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Texas Instruments Maintaining Output Voltage Regulation During Automotive Cold-Crank with LM5118 Application notes
Application Report
SNVA741 – July 2015
Maintaining Output Voltage Regulation During Automotive
Cold-Crank with LM5118 Buck-Boost
Garrett Roecker
ABSTRACT
The standard 12 V automotive battery rail can vary from 9 V-16 V during normal operation depending on
load and charge. Under transients conditions battery voltages can range from 3 V to nearly 65 V. One of
these extreme conditions is cold-crank. Cold-crank happens when the battery is trying to energize the
starter of the engine and the battery voltage plummets to 3 V. Previously a small number of functions were
required to operate during this condition, however automotive manufactures are requiring more features to
endure cold crank in order to improve vehicle performance and operator comfort. With this range of input
voltage and new standards, dc-dc converter design can be challenging.
Cold-cranking conditions are out lined in ISO 7637-2 Pulse 4. Automotive manufactures tend to supply
customized standards for cold-crank testing. Many manufacturer standards are very similar to the ISO
standard, usually with varying time durations and voltage levels. Figure 1 shows an example of a coldcrank waveform.
12 V
6V
3V
0V
5 ms
15 ms to
40 ms
50 ms
0.5 s to 20 s
5 ms to 100 ms
Figure 1. Example Cold-Crank Waveform
The LM5118 can maintain output regulation during a cold-crank event of input voltages down to 2.5 V. It
can also endure events such as load dump where the voltage may exceed 65 V, being rated for VIN max
of 75 V. Also as it uses a single inductor the solution size is smaller than that of a SEPIC or cascaded
buck-boost topology.
Figure 2 shows a LM5118 design that regulates the output at 5V and delivers 3A through a cold-crank
event. This design also has the ability to withstand a load dump transient up to 42 V. The design can be
found under reference ID PMP10681. The reference design is a modified LM5118 orderable evaluation
module. Figure 3 shows that even with a transition time of 1ms from 12 V to 2.5 V the output regulation is
maintained.
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Maintaining Output Voltage Regulation During Automotive Cold-Crank with
LM5118 Buck-Boost
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CH1: VIN 5V/div
CH2:
VOUT(DC)
5V/div
CH3:
VOUT(AC)
500mV/div
CH4: IL 5A/div
Figure 2. Cold Crank Waveform: (ΔVOUTMAX = 200 mV)
CH1: VIN 5V/div
CH2:
VOUT(DC)
5V/div
CH3:
VOUT(AC)
500mV/div
CH4: IL 5A/div
Figure 3. Cold Crank Transition VIN 12 V to 3 V in 1ms (ΔVOUTMAX = 200 mV)
2
Maintaining Output Voltage Regulation During Automotive Cold-Crank with
LM5118 Buck-Boost
Copyright © 2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated
SNVA741 – July 2015
Submit Documentation Feedback
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Figure 4. Test Board Schematic: Reference Design PMP 10681
SNVA741 – July 2015
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Maintaining Output Voltage Regulation During Automotive Cold-Crank with
LM5118 Buck-Boost
Copyright © 2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated
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