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Texas Instruments Designing Robust TPS65217 Systems for VIN Brownout Application notes
Application Report
SLVA901 – October 2017
Designing Robust TPS65217 Systems for VIN Brownout
Brian Berner
ABSTRACT
This application report outlines a robust solution to prevent the lockup of the TPS65217 device in the
event of a brownout condition on the input voltage (VIN). Designs using the TPS65217 device can
experience the lockup when the input voltage drops unexpectedly and returns to stable operation without
dropping fully to the ground potential (0 V), which is commonly referred to as a brownout fault. A solution
is provided to avoid a lockup condition for systems both with and without a battery.
1
2
3
4
5
Contents
Introduction ................................................................................................................... 2
Application Overview ........................................................................................................ 4
Solution Description ......................................................................................................... 8
Summary ................................................................................................................... 12
References .................................................................................................................. 12
List of Figures
1
TPS65217 Global State Diagram .......................................................................................... 3
2
TPS65217 Typical Application Circuit
3
TPS65217 Application Case A
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
.................................................................................... 4
............................................................................................ 5
TPS65217 Application Case B ............................................................................................. 6
TPS65217 Application Case C ............................................................................................ 7
Solution Circuit Number 1 .................................................................................................. 8
Solution Circuit Number 2 .................................................................................................. 9
TPS65217 Lockup Condition Without a Battery Because of Capacitance on VBAT ............................... 9
TPS65217 VIN Brownout Recovery With Solution Circuit Number 2 ............................................... 10
Solution Circuit Number 3 ................................................................................................. 10
TPS65217 Lockup Condition With a Battery Because of PPATH Changeover .................................... 11
TPS65217 VIN Brownout Recovery With Solution Circuit Number 3 ............................................... 11
List of Tables
Trademarks
Sitara is a trademark of Texas Instruments.
ARM, Cortex are registered trademarks of ARM Ltd..
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
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1
Introduction
1
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Introduction
The TPS65217 device is a power management integrated circuit (PMIC) that pairs ideally with AM335x
ARM® Cortex®-A8 microprocessors and is widely used in portable consumer electronics because it is used
in the popular BeagleBone Black reference design. Neither the BeagleBone Black nor the
TPS65217CEVM ship with a Li-ion battery included as part of the kit, but a battery is included in the
typical application circuit of the TPS65217 in the datasheet[1].
When a designer first begins developing a new product based on either the BeagleBone Black or one of
the TPS65217 EVMs, understanding the intended application of the TPS65217 device is critical to
successfully design products using this PMIC.
The TPS65217 device was originally intended for applications with a removable or closely-monitored
single-cell Li-ion battery pack, a physical push-button, and a plug/unplug-capable AC-DC 5-V charger (for
example, a barrel-jack adapter or mini-B USB port) that reliably connects to power the PMIC. The
following applications of the TPS65217 can push the device beyond its normal operating conditions:
• Nonideal: Systems that do not require a battery (no connection to BAT or BAT_SENSE pins)
– Suggested usage: The TPS65217 device is used in a system with a single-cell Li-Ion battery with
a physical push-button connected to the PB_IN pin
• Nonideal: A separate DC-DC converter provides a reference for the I/O voltage pins of the TPS65217
device (connected to the VIO pin) and is not disabled when a fault occurs on the input voltage rails
– Suggested usage: The TPS65217 device is the central power supply in the system which is
enabled first then disabled last, and a fault condition also disables other DC-DC converters in the
system
• Nonideal: The system relies entirely on the TPS65217 device to handle battery charging and the
voltage is not closely monitored by the processor
– Suggested usage: The BAT voltage is routed through the MUX_OUT pin to an ADC of the
processor and is only permitted to enter a UVLO condition by a natural occurrence of battery selfdischarge
Implementing any one of the nonideal applications of the TPS65217 device puts the system at risk of
experiencing a lockup as a result of a brownout condition on the input voltage. The solution circuits
provided in this application report are for preventing a lockup when the suggested usage cannot be
implemented to avoid nonideal applications.
The TPS65217 device has two optional connections for input power, named AC and USB, and, for
simplicity, the term VIN is used in this document to refer to either the AC or USB input. A brownout of VIN
should always be avoided, but additional precautions must be taken when one of the aforementioned
nonideal applications is implemented.
NOTE: Pressing the push-button is mandatory for powering-on the TPS65217 device when only
battery power is available and, as a result, all applications of the TPS65217 device that use
a battery must also include a physical push-button. The push-button is shown on all circuits
or block diagrams in this application report when a battery is used in the system, but the
presence of a push-button is not directly related to the lockup resulting from a brownout
condition on VIN.
The battery is the primary power supply for the TPS65217 device. When VIN experiences a brownout
condition and the BAT voltage is below UVLO, the TPS65217 device identifies this as a fault. The device
opens the AC (or USB) switch and closes the switch between SYS and BAT even if a battery is not
present . If VIN recovers and returns to a normal operating voltage (typically 5 V) before the 1-s fault timer
expires or the POWER DOWN state is entered naturally (no voltage at any input power pin), a lockup can
occur.
Figure 1 shows the state diagram of the TPS65217 device which should be referenced frequently while
discussing the brownout and lockup issues.
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Introduction
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POWER DOWN
AC power removed
USB power removed
Battery removed
ANY STATE
PB low for >8s ||
nRESET pin = low
ANY STATE
FAULT
FAULT
DCDCx = OFF
WLED = OFF
LDOx = OFF
PPATH = OFF(4)
CHARGER= OFF
WAIT 1s
OFF
Wakeup
5s time-out
WAIT PWR_EN
PWR_EN = high
PWR_EN = low &
OFF = 1
ACTIVE
DCDCx = OFF
WLED = OFF
LDOx
= OFF
I2C
= NO
PPATH = OFF(4)
CHRGR = OFF
Registers à default
PGOOD = low
LDO_PGOOD = low
WAIT 1s
DCDCx = OFF
WLED = OFF
LDOx
= OFF
PPATH = OFF(4)
CHRGR = OFF
I2C
= NO
PGOOD = low
LDO_PGOOD = low
RESET
Registers à default
nRESET pin = low
DCDCx = OFF
WLED = OFF
(6)
LDO1
= ON
LDO2,3,4 = OFF
I2C
= YES
PPATH = ON
CHRGR = ON(1)
PGOOD = low
LDO_PGOOD = dependent on LDO1/2
DCDCx = ON
WLED = ON
LDOx
= ON
I2C
= YES
PPATH = ON
CHRGR = ON(1)
PGOOD = dependent on power rails
LDO_PGOOD = dependent on LDO1/2
PWR_EN = low &
OFF = 0
WAIT 1s
DCDCx
= OFF(3)
WLED
= OFF
LDO1
= ON(5)
LDO2,3,4
= OFF(3)
I2C
= NO
PPATH
= ON(1)
CHRGR
= ON(1)
PGOOD
= low
LDO_PGOOD = dependent on LDO1/2
Registers à default
DCDCx = OFF(3)
WLED = OFF
(5)
LDO1
= ON
LDO2,3,4 = OFF(3)
I2C
= NO
PPATH = ON(1)
CHRGR = ON(1)
PGOOD = low
LDO_PGOOD = dependent on LDO1/2
Wakeup || PWER_EN = high
SLEEP
NOTES:
Wakeup = V USB (­) || V AC (­) || PB (¯) || Returning from RESET state|| SEQUP bit= 1
FAULT = UVLO || OTS || PGOOD low || PWR_EN pin not asserted within5s of Wakeup event.
If no battery is present, OVP on AC input also leads to OFF mode. With battery present, device switches
automatically from AC to BAT if AC is>6.5V and back to AC when voltage recovers to<6.5V.
Device will remain in RESET state for at least 1s.
Sequencer is triggered when entering ACTIVE state
.
(1)
Only if USB or AC supply is present
All rails not controlled by the sequencer maintain state when entering SLEEP mode, i.e. they will not be powered down when
entering SLEEP mode.
(4)
Battery voltage always supplies the system(SYS pin)
(5)
LDO1/2 are not powered down when entering SLEEP mode if assigned to STROBE 14/15 or not under sequencer control. In
SLEEP mode, LDO1 and 2 can source 100mA only. By default LDO1 is asigned to STROBE15 and LDO2 to
STROBE2.
(6)
LDO1 and/or LDO2 are powered up if assigned to to STROBE14/15. By default LDO1 is asigned to STROBE15 and LDO2 to
STROBE2.
(3)
Figure 1. TPS65217 Global State Diagram
The following sections of this application report outline some of these unintended applications of the
TPS65217 device. For each unintended application, a simple yet robust solution is proposed with the
intended purpose of avoiding lockup as a result of a brownout condition on VIN.
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Application Overview
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Application Overview
Figure 2 shows the typical (ideal) application of the TPS65217 device.
AC
SYS
USB
BAT
from AC connector
To system load
4.7mF
Single cell
Li+ Battery
Power Path
and Charger
from USB connector
4.7mF
VDDS_PLL_MPU
VDDS_PLL_CORE_LCD
VDDS_SRAM_MPU_BB
INT_LDO
100nF
BYPASS
BAT_SENSE
10mF
TS
75k
VDDS_SRAM_CORE_BG
VDDA1P8V_USB0
VDDS_DDR
10k NTC
VDDS
10mF
L1
VIN_DCDC1
VDDS_OSC
VDDS_PLL_DDR
22mF
DCDC1
VDDSHVx(1.8)
(1.8V)
VDCDC1
VDDA_ADC
10mF
DDR2
10mF
L2
VIN_DCDC2
DCDC2
(3.3V)
VDCDC2
VDDSHVx(3.3)
10mF
VDDA3P3V_USB0
10mF
SYS
L3
VIN_DCDC3
DCDC3
(1.1V)
VDCDC3
VDD_CORE
10mF
VDD_MPU
10mF
VIN_LDO
VLDO1
LDO1
(1.8V)
VDDS_RTC
2.2uF
4.7mF
AGND
VLDO2
LDO2
(3.3V)
2.2uF
PGND
LS1_IN
LS1_OUT
LS1/LDO3
SYS or VDCDCx
10uF
LS2_IN
LS2_OUT
LS2/LDO4
SYS or VDCDCx
10uF
MUX_IN
(0..3.3V)
VBAT
VSYS
VICHARGE
VTS
Any system
power needs
Any system
power needs
MUX_OUT
AIN4
MUX
100nF
Any system voltage
Always-on
supply
Always-on
supply
100k
100k
PB_IN
nRESET
4.7k
VDDSHV6
4.7k
VDDSHV6
No Connect
SCL
VIO
VLDO1
Any system
power needs
SDA
18uH
L4
I2C0_SDA
PWR_EN
PMIC_PWR_EN
SYS
PGOOD
FB_WLED
PWRONRSTN
LDO_PGOOD
4.7mF
WLED
Driver
10k
VDDSHV6
100k
VLDO1
nINT
nWAKEUP
ISINK1
I2C0_SCL
RTC_PWRONRSTN
EXTINTn
EXT_WAKEUP
ISINK2
ISET1
ISET2
Power Pad (TM)
TPS65217A
AM335x
Figure 2. TPS65217 Typical Application Circuit
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Application Overview
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2.1
Case A: Nonideal TPS65217 Application Without a Battery
The first nonideal application of the TPS65217 that is discussed is labeled Case A and is defined by the
absence of a battery. Figure 3 shows an example of this type of application. For simplicity, Figure 3 only
shows the input power pins and other required connections for the TPS65217 device.
VIN = 5 V
AC
USB
22 …F
SYS
22 …F
BAT
BAT_SENSE
TS
•10 …F
U1
TPS65217
L4
VIN_DCDC1
VIN_DCDC2
VIN_DCDC3
VIN_LDO
10 …F
10 …F
10 …F
10 …F
Copyright © 2017, Texas Instruments Incorporated
Figure 3. TPS65217 Application Case A
Because neither the BeagleBone Black nor the TPS65217 EVMs ship with a Li-ion battery included as
part of the kit, a final product using the TPS65217 and an AM335x processor is assumed to not require a
battery. Although designing for the TPS65217 and AM335x devices without a battery is possible, the
TPS650250, TPS65910, and TPS65218 PMICs offered by TI are better suited for AM335x applications
without a battery because they do not integrate a charger for the main Li-ion battery. The TPS65910 and
TPS65218 PMICs are also supported by drivers included in the TI Linux kernel for AM335x Sitara™
processors.
Assuming the TPS65217 device must be used because the system requires the WLED boost or the
design schedule is tight and known-working reference designs must be copied, the TPS65217 device can
be used in a system without a battery. For Case A systems without a battery, continue reading Section 3
to decide between implementing solution circuit number 1 or solution circuit number 2 to avoid causing a
lockup.
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Application Overview
2.2
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Case B: Nonideal TPS65217 Application Without a Battery, With External Voltage
Applied to VIO
The second nonideal application of the TPS65217 that is discussed is labeled Case B and is defined as a
system without a battery where an external voltage is applied to the VIO pin of the TPS65217 device. The
external voltage applied to VIO is typically 3.3 V from a discrete DC-DC buck regulator that allows GPIOs
on the processor to operate before the PWR_EN input of the TPS65217 device is driven high. Figure 4
shows an example of this type of application.
VIN = 5 V
AC
USB
22 …F
SYS
22 …F
BAT
BAT_SENSE
TS
•10 …F
U1
TPS65217
3.3V
VIN
EN
VIO
PB_IN
L4
VOUT
U2
DC-DC
Converter
GND
VCC
10 …F
10 …F
10 …F
VIN_DCDC1
VIN_DCDC2
VIN_DCDC3
VIN_LDO
10 …F
Copyright © 2017, Texas Instruments Incorporated
Figure 4. TPS65217 Application Case B
In this application, when a voltage is applied at the VIO pin and a brownout occurs on VIN, the BAT and
SYS pins will have a voltage present because of a leakage path in the device. The IO pins generally
cannot be driven high when no input power is applied to a device, and this is exactly what is occurring in
Case B. The result is that Case B is effectively the same as Case C (Section 2.3) and should be treated
as a system with a battery. Therefore, lockups that are identified in either Case B and Case C applications
are both resolved by implementing solution circuit number 3 (Section 3.3).
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2.3
Case C: Nonideal TPS65217 Application With a Battery
The final nonideal application of the TPS65217 that is discussed is labeled Case C and is defined by the
inclusion of a battery where the voltage of the battery has dropped below UVLO when a brownout on VIN
occurs. Figure 5 shows an example of this type of application.
VIN = 5 V
AC
USB
22 …F
SYS
BAT
BAT_SENSE
TS
+
NTC
VBAT < 3.3V
22 …F
(default UVLO)
U1
TPS65217
PB_IN
L4
PB
10 …F
10 …F
10 …F
VIN_DCDC1
VIN_DCDC2
VIN_DCDC3
VIN_LDO
10 …F
Copyright © 2017, Texas Instruments Incorporated
Figure 5. TPS65217 Application Case C
If a brownout occurs on the VIN voltage for <1 s when the voltage on the battery (VBAT pin) is below the
undervoltage lockout (UVLO) set point, a lockup can still occur even though Case C closely resembles the
ideal application circuit. Fortunately, this lockup can also be avoided with a robust solution that requires
only a few external components connected to the TPS65217 device.
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Solution Description
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Solution Description
The solution required to workaround the lockup caused by a brownout on VIN depends on the application
of the TPS65217 device in the system. Case A applications without a battery can be resolved with solution
circuit number 1 or 2, depending on whether VIN will remain below 5.5 V in the system. Case B and Case
C applications can both be solved by implementing solution circuit number 3.
NOTE: When implementing any of the three hardware solution circuits, TI recommends adjusting the
UVLO of the TPS65217 device to the value required by the chemistry of the battery used.
When a battery is not present, the lowest UVLO voltage reduces the chances of a brownout
condition occurring. For example, the UVLO voltage can be changed to the lowest setting
(2.73 V) by instructing the firmware of the processor to change register 0x18 to a value of
0x00 (set the UVLO[1:0] bit to 00b) during its initialization routine.
3.1
Solution Circuit Number 1 for Case A (No Battery)
AC
USB
VIN
SYS
4.7 …F
10 k
BAT
BAT_SENSE
TS
U1
TPS65217
PB
PB_IN
VIN
L4
VIN_DCDC1
VIN_DCDC2
VIN_DCDC3
VIN_LDO
10 …F
10 …F
10 …F
10 …F
Copyright © 2017, Texas Instruments Incorporated
Figure 6. Solution Circuit Number 1
When no battery is used in the system, the simplest way to prevent a lockup is to connect the power
supply to the primary power path of the TPS65217 device at the BAT pins. Solution circuit number 1,
shown in Figure 6, is also proposed in the TPS65217 datasheet when VINmax ≤ 5.5 V and the overvoltage
protection of the AC (or USB) inputs is not required. A push-button must now be used to power-on the
system because the input voltage is not discernible from an actual battery.
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3.2
Solution Circuit Number 2 for Case A (No Battery)
When no battery is used in the system and VIN max ≥ 5.5 V, VIN must be applied at the AC (or USB) input
of the TPS65217 device. Figure 7 shows the second workaround to prevent a lockup. This workaround
requires only one passive component, a light-load resistor (RLL) connected from the BAT pin to GND, to
replace the capacitor normally recommended in the design.
VIN
AC
USB
22 …F
SYS
22 …F
RLL
BAT
BAT_SENSE
TS
U1
TPS65217
PB_IN
L4
VIN_DCDC1
VIN_DCDC2
VIN_DCDC3
VIN_LDO
10 …F
10 …F
10 …F
10 …F
Copyright © 2017, Texas Instruments Incorporated
Figure 7. Solution Circuit Number 2
Connecting a large bypass capacitor (>10 µF) to the BAT pin essentially provides a very small battery for
the system. This capacitor is not be detected as a battery by the BAT_SENSE pin, but it holds a charge
when voltage is applied. The resulting waveform will look similar to Figure 8.
tt2,A ” 1 st
5V
t3,A
t1,A
AC
5V
SYS
5V
BAT
t1,A = t3,A § 50 ms
Figure 8. TPS65217 Lockup Condition Without a Battery Because of Capacitance on VBAT
To resolve this issue, a light-load resistor (RLL = 1 kΩ to 10 kΩ) can be used to replace the capacitor so
the BAT pin will not hold any charge. The waveform using this solution will look like Figure 9 and the
system will recover from the brownout on VIN without any lockup behavior.
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Solution Description
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tt2,2 ” 1 st
5V
t3,2
t1,2
AC
5V
SYS
5V
BAT
t1,2 = t3,2 § 50 ms
Figure 9. TPS65217 VIN Brownout Recovery With Solution Circuit Number 2
Solution Circuit Number 3 for Case B and Case C
VIN
VCC
BLEED
U3
Load Switch
EN
SR
33 nF
AC
USB
22 …F
SYS
BAT
BAT_SENSE
TS
+
22 …F
NTC
VCC
RESET
SRT
U2
Supervisor with Delay
VOUT
10 k
89/2 § 4.0 V
1 …F
VIN_PMIC
SW
VIN
GND
3.3
GND
U1
TPS65217
PB_IN
L4
PB
10 …F
10 …F
10 …F
VIN_DCDC1
VIN_DCDC2
VIN_DCDC3
VIN_LDO
10 …F
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Figure 10. Solution Circuit Number 3
Figure 11 shows the lockup condition in Cases B and C depicted as a timing diagram.
NOTE: Although using TI components for the workaround is not required, TI recommends using
equivalent devices. The supervisor with delay must have equivalent or better performance
compared to the LP3470 device. The load switch must have equivalent or better
performance compared to the TPS22958 device.
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Solution Description
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Solution circuit number 3 is necessary because the voltage on the battery (VBAT) does not continue to
discharge during the brownout condition on VIN (directly connected to AC). When VIN drops below the
UVLOPMIC threshold the DC-DC converters and LDOs (or load switches), are shut down, but the SYS pin is
still connected to the BAT pin through the power path (PPATH). Both the BAT and SYS pins maintain a
steady voltage. The 1-s fault does not expire and the recovery of the AC voltage after the brown-out is not
detected.
tt2,B ” 1 st
5V
t3,B
t1,B
AC
5V
SYS
5V
BAT
t1,B = t3,B § 50 ms
Figure 11. TPS65217 Lockup Condition With a Battery Because of PPATH Changeover
Avoiding a lockup can only be achieved by preventing the brownout on VIN upstream from the TPS65217
device. Solution circuit number 3 implements an external supervisor with a delay timer controlling a load
switch when UVLOEXT > UVLOPMIC and tdelay ≥ 2 s.
When solution circuit number 3 is implemented, the resulting waveform is as shown in Figure 12. The
circuitry upstream from AC causes a deliberate cutoff of VIN when the supervisor circuit senses a UVLOEXT
condition. The supervisor disables the load switch from the AC pin and the supervisor does not re-enable
the load switch until VIN recovers and a delay timer of >2 s expires.
With the solution circuit added, the 1-s fault timer of the TPS65217 device expires before the 2-s delay
timer of the external supervisor. The AC voltage is correctly detected when VIN is reapplied through the
load switch.
5V
VIN
tt2,3 > 2 st
5V
t3,3
t1,3
AC
5V
SYS
5V
BAT
t1,3 = t3,3 § 50 ms
Figure 12. TPS65217 VIN Brownout Recovery With Solution Circuit Number 3
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Summary
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Summary
In summary, the TPS65217 device is an excellent PMIC to be paired with the AM335x processors in a
variety of applications. This application report can help assist designers to avoid a lockup condition
resulting from a brownout fault on VIN and deviations from the intended application of the TPS65217
device.
When the TPS65217 device is used in an application without a battery, the simplest solution may be
selecting another PMIC that is better suited for the application. If the TPS65217 device is still best for the
application, the lockup can be prevented by simply modifying passive component selection.
In applications where the TPS65217 device is used with a battery but the battery voltage is low when a
brownout occurs (or a battery with low voltage appears to be present due to a separate power supply), the
lockup can be prevented with only the addition of a couple ICs.
5
References
The following documents were used as a reference for this application note:
1. Texas Instruments, TPS65217x Single-Chip PMIC for Battery-Powered Systems data sheet
2. Texas Instruments, TPS65217 EVM user's guide
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