Texas Instruments | External Gate Resistor Selection | Application notes | Texas Instruments External Gate Resistor Selection Application notes

Texas Instruments External Gate Resistor Selection Application notes
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External Gate Resistor Design Guide for Gate Drivers
Mateo Begue, High Power Drivers
External gate drive resistors play a crucial part in
limiting noise and ringing in the gate drive path.
Parasitic inductances and capacitances, high dV/dt
and di/dt, and body-diode reverse recovery can cause
unwanted behavior without an appropriately sized gate
resistor.
These parasitics cause oscillations in the gate drive
loop and are modeled by resonant circuits.
Fortunately, the otherwise very high Q resonance
between the input capacitance, CISS (CGD + CGS) and
the source inductance, LS can be damped by the
series resistive components of the loop, RG
(RG = RHI or LO+RGATE+RG,I).
RG
VDRV
LS
CISS
Figure 3. Resonant Circuits in Gate Drive Design
Figure 1. Gate Drive Elements
Figure 1 depicts common elements in the gate drive
path: the internal resistance of the gate driver, external
gate resistance, and internal gate resistance of the
MOSFET or IGBT. RGATE is the only component that
tunes the gate drive waveform.
Select a gate resistor that will give your design a
quality factor Q between 0.5 (critically damped) and 1
(under damped). A quality factor greater than 0.5 will
give you faster turn-on and turn-off if needed. Start by
recording the gate drive ring with no external
resistance. This is your ring frequency fR used in
Equation 1. The MOSFET or IGBT's datasheet
provides the input capacitance, CISS, which will help
you calculate the source inductance LS.
1
LS
2
C ISS 2S¦R
(1)
Determine when the series resistance RG is equal to or
twice the inductor's reactance, for under damped or
critically damped performance. The external gate
resistor is then determined by subtracting the internal
gate drive and transistor gate resistance from the total
series resistance.
ZL S
XL
Q
RG
RG
(2)
Figure 2. Switching Theory
Figure 2 shows the parasitic inductances and their
effect on the gate drive waveform created by long
trace length and poor PCB design.
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An optimum gate resistor selection is key for a high
performance design. Without optimization, small
resistor values will result in an overshoot in the gate
drive voltage waveform but also result in faster turn-on
speed. Also, higher resistor values will overdamp the
oscillation and extend the switching times without
offering much benefit for the gate drive design.
The above method is an iterative process starting with
0-Ω as the external gate resistance and calculating a
new external gate resistor value based on ring
frequency, source inductance, and input capacitance.
External Gate Resistor Design Guide for Gate Drivers Mateo Begue, High Power Drivers
Copyright © 2018, Texas Instruments Incorporated
1
www.ti.com
This TI TechNote uses two isolated single-channel
gate drivers in a half-bridge configuration to provide
proof of concept. In the following figures, two
UCC5310MC driven from a 15-V supply are used to
drive two 100V MOSFETs CSD19536KCS with a
typical internal gate resistance, RG,I of 1.4-Ω.
The CSD19536KCS MOSFET was selected due to its
relatively small internal gate resistance in order to
show the effects of adding external gate resistors.
External gate resistors may not be required if a
MOSFET or IGBT's internal gate resistance is large
enough.
Using 3.57MHz as the ring frequency and 9250-pF as
the input capacitance, a critically damped resistor
value is determined using Equation 1 and Equation 2.
Don't forget to subtract the series resistive elements
RG,I and RHI or LO from this calculated value. Figure 5
demonstrates the effects of adding a 7-Ω resistor to
the gate drive path which makes the waveform
critically damped.
The selection of the external gate resistor will affect
three things: drive current, gate-driver power
dissipation, and rise and fall times. Figure 4 and
Figure 5 show the gate resistor's dampening effect and
its effect on rise and fall times.
If the rise and fall times are too slow after adding an
optimized gate resistor, another option is to calculate
your gate resistor with a Q-factor set to 1. This will
promote an under damped solution and caution should
be used to prevent overshoot or undershoot. If this
doesn't work, look at the source and sink current of
your gate driver and find a device with greater peak
currents to replace it with. This will charge and
discharge your FET at a faster rate but will need a new
optimized gate resistor to prevent overshooting.
Figure 4. External Gate Resistor RGATE = 0-Ω
At 0-Ω, there is unwanted ringing on the gate-source
waveform. The internal gate resistance of the
CSD19536KCS MOSFET is not enough to dampen
the oscillations found in Figure 4.
Generally, another way to decrease the ringing from
the series RLC circuit shown in Figure 3 is to minimize
loop inductance between the source of the high-side
transistor to the source of the low-side transistor.
Confining the high peak currents that charge and
discharge the transistor gates to a minimum physical
area is essential. The gate driver must be placed as
close as possible to the transistors to reduce these
parasitics.
The trade-off between fast rise and fall times vs
oscillations is why the external gate resistor element of
the gate-drive design is so valuable.
Table 1. Alternative Device Recommendations
Figure 5. Critically Damped External Gate Resistor
RGATE = 7-Ω
2
Device
Optimized Parameters
Performance Trade-Off
UCC5350MC
Miller Clamp Feature
Available
Requires larger value
gate resistor due to
higher source/sink
current
UCC5320SC
Split Output Feature
Available
Need to design a method
to prevent miller current
induced turn-on
UCC5390EC
UVLO2 referenced to
GND2 Feature Available
True UVLO2 monitoring
at the expense of not
having split output or
Miller clamp
UCC21220
Configured as a halfbridge or two low-side
drivers
Difficult to layout both
transistors close to each
output when using a dual
channel
External Gate Resistor Design Guide for Gate Drivers Mateo Begue, High Power Drivers
Copyright © 2018, Texas Instruments Incorporated
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