Texas Instruments | AEC-Q100-012 Short-Circuit Reliability Test Results for Smart Power Switches (Rev. A) | Application notes | Texas Instruments AEC-Q100-012 Short-Circuit Reliability Test Results for Smart Power Switches (Rev. A) Application notes

Texas Instruments AEC-Q100-012 Short-Circuit Reliability Test Results for Smart Power Switches (Rev. A) Application notes
(1)
Application Report
SLVA709A – June 2015 – Revised May 2019
AEC-Q100-012 Short-Circuit Reliability Test Results for
Smart Power Switches
ABSTRACT
Smart power switches are widely used as short-circuit protection devices in automotive systems.
Therefore, the robustness of the device under repetitive short-circuit stress is crucial to providing
protection for the entire system. In order to guarantee protection, the AEC Q100-012 provides a industry
standard qualification certificate which specifies the reliability of this type of device.
This application report describes the AEC Q100-012 specification and provides the test method and
results for TI's Smart Power Switch devices.
1
2
3
4
5
Contents
AEC Q100-012 Introduction ................................................................................................ 2
1.1
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 2
1.2
Equivalent Test Circuit ............................................................................................. 2
1.3
Test Conditions ..................................................................................................... 2
1.4
Passing Conditions ................................................................................................. 3
Types of Short Circuit ....................................................................................................... 3
2.1
Cold Repetitive Short Circuit—Short Pulse...................................................................... 4
2.2
Cold Repetitive Short Circuit—Long Pulse ...................................................................... 5
2.3
Hot Repetitive Short Circuit ....................................................................................... 6
Short-Circuit Test Setup .................................................................................................... 7
3.1
Test Setup Introduction ............................................................................................ 7
3.2
Test Set Up .......................................................................................................... 7
3.3
Failure Check ...................................................................................................... 10
Results and Conclusion ................................................................................................... 10
References .................................................................................................................. 12
List of Figures
1
Smart HSS Short-Circuit Model ............................................................................................ 2
2
Timing Diagram of Cold Repetitive Short Circuit—Short Pulse
3
Timing Diagram of Cold Repetitive Short Circuit—Long Pulse ........................................................ 6
4
Timing Diagram of Hot Repetitive Short Circuit
5
6
7
8
9
.......................................................
.........................................................................
System Block Diagram ......................................................................................................
Instruments ...................................................................................................................
Layout of Driver Board ......................................................................................................
Layout of Oven Board .......................................................................................................
User Interface ................................................................................................................
5
6
7
8
8
9
9
List of Tables
(1)
1
Output Impedance ........................................................................................................... 3
2
Grade Level Table ........................................................................................................... 3
3
Test Requirements Summary .............................................................................................. 4
4
High Side Switch Test Results ........................................................................................... 10
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AEC Q100-012 Introduction
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5
TPS1H100-Q1 Test Result Summary ................................................................................... 10
6
TPS2H160-Q1 Test Result Summary ................................................................................... 10
7
TPS4H160-Q1 Test Result Summary ................................................................................... 11
8
TPS1H200-Q1 Test Result Summary ................................................................................... 11
9
TPS1H000-Q1 Test Result Summary ................................................................................... 11
10
TPS2H000-Q1 Test Result Summary ................................................................................... 11
11
TPS4H000-Q1 Test Result Summary ................................................................................... 11
1
AEC Q100-012 Introduction
1.1
Introduction
The Automotive Electronics Council (AEC) provides the AEC Q100-012 documentation which specifies
standards for short-circuit reliability testing. The main purpose of this test is to determine the reliability of
smart-power switches when operating in a continuous short-circuit condition. The AEC Q100-012
specification includes an equivalent test circuit, detailed test conditions, different reliability grade
definitions, and other information.
1.2
Equivalent Test Circuit
Figure 1 shows the basic equivalent test circuit for a smart high-side switch (HSS). The HSS is the device
under test (DUT) that performs the repetitive short-circuit tests while the Rsupply and Lsupply are the input
impedance from the voltage source side (VBB), and the Rshort and Lshort are the output impedance from the
module board and the cables. These input and output impedances simulate input and output cables or
interconnects that impact the performance under short-circuit events.
Lsupply
5 µH
Rsupply
10 m
Ideal
DC-voltage
source
+
±
14 V
Control
System
Lshort
VBB
Rshort
OUT
ON/OFF
GND
Figure 1. Smart HSS Short-Circuit Model
1.3
1.3.1
Test Conditions
Supply Voltage
The supply is modeled by an ideal voltage source, VBAT, which generally is set at 14 V ± 2%.
1.3.2
Input Impedance
A total resistance of Rsupply = 10 mΩ ± 20% and an inductance of Lsupply = 5 μH ± 20% are specified to
simulate the cable and interconnects from the automotive battery to the HSS.
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1.3.3
Output Impedance
The short circuit can occur anywhere between the device output and the load, so the output cable must be
considered. Therefore, the output impedance may vary according to the cable length and diameter. Two
types of short-circuit conditions are specified in the AEC Q100-012: the short circuit directly at the terminal
and the long short circuit through a cable. During the terminal short circuit, AEC Q100-012 specifies that
the module terminal, Rshort, is 20 mΩ, and the parasitic inductance is smaller than 1 µH.
For the load short circuit, the specification assumes that the harness inductance is 1 µH/m, and specifies
that the harness length is shorter than five meters. Table 1 lists the output impedance parameters of the
two the short-circuit types. The short-circuit current is specified by the internal current-limit value of the
device. Based on the different current range, different impedance values are provided.
Table 1. Output Impedance
SHORT CIRCUIT TYPE
DESCRIPTION
Terminal short circuit
Load short circuit
Rshort (mΩ) ±20%
Lshort (µH) ±20%
Short at module
20
<1
Short at load, Ishort ≤ 20 A
110 – Rsupply
5
Short at load, 20 A < Ishort ≤ 100 A
100
5
Short at load, Ishort > 100 A
50
5
The short-circuit current of most TI HSS's is below 100 A, therefore, Rshort is 100 mΩ and Lshort is 5 µH. For
any devices with a short-circuit level about 100 A, RSHORT is decreased to 50 mΩ.
1.4
Passing Conditions
Different grade levels are specified according to the number of successfully passed cycles in the AEC
Q100-012 specification. Samples for short-circuit testing must be drawn from three independent lots. The
sample size must be large enough to ensure the statistical validity of the data. At least 10 samples per lot
per test are recommended. Table 2 lists the number of cycles and fails and lots for these grade levels.
Table 2. Grade Level Table
2
GRADE
NUMBER OF CYCLES
LOTS/SAMPLES PER LOT
NUMBER OF FAILS
A
>1 000 000
3/10
0
B
>300 000 – 1 000 000
3/10
0
C
>100 000 – 300 000
3/10
0
D
>30 000 – 100 000
3/10
0
E
>10 000 – 30 000
3/10
0
F
>3000 – 10 000
3/10
0
G
>1000 – 3000
3/10
0
H
300 – 1000
3/10
0
O
<300
3/10
0
Types of Short Circuit
In addition to the different component selections, three test modes are defined in the AEC Q100-012
specification to verify the reliability of the device. In an application, the most relevant test mode is the
situation that most accurately represents the conditions of the end system.
Cold Repetitive Short-Circuit Test (Short Pulse)— Simulates a case where there is a micro-controller
monitoring the HSS that can react to a short-circuit and shut the device off in less than 10 ms.
Cold Repetitive Short-Circuit Test (Long Pulse)— Simulates a case where there is a micro-controller
monitoring the HSS that can react to a short-circuit and shut the device off, however the sampling
period is longer than 10 ms or unknown. In this case the micro-controller response time is assumed
to be 300 ms.
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Types of Short Circuit
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Hot Repetitive Short-Circuit Test— Simulates a case where there is no micro-controller monitoring the
HSS, so the HSS indefinitely stays enabled into the short-circuit.
Table 3 lists the detailed ambient temperature, pulse duration, and cycle numbers.
Table 3. Test Requirements Summary
TEST ITEMS
Cold repetitive short-circuit
test
TEST CONDITION
RECCOMENDED TEST CYCLES
Short pulse
–40°C, 10-ms pulse, cool down
1 Million
Long pulse
–40°C, 300-ms pulse, cool down
1 Million
25°C, keeping short
1 Million
Hot repetitive short-circuit test
2.1
Cold Repetitive Short Circuit—Short Pulse
The cold repetitive short-circuit test is intended to simulate an event where the device is monitored by an
MCU that can react to a short-circuit event within 10 ms. For TI's smart high-side switches, a short-circuit
fault can be reported on the current sense pin (CS) or the status output pin (ST). In general, the
microcontroller turns off the channels when it receives this fault indication, however the microcontroller
sampling period introduces some delay. During this 10 ms delay, the device passes in and out of thermal
swing shutdown until the microcontroller recognizes the fault. After the fault is recognized, the
microcontroller shuts the device off and the device remains off while it cools down. This short-circuit
pattern is considered one cycle of repetitive short-circuit.
Due to the relatively short 10 ms pulse, during the thermal cycling, the device always shuts down due to
the thermal swing detection, and the temperature never hits the absolute thermal temperature shutdown.
Given the high power dissipated in a short-circuit event, the stress of the rapid temperature variation must
be considered, especially for the repetitive stress under extremely low temperature.
Figure 2 shows the test sequence. The test sequence is as follows:
1. At point A, the device enables into a short circuit.
2. From point B to point E (10-ms, as specified in AEC-Q100-012), the device remains enabled while the
internal thermal swing protection works to minimize the temperature variation.
3. At point C the device has cooled down and turns back on until point D when it turns off again due to
thermal cycling.
4. From point E to point F, the device EN goes low for enough time to ensure the device temperature
goes back to –40°C. External sensors are required to monitor the device temperature.
5. At point F, the cycle counter increments by 1 and the next cycle occurs. Steps 1 through 4 repeat.
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Types of Short Circuit
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Cooling time
10 ms
IN
IOUT
CS
ST
A
B
C
D
E
F
Figure 2. Timing Diagram of Cold Repetitive Short Circuit—Short Pulse
2.2
Cold Repetitive Short Circuit—Long Pulse
The short pulse described in Section 2.1 is intended to simulate the 10-ms scenario in which the
microcontroller reacts. However, in some cases, the response time of the microcontroller is longer or
difficult to estimate (for example, the RC filtering delay or the conflict with higher priority interrupt). When
the short-circuit cycle time increases, the device enters the absolute temperature protection region after a
few cycles of repetitive cycling of thermal shutdown. This condition can be harsher for the device than the
thermal swing shutdown as the absolute device temperature is higher.
To verify the device reliability under this condition, the cold repetitive short-circuit long-pulse test is
required. Similar to the short pulse, the start point of –40°C is the worst case.
Figure 3 shows the test sequence. The test sequence is as follows:
1. At point A, the device enables into a short-circuit.
2. From point B to point G (300-ms pulse, as specified in AEC-Q100-012), thermal swing protection is
active and then after multiple cycles absolute thermal shutdown occurs.
3. From point E to point F the device is retrying but since the device has hit absolute shutdown the
current limit value is half of the standard value.
4. From point G to point H, the device EN goes low for enough time to ensure that the device
temperature goes back to –40°C. External sensors are required to monitor the device temperature.
5. At point H, the cycle counter increments by one and the next cycle occurs. Steps 1 through 4 repeat.
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Types of Short Circuit
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Cooling
time
300 ms
IN
IOUT
CS
ST
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
Figure 3. Timing Diagram of Cold Repetitive Short Circuit—Long Pulse
2.3
Hot Repetitive Short Circuit
The cold repetitive short-circuit scenarios are the target for fault cases in applications that are monitored
by a microcontroller, however some applications do not have any micro-controller monitoring the HSS so
nothing shuts down the EN pin after a short circuit event is recognized. The enable signal remains active
during a hot repetitive short-circuit. In this case, the hot repetitive short-circuit test is required. After the
short-circuit occurs, the device quickly enters absolute thermal shutdown cycling then remains indefinitely
in repetitive thermal cycling mode. A cool-down period for the device is not required. The test begins at
room temperature since the temperature variation occurs only at the first cycle and therefore the device is
at hot for the entirety of the test.
Figure 4 shows the test sequence. The test sequence is as follows:
1. At point A, the device enables into a short-circuit.
2. From point B to point F, thermal swing protection is active first then thermal shutdown occurs.
3. The short-circuit condition continues indefinitely.
IN
IOUT
A
B
C
D
E
F
Figure 4. Timing Diagram of Hot Repetitive Short Circuit
6
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Short-Circuit Test Setup
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3
Short-Circuit Test Setup
3.1
Test Setup Introduction
The AEC-Q100-012 standard requires at least 30 devices originating from three separate silicon lots for a
sufficient sample size. System control relies on a central PC host which is linked to a PXI bus system with
PXI-6509 and PXI-6224 cards. The PXI-6509 and PXI-6224 cards generate the control signals and
process the feedback signals of the test. All DUTs are processed individually and independently. The
PWR_IN_Sx signal enables the current-monitor device. The SC_EN_Sx signal turns on the short-circuit
resistor, Rshort. The PWR_CS_Sx signal is the short-circuit current feedback signal. The IN_Sx signal
enables the HSS and triggers the short circuit.
Some power sequences are required to ensure that the test functions correctly. Follow these power
sequences:
1. Power on the monitor device with the PWR_IN_Sx signal.
2. Turn on the N-MOS Rshort with the SC_EN_Sx signal.
3. Turn on the IN_Sx signal to force the device into short-circuit mode.
4. Read back the PWR_CS_Sx signal and process it with a software algorithm.
Fuse
Monitor
device
PC Host
System
Power
Supply
(GPIB)
PXI
System
Lshort
Smart
High-Side
Driver
PWR_IN_Sx
PXI
6509
Rshort
SC_EN_Sx
PWR_CS_Sx
PXI
6224
IN_Sx
Figure 5. System Block Diagram
3.2
Test Set Up
The three main sections of the test control system are the power and driver boards, the oven and the oven
board, and the PC host system.
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Short-Circuit Test Setup
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Figure 6. Instruments
Figure 7 shows the layout of one cell on the driver board and includes the monitor device and the
connectors with the oven boards.
Figure 7. Layout of Driver Board
Figure 8 shows the layout of the oven board. The DUTs are placed on this board, which consists of 20
individual cells. This oven board is placed inside the oven for different temperature tests.
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Figure 8. Layout of Oven Board
Figure 9 shows the graphical user interface (GUI) in the PC host system and how different test modes and
conditions can be configured easily by the end user. The DUT status, test cycles, and waveforms can be
monitored from this interface.
Figure 9. User Interface
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Short-Circuit Test Setup
3.3
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Failure Check
Two types of failure checks are conducted for each device: the real-time monitor and the pre-test data and
post-test data check.
3.3.1
Real-Time Monitor
Any DUT failures, including open loads or device internal shorts, can by caught by real-time monitoring. If
either failure mechanism is detected, the number of cycles undergone by the DUT is recorded as a device
failure. The two failures are defined as:
Short-circuit failure — If the PWR_CS_Sx signal reaches the maximum set value, the short-circuit failure
of the DUT is detected. The controller shuts down the corresponding site and records the number
of cycles that have been performed on that site.
Open-load failure — If the PWR_CS_Sx signal reaches zero for the set time, it is recognized as an
open-load failure DUT. The controller shuts down the corresponding site and records the number of
cycles that have been performed on that site.
3.3.2
The Pre-Test and Post-Test Data Check
Pre-test and post-test data are only checked for each device on the automatic test equipment (ATE). Any
value outside of the device specification listed in the data sheet is regarded as a test failure.
4
Results and Conclusion
TI HSS devices are all tested based on the described test conditions and setup. The testing results
determine a device grade as defined in the Section 1.4 section which is shown in Table 4.
Table 4. High Side Switch Test Results
DEVICE NAME
RON
CHANNEL COUNT
GRADE
TPS1H100-Q1
100 mΩ
1
A
TPS2H160-Q1
160 mΩ
2
A
TPS4H160-Q1
160 mΩ
4
B
TPS1H200-Q1
200 mΩ
1
A
TPS1H000-Q1
1000 mΩ
1
A
TPS2H000-Q1
1000 mΩ
2
A
TPS4H000-Q1
1000 mΩ
4
A
The tables below give the specific test results and conditions for each device.
Table 5. TPS1H100-Q1 Test Result Summary
TEST
PROCEDURE
LOTS/SAMPLES
PER LOT
INITIAL
TEMPERATURE
CYCLES
FAILED UNITS
POST TEST
Cold Repetitive
Short Pulse
3/10
–40℃
1 000 000
0
Pass
Cold Repetitive
Long Pulse
3/10
–40℃
1 000 000
0
Pass
Hot Repetitive Pulse
3/10
25℃
1 000 000
0
Pass
Table 6. TPS2H160-Q1 Test Result Summary
10
TEST
PROCEDURE
LOTS/SAMPLES
PER LOT
INITIAL
TEMPERATURE
CYCLES
FAILED UNITS
POST TEST
Cold Repetitive
Short Pulse
3/10
–40℃
1 000 000
0
Pass
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Results and Conclusion
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Table 6. TPS2H160-Q1 Test Result Summary (continued)
TEST
PROCEDURE
LOTS/SAMPLES
PER LOT
INITIAL
TEMPERATURE
CYCLES
FAILED UNITS
POST TEST
Cold Repetitive
Long Pulse
3/10
–40℃
1 000 000
0
Pass
Hot Repetitive Pulse
3/10
25℃
1 000 000
0
Pass
Table 7. TPS4H160-Q1 Test Result Summary
TEST
PROCEDURE
LOTS/SAMPLES
PER LOT
INITIAL
TEMPERATURE
CYCLES
FAILED UNITS
POST TEST
Cold Repetitive
Short Pulse
3/10
–40℃
1 000 000
0
Pass
Cold Repetitive
Long Pulse
3/10
–40℃
300 000
0
Pass
Hot Repetitive Pulse
3/10
25℃
1 000 000
0
Pass
Table 8. TPS1H200-Q1 Test Result Summary
TEST
PROCEDURE
LOTS/SAMPLES
PER LOT
INITIAL
TEMPERATURE
CYCLES
FAILED UNITS
POST TEST
Cold Repetitive
Short Pulse
3/10
–40℃
1 000 000
0
Pass
Cold Repetitive
Long Pulse
3/10
–40℃
1 000 000
0
Pass
Hot Repetitive Pulse
3/10
25℃
1 000 000
0
Pass
Table 9. TPS1H000-Q1 Test Result Summary
TEST
PROCEDURE
LOTS/SAMPLES
PER LOT
INITIAL
TEMPERATURE
CYCLES
FAILED UNITS
POST TEST
Cold Repetitive
Short Pulse
3/10
–40℃
1 000 000
0
Pass
Cold Repetitive
Long Pulse
3/10
–40℃
1 000 000
0
Pass
Hot Repetitive Pulse
3/10
25℃
1 000 000
0
Pass
Table 10. TPS2H000-Q1 Test Result Summary
TEST
PROCEDURE
LOTS/SAMPLES
PER LOT
INITIAL
TEMPERATURE
CYCLES
FAILED UNITS
POST TEST
Cold Repetitive
Short Pulse
3/10
–40℃
1 000 000
0
Pass
Cold Repetitive
Long Pulse
3/10
–40℃
1 000 000
0
Pass
Hot Repetitive Pulse
3/10
25℃
1 000 000
0
Pass
Table 11. TPS4H000-Q1 Test Result Summary
TEST
PROCEDURE
LOTS/SAMPLES
PER LOT
INITIAL
TEMPERATURE
CYCLES
FAILED UNITS
POST TEST
Cold Repetitive
Short Pulse
3/10
–40℃
1 000 000
0
Pass
Cold Repetitive
Long Pulse
3/10
–40℃
1 000 000
0
Pass
Hot Repetitive Pulse
3/10
25℃
1 000 000
0
Pass
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References
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The results of the AEC Q100-12 testing show that nearly all of the TI HSS devices fulfill 1 million repetitive
short-circuits without a failure regardless of test qualification. Therefore, the devices are primarily qualified
as Grade A, the highest short-circuit reliability certificate in the industry.
5
References
•
•
12
AEC - Q100-012 - REVSHORT CIRCUIT RELIABILITY CHARACTERIZATION OF SMART POWER
DEVICES FOR 12V SYSTEMS (Automotive Electronics Council, 2006)
TPS1H100-Q1 40-V, 100-mΩ Single-Channel Smart High-Side Power Switch Data Sheet
AEC-Q100-012 Short-Circuit Reliability Test Results for Smart Power
Switches
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Revision History
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Revision History
NOTE: Page numbers for previous revisions may differ from page numbers in the current version.
Changes from Original (June 2015) to A Revision ......................................................................................................... Page
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Changed title from Short-Circuit Reliability Test for Smart Power Switch AEC-Q100-012 Test of TPS1H100-Q1 to AECQ100-012 Short Circuit Reliability Test Results for Smart Power Switches. ...................................................... 1
Updated abstract. ......................................................................................................................... 1
Updated wording in Introduction. ........................................................................................................ 2
Updated wording in Equivalent Test Circuit section. ................................................................................. 2
Moved Test Conditions, Supply voltage, Input Impedance, Output Impedance, and Passing Conditions sections to section
1. ............................................................................................................................................ 2
Added Types of Short Circuit section to section 2. ................................................................................... 3
Added Cold Repetitive Short Circuit—Short Pulse, Cold Repetitive Short Circuit—Long Pulse, and Hot Repetitive Short
Circuit sections to section 2. ............................................................................................................. 4
Added Test Setup Introduction, Test Setup, Failure Check, Real-time Monitor, and The Pre-Test and Post-Test Data
Check sections to section 3. ............................................................................................................. 7
Added Results and Conclusion as section 4. ........................................................................................ 10
Added table 8-15. ........................................................................................................................ 10
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