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Texas Instruments A Topical Index of TI Low Power Buck DC/DC Application notes
Application Report
SLVA958 – April 2018
A Topical Index of TI Low Power Buck DC/DC Application
Notes
Yann Ducommun
ABSTRACT
This report aims to be a convenient guide to the many Texas Instruments application notes that discuss
aspects of low power DC/DC buck (TPS and TLV62xxx) converters, from topology basics to specific
applications and designs. The application notes are categorized by topic and their content is briefly
summarized to allow the reader to quickly find relevant information for any issue of interest. Each
application note referenced in this document is identified by its title and unique TI literature number. A link
to the each note’s location on the www.ti.com website is provided, where the discussed document can be
downloaded.
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Contents
Introduction ...................................................................................................................
Summary Table ..............................................................................................................
Fundamentals of Switchmode DC/DC Converters ......................................................................
Basics of the DCS-Control™ Topology ...................................................................................
Design and Layout Support ................................................................................................
Thermal Considerations.....................................................................................................
Controlling EMI ...............................................................................................................
Device-Specific Technical Discussions ...................................................................................
Calculation, Simulation and Measurement Techniques ................................................................
DC/DC Converter Applications .............................................................................................
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Trademarks
All trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
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1
Introduction
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www.ti.com
Introduction
This application report targets application designers and other users of TI products, looking for a handy
overview of available technical information on TI low power DC/DC converters, from architecture
fundamentals to concrete applications and designs. An extensive compilation of relevant TI application
notes is presented below, together with a short summary of the discussed content. Each application note
is arranged by topic and identified by its title and unique TI literature number. To access the documents
online or download them for personal use, click on the document number tag (for example: slvaxxx) which
will direct you to the documents’ location on www.ti.com. This application report is regularly maintained to
ensure that the available information is up-to-date.
For assistance with low power DC/DC product selection, circuit design and simulation, refer to the DC/DC
Switching Regulators Power Quick Search and the WEBENCH® Design Center tool available on
www.ti.com.
For any question that those reports cannot answer, contact the TI E2E™ Community. (Note that this link
requires a secure log-in.)
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A Topical Index of TI Low Power Buck DC/DC Application Notes
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Summary Table
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2
Summary Table
Fundamentals of Switchmode DC/DC Converters
Understanding Buck Power Stages In Switchmode Power Supplies
SLVA057
Switching Regulator Fundamentals
SNVA559
Basic Calculation of a Buck Converter's Power Stage
SLVA477
Basics of the DCS-Control™ Topology
High-efficiency, low-ripple DCS-Control™ offers seamless PWM/pwr-save transitions
SLYT531
Understanding frequency variation in the DCS-Control™ topology
SLYT646
Design and Layout Support
QFN/SON PCB Attachment Application Report
SLUA271
Five steps to a great PCB layout for a step-down converter
SLYT614
Design considerations for a resistive feedback divider in a DC/DC converter
SLYT469
Optimizing Resistor Dividers at a Comparator Input
SLVA450
Optimizing Transient Response of Internally Compensated DC-DC Converters with Feedforward Capacitor
SLVA289
Choosing an appropriate pull-up and pull-down resistor for Open Drain Outputs
SLVA485
Achieving a clean startup by using a DC/DC converter with a precise enable-pin threshold
SLYT730
Extending the Soft Start Time without a Soft Start Pin
SLVA307
Adjusting the soft-start time of an integrated power module
SLYT669
Sequencing and Tracking with the TPS621-Family and TPS821-Family
SLVA470
Understanding the Absolute Maximum Ratings of the SW Node
SLVA494
Minimizing Ringing at the Switch Node of a Boost Converter
SLVA255
IQ: What it is, what it isn’t, and how to use it
SLYT412
The Forgotten Converter
SLPY005
Thermal Considerations
Semiconductor and IC Package Thermal Metrics
SPRA953
Techniques for Thermal Analysis of Switching Power Supply Designs
SNVA207
An Accurate Thermal-Evaluation Method for the TLV62065
SLVA658
Improving the thermal performance of a MicroSiP™ power module
SLYT724
TPS62366x thermal and device lifetime information
SLVA525
Controlling EMI
EMI/RFI Board Design
SNLA016
Simple success with Conducted EMI from DC/DC Converters
SNVA489
Layout tips for EMI Reduction in DC/DC Converters
SNVA638
Device-Specific Technical Discussions
Optimizing the TPS62130, TPS62140, TPS62150 and TPS62160 Output Filter
SLVA463
Optimizing the TPS62175 Output Filter
SLVA543
Optimizing the TPS62090 Output Filter
SLVA519
Feedforward Capacitor to Improve Stability and Bandwidth of TPS621 and TPS821-Family
SLVA466
Optimizing TPS6206x External Component Selection
SLVA441
TPS62130A Differences to TPS62130
SLVA644
TPS6208x and TLV6208x Device Comparison
SLVA803
Output Voltage Selection for the TPS62400 Family of Buck Converters
SLVA254
Calculation, Simulation and Measurement Techniques
Calculating Efficiency
SLVA390
Output Ripple Voltage for Buck Switching Regulator
SLVA630
Accurately measuring efficiency of ultralow-IQ devices
SLYT558
Performing Accurate PFM Mode Efficiency Measurements
SLVA236
How to Measure the Loop Transfer Function of Power Supplies
SNVA364
Simplifying Stability Checks
SLVA381
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Fundamentals of Switchmode DC/DC Converters
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How to Measure the Control Loop of DCS-Control™ Devices
SLVA465
HS Load/Line Transient Jigs and App Rpt for Testing POL Regulators
SNOA895
DC/DC Converter Applications
3
Step-Down LED Driver with Dimming, the TPS621-Family and TPS821-Family
SLVA451
Testing tips for applying external power to supply outputs without an input voltage
SLYT689
Efficient Super-Capacitor Charging with TPS62740
SLVA678
Low-Noise CMOS Camera Supply
SLVA672
Step-Down Converter with Input Overvoltage Protection
SLVA664
Step-Down Converter with Cable Voltage Drop Compensation
SLVA657
Using the TPS62150 in a Split Rail Topology
SLVA616
Using the TPS6215x in an Inverting Buck-Boost Topology
SLVA469
Using the TPS62175 in an Inverting Buck Boost Topology
SLVA542
Powering the MSP430 from a High Voltage Input using the TPS62122
SLVA335
Voltage Margining using the TPS62130
SLVA489
Fundamentals of Switchmode DC/DC Converters
In this section, several application notes discussing the principles of switching regulators and their
architecture are presented.
Understanding Buck Power Stages In Switchmode Power Supplies: SLVA057
This application report addresses the fundamentals of buck power stage but does not cover control
circuits. Detailed steady-state and small-signal analysis of the buck power stage operating in continuous
and discontinuous mode are presented. Variations in the standard buck power stage and a discussion of
power stage component requirements are included.
Switching Regulator Fundamentals: SNVA559
This paper details the operating principles of commonly used switching converter types, which is the buck
converter topology. It provides circuit examples that illustrate some of the applications of buck regulators.
Basic Calculation of a Buck Converter's Power Stage: SLVA477
This application report discusses the basic configuration of a buck converter and gives the formulas to
calculate the power stage of a buck converter built with an integrated circuit having an integrated switch
and operating in continuous conduction mode.
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Basics of the DCS-Control™ Topology
This section provides insight into the DCS-control™ topology, a proprietary regulation topology
implemented in many products of the TI low power DC/DC converter portfolio.
High-efficiency, Low-ripple DCS-Control™ Offers Seamless PWM/power-save Transitions: SLYT531
This article discusses how the DCS-Control™ topology works, demonstrating its low output-voltage ripple
in power-save mode, its superb transient response, and its seamless mode transitions.
Understanding Frequency Variation in the DCS-Control™ Topology: SLYT646
This document explains the principles behind the DCS-control™ topology switching frequency variation. It
shows that while the switching frequency does vary, this variation is understood, controlled, and usually
sufficient for automotive and other frequency-sensitive applications.
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Design and Layout Support
This section summarizes notes to support the reader to make sensible design choices, selecting the
appropriate components and passives, optimizing the PCB layout, and fine-tuning the solution to meet the
application’s requirements.
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Design and Layout Support
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QFN/SON PCB Attachment Application Report: SLUA271
Quad flat-pack no-leads (QFNs) and small-outline no leads (SONs) are leadless packages with electrical
connections made via lands on the bottom side of the component to the surface of the connecting
substrate (PCB, ceramic). This application report presents users with introductory information about
attaching QFN/SON devices to printed circuit boards (PCBs).
Five Steps to a Great PCB Layout for a Step-Down Converter: SLYT614
This article details a five-step procedure to design a good PCB layout for any TPS62xxx integrated-switch,
step-down converter.
Design Considerations for a Resistive Feedback Divider in a DC/DC Converter: SLYT469
This article discusses the design considerations for the resistive divider in a feedback system and how the
divider affects a converter’s efficiency, output voltage accuracy, noise sensitivity, and stability.
Optimizing Resistor Dividers at a Comparator Input: SLVA450
This application report discusses several key factors involved with selecting optimally-sized resistors
commonly used at the input to a comparator to set a threshold voltage on switching regulator devices,
considering efficiency and voltage accuracy constraints.
Optimizing Transient Response of Internally Compensated DC-DC Converters with Feedforward
Capacitor: SLVA289
This application report describes how to choose the feedforward capacitor value (Cff) of internally
compensated dc-dc power supplies to achieve optimum transient response. The described procedure in
this application report provides guidance in optimizing transient response by increasing converter
bandwidth while retaining acceptable phase margin. This document is intended for all power supply
designers who want to Optimize the Transient Response of a working, Internally Compensated DC-DC
Converter.
Choosing an Appropriate Pull-up and Pull-down Resistor for Open Drain Outputs: SLVA485
This application report discusses when to use a pull-up or pull-down resistor at open drain outputs
commonly found on ICs, for example Power Good (PG), the factors that should be considered when
selecting a pull-up or pull-down resistor, and how to calculate a valid range for the value of the resistor.
Achieving a Clean Startup by Using a DC/DC Converter With a Precise Enable-pin Threshold:
SLYT730
Most DC/DC Converters contain an enable (EN) pin input that is used to control the startup behavior. This
article explains some common EN-pin threshold specifications found in device data sheets and describes
several application circuits that provide a clean startup, with or without using a converter with a precise
EN-pin threshold.
Extending the Soft Start Time Without a Soft Start Pin: SLVA307
In battery-powered equipment, extending the soft-start time can be crucial to a glitch-free start-up.
Especially toward the end of a battery's life, the voltage drop and increasing impedance of the battery from
excessive inrush current into the power supply can be a problem. This application report demonstrates a
simple circuit that extends the soft start time and reduces the inrush current, taking the examples of the
TPS6107x family of boost converters.
Adjusting the Soft-start Time of an Integrated Power Module: SLYT669
This paper demonstrates three simple and low-cost solutions to adjust the soft-start time of an integrated
power module and provide clean, acceptable start-up in applications with special soft-start requirements,
particularly in FPGAs, which have lots of output capacitance or may draw large currents during the softstart time.
Sequencing and Tracking With the TPS621-Family and TPS821-Family: SLVA470
This application note describes how to use the EN, PG, and SS/TR pins in tracking and sequencing
applications.
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Thermal Considerations
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Understanding the Absolute Maximum Ratings of the SW Node: SLVA494
This application note explains the operation of a synchronous buck converter, demonstrates why the SW
node negative rating might be exceeded during switching operation, gives guidance for properly
measuring the SW node voltage, and provides good layout practices for synchronous buck converters.
Minimizing Ringing at the Switch Node of a Boost Converter: SLVA255
This application report explains how to use proper board layout and/or a snubber to reduce high-frequency
ringing at the switch node of any switching converter, using a boost converter as an example.
IQ: What It Is, What It Isn’t, and How to Use It: SLYT412
This article defines IQ and how it is measured, explains what IQ is not and how it should not be used, and
gives design considerations on how to use IQ while avoiding common measurement errors.
The Forgotten Converter (Charge Pumps): SLPY005
This white paper discusses the pros and cons of charge-pump converter topologies, provides industrial
and personal electronics application examples, and covers component-selection guidelines.
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Thermal Considerations
This section concentrates on giving a basic understanding of package thermal metrics and their real world
application, along with specific package or device discussions.
Semiconductor and IC Package Thermal Metrics: SPRA953
Many thermal metrics exist for semiconductor and integrated circuit packages. Often, these thermal
metrics are misapplied by those who try to use them to estimate junction temperatures in their systems.
This very helpful document describes traditional and new thermal metrics and puts their application in
perspective with respect to system-level junction temperature estimation.
Techniques for Thermal Analysis of Switching Power Supply Designs: SNVA207
This application note provides thermal power analysis techniques for analyzing the power IC. It includes
analytical, simulation and hands-on approaches to estimating the IC temperature in a design.
An Accurate Thermal-Evaluation Method for the TLV62065: SLVA658
This application report is a basic overview of thermal evaluation and provides an accurate evaluation
method of junction temperature in a real application. This method is proven to be easy to use and have
good accuracy through measurements on the TLV62065.
Improving the Thermal Performance of a MicroSiP™ Power Module: SLYT724
Power module data sheets usually state their thermal-performance properties, but they are frequently
based on a Joint Electron Devices Engineering Council (JEDEC) standard PCB, which generally does not
match what is possible in the actual application. This article explains JEDEC’s PCB design and compares
it to various real-world PCB designs that demonstrate the impact of PCB design on the thermal
performance of a MicroSiP™ power module.
TPS62366x Thermal and Device Lifetime Information: SLVA525
In this note, we investigate and quantify the potential reliability impact of temperature-dependent
electromigration on wafer-level chip-scale (WCSP) packages, taking TI’s TPS62366x (4-A peak output
current) DC/DC Converter family as an example.
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Controlling EMI
In switching power supplies, electromagnetic interference (EMI) noise is unavoidable due to the switching
actions of the semiconductor devices and resulting discontinuous currents. EMI control is one of the more
difficult challenges in switching power supplies design. This section defines and discusses electromagnetic
interference and describes ways to mitigate its effects.
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A Topical Index of TI Low Power Buck DC/DC Application Notes
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Device-Specific Technical Discussions
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EMI/RFI Board Design: SNLA016
This generic application note defines electromagnetic interference and describes how it relates to the
performance of a system. It looks at examples of inter-system noise and intra-system noise and presents
techniques that can be used to ensure electromagnetic compatibility throughout a system and between
systems.
Simple Success With Conducted EMI From DC/DC Converters: SNVA489
This paper details conducted EMI characteristics and mitigation techniques in switching power supplies.
Layout Tips for EMI Reduction in DC/DC Converters: SNVA638
This application note explores how the layout of your DC/DC power supply can significantly affect the
amount of EMI that it produces. It will discuss several variations of a layout, analyze the results, and
provide answers to some common EMI questions.
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Device-Specific Technical Discussions
This paragraph focuses on technical considerations regarding specific devices from our portfolio. The
matters discussed in those notes may not be applicable to alternative part numbers unless noted
otherwise.
Optimizing the TPS62130, TPS62140, TPS62150 and TPS62160 Output Filter: SLVA463
Optimizing the TPS62175 Output Filter: SLVA543
Optimizing the TPS62090 Output Filter: SLVA519
The DCS-Control™ topology used in the devices discussed in those notes allows for a wider range of
inductor and output capacitor values than traditional voltage mode controlled buck converters. More
lenience can therefore be tolerated in choosing inductor and output capacitor values to accomplish
specific design goals, such as transient response, loop stability, maximum output current, or output
voltage ripple, based on an application’s needs.
Feedforward Capacitor to Improve Stability and Bandwidth of TPS621 and TPS821-Family:
SLVA466
A common method to improve the stability and bandwidth of a power supply is to use a feedforward
capacitor. This improvement can be measured in both the transient response and bode plot of the new
circuit. This application report details two design strategies for optimizing the feedforward capacitor value
to improve transient response and circuit stability.
Optimizing TPS6206x External Component Selection: SLVA441
This report describes how to select the proper feedforward capacitor value to match a wide range of LC
output filter values and optimize the application for smaller solution size, faster load-step response, lower
output voltage ripple, increased output current, and/or increased control loop stability.
TPS62130A Differences to TPS62130: SLVA644
This short report describes the difference in how the power good pin is controlled between the
TPS62130A and TPS62130 devices.
TPS6208x and TLV6208x Devices Comparison: SLVA803
This application report presents an overview of the differences among the TPS6208x devices, which are
part of a family of high frequency synchronous step-down converters available in a 2-mm × 2-mm QFN
package.
Output Voltage Selection for the TPS62400 Family of Buck Converters: SLVA254
The TPS624xx family of dual output DC/DC Converters has adjustable output voltages, which can be
programmed with an external resistor divider network to set the output voltage during power up. Then,
after power up, the output voltage can be changed via software to several predefined values. This
application report explains how to determine the output voltage of the TPS62400 after power up and the
software adjustable range of voltages.
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Calculation, Simulation and Measurement Techniques
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Calculation, Simulation and Measurement Techniques
This section presents an overview of techniques to perform accurate calculations, simulations and
measurements of the performance of a low power DC/DC converter in an application.
Calculating Efficiency: SLVA390
This application report provides a step-by-step procedure for calculating buck converter efficiency and
power dissipation at operating points not provided by the data sheet.
Output Ripple Voltage for Buck Switching Regulator: SLVA630
In this application report, the analytical model for the output voltage waveform and peak-to-peak ripple
voltage for buck is derived. This model is validated against SPICE TINA-TI simulations.
Accurately Measuring Efficiency of Ultralow-IQ Devices: SLYT558
This article reviews the basics of measuring efficiency, discusses common mistakes in measuring the
light-load efficiency of ultralow-IQ devices and demonstrates how to overcome them in order to get
accurate efficiency measurements.
Performing Accurate PFM Mode Efficiency Measurements: SLVA236
This note describes guidelines that assist the user in acquiring accurate PFM mode efficiency
measurements.
How to Measure the Loop Transfer Function of Power Supplies: SNVA364
This application report shows how to measure the critical points of a bode plot with only an audio
generator (or simple signal generator) and an oscilloscope. The method is explained in an easy to follow
step-by-step manner so that a power supply designer can start performing these measurements in a short
amount of time.
Simplifying Stability Checks: SLVA381
This application report explains a method for verifying relative stability of a circuit by showing the
relationship between phase margin in an AC loop response and ringing in a load-step analysis.
How to Measure the Control Loop of DCS-Control™ Devices: SLVA465
This application report reviews the basics of measuring control loops, and discusses the changes for the
family of DCS-Control™ devices.
HS Load/Line Transient Jigs and App Rpt for Testing POL Regulators: SNOA895
This application note discusses good practice and fundamentals for transient analysis in the lab, and
describes the construction of some improved transient test devices.
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DC/DC Converter Applications
This section gathers application notes concentrating on specific applications and design implementations
of low power DC/DC converters. Example circuits are presented and their performance optimization is
discussed.
Step-Down LED Driver With Dimming With the TPS621-Family and TPS821-Family: SLVA451
This application report demonstrates the TPS621x0 family as a small, simple, and easy way to implement
a high-brightness LED driver.
Testing Tips for Applying External Power to Supply Outputs Without an Input Voltage: SLYT689
Powering a step-down (buck) converter with a voltage on the output and without a voltage on the input is
an atypical application scenario that raises a flag for special considerations. This article explains the main
concerns and their mitigation strategies.
Efficient Super-Capacitor Charging with TPS62740: SLVA678
The TI Design PMP9753 shows a concept to buffer energy in a super capacitor and therefore decouple
load peaks from the battery. This application note helps designers to calculate and define the parameters
like minimum and maximum voltage levels, storage capacitor size or maximum battery current.
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DC/DC Converter Applications
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Low-Noise CMOS Camera Supply: SLVA672
This application note describes how to design a highly efficient, low-noise CMOS Camera power supply
solution based on switching regulators without the need of any additional filtering.
Step-Down Converter With Input Overvoltage Protection: SLVA664
This application report describes an input overvoltage protection circuit using a highly efficient and small
step-down converter like TPS62130. It also details the design and selection of the key components and
provides measurement results showing the performance of the circuit.
Step-Down Converter with Cable Voltage Drop Compensation: SLVA657
Output voltages of DC/DC converters typically are precisely regulated at the location the feedback divider
is connected. In case of longer connections to the load, a voltage drop which depends on the load current
must be expected. This application report describes a circuit where compensation is done by adjusting the
output voltage of the converter to match the voltage drop along the cables.
Using the TPS62150 in a Split Rail Topology: SLVA616
This application report demonstrates a method of generating a split rail (bipolar +/- output voltages) supply
with the TPS62150.
Using the TPS6215x in an Inverting Buck-Boost Topology: SLVA469
Using the TPS62175 in an Inverting Buck Boost Topology: SLVA542
These application reports are a how-to guide on using TI synchronous buck converters in an inverting
buck-boost topology, where the output voltage is inverted or negative with respect to ground. The
presented solutions are based on devices designed for many applications, such as standard 12-V rail
supplies, embedded systems, and portable applications.
Powering the MSP430 From a High Voltage Input Using the TPS62122: SLVA335
This application example is presented to help designers and others who are using the MSP430 in a
system with an input voltage range from 3.6 V to 15 V, and who are concerned with maintaining high
efficiency and long battery life. Power requirements, illustrated schematic, operation waveforms and bill of
materials are included.
Voltage Margining Using the TPS62130: SLVA489
This application report demonstrates a simple circuit that provides a ±5% margining function. This permits
testing for high- and low-voltage margining for product evaluation.
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