends on the total gate drive charge (QG) of the MOSFET and the
operating frequency of the converter, ƒSW, ICC(GATE) QG u fSW. Choose a MOSFET with a low gate charge
specification to limit the junction temperature rise and switch transition losses.
It is important to consider the MOSFET threshold voltage when operating in the dropout region when the input
voltage, VIN, is below the VCC regulation level. TI recommends a logic level device with a threshold voltage below
5 V when the device is required to operate at an input voltage less than 7 V.
8.3.5 Rail-to-Rail Current Sense Amplifier
The internal rail-to-rail current sense amplifier measures the average LED current based on the differential
voltage drop between the CSP and CSN inputs over a common mode range of 0 V to 65 V. The differential
voltage, V(CSP-CSN), is amplified by a voltage-gain factor of 14 and is connected to the negative input of the
transconductance error amplifier. Accurate LED current feedback is achieved by limiting the cumulative input
offset voltage, (represented by the sum of the voltage-gain error, the intrinsic current sense offset voltage, and
the transconductance error amplifier offset voltage) to less than 5 mV over the recommended common-mode
voltage, and temperature range.
CSP
Differential Mode
Filter Capacitor RFS
+
CFDM
RCS
CSN
RFS
Common Mode
Filter Capacitors
CFCM
CFCM
Figure 24. Current Sense Amplifier Input Filter Options
An optional common-mode or differential mode low-pass filter implementation, as shown in Figure 24, can be
used to smooth out the effects of large output current ripple and switching current spikes caused by diode
reverse recovery. TI recommends a filter resistance in the range of 10 Ω to 100 Ω to limit the additional offset
caused by amplifier bias current mismatch to achieve the best accuracy and line regulation.
8.3.6 Transconductance Error Amplifier
The internal transconductance amplifier generates an error signal proportional to the difference between the LED
current sense feedback voltage and the external IADJ input voltage. The output of the error amplifier is
connected to an external compensation network to achieve closed-loop LED current regulation. In most LED
driver applications a simple integral compensation circuit consisting of a capacitor connected from COMP output
to GND provides a stable response over wide range of operating conditions. TI recommends a capacitor value
between 10 nF and 100 nF as a good starting point. To achieve higher closed-loop bandwidth a proportionalintegral compensator, consisting of a series resistor and a capacitor network connected across the COMP output
and GND, is required. Based on the converter topology, tune the compensation network to achieve a minimum of
60° of phase margin and 10 dB of gain margin. The Application and Implementation section includes a
summarized detailed design procedure.
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Feature Description (continued)
8.3.7 Switch Current Sense
The IS input pin monitors the main MOSFET current to implement peak current mode control. The GATE output
duty cycle is derived by comparing the peak switch current, measured by the RIS resistor, to the internal COMP
voltage threshold. An internal slope signal, VSL, generated by slope compensation circuit is added to the
measured sense voltage, VIS, to prevent subharmonic oscillations for duty cycles greater than 50%. An internal
blanking circuit prevents MOSFET switching current spike propagation and premature termination of duty cycle
by internally shunting the IS input for 150 ns after the beginning of the new switching period. For additional noise
suppression connect an external low-pass RC filter with resistor values ranging from 100 Ω to 500 Ω and a 1000
pF capacitor. The external RC filter ensures proper operation when operating in the dropout region (VIN less than
7 V).
ILIM
Comparator
ILIM
+
35 …s
TIMER
700 mV
S0
250 mV
S1
150 ns
LEB
IS
PWM
Figure 25. Switch Current Limit Circuit
Cycle-by-cycle current limit is accomplished by a redundant internal comparator. The current limit threshold is set
based on the status of internal PWM signal. The current limit threshold is set to 250 mV (typ) when PWM signal
is high and to 700 mV (typ) when PWM signal is low. The transition between the two thresholds work in
conjunction with slope compensation and the error amplifier circuit to allow for higher inductor current
immediately after the PWM transition and to improve LED current transient response during PWM dimming.
Refer to the DIM/PWM Input section for details on PWM Dimming operation.
The device immediately terminates the GATE and PDRV output when the IS input voltage, VIS, exceeds the
threshold value. Upon a current limit event, the SS and COMP pin are internally grounded to reset the state of
the controller. The GATE output is enabled after the expiration of the 35-µs internal fault timer and a new start-up
sequence is initiated through the SS pin. Equation 3 calculates the peak inductor current in the current limit.
250mV
IL(PK)
(A)
RIS
(3)
8.3.8 Slope Compensation
Peak current mode based regulators are subject to sub-harmonic oscillations for duty cycle greater than 50%. To
avoid this instability problem, the control scheme is modified by the addition of an artificial ramp to the sensed
switch current waveform. The slope of the artificial ramp required is dependent on the input voltage, VIN, output
voltage, VO, inductor, L, and switch current sense resistor, RIS. The devices incorporate an adaptive slope
compensation technique that modifies the slope of the artificial ramp generated based on the input voltage, VIN
and output voltage measured at CSP pin, VCSP, thus greatly simplifying the design for common LED driver
topologies, such as boost, buck-boost, and boost-to-battery. The magnitude of the internal ramp signal can be
calculated as follows:
278 u 106 u D u
VSL
0.494 u VCSP
VO
1
fSW u RSLP
where
•
18
D is the converter duty cycle
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Feature Description (continued)
The resistor, RSLOPE provides the flexibility to set the slope of the internal artificial ramp based on the inductance
value, L and the LED driver topology. The Application and Implementation section includes detailed calculations
for the resistor, RSLOPE, based on the LED driver topology. The SLOPE pin cannot be left floating.
8.3.9 Analog Adjust Input
The voltage across the LED current sense resistor, V(CSP–CSN), is regulated to the analog adjust input voltage,
VIADJ, scaled by the current sense amplifier voltage gain of 14. The LED current can be linearly adjusted by
varying the voltage on IADJ pin from 140 mV to 2.25 V using either a resistor divider from VREF or a voltage
source. The IADJ pin can be connected to VREF through an external resistor to set LED current based on the 2.4V internal reference voltage. This device offers different methods to set the IADJ voltage. Figure 27 shows how
the IADJ input can be used in conjunction with a NTC resistor to implement thermal foldback protection. A PWM
signal in conjunction with first- or second-order low-pass filter can be used to program the IADJ voltage as shown
in Figure 28).
VREF
VREF
RADJ
RADJ2
IADJ
RADJ2
IADJ
RADJ1
IADJ
ÅWƒ
PWM
Signal
CADJ
RNTC
Figure 26. Static Reference
Setting Resistor Divider From
VCC
Figure 27. Thermal Fold-back
Circuit Using External NTC
Resistor
Figure 28. Analog Dimming
Achieved By Low-pass Filtering
External PWM Signal
8.3.10 DIM/PWM Input
The TPS92692 and TPS92692-Q1 devices incorporate a PWM generator circuit to facilitate analog voltage to
PWM duty cycle translation. The dimming frequency is set by connecting a capacitor from RAMP pin to GND.
The dimming frequency, fDIM, can be calculated as follows:
10 PA
fDIM
(Hz)
2 u 2 V u CDIM
(5)
The internal PWM signal can be varied from 0% to 100% by setting the DIM/PWM pin voltage between 1 V and 3
V. Equation 6 describes the relationship between DIM/PWM pin voltage, VDIM and internal PWM duty cycle,
DPWM(INT).
VDIM 1
DPWM(INT)
2
(6)
For improved dimming accuracy, use the VREF pin and a resistor divider to set the DIM/PWM pin voltage, VDIM,
and the corresponding duty cycle. The device can be configured to step the duty cycle between 100% and the
programmed value by diode connecting the external control signal, VCTRL, to the DIM/PWM pin, as shown in
Figure 29. The external control signal, of amplitude 3-V, is usually generated by the command module and is
based on the light output required by the application.
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Feature Description (continued)
5V LDO
Regulator
VREF
CVREF
3V
3V
RAMP
Triangle
Wave
Generator
1V
1V
CRAMP
RDIM2
+
DIM/PWM
VCTRL
RDIM1
PWM
DDIM
Figure 29. PWM Dimming Using Internal PWM Generator
The devices can be configured to be compatible with external PWM signal, VPWM(EXT), where the LED current is
modulated based on the duty cycle, DPWM(EXT). To enable direct PWM, it is required to disable the internal
triangle wave generator by connecting a 249-kΩ resistor from RAMP pin to GND. In this case, the internal
comparator threshold is set to 2.49-V and the internal PWM duty cycle, DPWM(INT), is controlled by the external
PWM command. The RAMP pin cannot be left floating.
5V LDO
Regulator
VREF
CVREF
3V
RAMP
Triangle
Wave
Generator
1V
RRAMP
VPWM(EXT) DIM/PWM
+
PWM
Figure 30. Direct PWM Dimming
The internal PWM signal, VPWM controls the GATE and PDRV outputs. Forcing VPWM in a logic low state turns off
switching, parks the oscillator, disconnects the COMP pin, and sets the PDRV output to VCSP in order to maintain
the charge on the compensation network and output capacitors. On the rising edge of the PWM voltage (VPWM
set to logic level high), the GATE and PDRV outputs are enabled to ramp the inductor current to the previous
steady-state value. The COMP pin is connected and the error amplifier and oscillator are enabled only when the
switch current sense voltage VIS exceeds the COMP voltage, VCOMP, thus immediately forcing the converter into
steady-state operation with minimum LED current overshoot. When dimming is not required, connect the
DIM/PWM pin to the VCC pin. An internal pull-down resistor sets the input to logic-low and disables the device
when the pin is disconnected or left floating.
20
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Feature Description (continued)
8.3.11 Series P-Channel FET Dimming Gate Driver Output
The PDRV output is a function of the internal PWM signal and is capable of sinking and sourcing up to 50 mA of
peak current to control a high-side series connected P-channel dimming FET. The PDRV switches between VCSP
and (VCSP– 7 V) based on the status of PWM signal to completely turn-off and turn-on the external P-channel
dimming FET. The series dimming FET is required to achieve high contrast ratio as it ensures fast rise and fall
times of the LED current in response to the PWM input. Without any dimming FET, the rise and fall times are
limited by the inductor slew rate and the closed-loop bandwidth of the system. Leave the PDRV pin unconnected
if not used.
8.3.12 Soft-Start
The soft-start feature helps the regulator gradually reach the steady-state operating point, thus reducing startup
stresses and surges. The devices clamp the COMP pin to the SS pin, separated by a diode, until LED current
nears the regulation threshold. The internal 10-µA soft-start current source gradually increases the voltage on an
external soft-start capacitor CSS connected to the SS pin. This results in a gradual rise of the COMP voltage from
GND.
The internal 10-µA current source turns on when VCC exceeds the UVLO threshold. At the beginning of the softstart sequence, the SS pull-down switch is active and is released when the voltage VSS drops below 50 mV. The
SS pin can also be pulled down by an external switch to stop switching. When the SS pin is externally driven to
enable switching, the slew-rate on the COMP pin is controlled by the compensation capacitor. In this case, the
startup duration and LED current transient is controlled by tunning the compensation network. It is essential to
ensure that the softstart duration is longer than the time required to charge the output capacitor when selecting
the soft-start capacitor, CSS and the compensation capacitor, CCOMP.
8.3.13 Current Monitor Output
The IMON pin voltage represents the LED current measured by the rail-to-rail current sense amplifier across the
external current shunt resistor. The linear relationship between the IMON voltage and LED current includes the
amplifier gain-factor of 14 (see Feature Description section). The IMON output can be connected to an external
microcontroller or comparator to facilitate LED open, short, or cable harness fault detection and mitigation. The
IMON voltage is internally clamped to 3.7 V.
8.3.14 Output Overvoltage Protection
The TPS92692 and TPS92692-Q1 devices include a dedicated OV pin which can be used for either input or
output overvoltage protection. This pin features a precision 1.228 V (typ) threshold with 20-µA (typ) of hysteresis
current. The overvoltage threshold limit is set by a resistor divider network from the input or output terminal to
GND. When the OV pin voltage exceeds the reference threshold, the GATE pin is immediately pulled low, the
PDRV output is disabled, and the SS and COMP capacitors are discharged. The GATE and PDRV outputs are
enabled and a new startup sequence is initiated after the voltage drops below the hysteresis threshold set by the
20-µA source current and the external resistor divider.
8.3.15 Output Short-circuit Protection
The device monitors the output of the current sense amplifier and the output voltage via OV pin to determine
LED Short-circuit fault. The device signals an output overcurrent fault when the voltage across the current sense
amplifier, (V(CSP-CSN)), exceeds the regulation set point based on the IADJ pin voltage, VIADJ. The overcurrent fault
threshold is calculated as follows:
V
V (CSP CSN),OCP 1.5 u IADJ
(7)
14
The device also indicates a short-circuit condition when the voltage across the OV pin and GND falls below 100
mV. In this case, the output voltage, VO, is below the undervoltage fault threshold determined based on the
resistor divider connected to the OV pin.
R
ROV2
VO(UV) 0.1u OV1
ROV1
(8)
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Feature Description (continued)
The devices indicate a fault by forcing the open-drain fault indicator FLT pin to GND and initiating a 36-ms timer.
The devices do not internally initiate any protection action and continue to operate until externally disabled by
pulling SS pin to GND. This provides maximum design flexibility to enable user defined fault protection by using
either the fault indicator output, FLT, or the analog IMON output based on the LED driver topology and end
application.
The undervoltage fault detection circuit is internally disable based on the SS pin voltage and internal PWM
status. The fault blanking circuit is designed to prevent false undervoltage detection during the startup sequence
and PWM dimming operation.
8.3.16 Thermal Protection
Internal thermal shutdown circuitry is implemented to protect the controller in the event the maximum junction
temperature is exceeded. When activated, typically at 175°C, the controller is forced into a shutdown mode,
disabling the internal regulator. This feature is designed to prevent overheating and damage to the device.
8.3.17 Fault Indicator (FLT)
The devices include an open-drain output to indicate fault conditions. The FLT pin goes low under the following
conditions:
• Overvoltage across the LED string (VOV> 1.24 V)
• Under voltage across the LED string (VOV< 100 mV)
• Overcurrent across the LED string (14 × V(CSP-CSN) > 1.5 × VIADJ)
• Cycle-by-cycle switch current limit condition (VIS > 250 mV)
The FLT pin goes high when the fault conditions ends or when the internal 36-ms timer expires. The status of the
FLT under different fault conditions is summarized in the Device Functional Modes section.
8.4 Device Functional Modes
The following table summarizes the device behavior under fault condition.
Table 1. Fault Descriptions
FAULT
DETECTION
ACTION
VCC(RISE) < 4.5 V
The device enters the standby state when the VCC voltage falls below the UVLO
threshold. In standby state, GATE and PDRV outputs are disabled and the SS and
COMP capacitors are discharged. FLT pin remains in high-impedance state.
Input undervoltage
(UVLO)
VCC(FALL) < 4.1 V
Switch current limit
VIS > 250 mV
Cycle-by-cycle current limit is activated when the IS pin voltage exceeds 250 mV. The
GATE and PDRV outputs are disabled, the SS and COMP pin capacitors are discharged
and FLT pin is forced to ground. An internal 35-μs timer is activated. Soft-start sequence
is initiated after expiration of the 35 μs timer period.
Thermal protection
TJ > 175°C
Internal thermal shutdown circuitry is activated when the junction temperature exceeds
175 °C. The controller is forced into a shutdown mode, disabling the internal regulators.
A startup sequence is initiated when the junction temperature falls below 155˚C. The
FLT pin remains in a high-impedance state.
Programmable output
overvoltage protection
VOV > 1.228 V
Fixed LED Overcurrent
protection
V(CSP-CSN) > V((CSPCSN),OCP)
When the OV pin voltage exceeds 1.228 V, GATE and PDRV outputs are disabled, SS
and COMP capacitors are discharged, and the FLT pin is forced to GND. A soft-start
sequence is initiated once the output voltage drops below the hysteresis threshold set by
the 20 μA current source.
The FLT pin is forced to ground for 36-ms when the LED current exceeds 1.5 times the
regulation set point. The FLT pin is released after timer expires. Under sustained shortcircuit condition, the FLT pin transitions between a high-impedance state and ground
until the fault is cleared. Device continues to operate while in this condition.
Output undervoltage
protection
VOV < 100 mV
The FLT pin is forced to ground for 36-ms when OV pin voltage drops below 100 mV.
The FLT pin is released after timer expires. Under sustained short-circuit condition, the
FLT pin transitions between the high-impedance state and ground until fault is cleared.
Device continues to operate while in this condition.
Programmable LED
overcurrent protection
VIMON > VIADJ
Current monitor output (IMON) can be used to externally program current limit. The
IMON output can be connected to an external microcontroller or comparator to facilitate
LED open, short, or cable harness fault detection.
22
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Device Functional Modes (continued)
Table 1. Fault Descriptions (continued)
FAULT
DETECTION
ACTION
COMP pin short to
ground
VCOMP < 1.6 V
VREF pin short to
ground
VREF < 2.0 V
Switching is disabled when COMP voltage falls below 1.6 V. The FLT pin remains a in
high-impedance state.
The device enters standby when the VCC voltage falls below the UVLO threshold. In the
standby state, GATE and PDRV outputs are disabled and the SS and COMP capacitors
are discharged. The FLT pin will remain in a high-impedance state.
8.4.1 Hiccup Mode Short-circuit Protection
Connecting the FLT pin to the SS pin enables hiccup mode operation under output short-circuit conditions.
SS
FLT
CSS
Figure 31. Hiccup Mode Short-Circuit Protection
On detection of output short-circuit fault, the FLT pin forces the SS pin to GND (VSS < 50 mV) and disables
GATE and PDRV outputs for 36-ms. Upon timer expiration, the FLT pin is released and a new soft start
sequence is initiated. Under sustained fault conditions the device operates in hiccup mode, attempting to recover
after every 36-ms period.
Overcurrent
Detected
Fault
Cleared
VCSP
Undervoltage
Detected
Fault
Cleared
ILED
SS/FLT
SS/FLT
ISS = 10 A
2.4 V
VSS(UVP_EN)
ISS = 10 A
2.4 V
VSS(UVP_EN)
GATE
GATE
PDRV
PDRV
T(FAULT_TMR)
T(FAULT_TMR)
T(FAULT_TMR)
T(FAULT_TMR)
T(FAULT_TMR)
T(FAULT_TMR)
Figure 32. Output Overcurrent Fault Protection
Figure 33. Output Undervoltage Fault Protection
8.4.2 Fault Indication Mode
The FLT pin output can be setup to indicate fault status to a microcontroller and aid in fault diagnostics and
protection. In case of a fault, the FLT pin is forced low when biased through an external resistor connected either
to reference voltage output, VREF, or an external bias supply. When connected to VREF, the FLT pin is driven
low when the device enters standby mode during UVLO, thermal shutdown, or VREF short-circuit conditions. The
Fault Indicator (FLT) section lists fault diagnostics and system level faults.
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Microcontroller
TPS92692
TPS92692
BIAS
VREF
Microcontroller
RFLT
GPIO1
FLT
RFLT
GPIO1
FLT
SS
GPIO2
CSS
GPIO2
Figure 34. FLT Pin Interface With Microcontroller
24
SS
CSS
Figure 35. FLT Pin Interface With Microcontroller
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9 Application and Implementation
NOTE
Information in the following applications sections is not part of the TI component
specification, and TI does not warrant its accuracy or completeness. TI’s customers are
responsible for determining suitability of components for their purposes. Customers should
validate and test their design implementation to confirm system functionality.
9.1 Application Information
The TPS92692 and TPS92692-Q1 controllers are suitable for implementing step-up or step-down LED driver
topologies including boost, buck-boost, SEPIC, and flyback. Use the following design procedure to select
component values for the TPS92692-Q1 device. This section presents a simplified discussion of the design
process for the boost and buck-boost converter. The expressions derived for the buck-boost topology can be
altered to select components for a 1:1 coupled-inductor SEPIC converter. The design procedure can be easily
adapted for flyback and similar converter topologies.
D
L
VIN
CIN
2
3
4
CSS
5
CDM
6
7
RT
8
CCOMP
VIN
FLT
SS
DM
RT
COMP
IMON
GATE
IS
GND
SLOPE
OV
RADJ2
RDIM2
VCC
VREF
CIMON
DDIM
QDIM
LED +
TPS92692-Q1
1
CVREF
VCTRL
RCS
CSP
RADJ1
RDIM1
9
10
CSN
IADJ
PDRV
RAMP
DIM/PWM
20
CVCC
19
QM
18
17
16
ROV2
COUT
ROV1
RIS
LED í
RSLP
15
14
13
12
11
CRAMP
PAD
Figure 36. Boost LED Driver
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Application Information (continued)
LED í
COUT
L
D
RCS
VIN
CIN
TPS92692-Q1
1
CVREF
VIN
2
CSS
IS
RT
7
GND
COMP
8
SLOPE
IMON
CCOMP
OV
CIMON
CSP
RADJ2
RDIM2
VCTRL
CSN
RADJ1
9
PDRV
IADJ
RAMP
RDIM1
DDIM
20
CVCC
19
QM
18
DM
6
RT
GATE
SS
5
CDM
VCC
FLT
4
10
LED +
ROV2
VREF
3
QDIM
ROV1
RIS
17
RSLP
16
15
14
13
12
11
CRAMP
PAD
DIM/PWM
Figure 37. Buck-Boost LED Driver
L1
CC
D
RCS
VIN
RDC
CIN
CVREF
2
3
4
CSS
5
CDM
6
7
RT
8
CCOMP
VIN
VCC
VREF
FLT
GATE
SS
DM
IS
RT
COMP
GND
IMON
SLOPE
CIMON
OV
RADJ2
RDIM2
VCTRL
DDIM
CSP
RADJ1
RDIM1
9
10
CSN
IADJ
PDRV
DIM/PWM
LED +
ROV2
TPS92692-Q1
1
QDIM
CDC
RAMP
20
COUT
19
QM
CVCC
L2
18
17
16
ROV1
RIS
LED í
RSLP
15
14
13
12
11
CRAMP
PAD
Figure 38. SEPIC LED Driver
26
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Application Information (continued)
9.1.1 Duty Cycle Considerations
The switch duty cycle, D, defines the converter operation and is a function of the input and output voltages. In
steady state, the duty cycle is derived using expression:
Boost:
D
VO
VIN
VO
(9)
Buck-Boost:
D
VO
VIN
VO
(10)
The minimum duty cycle, DMIN, and maximum duty cycle, DMAX, are calculated by substituting maximum input
voltage, VIN(MAX), and the minimum input voltage, VIN(MIN), respectively in the previous expressions. The minimum
duty cycle achievable by the device is determined by the leading edge blanking period and the switching
frequency. The maximum duty cycle is limited by the internal oscillator to 90% (typ) to allow for minimum off-time.
It is necessary for the operating duty cycle to be within the operating limits of the device to ensure closed-loop
LED current regulation over the specified input and output voltage range.
9.1.2 Inductor Selection
The choice of inductor sets the continuous conduction mode (CCM) and discontinuous conduction mode (DCM)
boundary condition. Therefore, one approach of selecting the inductor value is by deriving the relationship
between the output power corresponding to CCM-DCM boundary condition, PO(BDRY) and inductance, L. This
approach ensures CCM operation in battery-powered LED driver applications that are required to support
different LED string configurations with a wide range of programmable LED current set points. The CCM-DCM
boundary condition can be estimated either based on the lowest LED current and the lowest output voltage
requirements for a given application or as a fraction of maximum output power, PO(MAX).
PO(BDRY) d ILED(MIN) u VO(MIN)
(11)
PO(MAX)
4
d PO(BDRY) d
PO(MAX)
2
(12)
Boost:
L
2
VIN(MAX)
2 u PO(BDRY) u fSW
§
VIN(MAX)
u ¨1
¨
VO(MAX)
©
·
¸
¸
¹
(13)
Buck-Boost:
1
L
2 u PO(BDRY) u fSW
§
1
u¨
¨ VO(MAX)
©
1
VIN(MAX)
·
¸
¸
¹
2
(14)
Select inductor with saturation current rating greater than the peak inductor current, IL(PK), at the maximum
operating temperature.
Boost:
iL(PK)
PO(MAX)
VIN(MIN)
VIN(MIN)
2 u L u fSW u VO(MAX)
§
VIN(MIN)
u ¨1
¨
VO(MAX)
©
·
¸
¸
¹
(15)
Buck-Boost:
IL(PK)
§
1
PO(MAX) u ¨
¨ VO(MIN)
©
1
VIN(MIN)
·
¸
¸
¹
VO(MIN) u VIN(MIN)
2 u L u fSW u VO(MIN)
VIN(MIN)
(16)
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Application Information (continued)
9.1.3 Output Capacitor Selection
The output capacitors are required to attenuate the discontinuous or large ripple current generated by switching
and achieve the desired peak-to-peak LED current ripple, ΔiLED(PP). The capacitor value depends on the total
series resistance of the LED string, rD and the switching frequency, ƒSW.The capacitance required for the target
LED ripple current can be calculated based on following equations.
Boost:
PO(MAX)
COUT
'iLED(PP) u rD(MIN) u fSW u VO(MAX)
§
VIN(MIN)
u ¨1
¨
VO(MAX)
©
·
¸
¸
¹
(17)
Buck-Boost:
PO(MAX)
COUT
'i LED(PP)ufSW u rD(MIN) u VO(MIN)
VIN(MIN)
(18)
When choosing the output capacitors, it is important to consider the ESR and the ESL characteristics as they
directly impact the LED current ripple. Ceramic capacitors are the best choice due to their low ESR, high ripple
current rating, long lifetime, and good temperature performance. When selecting ceramic capacitors, it is
important to consider the derating factors associated with higher temperature and DC bias operating conditions.
TI recommends an X7R dielectric with voltage rating greater than maximum LED stack voltage. An aluminum
electrolytic capacitor can be used in parallel with ceramic capacitors to provide bulk energy storage. The
aluminum capacitors must have necessary RMS current and temperature ratings to ensure prolonged operating
lifetime. The minimum allowable RMS output capacitor current rating, ICOUT(RMS), can be approximated:
Boost and Buck-Boost:
ICOUT(RMS)
DMAX
1 DMAX
ILED u
(19)
9.1.4 Input Capacitor Selection
The input capacitors, CIN, smooth the input voltage ripple and store energy to supply input current during input
voltage or PWM dimming transients. The series inductor in the Boost and SEPIC topologies provides continuous
input current and requires a smaller input capacitor to achieve desired input ripple voltage, ΔvIN(PP). The BuckBoost and Flyback topologies have discontinuous input current and require a larger capacitor to achieve the
same input voltage ripple. Based on the switching frequency, ƒSW, and the maximum duty cycle, DMAX, the input
capacitor value can be calculated as follows:
Boost:
CIN
VIN(MIN)
2
8 u L u fSW
u 'vIN(PP)
§
VIN(MIN)
u ¨1
¨
VO(MAX)
©
·
¸
¸
¹
(20)
Buck-Boost:
CIN
PO(MAX)
fSW u 'v IN(PP)u VO(MIN)
VIN(MIN)
(21)
X7R dielectric-based ceramic capacitors are the best choice due to their low ESR, high ripple current rating, and
good temperature performance. For applications using PWM dimming, TI recommends an aluminum electrolytic
capacitor in addition to ceramic capacitors to minimize the voltage deviation due to large input current transients
generated in conjunction with the rising and falling edges of the LED current.
28
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Application Information (continued)
RVIN
VIN
CVIN
Figure 39. VIN Filter
Decouple VIN pin with a 0.1-µF ceramic capacitor, placed as close as possible to the device and a series 10-Ω
resistor to create a 150-kHz low-pass filter.
9.1.5 Main Power MOSFET Selection
The power MOSFET is required to sustain the maximum switch node voltage, VSW, and switch RMS current
derived based on the converter topology. TI recommends a drain voltage VDS rating of at least 10% greater than
the maximum switch node voltage to ensure safe operation. The MOSFET drain-to-source breakdown voltage,
VDS, is calculated using the following expressions.
Boost:
VDS
1.1u VO(OV)
(22)
Buck-Boost:
VDS
1.1u VO(OV)
VIN(MAX)
(23)
The voltage, VO(OV), is the overvoltage protection threshold and the worst-case output voltage under fault
conditions. The worst case MOSFET RMS current for Boost and Buck-Boost topology is dependent on maximum
output power, PO(MAX), and is calculated as follows:
IQ(RMS)
PO(MAX)
VIN(MIN)
§
VIN(MIN)
u ¨1
¨
VO(MIN)
©
·
¸
¸
¹
(24)
Select a MOSFET with low total gate charge, Qg, to minimize gate drive and switching losses. The MOSFET RDS
resistance is usually a less critical parameter because the switch conduction losses are not a significant part of
the total converter losses at high operating frequencies. The switching and conduction losses are calculated as
follows:
PCOND
PSW
2
RDS u IQ(RMS)
2
IL u VSW
(25)
u CRSS u fSW
IGATE
(26)
CRSS is the MOSFET reverse transfer capacitance. IL is the average inductor current. IGATE is gate drive output
current, typically 500 mA. The MOSFET power rating and package is selected based on the total calculated loss,
the ambient operating temperature, and maximum allowable temperature rise.
9.1.6 Rectifier Diode Selection
A Schottky diode (when used as a rectifier) provides the best efficiency due to its low forward voltage drop and
near-zero reverse recovery time. TI recommends a diode with a reverse breakdown voltage, VD(BR), greater than
or equal to MOSFET drain-to-source voltage, VDS, for reliable performance. It is important to understand the
leakage current characteristics of the Schottky diode, especially at high operating temperatures because it
impacts the overall converter operation and efficiency.
Use Equation 27 to calculate the current through the diode, ID.
ID ILED(MAX)
(27)
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Application Information (continued)
The diode power rating and package is selected based on the calculated current, the ambient temperature and
the maximum allowable temperature rise.
9.1.7
LED Current Programming
The LED current is set by the external current sense resistor, RCS, and the analog adjust voltage, VIADJ. The
current sense resistor is placed in series with the LED load. The CSP and CSN inputs of the internal rail-to-rail
current sense amplifier are connected to the RCS resistor to enable closed-loop regulation. When VIADJ > 2.5 V,
the internal 2.4-V reference sets the V(CSP-CSN) threshold to 170.7 mV and the LED current is regulated to:
170.7 mV
ILED
RCS
(28)
The LED current can be programmed by varying VIADJ between 140 mV to 2.25 V. The LED current can be
calculated using:
VIADJ
ILED
14 u RCS
(29)
TI recommends a low-pass common-mode filter consisting of 10-Ω resistors in series with CSP and CSN inputs
and 0.01-µF capacitors to ground to minimize the impact of voltage ripple and noise on LED current accuracy
(see Figure 24 section). A 0.1-µF capacitor across CSP and CSN is included to filter high-frequency differential
noise.
9.1.8 Switch Current Sense Resistor
The switch current sense resistor, RIS, is used to implement peak current mode control and to set the peak
switch current limit. The value of RIS is selected to protect the main switching MOSFET under fault conditions.
The RIS can be calculated based on peak inductor current, iL(PK), and switch current limit threshold, VIS(LIMIT).
VIS(LIMIT)
RIS
IL(PK)
(30)
VCC
GATE
100
IS
1 nF
RIS
GND
Figure 40. IS Input Filter
The use of a 1-nF and 100-Ω low-pass filter is optional. If used, the recommended resistor value is less than 500
Ω in order to limit its influence on the internal slope compensation signal.
9.1.9 Slope Compensation
The magnitude of internal artificial ramp, VSL, is set by slope resistor RSLP. The device compensates for the
changes in input voltage, VIN and output voltage sensed by CSP pin, VCSP to achieve stable inner current loop
operation over wide range of operating conditions. The value of RSLP is determined by the inductor, L and the
switch current sense resistor, RIS and is independent of input and output voltage for Boost, Boost-to-Battery and
Buck-Boost topologies.
L
RSL 274.4 u 106 u
(:)
RIS
(31)
30
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Application Information (continued)
9.1.10 Feedback Compensation
The open-loop response is the product of the modulator transfer function (shown in Equation 32) and the
feedback transfer function. Using a first-order approximation, the modulator transfer function can be modeled as
a single pole created by the output capacitor, and in the boost and buck-boost topologies, a right half-plane zero
created by the inductor, where both have a dependence on the LED string dynamic resistance, rD. The ESR of
the output capacitor is neglected in the analysis. The small-signal modulator model also includes a DC gain
factor that is dependent on the duty cycle, output voltage, and LED current.
§
s ·
1
¨
¸
Öi
ZZ ¹
LED
G0 u ©
vÖ COMP
§
s ·
¨1
¸
ZP ¹
©
(32)
The Table 2 summarizes the expression for the small-signal model parameters.
Table 2. Small-Signal Model Parameters
DC GAIN (G0)
Boost
Buck-Boost
(1 D) u VO
RIS u VO
rD u ILED
(1 D) u VO
RIS u VO
D u rD u ILED
POLE FREQUENCY (ωP)
VO
rD u ILED
VO u rD u COUT
VO
D u rD u ILED
VO u rD u COUT
ZERO FREQUENCY (ωZ)
VO u (1 D)2
L u ILED
VO u (1 D)2
D u L u ILED
The feedback transfer function includes the current sense resistor and the loop compensation of the
transconductance amplifier. A compensation network at the output of the error amplifier is used to configure loop
gain and phase characteristics. A simple capacitor, CCOMP, from COMP to GND (as shown in Figure 41) provides
integral compensation and creates a pole at the origin. Alternatively, a network of RCOMP, CCOMP, and CHF, shown
in Figure 42, can be used to implement proportional and integral (PI) compensation to create a pole at the origin,
a low-frequency zero, and a high-frequency pole.
The feedback transfer function is defined as follows.
Feedback transfer function with integral compensation:
vÖ COMP 14 u gM u RCS
Öi
s u CCOMP
(33)
Feedback transfer function with proportional integral compensation:
1 s u RCOMP u CCOMP
vÖ COMP
14 u gM u RCS
Öi
s u CCOMP CHF §
§C
u CHF · ·
LED
¨¨ 1 s u R COMP u ¨ COMP
¸ ¸¸
© CCOMP CHF ¹ ¹
©
(34)
LED
The pole at the origin minimizes output steady-state error. High bandwidth is achieved with the PI compensator
by placing the low-frequency zero an order of magnitude less than the crossover frequency. Use the following
expressions to calculate the compensation network.
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COMP
COMP
RCOMP
CHF
+
+
CCOMP
CCOMP
GAIN = 14
CSP
+
RCS
+
RCS
CSN
CSN
CURRENT SENSE
AMPLIFIER
ILED
CURRENT SENSE
AMPLIFIER
ILED
VCC
VCC
GAIN = 14
CSP
IADJ
IADJ
+
+
2.42V
2.42V
Figure 41. Integral Compensator
Figure 42. Proportional Integral Compensator
Boost and Buck-Boost with integral compensator:
CCOMP
8.75 u 10 3 u RCS
ZP
(35)
Boost and Buck-Boost with proportional integral compensator:
§ R u G0 ·
CCOMP 8.75 u 10 3 u ¨ CS
¸
ZZ
©
¹
CCOMP
CHF
100
1
RCOMP
ZP u CCOMP
(36)
(37)
(38)
The loop response is verified by applying step input voltage transients. The goal is to minimize LED current
overshoot and undershoot with a damped response. Additional tuning of the compensation network may be
necessary to optimize PWM dimming performance.
9.1.11 Soft-Start
The soft-start time (tSS) is the time required for the LED current to reach the target set point. The required softstart time is programmed using a capacitor, CSS, from SS pin to GND, and is based on the LED current, output
capacitor, and output voltage.
CSS
12.5 u 10
6
u t SS
(39)
9.1.12 Overvoltage and Undervoltage Protection
The overvoltage threshold is programmed using a resistor divider, ROV2 and ROV1, from the output voltage, VO, to
GND for Boost and SEPIC topologies, as shown in Figure 36 and Figure 38. If the LEDs are referenced to a
potential other than GND, as in the Buck-Boost, the output voltage is sensed and translated to ground by using a
PNP transistor and level-shift resistors, as shown in Figure 37. The overvoltage turn-off threshold, VO(OV), is:
Boost:
VO(OV)
32
§R
ROV2 ·
VOVP(THR) u ¨ OV1
¸
ROV1
©
¹
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Buck and Buck-Boost:
VO(OV)
VOVP(THR) u
ROV2
ROV1
0.7
(41)
The overvoltage hysteresis, VOV(HYS) is:
VOV(HYS) IOVP(HYS) u ROV2
(42)
The corresponding undervoltage fault threshold, VO(UV) is:
R
ROV2
VO(UV) 0.1u OV1
ROV1
(43)
9.1.13 Analog to PWM Dimming Considerations
The analog to PWM duty cycle translation is based on the internal PWM generator, configured by connecting a
capacitor across RAMP pin and GND, as shown in Figure 29. The minimum PWM duty cycle is programmed by
setting the voltage on DIM/PWM pin, VDIM using a resistor divider from VREF pin to GND.
VDIM 1 2 u DDIM(MIN)
(44)
RDIM2
§ VREF VDIM ·
¨
¸ u RDIM1
VDIM
©
¹
(45)
The device is designed to support a minimum PWM duty cycle of 4% with better than 5% accuracy from
DIM/PWM input to PDRV output in this operating mode. To avoid excess loading of the VREF LDO output, TI
recommends a resistor network with sum of resistors RDIM1 and RDIM2 greater than 10 kΩ. A bypass capacitor of
0.1-µF prevents noise coupling and improves performs for low dimming values.
9.1.14 Direct PWM Dimming Considerations
The device can be configured to implement dimming function based on external PWM command by disabling the
internal ramp generator, as explained in DIM/PWM Input section. The internal comparator reference is set to 2.49
V by connecting a 249-kΩ resistor, RRAMP, from the RAMP pin to GND. The internal PWM duty cycle is controlled
by an external 5-V or 3.3-V signal, generated by a command module or a microcontroller.
9.1.15 Series P-Channel MOSFET Selection
When PWM dimming, the device requires another P-channel MOSFET placed in series with the LED load. Select
a P-channel MOSFET with gate-to-source voltage rating of 10-V or higher and with a drain-to-source breakdown
voltage rating greater than the output voltage. Ensure that the drain current rating of the P-channel MOSFET
exceeds the programmed LED current by at least 10%.
It is important to consider the FET input capacitance and on-resistance as it impacts the accuracy and efficiency
of the LED driver. TI recommends a FET with lower input capacitance and gate charge to minimize the errors
caused by rise and fall times when PWM dimming at low duty cycles.
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9.2 Typical Applications
9.2.1 Typical Boost LED Driver
VBAT1
D3
VBAT2
L2
1
D1
3
2
1
3
1
2
R1
3
22µH
2
R4
10.0
J2
C16
4.7 µF
C17
4.7 µF
0.3
100V
R5
150k
D2
C7
4700pF
C6
4700pF
1
Q3
100V
C18
3
2
4
J3
C12
4.7 µF
4
100V
Q1
-100
C14
4.7 µF
C13
4.7 µF
C11
0.01 µF
C15
4.7 µF
2
1
VCC
0.1 µF
100V
GND
U1
GND
GND
1
GND
VIN
VCC
20
GATE
19
GND
GND
GND
GND
C20
R24
10.0k
0603
2
VREF
R10
0.06
2.2 µF
R11
3.01k
3
FLT
4
SS
IS
18
GND
17
1000pF
D5
D4
0.1 µF
R12
10.0
C24
5
R15
DM
SLOPE
16
100k
6
RT
OVP
15
7
COMP
CSP
14
8
IMON
CSN
13
9
IADJ
PDRV
12
DIM/PWM
DAP
RAMP
11
20.0k
C36
R20
1.91k
0.039 µF C32
R13
10.0
R14
0.027 µF
GND
C21
1000pF
C22
C23
10V
GND
R8
100
GND
C25
0.1 µF
10pF
R21
R16
29.4k
68.1k
R22
33.0k
R25
10
21
C29
2.2 µF
C27
0.01 µF
C28
0.01 µF
C35
TPS92692Q
0.01 µF
10.0k
C34
0.1 µF
C26
0.1 µF
GND
Figure 43. Boost LED Driver With High-Side Current Sense
34
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9.2.1.1 Design Requirements
Table 3 shows the design parameters for the boost LED driver application.
Table 3. Design Parameters
PARAMETER
TEST CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
7
14
18
UNIT
INPUT CHARACTERISTICS
Input voltage range
Input UVLO setting
4.5
V
V
OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS
LED forward voltage
2.8
Number of LEDs in series
3.2
3.6
V
14
VO
Output voltage
44.8
50.4
V
ILED
Output current
LED+ to LED–
39.2
350
500
mA
RR
LED current ripple ratio
4%
rD
LED string resistance
PO(MAX)
Maximum output power
25
W
fPWM
PWM dimming frequency
DPWM
Analog to PWM duty cycle set point (low
brightness mode)
3
Ω
240
Hz
8
%
6
W
SYSTEMS CHARACTERISTICS
PO(BDRY)
Output power at CCM-DCM boundary
condition
ΔvIN(PP)
Input voltage ripple
20
mV
VO(OV)
Output overvoltage protection threshold
62
V
VOV(HYS)
Output overvoltage protection hysteresis
3
V
tss
Soft-start period
8
ms
fDM
Dither Modulation Frequency
600
Hz
fSW
Switching frequency
390
kHz
9.2.1.2 Detailed Design Procedure
This procedure is for the boost LED driver application.
9.2.1.2.1 Calculating Duty Cycle
Solve for D, DMAX, and DMIN:
VO(TYP) VIN(TYP)
DMAX
VO(TYP)
DMAX
DMIN
VO(MAX)
VIN(MIN)
VO(MAX)
VO(MIN)
VIN(MAX)
VO(MIN)
44.8 14
44.8
0.688
(46)
50.4 7
50.4
0.861
39.2 18
39.2
0.541
(47)
(48)
9.2.1.2.2 Setting Switching Frequency
Solve for RT:
1.432 u 1010
RT
1.047
fSW
1.432 u 1010
390 u 10
3
1.047
20.05 u 103
(49)
The closest standard resistor of 20 kΩ is selected.
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9.2.1.2.3 Setting Dither Modulation Frequency
Solve for CDM:
10 u 10 6
2 u fMOD u 0.3
CDM
10 u 10 6
2 u 600 u 0.3
27.7 u 10
9
(50)
The closest standard capacitor is 27 nF.
9.2.1.2.4 Inductor Selection
The inductor is selected to meet the CCM-DCM boundary power requirement, PO(BDRY). In most applications,
PO(BDRY) is set to be 1/3 of the maximum output power, PO(MAX). The inductor value is calculated for typical input
voltage, VIN(TYP), and output voltage, VO(TYP):
2
VIN(MAX)
L
2 u PO(BDRY) u fSW
§
VIN(TYP)
u ¨1
¨
VO(TYP)
©
·
¸
¸
¹
2
14 ·
§
u ¨1
44.8 ¹¸
2 u 8 u 390 u 10
©
14
3
21.59 u 10
6
(51)
The closest standard inductor is 22 µH.
For best results, ensure that the inductor saturation current rating is greater than the peak inductor current, IL(PK).
§
PO(MAX)
VIN(MIN)
VIN(MIN) · 25
7
7 ·
§
iL(PK)
3.58
u ¨1
u 1
¸
VIN(MIN) 2 u L u fSW u VO(MAX) ¨©
VO(MAX) ¸¹ 7 2 u 22 u 10 6 u 390 u 103 u 50.4 ¨© 50.4 ¹¸
(52)
9.2.1.2.5 Output Capacitor Selection
The specified peak-to-peak LED current ripple, ΔiLED(PP), is:
'iLED(PP)
RR u ILED(MAX)
0.03 u 500 u 10
3
15 u 10
3
(53)
The output capacitance required to achieve the target LED current ripple is:
PO(MAX)
COUT
'iLED(PP) u rD(MIN) u fSW u VO(MAX)
§
VIN(MIN)
u ¨1
¨
VO(MAX)
©
·
¸
¸
¹
15 u 10
3
25
7 ·
§
u ¨1
¸
u 4.2 u 390 u 103 u 50.4 © 50.4 ¹
17.38 u 10
6
(54)
Four 4.7-µF, 100-V rated X7R ceramic capacitors are used in parallel to achieve a combined output capacitance
of 18.8 µF.
9.2.1.2.6 Input Capacitor Selection
The input capacitor is required to reduce switching noise conducted through the input wires and reduced the
input impedance of the LED driver. The capacitor required to limit peak-to-peak input ripple voltage ripple,
ΔvIN(PP), to 20 mV is given by:
CIN
VIN(MIN)
2
8 u L u fSW
u 'vIN(PP)
§
VIN(MIN) ·
u ¨1
¸
¨
¸
© VO(MAX) ¹
7
8 u 22 u 10
6
3
u 390 u 10 u 20 u 10
3
7 ·
§
u ¨1
¸ 11.26 u 10
© 50.4 ¹
6
(55)
Two 4.7-µF, 50-V X7R ceramic capacitors are used in parallel to achieve a combined input capacitance of 9.4µF.
9.2.1.2.7 Main N-Channel MOSFET Selection
Ensure that the MOSFET ratings exceed the maximum output voltage and RMS switch current.
VDS VO(OV) u 1.1 62 u 1.1 68.2
IQ(RMS)
PO(MAX)
VIN(MIN)
§
VIN(MIN)
u ¨1
¨
VO(MIN)
©
·
¸
¸
¹
25
7 ·
§
u ¨1
¸
7
39.2
©
¹
(56)
3.88
(57)
A N-channel MOSFET with a voltage rating of 100-V and a current rating of 4 A is required for this design.
36
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9.2.1.2.8 Rectifying Diode Selection
Select a diode should be selected based on the following voltage and current ratings:
VD(BR) VO(OV) u 1.2 62 u 1.1 68.2
ID
ILED(MAX)
(58)
0.5
(59)
A 100-V Schottky diode with low reverse leakage current is suitable for this design. The package must be able to
handle the power dissipation resulting from continuous forward current, ID, of 0.5 A.
9.2.1.2.9 Programming LED Current
The LED current can be programmed to match the LED string configuration by using a resistor divider, RADJ1 and
RADJ2, from VREF to GND for a given sense resistor, RCS, as shown in Figure 43. To maximize the accuracy, the
IADJ pin voltage is set to 2.1 V for the specified maximum LED current of 500-mA. The current sense resistor,
RCS, is then calculated as:
VIADJ(MAX)
2.1
RCS
0.3
14 u ILED(MAX) 14 u 0.5
(60)
A standard resistor of 0.3 Ω is selected. Table 4 summarizes the IADJ pin voltage and the choice of the RADJ1
and RADJ2 resistors for different current settings.
Table 4. Design Requirements
LED CURRENT
IADJ VOLTAGE (VIADJ)
RADJ1
RADJ2
100 mA
420 mV
6.34 kΩ
68.1 kΩ
350 mA
1.47 V
29.4 kΩ
68.1 kΩ
500 mA
2.1 V
49.9 kΩ
68.1 kΩ
9.2.1.2.10 Setting Switch Current Limit
Solve for current sense resistor, RIS:
VIS(LIMIT) 0.25
RIS
0.07
IL(PK)
3.58
(61)
A standard value of 0.06 Ω is selected.
9.2.1.2.11 Programming Slope Compensation
The artificial slope is programmed by resistor, RSL.
RSL
274.4 u 106 u
L
RIS
274.4 u 106 u
22 u 10
0.06
6
100.6 u 103
(62)
A standard resistor of 100 kΩ is selected.
9.2.1.2.12 Deriving Compensator Parameters
The modulator transfer function for the Boost converter is derived for nominal VIN voltage and corresponding duty
cycle, D, and is given by the following equation. (See Feedback Compensation section for more information.)
Öi
LED
vÖ COMP
§
s ·
¨1
¸
Z
Z ¹
G0 u ©
§
s ·
¨1
¸
ZP ¹
©
s
§
·
¨1
3 ¸
311.8 u 10 ¹
2.184 u ©
s
§
·
¨1
3 ¸
© 13.4 u 10 ¹
(63)
The proportional-integral compensator components CCOMP and RCOMP are obtained by solving the following
expressions:
CCOMP
8.75 u 10
3
§ R u G0 ·
u ¨ CS
¸
ZZ
©
¹
8.75 u 10
3
§ 0.3 u 2.184 ·
u¨
¸
© 311.8 u 103 ¹
0.018 u 10
6
(64)
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RCOMP
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1
ZP u CCOMP
1
3
13.4 u 10 u 18 u 10
9
4.12 u 103
(65)
The closet standard capacitor of 18-nF and resistor of 4.12-kΩ is selected. The high frequency pole location is
set by a 1-nF CHF capacitor.
9.2.1.2.13 Setting Start-up Duration
The soft-start capacitor required to achieve start-up in 8 ms is given by:
CSS
12.5 u 10
6
u tSS
12.5 u 10
6
u 8 u 10
3
100 u 10
9
(66)
The closet standard capacitor of 100 nF is selected.
9.2.1.2.14 Setting Overvoltage Protection Threshold
The overvoltage protection threshold of 62 V and hysteresis of 3 V is set by the ROV1 and ROV2 resistor divider.
VOV(HYS)
3
ROV2
150 u 103
6
6
20 u 10
20 u 10
(67)
ROV1
§
·
1.228
¨
¸ u ROV2
¨ VO(OV) 1.228 ¸
©
¹
§ 1.228 ·
3
¨ 62 1.228 ¸ u 150 u 10
©
¹
3.03 u 103
(68)
The standard resistor values of 150 kΩ and 3.01 kΩ are chosen.
9.2.1.2.15 Analog-to-PWM Dimming Considerations
The PWM dimming frequency is set by the CRAMP capacitor.
CDIM
10 u 10 6
2 u 2 u fDIM
10 u 10 6
2 u 2 u 240
10.4 u 10
9
(69)
The closet standard capacitor of 10 nF is selected.
The PWM duty cycle of 8% programmed by setting the DIM/PWM voltage using resistor divider, RDIM1 and RDIM2
connected from VREF pin to GND.
VDIM 2 u DPWM 1 2 u 0.08 1 1.16
(70)
The value of resistor, RDIM1 is set as of 10-kΩ. The resistor RDIM2 is calculated using the following equation:
VREF VDIM
4.96 1.16
u RDIM1
u 10 u 103 32.76 u 103
RDIM2
VDIM
4.96
(71)
A standard resistor of 33 kΩ is selected.
A P-channel MOSFET with a voltage rating of 100-V and a current rating of 1 A is required to enable series FET
dimming for this design.
9.2.1.3 Application Curves
These curves are for the boost LED driver.
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Ch1: Switch node voltage;
Ch2: Switch current sense voltage;
Ch4: LED current; Time: 1 µs/div
Figure 44. Normal Operation
Ch1: Dither modulation voltage;
Ch4: LED current; Time: 400 µs/div
Figure 45. Spread Spectrum Frequency Modulation
Ch1: Input voltage; Ch2: Soft-start (SS) voltage;
Ch3: Input current;
Ch4: LED current; Time: 4 ms/div
Figure 46. Startup Transient
Ch1: Dim/PWM voltage;
Ch2: RAMP pin voltage;
Ch4: LED current; Time: 2 ms/div
Figure 47. Analog-to-PWM Dimming Transient
Ch1: External PWM input signal;
Ch2: PDRV voltage;
Ch4: LED current; Time: 2 ms/div
Figure 48. Direct PWM Dimming Transient
Ch1: External PWM input voltage;
Ch3: Switch sense current resistor voltage;
Ch4: LED current; Time: 4 µs/div
Figure 49. PWM Dimming Transient (Zoomed)
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Ch1: FLT output;
Ch2: CSP pin voltage;
Ch4: LED current; Time: 100 ms/div
Figure 50. LED Open-Circuit Fault
Figure 52. Conducted EMI Scan (SSFM Disabled)
40
Ch1: FLT output;
Ch2: CSP pin voltage;
Ch4: LED current; Time: 100 ms/div
Figure 51. LED Short-Circuit Fault
Figure 53. Conducted EMI Scan (SSFM Enabled)
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9.2.2 Typical Buck-Boost LED Driver
C1
0.01 µF
J1
C3
10µF
D3
VBAT1
L2
1
3
2
1
3
C2
10µF
D1
R1
3
33uH
2
C9
10µF
J2
R4
10.0
C6
4700pF
C10
10µF
C16
10µF
C17
10µF
0.1
100V
R3
150k
2
VCC
0.1 µF
VCC
20
VREF
GATE
19
3
FLT
IS
18
4
SS
GND
17
C22
20.0k
C32
C21
1000pF
R11
4.12k
1000pF
C23
R15
GND
R10
0.06
2.2 µF
0.1 µF
GND
100
C20
2
1
R8
3
GND
Q2
GND
U1
1 VIN
C11
0.01 µF
C12
4.7 µF
1210
Q3
100V
C18
GND
4
40V
GND
C4
10µF
Q1
1
2
2
1
C24
5
DM
SLOPE
16
6
RT
OVP
15
7
COMP
CSP
14
8
IMON
CSN
13
9
IADJ
PDRV
12
DIM/PWM
DAP
RAMP
11
R12
10.0
R14
R13
10.0
150k
0.027 µF
GND
C36
C25
0.1 µF
0.1µF
10pF
R21
R16
11.2k
68.1k
C34
0.1 µF
10
21
PWM Input
TPS92692Q
C29
2.2 µF
C27
0.01 µF
C28
0.01 µF
R23
249k
GND
Figure 54. Buck-Boost LED Driver
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9.2.2.1 Design Requirements
Buck-Boost LED drivers provide the flexibility needed in applications that support multiple LED load
configurations. For such applications, it is necessary to modify the design procedure presented in to account for
the wider range of output voltage and LED current specifications. This design is based on the maximum output
power PO(MAX), set by the lumen output specified for the lighting application. The design procedure for a battery
connected application with 3 to 9 LEDs in series and maximum 15 W output power is outlined in this section.
Table 5. Design Parameters
PARAMETER
TEST CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
7
14
18
UNIT
INPUT CHARACTERISTICS
Input voltage range
Input UVLO setting
4.5
V
V
OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS
LED forward voltage
Number of LEDs in series
VO
Output voltage
ILED
Output current
LED+ to LED–
ΔiLED(PP)
LED current ripple
rD
LED string resistance
PO(MAX)
Maximum output power
DPWM
Direct PWM dimming range
2.8
3.2
3.6
3
7
11
V
8.4
22.4
39.6
V
100
500
1500
mA
5%
0.9
fPWM = 240 Hz
2.1
4%
3.3
Ω
12.6
W
100%
SYSTEMS CHARACTERISTICS
PO(BDRY)
Output power at CCM-DCM boundary
condition
3
W
ΔvIN(PP)
Input voltage ripple
70
mV
VO(OV)
Output overvoltage protection threshold
45
V
VOV(HYS)
Output overvoltage protection hysteresis
3
V
tSS
Soft-start period
8
ms
fSW
Switching frequency
390
kHz
9.2.2.2 Detailed Design Procedure
9.2.2.2.1 Calculating Duty Cycle
Solving for D, DMAX, and DMIN:
VO(TYP)
22.4
D
VO(TYP) VIN(TYP) 22.4 14
DMAX
DMIN
VO(MAX)
VO(MAX)
VIN(MIN)
VO(MIN)
VO(MIN)
39.6
39.6 7
VIN(MAX)
8.4
8.4 18
0.615
(72)
0.850
(73)
0.318
(74)
9.2.2.2.2 Setting Switching Frequency
Solving for RT resistor:
1.432 u 1010
RT
1.047
fSW
1.432 u 1010
390 u 10
3
1.047
20.05 u 103
(75)
9.2.2.2.3 Setting Dither Modulation Frequency
Solve for CDM:
42
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CDM
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10 u 10 6
2 u fMOD u 0.3
10 u 10 6
2 u 600 u 0.3
27.7 u 10
9
(76)
The closest standard capacitor is 27 nF.
9.2.2.2.4 Inductor Selection
The inductor is selected to meet the CCM-DCM boundary power requirement, PO(BDRY). Typically, the boundary
condition is set to enable CCM operation at the lowest possible operating power based on minimum LED forward
voltage drop and LED current. In most applications, PO(BDRY) is set to be 1/3 of the maximum output power,
PO(MAX). The inductor value is calculated for maximum input voltage, VIN(MAX), and output voltage, VO(MAX):
1
1
L
31.72 u 10 6
2
2
1·
§
·
§ 1
1
1
2 u 3 u 390 u 103 u ¨
2 u PO(BDRY) u fSW u ¨
¸
¸
22.4
14
¨ VO(TYP) VIN(TYP) ¸
©
¹
©
¹
(77)
The closest standard value of 33 µH is selected. The inductor ripple current is given by:
VIN(MIN) u DMAX
7 u 0.85
'iL(PP)
0.4623
L u fSW
33 u 10 6 u 390 u 103
(78)
Ensure that the inductor saturation rating exceeds the calculated peak current which is based on the maximum
output power using Equation 79.
IL(PK)
IL(PK)
§
1
PO(MAX) u ¨
¨ VO(MIN)
©
§ 1
12.6 u ¨
© 8.4
1·
7 ¸¹
1
VIN(MIN)
·
¸
¸
¹
VO(MIN) u VIN(MIN)
2 u L u fSW u VO(MIN)
8.4 u 7
2 u 33 u 10
6
u 390 u 103 u 8.4 7
VIN(MIN)
(79)
3.45
9.2.2.2.5 Output Capacitor Selection
Select the output capacitance to achieve the 5% peak-to-peak LED current ripple specification. Based on the
maximum power, the capacitor is calculated in Equation 80.
PO(MAX)
COUT
fSW u rD(MIN) u 'i LED(PP)u VO(MIN) VIN(MIN)
(80)
COUT
12.6
3
390 u 10 u 0.9 u 0.075 u 8.4 7
31.08 u 10
6
This design requires a minimum of three, 10-µF, 50-V and one 4.7-µF, 100-V, X7R ceramic capacitors in parallel
to meet the LED current ripple specification over the entire range of output power. Additional capacitance may be
required based on the derating factor under DC bias operation.
9.2.2.2.6 Input Capacitor Selection
The input capacitor is calculated based on the peak-to-peak input ripple specifications, ΔvIN(PP). The capacitor
required to limit the ripple to 70 mV over range of operation is calculated using:
PO(MAX)
12.6
CIN
29.97 u 10 6
3
fSW u 'v IN(PP)u VO(MIN) VIN(MIN)
390 u 10 u 0.07 u 8.4 7
(81)
A parallel combination of four 10-µF, 50-V X7R ceramic capacitors are used for a combined capacitance of 40
µF. Additional capacitance may be required based on the derating factor under DC bias operation.
9.2.2.2.7 Main N-Channel MOSFET Selection
Calculating the minimum transistor voltage and current rating:
VDS
1.1u VO(OV)
VIN(MAX)
1.1u (45 18)
69.3
(82)
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PO(MAX)
VIN(MIN)
§
VIN(MIN)
u ¨1
¨
VO(MIN)
©
·
¸
¸
¹
12.6
7 ·
§
u ¨1
7
8.4 ¸¹
©
2.44
(83)
This application requires a 100-V N-channel MOSFET with a current rating exceeding 3 A.
9.2.2.2.8 Rectifier Diode Selection
Calculating the minimum Schottky diode voltage and current rating:
VD(BR)
ID
1.1u VO(OV)
ILED(MAX)
VIN(MAX)
1.1u (45 18)
69.3
(84)
1.5
(85)
This application requires a 100-V Schottky diode with a current rating exceeding 1.5 A. TI recommends a single
high-current diode instead of paralleling multiple lower-current-rated diodes to ensure reliable operation over
temperature.
9.2.2.2.9 Programming LED Current
The LED current can be programmed to match the LED string configuration by using a resistor divider, RADJ1 and
RADJ2, from VREF to GND for a given sense resistor, RCS, as shown in Figure 54. To maximize the accuracy, the
IADJ pin voltage is set to 2.1 V for the specified LED current of 1.5 A. The current sense resistor, RCS, is then
calculated as:
VIADJ
2.1
RCS
0.1
14 u ILED(MAX) 14 u 1.5
(86)
A standard resistor of 0.1 Ω is selected. Table 5 summarizes the IADJ pin voltage and the choice of the RADJ1
and RADJ2 resistors for different current settings.
Table 6. Design Requirements
LED CURRENT
IADJ VOLTAGE (VIADJ)
RADJ1
RADJ2
100 mA
140 mV
2.0 kΩ
68.1 kΩ
500 mA
700 mV
11.2 kΩ
68.1 kΩ
1.5 A
2.1 V
50 kΩ
68.1 kΩ
9.2.2.2.10 Setting Switch Current Limit and Slope Compensation
Solving for RIS:
VIS(LIMIT)
RIS
IL(PK)
0.25
3.45
0.072
(87)
A standard resistor of 0.06 Ω is selected.
9.2.2.2.11 Programming Slope Compensation
The artificial slope is programmed by resistor, RSL.
RSL
274.4 u 106 u
L
RIS
274.4 u 106 u
33 u 10
0.06
6
150.7 u 103
(88)
A standard resistor of 150 kΩ is selected.
9.2.2.2.12 Deriving Compensator Parameters
A simple integral compensator provides a good starting point to achieve stable operation across the wide
operating range. The modulator transfer function with the lowest frequency pole location is calculated based on
maximum output voltage, VO(MAX), duty cycle, DMAX, LED dynamic resistance, rD(MAX), and minimum LED string
current, ILED(MIN). (See Table 2 for more information.)
44
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Öi
LED
vÖ COMP
§
s ·
¨1
¸
Z
Z ¹
G0 u ©
§
s ·
¨1
¸
ZP ¹
©
s
§
·
¨1
3 ¸
145.7 u 10 ¹
2.48 u ©
s
§
·
¨1
3 ¸
8.9 u 10 ¹
©
(89)
The compensation capacitor needed to achieve stable response is:
CCOMP
8.75 u 10 3 u RCS
ZP
3
8.75 u 10
8.9 u 10
u 0.1
3
98.3 u 10
9
(90)
A 100 nF capacitor is selected.
A proportional integral compensator can be used to achieve higher bandwidth and improved transient
performance. However, it is necessary to experimentally tune the compensator parameters over the entire
operating range to ensure stable operation.
9.2.2.2.13 Setting Startup Duration
Solving for soft-start capacitor, CSS, based on 8-ms startup duration:
CSS
12.5 u 10
6
u tSS
12.5 u 10
6
u 8 u 10
3
100 u 10
9
(91)
A 100-nF soft-start capacitor is selected.
9.2.2.2.14 Setting Overvoltage Protection Threshold
Solving for resistors, ROV1 and ROV2:
VOV(HYS)
3
ROV2
150 u 103
6
6
20 u 10
20 u 10
ROV1
1.228 u ROV2
VO(OV) 0.7
3
1.228 u 150 u 10
45 0.7
(92)
4.16 u 103
(93)
The closest standard values of 150 kΩ and 4.12 kΩ along with a 60-V PNP transistor are used to set the OVP
threshold to 45 V with 3 V of hysteresis.
9.2.2.2.15 Direct PWM Dimming Consideration
A 60-V, 2-A P-channel FET is used to achieve series FET PWM dimming.
9.2.2.3 Application Curves
These curves are for the buck-boost LED driver.
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100
1600
1400
90
Efficiency (%)
LED Current (mA)
1200
1000
800
600
80
70
60
400
3 LEDs
5 LEDs
7 LEDs
9 LEDs
50
200
3 LEDs
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1 1.2
VIADJ (V)
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
2.2
40
100
200
D021
VIN = 14 V
300 400 500 700
LED Current (mA)
1000
2000
D022
VIN = 14 V
Figure 55. LED Current vs IADJ Voltage
Ch1: FLT output;
Ch2: CSP pin voltage;
Ch4: LED current; Time: 100 ms/div
Figure 57. LED Open-Circuit Fault
Figure 56. Efficiency
Ch1: FLT output;
Ch2: CSP pin voltage;
Ch4: LED current; Time: 100 ms/div
Figure 58. LED Short-Circuit Fault
10 Power Supply Recommendations
This device is designed to operate from an input voltage supply range between 4.5 V and 65 V. The input could
be a car battery or another preregulated power supply. If the input supply is located more than a few inches from
the TPS92692 or TPS92692-Q1 device, additional bulk capacitance or an input filter may be required in addition
to the ceramic bypass capacitors to address noise and EMI concerns.
46
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SLVSDD9 – MARCH 2017
11 Layout
11.1 Layout Guidelines
•
•
•
•
•
•
The performance of the switching regulator depends as much on the layout of the PCB as the component
selection. Following a few simple guidelines will maximize noise rejection and minimize the generation of EMI
within the circuit.
Discontinuous currents are the most likely to generate EMI. Therefore, take care when routing these paths.
The main path for discontinuous current in the devices using a buck regulator topology contains the input
capacitor, CIN, the recirculating diode, D, the N-channel MOSFET, Q1, and the sense resistor, RIS. In the
TPS92692 and TPS92692-Q1 devices using a boost regulator topology, the discontinuous current flows
through the output capacitor COUT, diode, D, N-channel MOSFET, Q1, and the current sense resistor, RIS. In
devices using a buck-boost regulator topolog. Be careful when laying out both discontinuous loops. Ensure
that these loops are as small as possible. In order to minimize parasitic inductance, ensure that the
connection between all the components are short and thick. In particular, make the switch node (where L, D,
and Q1 connect) just large enough to connect the components. To minimize excessive heating, large copper
pours can be placed adjacent to the short current path of the switch node.
Route the CSP and CSN together with Kelvin connections to the current sense resistor with traces as short
as possible. If needed, use common mode and differential mode noise filters to attenuate switching and diode
reverse recovery noise from affecting the internal current sense amplifier.
Because the COMP, IS, OV, DIM/PWM, and IADJ pins are all high-impedance inputs that couple external
noise easily, ensure that the loops containing these nodes are minimized whenever possible.
In some applications, the LED or LED array can be far away from the TPS92692 and TPS92692-Q1 devices,
or on a separate PCB connected by a wiring harness. When an output capacitor is used and the LED array is
large or separated from the rest of the regulator, place the output capacitor close to the LEDs to reduce the
effects of parasitic inductance on the AC impedance of the capacitor.
The TPS92692 and TPS92692-Q1 devices have an exposed thermal pad to aid power dissipation. Adding
several vias under the exposed pad helps conduct heat away from the device. The junction-to-ambient
thermal resistance varies with application. The most significant variables are the area of copper in the PCB
and the number of vias under the exposed pad. The integrity of the solder connection from the device
exposed pad to the PCB is critical. Excessive voids greatly decrease the thermal dissipation capacity.
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11.2 Layout Example
INPUT
CONN
LED+
GND
BOOST
VIN
LED+
BUCK-BOOST
VIA TO BOTTOM GROUND PLANE
VCC
GATE
FLT
IS
SS
DM
RT
COMP
TPS92692Q
VIN
VREF
GND
SLOPE
OVP
CSP
IMON
CSN
IADJ
PDRV
DIM
RAMP
Figure 59. Layout Recommendation
48
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12 Device and Documentation Support
12.1 Related Links
The table below lists quick access links. Categories include technical documents, support and community
resources, tools and software, and quick access to sample or buy.
Table 7. Related Links
PARTS
PRODUCT FOLDER
SAMPLE & BUY
TECHNICAL
DOCUMENTS
TOOLS &
SOFTWARE
SUPPORT &
COMMUNITY
TPS92692
Click here
Click here
Click here
Click here
Click here
TPS92692-Q1
Click here
Click here
Click here
Click here
Click here
12.2 Community Resources
The following links connect to TI community resources. Linked contents are provided "AS IS" by the respective
contributors. They do not constitute TI specifications and do not necessarily reflect TI's views; see TI's Terms of
Use.
TI E2E™ Online Community TI's Engineer-to-Engineer (E2E) Community. Created to foster collaboration
among engineers. At e2e.ti.com, you can ask questions, share knowledge, explore ideas and help
solve problems with fellow engineers.
Design Support TI's Design Support Quickly find helpful E2E forums along with design support tools and
contact information for technical support.
12.3 Trademarks
PowerPAD, E2E are trademarks of Texas Instruments.
12.4 Electrostatic Discharge Caution
These devices have limited built-in ESD protection. The leads should be shorted together or the device placed in conductive foam
during storage or handling to prevent electrostatic damage to the MOS gates.
12.5 Glossary
SLYZ022 — TI Glossary.
This glossary lists and explains terms, acronyms, and definitions.
13 Mechanical, Packaging, and Orderable Information
The following pages include mechanical, packaging, and orderable information. This information is the most
current data available for the designated devices. This data is subject to change without notice and revision of
this document. For browser-based versions of this data sheet, refer to the left-hand navigation.
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49
PACKAGE OPTION ADDENDUM
www.ti.com
29-Mar-2017
PACKAGING INFORMATION
Orderable Device
Status
(1)
Package Type Package Pins Package
Drawing
Qty
Eco Plan
Lead/Ball Finish
MSL Peak Temp
(2)
(6)
(3)
Op Temp (°C)
Device Marking
(4/5)
TPS92692PWPR
ACTIVE
HTSSOP
PWP
20
2000
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-2-260C-1 YEAR
-40 to 125
92692
TPS92692PWPT
ACTIVE
HTSSOP
PWP
20
250
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-2-260C-1 YEAR
-40 to 125
92692
TPS92692QPWPRQ1
ACTIVE
HTSSOP
PWP
20
2000
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-2-260C-1 YEAR
-40 to 125
92692Q
TPS92692QPWPTQ1
ACTIVE
HTSSOP
PWP
20
250
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-2-260C-1 YEAR
-40 to 125
92692Q
(1)
The marketing status values are defined as follows:
ACTIVE: Product device recommended for new designs.
LIFEBUY: TI has announced that the device will be discontinued, and a lifetime-buy period is in effect.
NRND: Not recommended for new designs. Device is in production to support existing customers, but TI does not recommend using this part in a new design.
PREVIEW: Device has been announced but is not in production. Samples may or may not be available.
OBSOLETE: TI has discontinued the production of the device.
(2)
Eco Plan - The planned eco-friendly classification: Pb-Free (RoHS), Pb-Free (RoHS Exempt), or Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) - please check http://www.ti.com/productcontent for the latest availability
information and additional product content details.
TBD: The Pb-Free/Green conversion plan has not been defined.
Pb-Free (RoHS): TI's terms "Lead-Free" or "Pb-Free" mean semiconductor products that are compatible with the current RoHS requirements for all 6 substances, including the requirement that
lead not exceed 0.1% by weight in homogeneous materials. Where designed to be soldered at high temperatures, TI Pb-Free products are suitable for use in specified lead-free processes.
Pb-Free (RoHS Exempt): This component has a RoHS exemption for either 1) lead-based flip-chip solder bumps used between the die and package, or 2) lead-based die adhesive used between
the die and leadframe. The component is otherwise considered Pb-Free (RoHS compatible) as defined above.
Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br): TI defines "Green" to mean Pb-Free (RoHS compatible), and free of Bromine (Br) and Antimony (Sb) based flame retardants (Br or Sb do not exceed 0.1% by weight
in homogeneous material)
(3)
MSL, Peak Temp. - The Moisture Sensitivity Level rating according to the JEDEC industry standard classifications, and peak solder temperature.
(4)
There may be additional marking, which relates to the logo, the lot trace code information, or the environmental category on the device.
(5)
Multiple Device Markings will be inside parentheses. Only one Device Marking contained in parentheses and separated by a "~" will appear on a device. If a line is indented then it is a continuation
of the previous line and the two combined represent the entire Device Marking for that device.
(6)
Lead/Ball Finish - Orderable Devices may have multiple material finish options. Finish options are separated by a vertical ruled line. Lead/Ball Finish values may wrap to two lines if the finish
value exceeds the maximum column width.
Addendum-Page 1
Samples
PACKAGE OPTION ADDENDUM
www.ti.com
29-Mar-2017
Important Information and Disclaimer:The information provided on this page represents TI's knowledge and belief as of the date that it is provided. TI bases its knowledge and belief on information
provided by third parties, and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of such information. Efforts are underway to better integrate information from third parties. TI has taken and
continues to take reasonable steps to provide representative and accurate information but may not have conducted destructive testing or chemical analysis on incoming materials and chemicals.
TI and TI suppliers consider certain information to be proprietary, and thus CAS numbers and other limited information may not be available for release.
In no event shall TI's liability arising out of such information exceed the total purchase price of the TI part(s) at issue in this document sold by TI to Customer on an annual basis.
OTHER QUALIFIED VERSIONS OF TPS92692, TPS92692-Q1 :
• Catalog: TPS92692
• Automotive: TPS92692-Q1
NOTE: Qualified Version Definitions:
• Catalog - TI's standard catalog product
• Automotive - Q100 devices qualified for high-reliability automotive applications targeting zero defects
Addendum-Page 2
PACKAGE MATERIALS INFORMATION
www.ti.com
20-Feb-2019
TAPE AND REEL INFORMATION
*All dimensions are nominal
Device
Package Package Pins
Type Drawing
SPQ
Reel
Reel
A0
Diameter Width (mm)
(mm) W1 (mm)
TPS92692PWPR
HTSSOP
PWP
20
2000
330.0
16.4
B0
(mm)
K0
(mm)
P1
(mm)
W
Pin1
(mm) Quadrant
6.95
7.1
1.6
8.0
16.0
Q1
TPS92692PWPT
HTSSOP
PWP
20
250
180.0
16.4
6.95
7.1
1.6
8.0
16.0
Q1
TPS92692QPWPRQ1
HTSSOP
PWP
20
2000
330.0
16.4
6.95
7.1
1.6
8.0
16.0
Q1
TPS92692QPWPTQ1
HTSSOP
PWP
20
250
180.0
16.4
6.95
7.1
1.6
8.0
16.0
Q1
Pack Materials-Page 1
PACKAGE MATERIALS INFORMATION
www.ti.com
20-Feb-2019
*All dimensions are nominal
Device
Package Type
Package Drawing
Pins
SPQ
Length (mm)
Width (mm)
Height (mm)
TPS92692PWPR
HTSSOP
PWP
20
2000
350.0
350.0
43.0
TPS92692PWPT
HTSSOP
PWP
20
250
213.0
191.0
55.0
TPS92692QPWPRQ1
HTSSOP
PWP
20
2000
350.0
350.0
43.0
TPS92692QPWPTQ1
HTSSOP
PWP
20
250
213.0
191.0
55.0
Pack Materials-Page 2
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IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR NON-INFRINGEMENT OF THIRD
PARTY INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS.
These resources are intended for skilled developers designing with TI products. You are solely responsible for (1) selecting the appropriate
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