Texas Instruments | TLC6C5712-Q1 Applications Reference | Application notes | Texas Instruments TLC6C5712-Q1 Applications Reference Application notes

Texas Instruments TLC6C5712-Q1 Applications Reference Application notes
Application Report
SLVA802 – August 2016
TLC6C5712-Q1 Application Reference Guide
Anda Zhang
ABSTRACT
The TLC6C5712-Q1 device is an advanced constant-current LED driver with full LED diagnostics. This
report provides a guide on how to use the TLC6C5712-Q1 device on both hardware configuration and
software configuration.
This report introduces the TLC6C5712-Q1 features and application configurations. It also discusses a
software guide on how to realize TLC6C5712-Q1 diagnostics. The report provides a software flow chart
and fault handling routine as a guide of the software configuration. A pseudocodes example on how to
configure the TLC6C5712-Q1 is included at the end of the report.
1
2
3
Contents
Introduction ................................................................................................................... 3
Device Function .............................................................................................................. 3
2.1
SPI Protocol ......................................................................................................... 3
2.2
Channel On and Off Control ....................................................................................... 4
2.3
LED Output Current Control ....................................................................................... 6
2.4
Thermal Consideration ............................................................................................. 8
2.5
Device Diagnostics and Protections ............................................................................ 10
2.6
ERROR Flag ....................................................................................................... 13
Software Guidance ........................................................................................................ 16
3.1
Flow Chart .......................................................................................................... 16
3.2
Start-Up Sequence ................................................................................................ 18
3.3
Fault Handling Rountine .......................................................................................... 18
3.4
Pseudocodes ...................................................................................................... 19
List of Figures
1
Register Write Protocol ..................................................................................................... 3
2
Register Read Protocol ..................................................................................................... 3
3
PWM Input Requirement for LED Diagnostics ........................................................................... 6
4
Output Current vs Reference Resistor Curve ............................................................................ 7
5
Parallel Output Configuration
6
Application With Resistor In Series With LED .......................................................................... 10
7
Application With Two Separate LED-Supply Rails ..................................................................... 10
8
Fault Mask Diagram
14
9
ERR Pin Configuration
15
10
11
12
..............................................................................................
.......................................................................................................
....................................................................................................
Flow Chart Using Interrupt ................................................................................................
Flow Chart by Checking Error Pin Status Periodically ................................................................
Fault Handling Routine ....................................................................................................
8
16
17
19
List of Tables
1
CH_ON_MASK Register .................................................................................................... 5
2
PWM Mapping Table ........................................................................................................ 5
All trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
SLVA802 – August 2016
Submit Documentation Feedback
TLC6C5712-Q1 Application Reference Guide
Copyright © 2016, Texas Instruments Incorporated
1
www.ti.com
2
3
PWM Mapping Registers ................................................................................................... 5
4
LED Fault Diagnostics Available Status .................................................................................. 6
5
Dot Correction Registers .................................................................................................... 7
TLC6C5712-Q1 Application Reference Guide
Copyright © 2016, Texas Instruments Incorporated
SLVA802 – August 2016
Submit Documentation Feedback
Introduction
www.ti.com
1
Introduction
The TLC6C5712-Q1 device is a 12-channel constant-current LED driver with a maximum 75-mA output
current per channel. The precision output current with 8-bit dot correction makes the TLC6C5712-Q1
device a perfect solution to correct LED brightness and color temperature variation. Advanced protection
and diagnostics on the TLC6C5712-Q1 device improve the system-level robustness and safety. Six PWM
inputs with programmable mapping support different LED color-dimming configurations and provide a high
dimming ratio. A 16-bit serial-peripheral interface (SPI) with diagnostics supports multiple devices in a
daisy chain and eases system-level design.
The device is typically used in applications such as: automotive cluster tell-tale indicators, HVAC panel
indicators, shift-by-wire PRNDL indicators, ambient lighting, and sequential turn indicators.
2
Device Function
2.1
SPI Protocol
The serial port is used to write data to, read diagnostic status from, and configure the settings of the
TLC6C5712-Q1 device. During normal operation, an 8-bit address and 8-bit data are written into the 16-bit
shift register. The input data length should be 16 bits, otherwise the TLC6C5712-Q1 device does not
recognize the data. Therefore, when a 16-bit SPI frame is broken for whatever reason, the device will
discard the input data. On each SCK rising-edge input, data is sampled. The clock frequency f(SCK) can be
up to 10 MHz. The device converts the 16 inputs to the registers on the LATCH rising edge.
Figure 1 shows a typical register write pattern, each register write command contains an 8-bit address and
8 bits of data. The 8-bit address should be shifted into the device first, then the 8 bits of data are shifted
into the device.
SCK
1
2
7
8
9
10
Address [Write]
SDI
W1
A7
W1
A6
W1
A1
15
16
W1
D1
W1
D0
1
2
7
8
9
10
15
16
W2
A6
W2
A1
W2
A0
W2
D7
W2
D6
W2
D1
W2
D0
1
Data [Write]
W1
A0
W1
D7
W1
D6
D/C
W2
A7
LATCH
W1
A6
W1
A7
SDO
W1
A5
W1
A0
W1
D7
W1
D6
W1
D5
W2
A7
W1
D0
Figure 1. Register Write Protocol
Figure 2 shows a typical register read pattern, each register read command contains an 8-bit address, 8
bits of data, and 16 bits of dummy data. The 8-bit address should be shifted into the device first, then the
8 bits of data are shifted into the device (usually this data has no requirement when reading data from
registers, 0x00 is typically used), the 16 bits of dummy data are used to shift out the read register
information after the latch rising edge. For example, writing [0x92 0x00] + [0x00 0x00] gets the channel on
mask information of CH0-CH5 from the SDO.
SCK
1
2
SDI
R1
A7
R1
A6
7
8
9
10
15
16
1
2
7
8
10
9
15
16
Address [Read]
R1
A1
R1
A0
D/C
LATCH
Data [Read]
R1
A7
SDO
R1
A6
R1
A5
R1
A0
R1
D7
R1
D6
R1
D5
R1
D0
Figure 2. Register Read Protocol
The TLC6C5712-Q1 device supports multiple devices in cascaded daisy-chain mode. Each
communication sequence only requires one LATCH rising edge. For a number, N, of daisy-chained
devices, a communication cycle comprises 16 × N SCK cycles with corresponding data transferred to shift
registers on the rising edge of LATCH.
SLVA802 – August 2016
Submit Documentation Feedback
TLC6C5712-Q1 Application Reference Guide
Copyright © 2016, Texas Instruments Incorporated
3
Device Function
www.ti.com
Example 1, which follows, shows a data write and read example (MSP430G2553 codes).
SPI_Write (Address, Data);
SPI_Read (Address, Data);
void SPI_Write(u8 DataIn1, u8 DataIn2)
{
LATCH_LOW;
Delay();
while (!(IFG2 & UCB0TXIFG));
UCB0TXBUF = DataIn1;
while (UCB0STAT & BUSY);
UCB0TXBUF = DataIn2;
while (UCB0STAT & BUSY);
Delay();
LATCH_HIGH;
Delay();
LATCH_LOW;
Delay();
}
int SPI_Read(u8 DataIn1, u8 DataIn2)
{
int RXData = 0;
LATCH_LOW;
Delay();
while (!(IFG2 & UCB0TXIFG));
UCB0TXBUF = DataIn1;
while (UCB0STAT & BUSY);
UCB0TXBUF = DataIn2;
while (UCB0STAT & BUSY);
Delay();
LATCH_HIGH;
Delay();
LATCH_LOW;
Delay();
while (!(IFG2 & UCB0TXIFG));
UCB0TXBUF = 0x00;
while (UCB0STAT & BUSY);
UCB0TXBUF = 0x00;
while (UCB0STAT & BUSY);
RXData |= (UCB0RXBUF);
while (UCB0STAT & BUSY);
Delay();
LATCH_HIGH;
Delay();
LATCH_LOW;
Delay();
return(RXData);
}
2.2
// Register Write
// Register Read, return 8 bits read data
//Send out 1st 8 bits data
//Wait until send complete
//Send out 2nd 8 bits data
//Wait until send complete
//Delay for LATCH
//Send out 1st 8 bit data
//Wait until send complete
//Send out 2nd 8 bit data
//Wait until send complete
//Delay for LATCH
//16 bits dummy data send
//Send out 1st 8 bit dummy data
//Wait until send complete
//Send out 2nd 8 bit dummy data
//Wait until send complete
//Read LSB 8 bit back
//Wait until send complete
//Delay for LATCH
Channel On and Off Control
Controlling the channel on and off can happen in two ways: using the [WRITE_CH_ON_MASKx] registers
and using the PWM inputs.
2.2.1
Channel On and Off Register
The [WRITE_CH_ON_MASK0] and [WRITE_CH_ON_MASK1] registers are the channel-activation mask
registers which control each channel output activated and deactivated. A bit value of 0 stands for channel
activated status. A bit value of 1 stands for channel deactivated status. The bit value can be configured
through SPI. Table 1 lists the detailed register information.
4
TLC6C5712-Q1 Application Reference Guide
Copyright © 2016, Texas Instruments Incorporated
SLVA802 – August 2016
Submit Documentation Feedback
Device Function
www.ti.com
Table 1. CH_ON_MASK Register
Register
Name
Addr
WRITE_CH_
ON_MASK0
52h
WRITE_CH_
ON_MASK1
53h
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
Default
RESERVED
RESERVED
CH_ON_
MASK5
CH_ON_
MASK4
CH_ON_
MASK3
CH_ON_
MASK2
CH_ON_
MASK1
CH_ON_
MASK0
3Fh
RESERVED
RESERVED
CH_ON_
MASK11
CH_ON_
MASK10
CH_ON_
MASK9
CH_ON_
MASK8
CH_ON_
MASK7
CH_ON_
MASK6
3Fh
Example 2, which follows, shows a channel on or off register configuration example.
SPI_Write (0x52; 0x3E);
SPI_Write (0x53; 0x3E);
2.2.2
// Turn on Channel 0
// Turn on Channel 6
PWM Control
PWM dimming is typically used for LED brightness control which greatly reduces LED color changes
compared with output DC-current control. The TLC6C5712-Q1 device has six PWM inputs with
independently configurable mapping to any of the 12 channels for PWM dimming. Each of 12 output
channels has a 3-bit register [PWM_MAP_CHx] to assign to one PWM input. All output channels are
assigned to (PWM0) by default, which means PWM0 controls all of the 12 outputs by default. Table 2 lists
the PWM mapping table and Table 3 lists the PWM mapping registers.
Table 2. PWM Mapping Table
BIT2
BIT1
BIT0
PWMx
0
0
0
PWM0
0
0
1
PWM1
0
1
0
PWM2
0
1
1
PWM3
1
0
0
PWM4
1
0
1
PWM5
1
1
0
PWM0
1
1
1
PWM0
Table 3. PWM Mapping Registers
Register Name
Addr
D7
D6
WRITE_MAP0
40h
RESERVED
RESERVED
D5
PWM_MAP_CH1[2:0]
D4
D3
D2
PWM_MAP_CH0[2:0]
D1
D0
Default
00h
WRITE_MAP1
41h
RESERVED
RESERVED
PWM_MAP_CH3[2:0]
PWM_MAP_CH2[2:0]
00h
WRITE_MAP2
42h
RESERVED
RESERVED
PWM_MAP_CH5[2:0]
PWM_MAP_CH4[2:0]
00h
WRITE_MAP3
43h
RESERVED
RESERVED
PWM_MAP_CH7[2:0]
PWM_MAP_CH6[2:0]
00h
WRITE_MAP4
44h
RESERVED
RESERVED
PWM_MAP_CH9[2:0]
PWM_MAP_CH8[2:0]
00h
WRITE_MAP5
45h
RESERVED
RESERVED
PWM_MAP_CH11[2:0]
PWM_MAP_CH10[2:0]
00h
The TLC6C5712-Q1 PWM input signal is active low. To achieve LED fault diagnostics, the PWM input
requires a 5-µs minimal on time and 40-µs minimal off time. If the PWM input is constant high or low, the
LED short-to-GND and open-load fault diagnostics would not be distinguished under the channel activated
state. Because behavior is the same, both output voltages are low level. If PWM dimming is not required,
TI does not recommend connecting the PWM inputs directly to GND. Instead, use a low duty-cycle PWM
input (for example, minimum 0.8% positive duty cycle at 200 Hz) to realize LED fault diagnostics. Table 4
lists the available status of the LED-fault diagnostics under different channel status.
SLVA802 – August 2016
Submit Documentation Feedback
TLC6C5712-Q1 Application Reference Guide
Copyright © 2016, Texas Instruments Incorporated
5
Device Function
www.ti.com
minimum
5-µs on time
minimum 40-µs off time
PWM Input
Figure 3. PWM Input Requirement for LED Diagnostics
Table 4. LED Fault Diagnostics Available Status
PWM
Constant Low
Constant High
Normal PWM
CH-ON-MASKx
LED Short-to-Supply
Short-to-GND
Open Load
High (CH deactivated)
Yes
Yes
Yes
Low (CH activated)
Yes
No
No
High (CH deactivated)
Yes
Yes
Yes
Low (CH activated)
Yes
No
No
High (CH deactivated)
Yes
Yes
Yes
Low (CH activated)
Yes
Yes
Yes
Example 3, which follows, shows a PWM mapping register configuration example.
SPI_Write (0x40; 0x00);
SPI_Write (0x41; 0x09);
SPI_Write (0x42; 0x12);
SPI_Write (0x43; 0x1B);
SPI_Write (0x44; 0x24);
SPI_Write (0x45; 0x2D);
PWM0(Dutycycle, Freq);
PWM1(Dutycycle, Freq);
PWM2(Dutycycle, Freq);
PWM3(Dutycycle, Freq);
PWM4(Dutycycle, Freq);
PWM5(Dutycycle, Freq);
2.3
// Mapping PWM0 to CH0 and CH1
// Mapping PWM1 to CH2 and CH3
// Mapping PWM2 to CH4 and CH5
// Mapping PWM3 to CH6 and CH7
// Mapping PWM4 to CH8 and CH9
// Mapping PWM5 to CH10 and CH11
// Set PWM0 input frequency and duty
// Set PWM1 input frequency and duty
// Set PWM2 input frequency and duty
// Set PWM3 input frequency and duty
// Set PWM4 input frequency and duty
// Set PWM5 input frequency and duty
cycle(connect
cycle(connect
cycle(connect
cycle(connect
cycle(connect
cycle(connect
to
to
to
to
to
to
GND if
GND if
GND if
GND if
GND if
GND if
not
not
not
not
not
not
use)
use)
use)
use)
use)
use)
LED Output Current Control
Designers have long struggled to ensure even brightness among LEDs. Typically a customer had to bin
LEDs according to brightness level which is a time-consuming and expensive task. Now, however, the
TLC6C5712-Q1 device has the ability to program the LED current which eliminates the need for binning
LEDs. By allowing LED current adjustment, the TLC6C5712-Q1 compensates for brightness variations
during manufacturing. The system can use the external resistor on the IREF pin and dot-correction
registers to change the output DC current which can realize the LED binning purpose.
6
TLC6C5712-Q1 Application Reference Guide
Copyright © 2016, Texas Instruments Incorporated
SLVA802 – August 2016
Submit Documentation Feedback
Device Function
www.ti.com
2.3.1
Global Current Setting
The output current of each channel can be set by an external resistor connected to the IREF pin. Use
Equation 1 to calculate the value of this resistor (R(IREF)). Figure 4 shows the curve between the output
current and the reference resistor.
V(IREF)
R(IREF)
u K(OUT)
IOUTMAX
where
•
•
•
V(IREF) is the reference voltage which is 1.229 V.
IOUTMAX is the output current under dot correction equal to 255.
K(OUT) is the ratio of output current to IREF current (I(OUTx) / I(IREF)) which is typically 500.
(1)
Reference Resistor Resistance (kO)
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
20
40
60
Maximum Output Current (mA)
80
D001
Figure 4. Output Current vs Reference Resistor Curve
2.3.2
Dot Correction
Each output channel of the device has an internal 8-bit linear current digital-analog-converter (DAC) for
individual dot-correction control. The 8-bit registers [OUTPUT_DC_CHx] are used to control the DAC
output current as shown in Equation 2.
Dot Correction 1
I(OUT) I(OUT,MAX) u
256
(2)
The minimal current is 1/256 of I(OUT,MAX). If zero current is required in some applications, it can be realized
by deactivate the output channel by setting the corresponding channel enable register [CH_ON_MASKx]
HIGH. Table 5 lists the detailed information for dot correction registers.
Example 4, which follows, shows a dot correction configuration example.
SPI_Write
SPI_Write
…
SPI_Write
SPI_Write
(0x46; 0xFF);
(0x47; 0x7F);
// Set CH0 DC current to maximum output current
// Set CH1 DC current to 50% max output current
(0x50; 0x00);
(0x51; 0xFF);
// Set CH10 DC current to 1/256 maximum output current
// Set CH11 DC current to maximum output current
Table 5. Dot Correction Registers
Register Name
Addr
WRITE_CORR0
46h
OUTPUT_DC_CH0[7:0]
00h
WRITE_CORR1
47h
OUTPUT_DC_CH1[7:0]
00h
WRITE_CORR2
48h
OUTPUT_DC_CH2[7:0]
00h
SLVA802 – August 2016
Submit Documentation Feedback
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
Default
TLC6C5712-Q1 Application Reference Guide
Copyright © 2016, Texas Instruments Incorporated
7
Device Function
www.ti.com
Table 5. Dot Correction Registers (continued)
2.3.3
Register Name
Addr
WRITE_CORR3
49h
D7
D6
D5
OUTPUT_DC_CH3[7:0]
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
Default
00h
WRITE_CORR4
4Ah
OUTPUT_DC_CH4[7:0]
00h
WRITE_CORR5
4Bh
OUTPUT_DC_CH5[7:0]
00h
WRITE_CORR6
4Ch
OUTPUT_DC_CH6[7:0]
00h
WRITE_CORR7
4Dh
OUTPUT_DC_CH7[7:0]
00h
WRITE_CORR8
4Eh
OUTPUT_DC_CH8[7:0]
00h
WRITE_CORR9
4Fh
OUTPUT_DC_CH9[7:0]
00h
WRITE_CORR10
50h
OUTPUT_DC_CH10[7:0]
00h
WRITE_CORR11
51h
OUTPUT_DC_CH11[7:0]
00h
Output Parallel Configuration
If larger current is required for some applications, outputs can be paralleled to achieve a higher output
current. Figure 5 shows a high-current configuration by paralleling the outputs together.
If adjacent pins are tied together to get a higher output current, the device should ignore the adjacent pin
short fault. If adjacent-pin short-fault detection is required, pins with an even number should be tied
together and pins with an odd number should be tied together.
VLED
VSENSE
SCK
SDI
IREF
TLC6C5712-Q1
LED
Current Setting
Resistor
LATCH
SDO
Copyright © 2016, Texas Instruments Incorporated
Figure 5. Parallel Output Configuration
2.4
Thermal Consideration
The selection of the LED supply voltage (VLED) is influenced by the parameters that follow:
• The minimum voltage drop across current outputs (V(OUT,min)) which should be high enough to help
ensure the desired output current.
• The maximum LED forward voltage (VF,max)
• The maximum power that can be dissipated by the device package under the real application
conditions
• The maximum output voltage rating, VOUT,max (7 V)
• The accuracy of the LED supply voltage (VLED can vary in range and the minimum value should be
considered)
8
TLC6C5712-Q1 Application Reference Guide
Copyright © 2016, Texas Instruments Incorporated
SLVA802 – August 2016
Submit Documentation Feedback
Device Function
www.ti.com
To realize constant current operation and safe operation, the LED supply voltage should be in the range of
VOUT,max ≥ VLED ≥ VOUT,min + VF,max
To keep the device power dissipation low, the LED supply voltage should as low as possible. Use
Equation 3 to calculate the power dissipation on the device (PT(tot)).
11
V(IREF)
PT(tot) VCC u ICC
V(OUTx) u I(OUTx)
R(IREF)2
x 0
¦
where
•
•
•
•
•
PT(tot) is the total power dissipation of the device.
V(OUTx) is the voltage drop for channel x.
I(OUTx) is the average LED current for channel x.
V(IREF) is the reference voltage, 1.229 V.
R(IREF) is the reference resistor.
(3)
To make sure the device is in normal operation, the total power dissipation should not be larger than the
maximum total power dissipation. Based on the real application conditions, use Equation 4 to calculate the
maximum power dissipation (PT,max) of the device.
TJ TA
PT,max
RTJA
where
•
•
•
•
PT,max is the maximum total power dissipation of the device.
TJ is the maximum device junction temperature, 150°C typically.
TA is the maximum application ambient temperature.
Rθja is the device junction-to-ambient thermal resistance.
(4)
The proper power supply must be a trade-off between the correct value assuring the desired LED current
and low power dissipation.
In some applications, if different LED colors are used, the LED supply voltage should be selected high
enough to help ensure that all the LEDs are working normally. But the LED forward voltage of different
colors varies a lot. For example, in RGB applications, the forward voltage of the red LEDs is 2 V (typical)
which is lower than the green and blue LEDs. Therefore, the channel of the red LEDs has larger power
dissipation. To minimize the power dissipation, two different approaches are available which are described
as follows:
• Figure 6 shows an application with only one voltage rail (VLED). A resistor in series with each red LED is
added. In this way, the voltage excess drops across the resistor instead of dropping across the current
generators. This solution implies a significant reduction of the power dissipated by the chip. However
the total power dissipation does not change and a large portion of the power is still wasted on the
series resistor.
SLVA802 – August 2016
Submit Documentation Feedback
TLC6C5712-Q1 Application Reference Guide
Copyright © 2016, Texas Instruments Incorporated
9
Device Function
www.ti.com
VLED 5 V
RED
RED
GREEN
SCK
VSENSE
SDI
IREF
LED
Current Setting
Resistor
BLUE
TLC6C5712-Q1
LATCH
SDO
Copyright © 2016, Texas Instruments Incorporated
Figure 6. Application With Resistor In Series With LED
•
Figure 7 shows a solution with two separate voltage rails: one for blue and green LEDs and one for red
LEDs which can be derived from a voltage regulator. The voltage rails are tailored to the type of LEDs
they drive and the wasted power is significantly reduced as well as the heat produced.
VLED 5 V
VLED 3.3 V
RED
RED
GREEN
BLUE
SCK
IREF
SDI
TLC6C5712-Q1
LED
Current Setting
Resistor
LATCH
SDO
Copyright © 2016, Texas Instruments Incorporated
Figure 7. Application With Two Separate LED-Supply Rails
2.5
2.5.1
Device Diagnostics and Protections
LED Fault
The TLC6C5712-Q1 device can detect different kinds of LED faults, such as LED short-to-supply, short-toGND, and open-load faults. The device can detect the faults in the channel in both the activated and
deactivated state which is useful for applications that require LED off-state diagnostics. To achieve LED
full diagnostics, a minimum 5-µs LED on time and minimum 40 µs LED off time must pass as shown in
Figure 3. Table 4 lists the available status of the LED-fault diagnostics under different channel status.
10
TLC6C5712-Q1 Application Reference Guide
Copyright © 2016, Texas Instruments Incorporated
SLVA802 – August 2016
Submit Documentation Feedback
Device Function
www.ti.com
When a fault is on an LED, the corresponding LED-fault register bit changes to HIGH. The register state
remains latched even when the fault is removed. To clear the fault register, issue the RESET_STATUS
command after the fault is removed.
Example 5, which follows, shows an LED fault detection example.
SPI_Write
SPI_Write
SPI_Write
SPI_Write
SPI_Write
SPI_Write
STATUS0
2.5.2
(0x54, 0x00);
(0x55, 0x00);
(0x56, 0x00);
(0x57, 0x00);
(0x58, 0x00);
(0x59, 0x00);
= SPI_Read(0xA2; 0x00)
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
Unmask CH0-CH5 LED short fault
Unmask CH6-CH11 LED short fault
Unmask CH0-CH5 Short to GND fault
Unmask CH6-CH11 Short to GND fault
Unmask CH0-CH5 LED open fault
Unmask CH6-CH11 LED open fault
Read STATUS0 register value
If (STATUS0>>4)&&Bit0 == 1;
//Identify the detailed short fault channel
Short_0 = SPI_Read (0x9A; 0x00);
Short_1 = SPI_Read (0x9B; 0x00);
SG_0 = SPI_Read (0x9C; 0x00);
SG_1 = SPI_Read (0x9D; 0x00);
// There is a short to GND or LED short fault
If (STATUS0>>5)&&Bit0 == 1;
//Identify the detailed open fault channel
Open_0 = SPI_Read (0x9E; 0x00);
Open_1 = SPI_Read (0x9F; 0x00);
// There is an open fault
// Check CH0-CH5 short fault register value
// Check CH6-CH11 short fault register value
// Check CH0-CH5 short to GND fault register value
// Check CH6-CH11 short to GND fault register
value
// Check CH0-CH5 open fault register value
// Check CH6-CH11 open fault register value
Adjacent Pin Short
When the device is soldered on the application board, undesired short-circuits between adjacent pins can
occur. The TLC6C5712-Q1 device implements an adjacent pin short-detection function which can be used
to detect the adjacent pin short fault. This feature requires offline diagnostics which means the outputs
should be in the channel off state when performing the adjacent pin-short detection.
To start the adjacent pin-short detection, set the [ADJ_DIAG_START] bit HIGH. This bit automatically
returns to LOW when the adjacent pin diagnostic procedure finishes. If any two adjacent pins are shorted,
the [ADJ_FLAG_CHx] bit for the faulty channel is set HIGH.
Example 6, which follows, shows an adjacent pin short detection example.
// Start the adjacent pin short detection, the bit will return to 0 after the detection finishes.
SPI_Write (0x67, 0x08);
AD0 = SPI_Read (0XA8, 0x00);
// Check the CH0-CH5 adjacent pin short fault
AD1 = SPI_Read (0XA9, 0x00);
// Check the CH6-CH11 adjacent pin short fault
If (AD0>>1) &&Bit0 == 1 and AD0&&Bit0 == 1
// CH0 and CH1 are shorted together
2.5.3
Thermal Prewarning and Shutdown
When the junction temperature exceeds the pre-thermal-warning threshold T(PTW) (135C typical),
[PRE_TSD_FLAG] in the <READ_STATUS0> register is set HIGH to signal the pre-thermal warning. The
ERR open-drain output is also pulled down. The microcontroller should respond to the fault warning and
take actions to prevent junction temperature rising.
SLVA802 – August 2016
Submit Documentation Feedback
TLC6C5712-Q1 Application Reference Guide
Copyright © 2016, Texas Instruments Incorporated
11
Device Function
www.ti.com
If junction temperature continues to rise and exceeds thermal-shutdown threshold T(TSD) (165C typical),
the over temperature fault bit [TSD_FLAG] in the <READ_STATUS0> register is set HIGH to signal
thermal shutdown, the ERR open-drain output is pulled down, and all output channels are turned off for
protection. [PRE_TSD_FLAG] and [TSD_FLAG] will remain latched even the device returns to normal
operation state. To clear fault, issue the RESET_STATUS command after the device returns to normal
operation.
Example 7, which follows, shows a thermal prewarning example.
STATUS0 = SPI_Read(0xA2; 0x00)
If (STATUS0>>1) && Bit0 == 1;
PWM0(99%, 200Hz);
SPI_Write (0x46; 0x00);
2.5.4
// Read STATUS0 register value
// There is a thermal pre-warning fault.
// Reduce the turn on time to reduce the heat
// Reduce channel output current the reduce the
heat
LED Weak Supply
The TLC6C5712-Q1 device provides weak-LED-supply detection to avoid reporting false faults because of
a supply failure. Implementation of weak-LED-supply detection is by monitoring the V(SENSE) voltage using
the internal threshold voltage V(WLS) (4.2 V typical) as a reference. The default threshold V(WLS) is set for a
5-V supply. If a 3.3-V LED supply is used, the threshold voltage can be set to V(WLS_OPT) (2.77 V typical) by
setting the [WLS_TH] bit HIGH.
When a fault is detected, the [WLS_FAULT_FLAG] bit is set to HIGH. The [WLS_FAULT_FLAG] bit
remains latched even if the voltage recovers. To clear the fault, issue the RESET_STATUS command
after the fault is removed.
Example 8, which follows, shows a 3.3-V LED power supply example.
SPI_Write (0x67, 0x01);
STATUS0 = SPI_Read(0xA2; 0x00)
If (STATUS0>>2) && Bit 0 == 1;
2.5.5
// Set the weak supply threshold to 2.77V for 3.3V
supply
// Read STATUS0 register value
// There is a weak supply fault.
REF Open and Short
The device integrates a failsafe mode. When a short or open fault occurs on the reference resistor, the
device enters the failsafe mode. In failsafe mode, the maximum output current is defined as I(OUTx_default)
which has a typical value of 10 mA.
When a fault is detected, the [REF_FAULT_FLAG] bit is set to HIGH. The [REF_FAULT_FLAG] bit
remains latched even if the fault is removed. To clear the fault, issue the RESET_STATUS command after
the fault is removed.
Example 9, which follows, shows a REF open and short detection example.
SPI_Write (0x67, 0x01);
STATUS0 = SPI_Read(0xA2; 0x00)
If (STATUS0>>2) && Bit 0 == 1;
2.5.6
// Set the weak supply threshold to 2.77V for 3.3V
supply
// Read STATUS0 register value
// There is a weak supply fault.
PWM Input Monitor
The TLC6C5712-Q1 PWM input can monitor the input PWM signal. Each PWMx input channel has an
independent rising-edge triggered timer. The timer starts counting from 0, when the timer length reaches
the threshold tPWM 20 ms, the [PWM_FAULTx] register bit is set to HIGH. The PWM rising edge resets the
timer and restarts counting from 0. So, if the input PWM frequency is less than 50 Hz, or if the PWM input
duty cycle is 0% or 100%, the PWM fault register reports a PWM fault.
12
TLC6C5712-Q1 Application Reference Guide
Copyright © 2016, Texas Instruments Incorporated
SLVA802 – August 2016
Submit Documentation Feedback
Device Function
www.ti.com
Example 10, which follows, shows a PWM input monitor example.
SPI_Write (0x60, 0x00);
STATUS0 = SPI_Read(0xA2; 0x00)
If (STATUS0>>3) && Bit0 == 1;
PWM_Fault = SPI_Read(0xA1; 0x00)
If (PWM_Fault>>1) && Bit0 == 1;
SPI_Write (0x62, 0x66);
2.5.7
// Unmask the PWM input fault
// Read STATUS0 register value
// There is a fault on PWM input
// Read PWM Fault register value
// There is a fault on PWM1 input
// Reset status to clear register bits when fault is
removed
Register Lock and Unlock
To avoid an unintended change of critical registers, register locking and unlocking functions are provided.
When the registers are locked, the registers cannot be overwritten until an unlock command is issued. But,
when the registers are locked, the registers are still available for reading.
Example 11, which follows, shows a example of a register lock and unlock.
SPI_Write
SPI_Write
SPI_Write
SPI_Write
SPI_Write
SPI_Write
SPI_Write
SPI_Write
2.6
2.6.1
(0x68, 0xA5);
(0x6C, 0xCC);
(0x69, 0x55);
(0x6D, 0x33);
(0x6A, 0xAA);
(0x6E, 0x3C);
(0x6B, 0x5A);
(0x6F, 0XC3);
// Lock PWM mapping register write function
// Unlock PWM mapping register write function
// Lock dot correction register write function
// Unlock dot correction register write function
// Lock mask register write function
// Unlock mask register write function
// Lock misc command register write function
// Unlock misc command register write function
ERROR Flag
Fault Mask
The ERR pin can be used to monitor the fault on the device. The fault mask registers are implemented in
the TLC6C5712-Q1 device which can prevent undesired faults reported to ERR pin. If the fault must be
reported to ERR pin, the corresponding fault mask registers should be set to LOW. Figure 8 shows the
detailed relationship between the fault register and the fault mask register.
SLVA802 – August 2016
Submit Documentation Feedback
TLC6C5712-Q1 Application Reference Guide
Copyright © 2016, Texas Instruments Incorporated
13
Device Function
www.ti.com
REF_MASK
IREF Short
REF_FAULT_FLAG
IREF Open
POR_MASK
Start-Up and
UVLO POR
POR_ERR_FLAG
SOFTWARE_POR
OPEN_MASK_CHx
OPEN_MASK
OPEN_FAULT_CHx
ANY_OPEN_FLAG
Other Open
Fault Channels
ERR
SHORT_MASK_CHx
SHORT_FAULT_CHx
SHORT_MASK
Other Short
Fault Channels
ANY_SHORT_FLAG
SG_FAULT_CHx
Other SG
Fault Channels
SG_MASK_CHx
PWM_FAULT_MASKx
PWM_MASK
FAULT_PWMx
ANY_PWM_FAULT_FLAG
Other PWM
Input Faults
WLS_MASK
WLS_FAULT_FLAG
PRE_TSD_MASK
PRE_TSD_FLAG
TSD_MASK
TSD_FLAG
FORCE_ERR
Figure 8. Fault Mask Diagram
14
TLC6C5712-Q1 Application Reference Guide
Copyright © 2016, Texas Instruments Incorporated
SLVA802 – August 2016
Submit Documentation Feedback
Device Function
www.ti.com
2.6.2
Fault Capture
The ERR pin is an open drain structure, typically a pullup resistor (a value of 10 kΩ is typically sufficient)
is used to set the ERR pin to high level. A microcontroller (MCU or µC) can capture a TLC6C5712-Q1
error by detecting the voltage on the ERR pin. When the TLC6C5712-Q1 device is in the fault state, the
ERR pin is pulled down to low, and the MCU can capture the fault and then execute the fault handling
routine. Figure 9 shows the hardware connection between the MCU and the TLC6C5712-Q1 device.
NOTE: Set the corresponding fault mask bits low to make sure the corresponding faults report to the
ERR pin. For the channel-activated state (CH_ON_MASKx register bits low) fault detection,
the PWM duty cycle should have at least 5-µs LED on time and 40-µs LED off time for LED
full diagnostics.
VCC
ERR
C
Figure 9. ERR Pin Configuration
2.6.3
Error Recovery
When any fault occurs, all FAULT information can be read from the corresponding fault registers. When
the error is removed, the register information is still latched and the ERR pin remains low until the fault is
masked or the RESET_STATUS command has been issued. However, if the error condition still exists
after issuing the RESET_STATUS command, the ERR pin pulls low after the deglitch time and the
corresponding FAULT register is set HIGH again.
Example 12, which follows, shows a ERR recovery example.
SPI_Write (0x62, 0x66);
2.6.4
// Reset status to clear register bits when fault is removed
Force ERROR
To check the connection between the MCU and the TLC6C5712-Q1 device, a force-error function is
implemented in the TLC6C5712-Q1 device. The [FORCE_ERR] register is provided to enable an ERR
state to simulate a fault. When [FORCE_ERR] is set HIGH, the ERR open-drain output is pulled down.
Change the [FORCE_ERR] bit to low will remove the force error.
Example 13, which follows, shows a force error example.
SPI_Write (0x67, 0x02);
SPI_Write (0x67, 0x00);
SLVA802 – August 2016
Submit Documentation Feedback
// Generate an error to check the error feedback connection
// Clear the force error to check the error feedback connection
TLC6C5712-Q1 Application Reference Guide
Copyright © 2016, Texas Instruments Incorporated
15
Software Guidance
3
www.ti.com
Software Guidance
This section describes a software guide when using the TLC6C5712-Q1 device. A flow chart is discussed
in this section. The pseudocodes about the device initialization and configuration are provided at the end
of the section.
3.1
Flow Chart
This section describes a flow chart of the TLC6C5712-Q1 configuration. After power up, the MCU must
initialize the TLC6C5712-Q1 registers, which includes checking the faults, performing the power-on reset
(POR), initializing the registers, and checking the ERR feedback circuit by force ERR. Then MCU enables
an interrupt to capture the fault on the TLC6C5712-Q1 device. Adjacent pin short-detection function is
optional. If adjacent pin short detection is needed, it can be realized by writing register [0x67 0x08]. Finally
a main routine occurs which includes the general registers settings such as the LED current setting, LED
channel on or off, PWM dimming, and other LED configurations. When the MCU captures an ERR pin
interrupt, the main routine enters the interrupt service routine. The fault is handled in this routine. After the
fault handling routine finishes, the MCU goes back to main routine.
START
TLC6C5712-Q1 Registers
Initialization
TLC6C5712-Q1 ERR Pin
Interrupt Service Routine
MCU Interrupt Enable for
TLC6C5712-Q1 ERR pin
Interrupt Start
Start Adjacent Pin Short Detection
(Optional)
Write Register 0x67 0x08
Fault Handling Routine
Main Routine
Exit Interrupt
Figure 10. Flow Chart Using Interrupt
16
TLC6C5712-Q1 Application Reference Guide
Copyright © 2016, Texas Instruments Incorporated
SLVA802 – August 2016
Submit Documentation Feedback
Software Guidance
www.ti.com
Aside from using the MCU interrupt to capture the error, another way to detect the fault is checking the
ERR pin voltage periodically, as shown inFigure 11. This method requires more time to detect the error
compared to using the MCU interrupt method.
START
TLC6C5712-Q1 Initialization
Start Adjacent Pin Short Detection
0x67 0x08
Adjacent Pin Short Fault?
NO
Yes
ON
ADJ Detection Need?
Detect Error Pin State
Yes
Error Pin in Low Level?
Yes
Fault Handling Routine
NO
Main Routine
Figure 11. Flow Chart by Checking Error Pin Status Periodically
SLVA802 – August 2016
Submit Documentation Feedback
TLC6C5712-Q1 Application Reference Guide
Copyright © 2016, Texas Instruments Incorporated
17
Software Guidance
3.2
www.ti.com
Start-Up Sequence
When the TLC6C5712-Q1 device is powered up, all the internal registers have default values. The
following lists the typical TLC6C5712-Q1 initialization sequence after power-up:
1. Power up the system.
2. Set all fault mask registers value HIGH to mask all faults.
3. Write the [FORCE_ERR] register to check the ERR feedback circuit connection.
4. Set the corresponding fault mask registers bit LOW to make the required faults report to the ERR pin.
(Mask the PWMx fault if it is not used in the application.)
5. Clear the [RESET_POR] POR flag.
6. Reset the fault status [RESET_STATUS] registers.
7. Read the [READ_STATUS] registers or ERR pin state confirm fault information, if a fault exists, then
enter the fault handling routine.
8. Set the [ADJ_DIAG_START] bit HIGH to start the adjacent pin short detection.
9. Read the adjacent pin short-fault register to confirm the status of the adjacent pin short fault, if a fault
exists, enter the fault handling routine.
10. Set the output current by writing the [WRITE_CORRx] registers.
11. Verify the current dot correction by reading the [READ_CORRx] registers.
12. Configure the PWM mapping by writing the [WRITE_MAPx] registers.
13. Verify the PWM mapping by reading the [READ_MAPx] registers.
14. Write the [LOCK_MAP] command to lock the PWM mapping settings if required.
15. Configure the PWM input signal for LED fault diagnostics.
16. Turn on or turn off output channels by writing the [WRITE_CH_ON_MASKx] registers.
17. Verify channel on or channel off states by reading the [READ_CH_ON_MASKx] registers.
18. Adjust the PWM duty cycle for dimming if required.
19. Enter the main routine.
3.3
Fault Handling Rountine
During normal operation, the MCU monitors the state of the TLCC65712-Q1 ERR pin, when a fault occurs
on the TLC6C5712-Q1 device, the MCU can detect the fault. The MCU enters the fault handling routine
and finds the corresponding fault by checking the status of the registers. The MCU then acts to handle the
faults.
For example, when the TLCC65712-Q1 reports a PRE-TSD fault, the controller can reduce device power
dissipation such as reducing PWM duty cycle, reduce dot correction settings, or turn off channels to
prevent thermal shutdown. Figure 12 shows the detailed flow chart of the fault handling routine.
When the fault status is removed, issue the RESET_STATUS command to clear the fault.
18
TLC6C5712-Q1 Application Reference Guide
Copyright © 2016, Texas Instruments Incorporated
SLVA802 – August 2016
Submit Documentation Feedback
Software Guidance
www.ti.com
ERR Alarm
YES
Adjacent Pin
Short Fault?
NO
Read STATUS
Registers
Read
AD_FLAG_CHx
registers
PRE TSD
FLAG
TSD FLAG
WLS FAULT
FLAG
ANY SHORT
FLAG
ANY OPEN
FLAG
REF FAULT
FLAG
Read
OPEN_FAULT_
CHx Registers
Report
Adjacent Pin
Short Fault at
CHx
Thermal
Protection
Routine, for
example reduce
current, lower
PWM duty cycle
Report Weak
LED Supply
Fault
Read
SHORT_FAULT
_CHx Registers
Read
SG_FAULT_C
Hx Registers
Report LED
Short at CHx
Report Short to
GND at CHx
Report Open
Fault at CHx
ANY PWM
FAULT FLAG
POR ERR
FLAG
Read
PWM_FAULTx
Registers
Report
Reference
Resistor Fault
Report PWM
Fault at PWMx
Report POR
Fault
Next Step
Action
End
Figure 12. Fault Handling Routine
3.4
Pseudocodes
This section describes the pseudocodes on how to realize the full diagnostics of the TLC6C5712-Q1
device.
MCU initialization and I/O
configuration
Enable the ERR pin interrupt
SPI_Write (0x66 0x3F)
SPI_Write (0x67 0x02)
SPI_Write (0x67 0x00)
SPI_Write (0x61 0x69)
SPI_Write (0x62 0x66)
SPI_Read (0xA2 0x00)
SPI_Read (0xA3 0x00)
SPI_Write (0x54 0x00)
SLVA802 – August 2016
Submit Documentation Feedback
// MCU configuration
// MCU configuration
// Mask all faults
// Set force ERR register value to HIGH
// Set force ERR register value to LOW ERR pin level checking
Make sure the ERR pin and MCU I/O connection is good.
// Power on Reset
// Reset Status to clear pre-exiting faults
// Check the status register to confirm no faults
// Check the status register to confirm no faults
// Unmask CH0-CH5 SHORT Fault
TLC6C5712-Q1 Application Reference Guide
Copyright © 2016, Texas Instruments Incorporated
19
Software Guidance
SPI_Write
SPI_Write
SPI_Write
SPI_Write
SPI_Write
SPI_Write
www.ti.com
(0x55 0x00)
(0x56 0x00)
(0x57 0x00)
(0x58 0x00)
(0x59 0x00)
(0x60 0x3E)
// Unmask CH6-CH11 SHORT Fault
// Unmask CH0-CH5 SHORT GND Fault
// Unmask CH6-CH11 SHORT GND Fault
// Unmask CH0-CH5 OPEN Fault
// Unmask CH6-CH11 OPEN Fault
// Unmask PWM0 Fault, if other PWM inputs are used, unmask
corresponding fault mask
// Unmask ERROR_MASK
// Adjacent pin short pin start
// Check if there is any adjacent pin short fault on CH0-CH5
// Check if there is any adjacent pin short fault on CH6-CH11
// Set CH0 output current to half scale
// Check if the CH0 dot correction registers value is correct
// Set CH1 output current to half scale
// Check if the CH1 dot correction registers value is correct
SPI_Write (0x66 0x00)
SPI_Write (0x67 0x08)
SPI_Read (0xA8 0x00)
SPI_Read (0xA9 0x00)
SPI_Write (0x46 0x7F)
SPI_Read (0x86 0x00)
SPI_Write (0x47 0x7F)
SPI_Read (0x87 0x00)
…
SPI_Write (0x51 0xFF)
SPI_Read (0x91 0x00)
SPI_Write (0x69 0x55)
SPI_Write (0x40 0x08)
SPI_Read (0x80 0x00)
SPI_Write (0x41 0x00)
SPI_Read (0x81 0x00)
…
SPI_Write (0x68 0x35)
Configure the PWM input
frequency & duty cycle
SPI_Write (0x52 0x00)
SPI_Read (0x92 0x00)
SPI_Write (0x53 0x00)
SPI_Read (0x93 0x00)
Adjust PWM duty cycle for
dimming if needed
…
20
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
Set CH11 output current to full scale
Check if the CH11 dot correction registers value is correct
Lock dot correction registers
Map PWM0 to CH0, Map PWM1 to CH1
Check if PWM Mapping register values are correct
Map PWM0 to CH2, Map PWM0 to CH3
Check if PWM Mapping register values are correct
// Lock Map registers
//
//
//
//
Turn on the CH0-CH5
Read Channel on mask state of CH0-CH5
Turn on the CH6-CH11
Read Channel on mask state of CH6-CH11
TLC6C5712-Q1 Application Reference Guide
Copyright © 2016, Texas Instruments Incorporated
SLVA802 – August 2016
Submit Documentation Feedback
IMPORTANT NOTICE
Texas Instruments Incorporated and its subsidiaries (TI) reserve the right to make corrections, enhancements, improvements and other
changes to its semiconductor products and services per JESD46, latest issue, and to discontinue any product or service per JESD48, latest
issue. Buyers should obtain the latest relevant information before placing orders and should verify that such information is current and
complete. All semiconductor products (also referred to herein as “components”) are sold subject to TI’s terms and conditions of sale
supplied at the time of order acknowledgment.
TI warrants performance of its components to the specifications applicable at the time of sale, in accordance with the warranty in TI’s terms
and conditions of sale of semiconductor products. Testing and other quality control techniques are used to the extent TI deems necessary
to support this warranty. Except where mandated by applicable law, testing of all parameters of each component is not necessarily
performed.
TI assumes no liability for applications assistance or the design of Buyers’ products. Buyers are responsible for their products and
applications using TI components. To minimize the risks associated with Buyers’ products and applications, Buyers should provide
adequate design and operating safeguards.
TI does not warrant or represent that any license, either express or implied, is granted under any patent right, copyright, mask work right, or
other intellectual property right relating to any combination, machine, or process in which TI components or services are used. Information
published by TI regarding third-party products or services does not constitute a license to use such products or services or a warranty or
endorsement thereof. Use of such information may require a license from a third party under the patents or other intellectual property of the
third party, or a license from TI under the patents or other intellectual property of TI.
Reproduction of significant portions of TI information in TI data books or data sheets is permissible only if reproduction is without alteration
and is accompanied by all associated warranties, conditions, limitations, and notices. TI is not responsible or liable for such altered
documentation. Information of third parties may be subject to additional restrictions.
Resale of TI components or services with statements different from or beyond the parameters stated by TI for that component or service
voids all express and any implied warranties for the associated TI component or service and is an unfair and deceptive business practice.
TI is not responsible or liable for any such statements.
Buyer acknowledges and agrees that it is solely responsible for compliance with all legal, regulatory and safety-related requirements
concerning its products, and any use of TI components in its applications, notwithstanding any applications-related information or support
that may be provided by TI. Buyer represents and agrees that it has all the necessary expertise to create and implement safeguards which
anticipate dangerous consequences of failures, monitor failures and their consequences, lessen the likelihood of failures that might cause
harm and take appropriate remedial actions. Buyer will fully indemnify TI and its representatives against any damages arising out of the use
of any TI components in safety-critical applications.
In some cases, TI components may be promoted specifically to facilitate safety-related applications. With such components, TI’s goal is to
help enable customers to design and create their own end-product solutions that meet applicable functional safety standards and
requirements. Nonetheless, such components are subject to these terms.
No TI components are authorized for use in FDA Class III (or similar life-critical medical equipment) unless authorized officers of the parties
have executed a special agreement specifically governing such use.
Only those TI components which TI has specifically designated as military grade or “enhanced plastic” are designed and intended for use in
military/aerospace applications or environments. Buyer acknowledges and agrees that any military or aerospace use of TI components
which have not been so designated is solely at the Buyer's risk, and that Buyer is solely responsible for compliance with all legal and
regulatory requirements in connection with such use.
TI has specifically designated certain components as meeting ISO/TS16949 requirements, mainly for automotive use. In any case of use of
non-designated products, TI will not be responsible for any failure to meet ISO/TS16949.
Products
Applications
Audio
www.ti.com/audio
Automotive and Transportation
www.ti.com/automotive
Amplifiers
amplifier.ti.com
Communications and Telecom
www.ti.com/communications
Data Converters
dataconverter.ti.com
Computers and Peripherals
www.ti.com/computers
DLP® Products
www.dlp.com
Consumer Electronics
www.ti.com/consumer-apps
DSP
dsp.ti.com
Energy and Lighting
www.ti.com/energy
Clocks and Timers
www.ti.com/clocks
Industrial
www.ti.com/industrial
Interface
interface.ti.com
Medical
www.ti.com/medical
Logic
logic.ti.com
Security
www.ti.com/security
Power Mgmt
power.ti.com
Space, Avionics and Defense
www.ti.com/space-avionics-defense
Microcontrollers
microcontroller.ti.com
Video and Imaging
www.ti.com/video
RFID
www.ti-rfid.com
OMAP Applications Processors
www.ti.com/omap
TI E2E Community
e2e.ti.com
Wireless Connectivity
www.ti.com/wirelessconnectivity
Mailing Address: Texas Instruments, Post Office Box 655303, Dallas, Texas 75265
Copyright © 2016, Texas Instruments Incorporated
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertising