Texas Instruments | LP8863-Q1 External Component Selection (Rev. A) | Application notes | Texas Instruments LP8863-Q1 External Component Selection (Rev. A) Application notes

Texas Instruments LP8863-Q1 External Component Selection (Rev. A) Application notes
Application Report
SNVA775A – April 2017 – Revised July 2017
LP8863-Q1 External Component Selection Guide
Sung Ho Yoon
ABSTRACT
The LP8863-Q1 device is an automotive LED driver with a boost or SEPIC converter to support
infotainment display, automotive cluster, and lighting applications. Automotive displays often require high
brightness for better visibility under bright ambient conditions; therefore, LED drivers that support
automotive displays also require high output power, which often causes high voltage ripple, current
limitation, and instability of the boost loop. Automotive applications also require a wide input voltage of the
boost converter, making the selection of boost components difficult. This application note provides the
information for boost components recommended for various LP8863-Q1 application conditions.
space
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2
3
4
Contents
Typical Application .......................................................................................................... 2
External Components of LP8863-Q1 ...................................................................................... 3
Summary .................................................................................................................... 10
References .................................................................................................................. 10
List of Figures
1
Simplified Schematic for LP8863-Q1 Application........................................................................ 2
2
LP8863-Q1 Feedback Divider .............................................................................................. 7
List of Tables
1
Inductance Values for Switching Frequencies ........................................................................... 3
2
Recommended Capacitance for Each Application Condition COUT(µF) – Effective Output Capacitance ......... 5
3
Boost Current Sense Resistor Values for Various Load Conditions (Maximum RSENSE (mΩ)) ..................... 9
4
Component List for LP8863Q1EVM Evaluation Board ................................................................ 10
Trademarks
All trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
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Typical Application
1
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Typical Application
Figure 1 shows a connection diagram for a typical LP8863-Q1 application. The LP8863-Q1 device uses
an external switching FET with gate drive controlled internally to support high power conditions. Switching
FET (Q1), inductor (L1), Schottky diode (D1), and output capacitors (COUT) are required to form a boost
converter topology. The LP8863-Q1 needs more components to configure boost characteristics and
device operation such as a power-line FET (Q2), input current-sensing resistor (RISENSE), boost currentsense resistor (RSENSE), input capacitors (CIN), boost feedback resistors (RFB1, RFB2), charge-pump flying
(C2X)/output (CPUMP) capacitors, SD pulldown resistor (RSD) for power-line FET, and bypass capacitors
(CVDD, CLDO) for power rails. Section 2 shows how to calculate the required rating of each component or
generic values commonly used.
Q2
RISENSE
VIN
CIN
C1N
C2x
VOUT
COUT
RFB1
Q1
GD
GD
ISNS
PGND
RFB2
RSENSE
PGND
C1P
VDD
SD
VSENSE_P
CPUMP
CPUMP
VSENSE_N
RSD
CPUMP
D1
L1
ISNSGND
CVDD
FB
VDD
DISCHARGE
GND
VLDO
CLDO
LP8863-Q1
VDDIO
LED0
LED1
IFSEL
LED2
EN
LED3
INT
SDO_PWM
LED4
SDI_SDA
LED5
SCLK_SCL
SS_ADDRSEL
BST_SYNC
ISET
PWM_FSET
BST_FSET
RISET
RPWM_FSET
RBST_FSET
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Figure 1. Simplified Schematic for LP8863-Q1 Application
2
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2
External Components of LP8863-Q1
2.1
Inductor Selection
There are a few things to consider when selecting inductors including inductance, current rating, and
DCR.
Inductance of the LP8863-Q1 circuit is provided by Table 1, and all boost compensation controls are set
automatically depending on switching frequency. Current rating can be calculated as following:
VIN(min) u K
D 1VOUT
where
•
•
•
•
D = boost duty cycle
VIN(min) = minimum input voltage
VOUT = desired output voltage
η = efficiency of the converter, estimated at 80%. This efficiency varies with load condition, switching
frequency, and components, but 80% is a good estimation to start.
(1)
Maximum switching current of the boost is calculated with Equation 2:
IOUT(max)
'IL
ISW(max)
+
2
1- D
where
•
•
ΔIL = inductor ripple current
IOUT(max) = maximum output current necessary in the application.
(2)
ΔIL can be calculated with a given inductor value:
VIN(min) u D
'IL =
fS u L
where
•
fS = minimum switching frequency
(3)
The current rating of the inductor must be at least 25% higher than the maximum switching frequency of
the boost calculated with Equation 2.
The DCR(max) must be lowest possible to minimize DC loss, but package size increases for lower DCR
inductor. Consideration between package size and DCR is required for inductor selection.
Table 1 shows the recommended inductor values for each frequency selection. The inductor values were
selected from simulation/calculation results. Maximum current rating must be still calculated by preceding
equations. Switching frequency is the most dominant factor when considering selection of inductor value.
Table 1. Inductance Values for Switching Frequencies
SWITCHING FREQUENCY (kHz)
INDUCTANCE (µH)
300
22
400
22
600
15
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800
15
1000
10
1250
10
1667
10
2222
10
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External Components of LP8863-Q1
2.2
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Output Capacitor Selection
The voltage rating of the capacitors must be at least 25% higher than output voltage level to consider the
variation of each component (50% or higher is recommended). Output capacitance required for a desired
output voltage ripple is shown in Equation 4:
IOUT(max) u D
COUT(min) =
fS u 'VOUT
where
•
•
•
•
•
COUT(min) = minimum capacitance
IOUT(max) = maximum output current of the application
D = duty cycle calculated with Equation 1
fS = minimum switching frequency of the converter
ΔVOUT = desired output voltage ripple
(4)
The ESR of the output capacitor(generally electrolytic capacitors) adds more ripple with Equation 5:
§ IOUT(max)
'I ·
'VOUT(ESR) = ESR u ¨
+ L¸
2 ¹
© 1- D
where
•
•
•
ΔVOUT(ESR) = additional output voltage ripple due to ESR of capacitor
ESR = equivalent series resistance of the used output capacitor
IOUT(max) = maximum output current of the application
(5)
Output capacitors also affect boost stability as well as inductor value. High enough capacitance results in
decent (> 45 to 50 degrees) phase/gain margin. As a typical value, TI recommends using 2 × 33-µF
electrolytic capacitors and 2 × 10-µF ceramic capacitors for most application conditions; these
components were used on LP8863-Q1EVM. 2 × 33-µF electrolytic capacitors ensure high enough
capacitance to reduce voltage ripple and increase boost stability. Electrolytic capacitors must support high
ripple current of boost output stage, which can be a few Amps depending on load conditions. Generally,
Al-polymer capacitors support higher ripple current compared to regular Al electrolytic capacitors. This
ripple current must be checked on capacitor manufacturer's data sheet for best selection.
Capacitance of ceramic capacitors degrade linearly with DC bias voltage. Therefore, TI recommends
using ceramic capacitors with high enough (50% to 100% higher) voltage rating compared to application
conditions. Table 2 shows recommended capacitor values for each application condition. These are
simulated values to make high enough stability (phase margin > 45 to 50 degrees) when the correct
boost-current-sensing resistor values for each application condition are used, which is explained in
Section 2.7. These values can be used as initial references and increased to better support warm or cold
crank conditions. Effective capacitance must be considered for ceramic capacitors, which is de-rated by
bias voltages. Actual required capacitance required is more than calculated values. Two 10-µF ceramic
capacitors help reduce the ESR effect of electrolytic capacitors, which can affect voltage ripple.
4
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Table 2. Recommended Capacitance for Each Application Condition
COUT(µF) – Effective Output Capacitance
VIN (V)
VOUT (V)
ILOAD (A)
INDUCTOR
SWITCHING FREQUENCY (kHz)
300/400
600/800
1000/1250
1650/2220
22 µH
15 µH
10 µH
10 µH
3 × 10
3 × 10
3 × 10
3 × 10
3 × 10
3 × 10
3 × 10
3 × 10
3 × 10
(VIN 6 V – 4 × 10 )
3 × 10
4 × 10
4 × 10
2 × 10
2 × 10
2 × 10
2 × 10
2 × 10
2 × 10
2 × 10
2 × 10
2 × 10
2 × 10
2 × 10
2 × 10
1 × 10
1 × 10
2 × 10
2 × 10
2 × 10
2 × 10
2 × 10
2 × 10
2 × 10
2 × 10
2 × 10
2 × 10
1 × 10
1 × 10
2 × 10
2 × 10
1 × 10
1 × 10
2 × 10
2 × 10
0.4
20 to 27
0.6
0.9
0.4
6 to 9
28 to 35
0.6
0.9
0.4
36 to 43
0.6
0.9
0.4
20 to 27
0.6
0.9
0.4
10 to 15
28 to 35
0.6
0.9
0.4
36 to 43
0.6
0.9
0.4
21 to 27
0.6
0.9
0.4
16 to 21
28 to 35
0.6
0.9
0.4
36 to 43
0.6
0.9
0.4
28 to 35
0.6
0.9
22 to 27
0.4
36 to 43
0.6
0.9
2.3
Input Capacitor Selection
The voltage rating of capacitors must be at least 25% higher than output voltage level to consider the
variation of each component (50% or higher is recommended for ceramic capacitors). Input capacitance is
not critical for boost operation, but it must support enough filtering for input power and charges for both
normal operation and transition state such as warm/cold crank conditions. TI recommends same
capacitance with output capacitance for a simple application, but input capacitance can be reduced
monitoring input power requirements.
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External Components of LP8863-Q1
2.4
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Output Diode Selection
The voltage rating of the output diode must be at least 25% higher than the output voltage level to
consider the variation of each component. A diode with short transition/recovery time and low forward
voltage, such as a Schottky diode, must be selected to reduce power loss. The forward voltage of
Schottky diodes is lower than regular PN-junction diodes. It is important to make sure that the forward
voltage of a Schottky diode at maximum current at application is as low as possible. Forward voltage itself
affects power loss by P = V × I, and if this increases with load current, reverse recover time is also
increased, which often causes high switching current across the switching FET. A forward voltage < 0.5 V
for all target conditions is necessary.
2.5
Switching FET Selection
The switching FET is a critical component to decide power efficiency of boost DC-DC converter. A few
things to consider when selecting a switching FET are switching voltage, current rating, RDSON, power
dissipation, thermal resistance, input capacitance, rise/fall time, total gate charge, Miller voltage, and gateinput resistance.
• Voltage rating must be at least 25% higher than boost output voltage.
• Current rating of switching FET can be obtained from the calculation of maximum switching current for
inductor selection. Current rating of switching FET must be at least 25% higher than calculated value.
• RDSON must be as low as possible. Typical value used for LP8863-Q1 applications is < 20 mΩ.
• Maximum power dissipation must be at least a few times higher than expected power loss on the FET
• Thermal resistance (for example, RθJA) must be also low to dissipate heat from power loss on switching
FET, but lower thermal resistance means a larger package size, thus this trade-off must be
considered.
• Input capacitance, rise/fall time, total gate charge, and Miller voltage affect switching speed of
switching FET. Typical ranges of each parameter are:
– Input capacitance: < 1000 pF
– Rise/fall time: a few ns — approximately 1 × ns
– Total gate charge: a few nC — approximately 1 × nC
– Miller voltage: 2 V to 3 V
• Input resistance of switching FET must be considered not to make gate drive current higher than 2.5 A.
Gate drive current can be calculated by VGD / (GDRDSON + total resistance to gate input of SW FET). If
gate drive current is higher than 2.5 A with switching FET, add a series resistor on gate drive path to
lower current.
2.6
Power-Line FET Selection
A power-line FET can be used to protect boost components in case of any fault conditions such as an
overcurrent state. The power-line FET disconnects input power from boost input, therefore prevents
excessive current flow into LP8863-Q1 device itself and other boost components. A P-type MOSFET is
used for power-line FET and there are no requirements for switching speed. The voltage rating of a
power-line FET must be at least 25% higher than input voltage range. Low RDSON is important to reduce
power loss on the FET. Typical value is < 20 mΩ.
2.7
Boost Feedback Divider Resistor Selection
Two resistor values on the FB input of the LP8863-Q1 device determine maximum boost output voltage.
Figure 2 shows the structure of the feedback input block.
6
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L1
D1
VIN
VBOOST
VSW
CIN
COUT
Q1
ISNSGND
ISNS
GD
RSENSE
OVPHIGH
OVP
+
_
+
_
OVPHVREF
RFB1
OVPVREF
FB
_
COMP
RFB2
+
+
VBG
_
ISEL[10:0]
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Figure 2. LP8863-Q1 Feedback Divider
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Equation 6 and Equation 7 show calculations for maximum output voltage:
·
§ V
VOUT _ MAX = ¨ BG + ISEL _ MAX ¸ u RFB1 + VBG
© RFB2
¹
(6)
·
§ V
VOUT _ MIN = ¨ BG + ISEL _ MIN ¸ u RFB1 + VBG
© RFB2
¹
where
•
•
•
VBG = 1.21 V
ISEL_MAX = 38.381 µA
ISEL_MIN = 0 µA
(7)
For example, default values on the EVM are:
RFB1 = 910 kΩ and RFB2 = 100 kΩ; VOUT_MAX = 47.15 V, VOUT_MIN = 12.22 V.
2.8
SD Pulldown Resistor Selection
SD is the pulldown signal to enable the power-line FET to connect external power source to boost input.
SD current through resistor between source and gate makes voltage difference (VGS) to turn on the FET.
The typical value of SD pulldown current is 292 µA, and VGS = 292 µA × RSD must be higher than the
maximum VGS specification of the power-line FED to turn it on correctly.
2.9
Input Current Sense Resistor Selection
The input current sense resistor (RISENSE) is used as a sensor to detect input overcurrent fault. An
overcurrent condition is detected when the voltage across the sensor resistor is higher than 230 mV.
Typical sense resistor value is 20 mΩ, so the overcurrent limit becomes 11.5 A. This sense resistor value
can be increased to lower the overcurrent limit as needed for each application; for example, 230 mV/OCP
limit = sense resistor value.
2.10 Boosting Switch Current Sense Resistor Selection
Boost current sense resistor (RSENSE) is used as a sensor to decide boost overcurrent condition (not a
fault) for every boost switching cycle. The typical resistor value is 15 mΩ for maximum current condition
13.5 A, and this sense resistor value can be increased to lower overcurrent limit. Be careful when
increasing resistor value because it affects the maximum duty cycle of boost. Table 3 shows boost current
sense resistor values for various load conditions.
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Table 3. Boost Current Sense Resistor Values for Various Load Conditions
(Maximum RSENSE (mΩ))
VIN (V)
VOUT (V)
ILOAD ( A)
300/400
600/800
1000/1250
1650/2220
22 µH
15 µH
10 µH
10 µH
0.4
50
59
62
60
0.6
40
45
45
42
0.9
27
30
28
28
0.4
40
47
46
45
0.6
30
33
31
30
0.9
23
25
22
21
0.4
36
40
36
35
0.6
25
28
24
23
0.9
15
20
16
15
0.4
72
90
91
98
0.6
58
65
65
68
0.9
40
45
45
47
0.4
51
70
71
75
0.6
45
50
51
52
0.9
34
38
35
35
0.4
50
59
59
61
0.6
40
45
41
42
0.9
30
32
31
28
0.4
90
120
128
145
0.6
79
94
96
105
0.9
60
69
69
74
0.4
76
96
98
110
0.6
60
72
73
80
0.9
45
53
53
56
0.4
65
79
81
90
0.6
50
59
60
65
0.9
38
42
43
45
0.4
90
113
122
143
0.6
76
92
94
105
0.9
56
69
70
76
0.4
76
94
97
114
0.6
60
73
75
84
0.9
45
55
56
60
INDUCTOR
6 to 9
20 to 27
28 to 35
36 to 43
10 to 15
20 to 27
28 to 35
36 to 43
16 to 21
21 to 27
28 to 35
36 to 43
22 to 27
28 to 35
36 to 43
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SWITCHING FREQUENCY (kHz)
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2.11 Charge-Pump Flying/Output Capacitor Selection
An integrated charge pump can be used to supply high gate-drive voltage of switching FET. To use the
charge pump, a 2.2-µF capacitor is required as a flying capacitor between C1P and C1N, and a 10-µF
capacitor is required for the charge-pump output to hold the energy for the gate drive. Voltage rating of
both capacitors must be at least 25% higher than the gate-drive level of switching FET (50% or higher is
recommended)
2.12 Bypass Capacitor Selection for VDD/VLDO/VDDIO
TI recommends at least 1-µF capacitance for VDD and VDDIO, and 4.7 µF for VLDO near the pins. The
voltage rating of each capacitor must be at least 25% higher than each voltage level (50% or higher is
recommended).
2.13 Components on Evaluation Board
Table 4 shows the components are used on the LP8863-Q1EVM evaluation board as examples. All
components listed in Table 4 support operation temperature –40°C to +125°C, and all capacitors are X7R
type.
Table 4. Component List for LP8863Q1EVM Evaluation Board
COMPONENTS
Boost inductor
SW FREQUENCY =
300/400 kHz
SW FREQUENCY =
600/800 kHz
SW FREQUENCY =
1000/1250 kHz
SW FREQUENCY =
667/2222 kHz
SRP1770TA-220M
(22 µH)
IHLP6767GZER150MA1
(15 µH)
IHLP5050FDER100M01
(10 µH)
IHLP5050FDER100M01
(10 µH)
EEH-ZC1J330P × 2 (2 × 33-µF electrolyte)
Boost input capacitors
C5750X7S2A106M230KB × 2 (2 × 10-µF ceramic)
EEH-ZC1J330P × 2 (2 × 33-µF electrolyte)
Boost output capacitors
C5750X7S2A106M230KB × 2 (2 × 10-µF ceramic)
Output diode
FSV10100V (Schottky, 100 V, 10 A)
Switching FET
NVMFS5C682NLT3G (60 V, 25 A)
Power-line FET
SQJ461EP (60 V, 30 A)
Boost feedback-divide
resistors
R1 (upper): RC0603FR-07910KL (910 kΩ, 0.1 W); R2 (lower): RC0603FR-07100KL (100 kΩ, 0.1 W)
SD pulldown resistor
CRCW06030K0FKEA (20 kΩ, 0.1 W)
Input current-sense
resistor
CRA2512-FZ-R020ELF (20 mΩ, 3 W)
Boost current-sense
resistor
CRA2512-FZ-R015ELF (15 mΩ, 3 W)
Charge-pump flying
capacitor
GRM21BR71E225KA73L (2.2 µF, 25 V)
Charge-pump output
capacitor
C3216X7R1C106M (10 µF, 16 V)
Bypass capacitor - VDD
3
LMK212B7475KG-T (4.7 µF, 10 V)
Bypass capacitor - VLDO
GRM21BR71A106KE51L (2.2 µF, 25 V)
Bypass capacitor - VDDIO
0603ZK475KAT2A (4.7 µF, 10 V)
Summary
Recommended external component values for the LP8863-Q1 device can be selected by input/output
voltages, load current, and other component values, accordingly, as previously explained. It is very
important to note that these values are only simulated or calculated values, not tested for entire use
cases. User can refer to these recommended values as a starting point and must consider extra margins
of characteristics for each component.
4
References
•
•
10
TI Application Report Basic Calculation of a Boost Converter's Power Stage
Simulation results for the LP8863-Q1 device
LP8863-Q1 External Component Selection Guide
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NOTE: Page numbers for previous revisions may differ from page numbers in the current version.
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•
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